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😀 | [Cartoon ✖️ Commentary The University of Tokyo COMINTARY] Osamu Tezuka, "Hidamari no Ki"


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[Cartoon ✖️ Commentary The University of Tokyo COMINTARY] Osamu Tezuka, "Hidamari no Ki"

 
If you write the contents roughly
Ryoan himself is a real person who is the great-grandfather of the author, Osamu Tezuka.
 

Time is Ansei at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate --- "Hidamari no Ki" is centered around two young people, the feudal lord Manjiro Itaya and the doctor Ryosen Tezuka, after the opening of the country ... → Continue reading

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All student newspapers written and edited by students of the University of Tokyo from their own perspective. Through research interviews with professors and scientific news, we open research at the University of Tokyo to the public, as well as disseminate information on university sports bulletins and student-sponsored events. In addition to delivering useful information for examinations and job hunting, we also delve deeply into issues that are deeply related to the University of Tokyo and ultimately society, such as gender issues in admissions reforms, university policies, and higher education. "Student's point of view" is a strength not found in other media.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

relationship

relationship(Continued) isBlood relationshipRelationship or婚姻It is a word that refers to a relationship.Sometimes read as "Zokugara"[1].

For the meanings and relatives of blood and affinity, lineal and collateral, ancestry and subordination,relativesSee.

In this item, "relatives" meansArticle 725 of the Civil Code "Scope of Relatives"Refers to the "legal relatives" specified in.

List

The numbers on the horizontal axis are the samegenerationThe numbers on the vertical axis are the relatives of the direct line, and the numbers on the vertical and horizontal sides are for other relationships.If you addBecome a relative of that person.Civil lawWithin the 6th degree of kinship, which is the upper relative, is marked with "*".spouseIs indicated by "**" within the third degree of kinship, which is also a relative (affinity).

The names are shown briefly.See each section for aliases, different notations, and proper use.

\Direct lineAlien system
0246810
Honor6*
5*
4High grandparents *Uncle Takaso *Uncle High-ranking grandfatherRe-submissive high-ranking uncleUncle Sanjo TakasoUncle of the four servants
3Great-grandparents **Great-grand uncle *My great-grandfather uncleRe-subordinate uncle great-grandsonUncle Sanjou's great-grandfatherFour great-grandfather uncle
2Grandparents**Count Grandparents *My uncle grandparents *Re-counter grandparentsSanjo Haku GrandparentsFour servants aunt grandparents
1parent/爜mother**Unclemother**Uncle Uncle *Re-subordinate uncleUncle SanjoFour uncle uncle
-0Principal**Brothers and sisters**Cousins ​​and sisters*Second cousin sisters*Three cousins ​​and sistersFour cousins ​​and sisters
Subordinate1Child/息 子-Daughter**nephew-niece**Niece and nephew *Re-subordinate nephewSanjo nephewFour nephews
2Grandchild**Great nephew / niece *Niece grandson *Re-subordinate grandsonThree niece grandchildrenFour niece grandchildren
3So grandson **Great niece grandson *Subordinate niece grandsonRe-subordinate niece grandsonSanjo Sono NieceFour niece grandchildren
4Genson *Gen's grandson *Subordinate niece grandsonRe-subordinate niece grandsonSanjo Gen's niece grandsonFour grandchildren
5Coming (ear) grandson *Niece grandsonTraditional niece grandsonReconventional niece grandsonThree conventional niecesFour conventional niece grandchildren
6Kun (Akira) grandson *Kun niece grandsonSubordinate niece grandsonRe-subordinate niece grandsonSanjo Kun niece grandsonFour niece niece grandchildren
7仍 (礽) grandsonMy niece grandsonSubordinate niece grandsonRe-subordinate niece grandsonSanjou niece grandsonFour niece grandchildren
8Cloud grandsonCloud niece grandsonNiece niece grandsonRe-subordinate cloud niece grandsonSanjoun niece grandsonFour niece niece grandchildren

In this table, the direct relationships between parents and children are basically up and down, but the collateral ancestry is from upper left to lower right.For exampleCousins ​​and sisters OfparentIs (not the uncle uncle above the cousin sister)Unclemother.

Relationship in law

The person or a relative婚姻,AdoptionThe relationship established by is called the relationship in law.The same name can be used for relations. It is sometimes written as "righteousness" (for example, "father-in-law" or "brother-in-law"), but the reading is the same.

Lineal ancestors (ancestors)

Parent (parent)

parent(Oh,parent), That is, parents (fubo) are men and women respectively爜-mother(Chichi / hahafather / mother) Is a direct relative of the first degree.

Remarriage partner of one's own parents, that is, stepfather (Mamachichi), stepmother (Mamahaha) and one's ownAdoptive parent(Yoshin. Adoptive father / mother) may also be called father / mother.

From the perspective of my spouseStep-parent(Father and mother-in-law), and a mother-in-law and mother-in-law.

Grandparents

Grandparents (Sofbo,grandparents) For men and women respectivelygrandfather-grandmother(Sofu / Sobo,grandfather / grandmother), Which is a direct relative of the second degree.Refers to the parent of the parent or the parent of his / her spouse's parent (parent-in-law). Also known as "grandfather" or "grandmother."In terms of ageOld ageNot limited toMiddle ageIt is also basic to be a grandfather / grandmother.

In the case of the spouse (marriage), the remarriage partner of the grandparents and the adoptive parents of the parents, the remarriage partner of the parents and the parents of the adoptive parents also have a relationship of in-law.

From the perspective of the spouse, they are Ojuto and Ojutome.

Great-grandparents (great-grandparents)

Great-grandparentsgreat-grandparent) For men and women, respectively, great-grandfather and great-grandmother.great-grandfather / grandmother) And grandfather / grandmother (uncle / grandmother), who are direct relatives of the third degree.Refers to the parents of grandparents (parents' grandparents) or the parents of their spouse's grandparents. It is sometimes called "Grandfather", "Grandfather", "Grandfather big", "Grandmother big", etc.

High grandparents

High grandparents (Kosofubo,great2-grandparent) For men and women, respectively, high-grandfather and high-grandmother (kosofu, kosobo,)great2-grandfather / grandmother), Which is a direct relative of the fourth degree.Great-grandparents'parents (grandparents'grandparents, parents' great-grandparents). It is sometimes called "Hihii (O) Grandpa" or "Hihii (O) Grandma".

In the case of spouse and remarriage partner (affinity), they are not included in the relatives.

Above high grandparents

The names of the generations before the high grandparents are "heaven", "relentless", "thick", "far", and "nose" in front of the grandparents in China, but they are especially fixed in Japan. Not just "parents of high grandparents" "grandfather of the fifth generation (great3-grandparents) ”“ Five generations ago ”,“ Grandparents of high grandparents ”“ Grandparents of the sixth generation (great4-grandparents) ”“ Six generations ago ”, the parents of high-grandparents are 6th degree relatives, the grandparents of high-grandparents are direct relatives of 5th degree, and up to“ grandparents of high-grandparents ”are relatives.

Direct descendants (descendants)

Child (son / daughter)

Child(This,child) For men and women respectively息 子-Daughter(Musuko / Musume,son / daughter), Which is a direct relative of the first degree of kinship born by the person or spouse.

A spouse who is married to her own child is also a (in-law) child from her own perspective.In addition, the child of one's spouse or one's adopted child may also be called a child (son / daughter).

When there are multiple children, the son is called the eldest son, the second son, the third son, the fourth son to the youngest son (Matsunan) in order from the older one, and the daughter is similarly called the eldest daughter, the second daughter, the third daughter, the fourth daughter to the youngest. Sometimes called a woman.When men and women are mixed, call them the first child, the second child, the third child, the fourth child to the youngest child (mass, bass, sueko, suekko).

Grandchild

Grandchild(Mago,grandchild) Is a direct relative of the second degree.From my point of view, it's a child of a child.A child born to his daughter or son's wife, regardless of age.

A spouse who has married his grandson is also a (in-law) grandson from the perspective of the person himself.In rare cases, a spouse of one's spouse has a grandchild, or a spouse of a child or an adopted child has a child, which may also be called a "grandchild".

Grandchildren of both men and women are grandchildren and granddaughters (Mago, Magomusume,grandson / granddaughter).The child of the child who succeeds the family (Tsuguko) is called the inner grandchild, and the child of the child who does not succeed the family is called the outer grandchild.

Great-grandson

Great-grandchildren (Soson, Himago, Hiko, Hikomago, Hiimago,great-grandchild) Is a direct relative of the third degree.A child of a grandchild, a grandchild of a child.

The spouse who married his great-grandchild is also a (in-law) great-grandchild from the perspective of the person himself.In rare cases, if one's spouse has a great-grandchild, the grandchild of the spouse of one's own child and the child of the spouse of one's grandchild may also be called "great-grandchild".

Genson

Genson (Genson, Yashago,great2-grandchild) Is a direct relative of the 4th degree.Great-grandchildren, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren.If the person is the first generation and the son and daughter are the second generation, they are descendants of the fifth generation (after the fourth generation) and are sometimes called "fifth generation".

Grandchildren

Grandchildren (Raison,great3-grandchild) Is a direct relative of the fifth degree.The son of a grandson, the grandson of a great-grandchild, the great-grandson of a grandson, the grandson of a child, and the grandson of a grandson.Also known as Jison.If he is the first generation, he is a descendant of the sixth generation (after the fifth generation).

2006An American woman who died at the age of 116Elizabeth BoldenSaid that he had 220 grandchildren.

Kun grandson

Kunson (Konson,great4-grandchild) Is a direct relative of the sixth degree.The children of the grandchildren, the grandchildren of the grandchildren, the great-grandchildren of the great-grandchildren, the grandchildren of the grandchildren, the grandchildren of the children, and the grandchildren of the grandchildren of the grandchildren.Also written as Shinson (same reading).If he is the first generation, he is a descendant of the seventh generation (after the sixth generation).

2006An American woman who died at the age of 116Elizabeth BoldenSaid that there were 75 grandchildren.

Grandson

Grandsongreat5-grandchild) Is a direct 7th degree, a child of a grandson, a grandson of a grandson, a great-grandson of a grandson, a grandson of a great-grandson, a grandson of a grandson, a grandson of a child, a grandson of a grandson of a grandson.Also written as a grandchild (same reading).If he is the first generation, he is a descendant of the eighth generation (after the seventh generation).The meaning is a child of a vine.

No cases have been confirmed in which grandchildren (including those after that) were born during their lifetime.

Cloud grandson

Unson (Yeah, Tsurunoko,great6-grandchild) Is the grandson of the grandchild, the grandson of the grandson, the grandson of the grandson, the grandson of the grandson, the grandson of the great-grandchild, the grandson of the grandson, the grandson of the child, and the grandson of the grandson of the grandson. is there.If he is the first generation, he is a descendant of the ninth generation (after the eighth generation).The meaning is a grandchild as far as a cloud.

Below the cloud grandchild

The name of the generation after Unson is not decided, and it is simply called the child of Unson or the grandson of Unson. The former is the 9th degree of direct line and the latter is the 10th degree of direct line.

Cloud grandchild

(great7-grandchild) Is a direct 9th degree, and is a grandson of a child, a grandson of a grandson, a grandson of a great-grandson, a grandson of a grandson, a grandson of a grandson, a great-grandson of a grandson, a grandson of a grandson, a grandson of a grandson Is a child of.If he is the first generation, he is a descendant of the tenth generation (after the ninth generation).

Cloud grandson grandson

(great8-grandchild) Is a direct 10th degree child, grandson's grandson, grandson's grandson, great-grandson's grandson, grandson's grandson, grandson's grandson, grandson's grandson, grandson's great-grandson Grandchildren's grandchildren.If he is the first generation, he is a descendant of the eleventh generation (after teenagers).

Sideline ancestry

There are two Chinese names with different names, "Haku" and "Haku", for one lesson.For example, there are two Chinese names for "uncle", "uncle" and "uncle".

The collateral ancestry can be rephrased as "" brothers and sisters, cousins ​​... "of" parents / grandparents ... ", but for" parents / grandparents ... "," count "for older people and" aunt "for younger people. use.However, in the case of a spouse of collateral ancestry, it is judged whether the spouse who is a relative is older or younger.

"Uncle" may be used when the age is unknown or when multiple people are collectively referred to (for example, "uncle" is "uncle").

In the case of an uncle / aunt, for example, the brothers and sisters of the father-in-law (mother-in-law, adoptive parents, step-parents) are "Haku" if they are older and "Aunt" if they are younger. If the parents-in-law's brother-in-law and sisters (adopted daughter of grandparents, stepchildren of remarriage partner, real child of parents' adoptive parents) excluding uncle and aunt's spouse are older than parents, "Haku", if younger Use "Uncle".

Same generation as parents

Uncle and aunt

Uncles and aunts are men and women, respectively.uncle-Aunt,uncle / aunt), A collateral relative of the third degree.

Individually, parents'brothers and sisters and their spouses (parents' brother-in-law and son-in-law) are uncle and aunt (elder uncle / aunt, big uncle / aunt), Parent's younger brother and sister and their spouse (parent's younger brother and sister-in-law) uncle and aunt (younger uncle / aunt, little uncle / aunt). Also called "uncle" or "aunt"[2].

Parent'sBrothers and sisters, Or its spouse (son-in-law, uncle), or brothers and sisters of the mother-in-law.In addition, the adopted child of the grandparents, the adopted child of the parents, and the child of the remarriage partner of the grandparents are also uncle-in-law.

Uncle and aunt (cousin, aunt), etc.

Parents' cousins, re-cousin sisters, three-cousin sisters, four-cousin sisters ...

  • Uncle Cousin (Uncle Cousin, Aunt Cousin,uncle / aunt-first cousin once removed, parent's male / female cousin)
  • Second cousin uncle (second cousin uncle, second cousin aunt, second cousin uncle, second cousin aunt, second cousin uncle, second cousin aunt)
  • Uncle Sanjo (Uncle Miitoko, Aunt Miitoko, Uncle Maita Cousin, Aunt Maita)
  • Four uncle uncle (good uncle, good toko aunt)
~

Call.

Same generation as grandparents

Count Grandparents (Uncle / Aunt)

Count grandparents are men and women, respectively, count grandfather and count grandmother (uncle, grand aunt,granduncle / grandaunt), A collateral relative of the third degree.

Individually, write down as grandfather, grandfather, grandmother, grandmother according to gender and age.

It is rarely used simply as a name, and is often referred to as "grandfather," "grandmother," "uncle," or "grandmother."As a second person, it seems to be called in terms of age.

A parent of a cousin's uncle (cousin's uncle / cousin's aunt) (grandparents of re-cousin brothers and sisters, grandparents' brothers and sisters, parents' uncle and uncle), or their spouse, or grandparents' small grandparents.

Uncle Cousin (Grandparents Cousin) (Uncle Cousin, Aunt Cousin), etc.

Grandparents' cousins, re-cousin sisters, three-cousin sisters, four-cousin sisters ...

  • Uncle Cousin (Grandparents Cousin) (Uncle Cousin, Aunt Cousin,granduncle / grandaunt-first cousin twice removed, grandparent's male / femail cousin)
  • Second cousin uncle (second cousin uncle, second cousin aunt, second cousin uncle, second cousin aunt, second cousin uncle, second cousin aunt)
  • Uncle Three Cousins ​​(Uncle My Cousin, Aunt My Cousin, Uncle My Second Cousin, Aunt My Second Cousin)
  • Four ancestors uncle (good uncle, good toco aunt)
~

Call.

Great-grandparents and above

Great-grandparents'brothers and sisters, servants and sisters, re-subordinate brothers and sisters ... Uncle, aunt, uncle, aunt). There is no Japanese name equivalent to "Uncle / Aunt".

The same is true for collaterals of the same generation as high-grandparents.

There is no special name for the generations before the high grandparents, and they are simply called the brothers and sisters of the XNUMXth (XNUMXth, XNUMXth) ancestors, and the cousins ​​of the XNUMXth (XNUMXth, XNUMXth) ancestors.

Sideline same generation

Brothers and sisters

Brothers and sistersIs a second-degree collateral relative.Depending on age, birthday and genderBrother-sister-Younger brother-sister(Ani, sister, father, younger brother,elder (big) brother / sister, younger (little) brother / sister).

Usually born from the same parents, but if the father or mother is different, "half-brothers and sisters" (different species) and "half-brothers and sisters" (half-brothers) (individually, the "brothers and sisters" part is "brother / sister"ポ It is called "brother / sister"), and there are rare cases where the child is older than his / her parents (the child between the father and the ex-wife is older than the mother).

When there are multiple brothers and sisters, the older brothers are called the eldest brother, the second elder brother, the third elder brother, the fourth elder brother to the youngest brother in order from the older brother, and the younger brother is also called the eldest brother, the second elder brother, the third elder brother, and the fourth elder brother. ~ Sometimes called the youngest brother.Sisters may be called in the same way.

Brother-in-lawAlso called brother-in-law, brother-in-law, and in that case, it may be written as brother-in-law, sister-in-law, brother-in-law, sister-in-law (gikei, gishi, gite, gimai) and called "ani, sister, father, sister". There are many.

In addition, the following names may be used.

  • Parent'sAdopted childIt depends on the age of the brother-in-law or sister-in-law who is the child of the adoptive parent's real child or the child of the parent's remarriage partner.
  • A spouse of a brother-in-law and a brother-in-law of a spouse may have a brother-in-law / sister-in-law younger than himself / herself and a brother-in-law / sister-in-law older than himself / herself.
  • The spouse's brothers and sisters also call their brothers Kojuto and their sisters Kojutome.

Cousin sister

Cousins ​​and sisterscousin,cousin) Is a collateral relative of the fourth degree.

A child of an uncle (nephew of a parent) or a spouse of a child of an uncle.Parents are siblings and grandparents are a common ancestor.

In Kanji, "cousin" is added such as cousin, cousin, cousin, cousin, and cousin of a man who is older than the person (female cousin, husband of parents' niece), and cousin of an older woman (male). Cousin, parent's nephew's wife) cousin, younger male cousin (female cousin, parent's niece's husband) cousin, younger female cousin (female cousin, parent's nephew's wife) cousin Notated as.

Paternal cousins ​​(father's nephew / niece) have a "do" like a temple brother or a temple sister, and maternal cousins ​​(mother's nephew / niece) have a "table" like a table brother or a table sister. Write with.

Although rare, when married to the uncle's wife and son-in-law's nephew, the husband's cousin and sister and the wife's cousin and sister become the same person.

Flat and crossing cousins

It is said that cousins ​​whose parents are siblings of the same sex are parallel cousins, and cousins ​​who are siblings of the opposite sex are crossed.

Double cousin

A cousin whose parents are both siblings is called a double cousin.

Second cousin

Second cousin sisters (Hatoko, Second cousin, second cousin,second cousin) Is a collateral relative of the fourth degree.

Grandparents' grandparents (grandparents'nephew / niece, subordinate uncle's child, parent's cousin's nephew / cousin's niece), or their spouse.Parents are cousins ​​and sisters, grandparents are siblings, and great-grandparents are common ancestors.

In kanji, re (also two) cousins, re (also two) cousins, re (also two) cousins ​​and re (also two) cousins, second cousins ​​of men older than themselves (female second cousins) This spouse's second cousin (also two) cousin, older woman's second cousin (male's second cousin's second cousin) re (also two) cousin, younger man's second cousin (also two) A female second cousin (a man who is a spouse) is referred to as a re- (also two) cousin, and a younger female second cousin (a woman who is a male second cousin) is referred to as a re (also two) cousin.In addition, the paternal second cousin is written with a "cousin" such as a cousin brother or a cousin sister, and the maternal second cousin is written with a "cousin" such as a cousin brother or a cousin sister.

After the three cousins

Similarly, the third cousin or second cousin, the fourth cousin, the fifth cousin, the second cousin, and the second cousin follow. "N"Cousins ​​and sisters"NIndicates how many generations of ancestors count from oneself become brothers and sisters.Relatives double the number in front of their cousin and add 2.

Sideline subordinate

Same generation as the child

Nephew niece

nephew-niece(Hey, niece,nephew / nece) Is a collateral relative of the fourth degree.

A child of a sibling (a cousin of his own child) or his spouse (a child of his own small mother-in-law). Sometimes called "nephew" or "niece".

A spouse of a nephew / niece, an adopted child of a sibling or a child of a spouse, an adopted child of a parent, a grandchild of an adopted parent or a parent's remarriage partner, have a relationship of in-law with the person.

Nephew / niece (cousin nephew / cousin niece), etc.

The children of cousins ​​and sisters, the children of re-cousin sisters, the children of three cousin sisters, the children of four cousin sisters, and so on.

  • Nephew / niece (cousin nephew / cousin niece, jusei / jutetsu,nephew / niece-first cousins ​​once removed)
  • Re-subordinate nephew / re-subordinate niece (second cousin nephew / second cousin niece)
  • Sanjo nephew, Sanjo niece (Miitoko nephew, Miitoko niece)
  • Four nephews and four nieces (good nephew and good niece)
~

Call.

Same generation as grandchildren

Great nephew / niece

Great nephew / niecegrandnephew / grandniece) Is a collateral relative of the fourth degree.

Niece and nephew's son (grandchildren of brothers and sisters, grandchildren's second cousins ​​and sisters) or their spouse (son-in-law and daughter-in-law of nephew).

Also known as nephew, niece, and niece.

Subordinate grandchildren (cousin nephew, cousin niece), etc.

The grandchildren of the cousins, the grandchildren of the second cousins, the grandchildren of the three cousins, the grandchildren of the four cousins, and so on.

  • Cousin grandson (Cousin nephew, Cousin niece, Jyusson,cousin's grandson / granddaughter)
  • Re-subordinate grandson (second cousin nephew, second cousin niece)
  • Three nieces grandchildren (Miitoko's nephew, Miiko's niece)
  • Four nieces grandchildren (good nephew, good niece)
~

Call.

Same generation as great-grandchildren and below

The collaterals of the same generation as the great-grandchildren are the great-grandchildren, the great-grandchildren, the grandchildren, the grandchildren, and the grandchildren. They are called grandchildren (sanju sotesson), four niece niece grandchildren (yonju sotesson), and so on.

The same applies to the collaterals of the same generation as the grandchildren, grandchildren, grandchildren, grandchildren, and grandchildren.

Detailed genealogy

Monospaced fontPlease see at.

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                                                      高祖父母の祖父母
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                                                       高祖父母の父母
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高祖伯叔父母                                                  高祖父母
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   :         ┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┫       :
             ┃                                            ┃       ┃
          曽祖伯叔父母                                        曽祖父母    曽祖父母
             ┃                                            ┃       ┃
             ┃           ┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┫       ┣━‥
             ┃           ┃                                ┃       ┃
       いとこ大おじ・いとこ大おば  大おじ・大おば                            祖父母     祖父母
             ┃           ┃                                ┃       ┃
             :           ┃         ┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┫       ┣━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
                          ┃         ┃                      ┃       ┃            ┃
                    いとこおじ・いとこおば  おじ・おば━━━配偶者              父母      父母          おじ・おば
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                          ┃                 ┃       ┏━━━━━━━━━━━┫       ┣━━━━━━━━┓   :
                          ┃                 ┃       ┃           ┃       ┃        ┃
                         はとこ               いとこ    兄弟姉妹━┳━配偶者   本人━━┳━━配偶者      兄弟姉妹
                         ┃                 ┃          ┃           ┃             ┃
                         :                 ┃          ┃           ┃             ┃
                                          ┃          ┃            ┃            ┃
                                        いとこ甥・いとこ姪     甥・姪━┳━配偶者    子━┳━配偶者     甥・姪
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                                            ┃             ┃          ┃              :
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                                    いとこ大甥・いとこ大姪      大甥・大姪         孫━┳━配偶者
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                                            :             ┃            ┃
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                                                   曽姪孫           曽孫━┳━配偶者
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                                                   玄姪孫             玄孫
                                                    ┃               ┃
                                                    :               ┃
                                                                    ┃
                                                                   来孫
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                                                                   昆孫
                                                                    ┃
                                                                    :

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

  1. ^ Digital Daijisen "relationship』- Koto bank 2017May 1Browse.
  2. ^ In addition, even if the parents' siblings are children, they are considered to be uncles and aunts, but it is rude to call them "uncles" and "aunts."In rare cases, the second person may be called in terms of age regardless of uncle or aunt.

Related item

Osamu Tezuka

Characters contained in this item"塚'It is,operating system,ブ ラ ウ ザThe display varies depending on the environment such as. "塚'Is the official notation"U + FA10.svg(Mound)'May differ from.

Tezuka Osamu(Tezuka Osamu,1928[Note 1]<Showa 3>May 11 - 1989<First year of Heisei>May 2) IsJapan Ofmanga artist,Anime director,Doctor.Order etc. TheThird grade.Bachelor of Science Themedical doctor(Nara Medical University-1961).Real name TheOsamu Tezuka(Read the same).

After the warIn JapanStory cartoonAs a leading figure in manga, he played an active role as a pioneer in manga expression.HyogoTakarazukaBirth (Birth is OsakaToyono-gunToyonaka Town, nowToyonaka City) Honorary citizen of the city.Osaka Imperial UniversityGraduated from the Faculty of Medicine.

Overview

Osaka Imperial UniversityDepartment of Medical SciencesOn January 1946, 1 while attending school4 comic strip cartoonDebuted as a manga artist in "Diary of Ma-chan" (serialized in "Kokumin Shinbun"). 1947,Shichima SakaiOf the original planDrawnBook"Shin Takarajima"Butbest sellerNext to OsakaRed bookCause a boom. Since 1950Cartoon magazineAppeared in "Astro Boy" "Jungle the Great] "Princess Knight" and other hits one after another.

In 1963, Japan's first 30-minute frame based on his own workTelevision AnimationSeries[Note 2]"Astro boy』, And had a great influence on the production of Japanese TV animation that leads to the present age.1970 eraReleased hits such as "Black Jack", "The Three-Eyed One", and "Buddha".Also in his later years, "Phoenix," "Hidamari no Ki," "Tell Adolf," etc.Youth cartoonAlso produces a masterpiece.From his debut to his death in 1989, he continued to present his works on the front lines, and from his lifetime, "God of mangaWas described as[Note 3].

Fujio Fujiko(Fujiko F. Fujio,Fujio FujikoⒶ),Shotaro Ishinomori,Fujio Akatsuka,Yokoyama Mitsuteru,Mizuno Eiko,Masako Yashiro,Moto HagioMany people, including others, were influenced by Tezuka and came into contact with them to become manga artists.

career

childhood

Tezuka Osamu (real name, Osamu)1928May 11, Toyonaka-cho, Toyono-gun, Osaka(CurrentToyonaka CityNear Honmachi)To my fatherTezuka Yutaka(Yutaka Tezuka, 1900-May 1986, 5[2]) And his mother, Fumiko (1909-1983), was born as the eldest son.Meiji BushiBecause I was born inMeiji""TreatmentWas named[3].. The eldest son of three brothers, his younger brother is Hiro Tezuka (3-), and his younger sister is Minako Uto (1930-1932).

In 1933, when Osamu was five years old, the family lived in Obama-mura, Kawabe-gun, Hyogo Prefecture, where their grandfather, who passed away in 5, was the final residence (currently).Takarazuka) I moved to Kawamo's mansion.PrewarTakarazuka(Current Takarazuka)It is,Kobayashi Ichizo Minoh Arima Electric OrbitDeveloped in the countryside with the aim of increasing the number of passengersEmerging residential areaAre scattered and in the centerTakarazuka Girl Opera Company(Currently Takarazuka Revue)Is the home ofTakarazuka Grand Theater,Takarazuka Family LandIs the predecessor ofTakarazuka Shin OnsenAnd Takarazuka Luna ParkResort facilityLined up to form a kind of different space[4]..It is thought that the landscape of Takarazuka's artificial modern city had a great influence on the formation of Tezuka's work world.[5].. My fatherTakarazuka HotelsA member of the Takarazuka Club, which was built inside, Osamu was sometimes taken by his father to eat at the Takarazuka Hotel restaurant, and his mother took him to the Takarazuka Revue.[6]..The next house of the Tezuka family is the Takarazuka RevueMale roleTop starTianjin Maiden(Real name: Eiko Torii)Kayoko Kumono(Real name: Hanako Torii) and Tsuruko Ikebe (Real name: Hisayo Torii) are the torii family where the sisters live.Takarazuka Music SchoolA daughter who wants to enter the school with her parentsHyakudoishiThere were many opportunities to come into contact with women from the Takarazuka Revue, such as the sight of stepping on.[7]..Later, Tezuka said that his first love was a student of the Takarazuka Revue, and that he attended the Takarazuka Grand Theater to see the Takarazuka students.Tsukioka Yumeji,Chikage AwashimaHe says that he likes women with iron-fired skin like this, and that he has watched the Daiei movie "Shinyuki" (1942) starring Tsukioka more than 20 times.[8].

1935 years,Ikeda Normal Elementary School(Currently Ikeda Elementary School attached to Osaka University of Education, but the location is different from that time due to relocation)Enrolled in.mother isTokyoI was originally fromKinki dialectBecause he was a floating existence without talking about, when he was in the second grade of elementary school, he said,GajaboyWas given the nickname, and was the subject of teasing.It is said that he cried every time he sang a song.However, the manga paintings that he had drawn by imitating his appearance from an early age will save him.When I was in the third grade of elementary school, I completed the first manga "Ping Ping Nama Chan" and then started practicing manga.[9], Completed the feature-length manga "Chinese Night" when he was in the 5th grade of elementary school.This work is not only for friends but also for schoolteacherIt became a hot topic even among the teachers, and it is said that teachers have been allowed to draw manga since then.[10]..By drawing manga, my classmates gave me a lot of attention, and bullies came to visit Tezuka's house for manga, so bullying gradually disappeared.As many as 20 friends gathered at home on his birthday[11][Note 4]..Unusual at the time when a friend came homeBlack teaとConfectioneryIt was treated on the birthday of OsamuGome sushi,Savory egg custardWas behaved[11]..Some of the comics drawn at that time are still preserved in the memorial hall.[12].

At this time, my classmate Minoru Ishihara (later Osaka)YodoyabashiBecame close to (President of Ishihara Watch Shop) and influenced by him昆虫,科学,astronomyBecome interested in[13]..The large garden of the Tezuka family's mansion is a treasure trove of insects[14]Also, the surrounding countryside is rich in insects,Insect collectingBecause it was the best environment for me, I added depth to my hobbies.[15]..I read Shujiro Hirayama's "Primary Colors of Thousand Kinds of Insects" borrowed from a friend.beetle OfGround beetleFrom this time on, after learning about the existence ofPen nameAsOsamu TezukaI started using. Until around 1950, "TezukaIs as it isSasumToothI was reading[16].

Adolescence and war experience

1941 years,Osaka Prefectural Kitano Junior High School (currently Osaka Prefectural Kitano)higherschool)Enrolled in.Time patternMilitaryIt was a time when the colors were getting stronger, and it was a change from when I was in elementary school, and I was drawing manga.School trainingFound and beaten by an instructor[17]..During this period, while writing manga in the magazines of clubs made by his friends, he is also active in making his own illustrated books such as the Tezuka version of "Primary Color Beetle".

Weak people can enter in the summer of 1944Compulsory training centerCan be put in. Instead of going to school from SeptemberMunitions factoryDriven to[17],hereHangar OfroofToslatemade[18].

In March 1945, he graduated from Kitano Junior High School in four years due to the shortened training period during the war.Former Naniwa High School(CurrentOsaka University), But failed because he drew only manga.[19].. July,Labor serviceでSurveillance sentryWhen I was doingOsaka air raidEncountered, overheadIncendiaryIs dropped but gains a lifetime in nine deaths[20]..This air raid became the original experience of Tezuka, and later "Paper Fort" (1974) and "Flirting』(1979-1980) and other autobiographical works.[21]..After this experience, Tezuka stopped going to the factory and began to stay home and draw manga.[22].

In July of the same year, Tezuka took an examination at the Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Imperial University, and was admitted.[23]..The medical department has been working on the protracted war.Military doctorIt was temporarily attached to the campus of Osaka Imperial University in addition to the regular medical school for speeding up.School systemAbove isOld Medical CollegeIs[Note 5], SoOld junior high schoolIt was possible to enroll from[24]..Osaka University (formerly Osaka Imperial University)Department of Medical SciencesWas abolished in 1951.As described laterNational Doctor ExamI have passed while writing serials such as Jungle Emperor and Astro Boy.

Debut, to the world of Akamoto

The end of the warLater, Tezuka, a student, wrote "Ghost Man" ("Ghost Man" ("Ghost Man") from the feature films he had drawn during the war.metropolis』Prototype) selected and redrawn,Mainichi NewspapersSent to the arts department[25]..This ended without any notice, but after that, an introduction from a woman who worked at the printing office of the Mainichi Shimbun, who lived next door, was introduced to the "Kokumin Shinbun" for children (currently).Mainichi elementary school newspaper) Meet a person named Hoshino from the Faculty of Arts[26]At his request, the Osaka version of "Kokumin Shinbun" has a four-frame mangaMa-chan's diaryWas serialized (January 1946, 1-March 1, 3), and this work became Tezuka's debut work.This "Maachan" is local but popular,dolls,Candy OfcharacterThere is also a record that it was used in[27].. Following "Maachan", from April "Kyoto ShimbunThe four-frame manga "Chinen to Kyo-chan" is serialized in "A-chan B-ko-chan expedition", "A man from Mars", and "Lost world" in parallel with these. (It is different from the one described later) etc. are also drawn on each paper, but there is a limit to the format of 4-frame serialization, and the latter two both end in a form close to interruption[27].

Around 1945, before making his debut as a cartoonist2rd generation Keiharu DanjiProvided posters for voluntary performances in rural areas[28](The actual item isTakarazuka Osamu Tezuka Memorial MuseumIs on display at). Since the second generation Harudanji lives in Kiyoshikojin, Takarazuka City, he said that he recommended that he become a rakugo storyteller, considering his career as a manga artist in Tezuka, as he made friends with him.

1946 years,DoujinshiThrough the regular meeting of "Manga Man", I met Shichima Sakai, who is the guardian, and from Sakai, a feature-length story mangaCooperationCan be approached[29]..This was also the first luxury book project after the war, and it was a story that Tezuka, who had drawn and accumulated feature-length manga until then, could not hope for.[30]..In this way, Sakai made a rough composition, and based on that, Tezuka freely drew a 200-page feature film "Shin TakarajimaWas produced[31].. Published in January 1947, it was unusual for the time.best sellerIt became."Shin Takarajima," which has a cinematic composition and speedy story development, is generally regarded as the origin of postwar story manga.[32][33](Second stage#Innovation of Shin Takarajima (Shin Takarajima)See also).

The best-selling "Shin Takarajima" is in OsakaRed bookAfter a boom, Tezuka was able to ride on this and publish a feature-length work in the form of a book.[34]..Tezuka became busy, and based on the feature films he had drawn so far, he had to draw one or two books a month besides his studies.[35].. Announced in 1947, "Dr. Mars"Dr. Colonco the Phantom" "King Kong" etc. were conscious of childrenB-grade movieIt was a typical work, but in 1948, "The Mysterious Underground PhantomFromtragedyDevelopment has come to be incorporated,SF,adventureVarious attempts were made in the work on the subject such as."" Drawn at the end of the same yearLost world], People from various positions are intertwined地球A magnificent story of scale is drawn, followed by "Metropolis" (1949) "The world to come(1951) and SF representing the early days of TezukaTrilogyIs making[36].. In 1949WesternIn "Handgun Angel"Children's cartoonFirst inKiss sceneDraw[37].. Bungo in 1950ゲ ー テof"FaustIn addition to manga, "Mysterious Travels" that begins with the introduction "I will show you behind the scenes of movie production", and "Manga University", a pioneering work of the manga introductory book that systematically shows your own manga method And so on.

When manga writing gets busyunitIt became difficult to obtain it, and Tezuka had to give up the relationship between medical practice and manga.教授FromdoctorTezuka decided to become a full-time cartoonist because he was advised to become a cartoonist rather than becoming a cartoonist, and with the support of his mother.[38]..However, he did not quit school, but graduated from the medical department in March 1951 (3-year system, 5 year).Repetition..It was the last graduate because the specialized department was abolished this year), and moreOsaka University HospitalFor one yearInternPassed the 1952th National Examination for Medical Practitioners in March 3, and was registered as a medical doctor on September 1953, 9.[39]..For this reason, Tezuka later wrote in his autobiography "I am a manga artist," saying, "There, my main business is still a doctor and my side business is manga, but no one makes a strange face and admits this fact. There is. "[40].

Magazine serialization started

While drawing Akahon manga in Osaka, Tezuka also brings it to Tokyo.Initially expectedKodanshaAlthough it was refused, it is called ShinseikakuInfomationAfter successfully bringing in the magazine, after drawing some one-shots here, "Dr. Tiger's Rare Trip" was serialized in the newly launched magazine "Shojo Manga and Reading" from April 1950, and this is Tezuka's first magazine. It became a serialized work[41]..From November of the same year, the magazine "Cartoon boy』(School children's company)Jungle the GreatStarted serialization, and in 1951, "Astro boy"Atom Ambassador", the predecessor of "(1952-)"juvenile』(Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd.), And most of the boys' manga magazines started serializing Tezuka's manga this year.[42].. In 1953Girl club"(Kodansha)"Ribbon Knight』Started serialization.Inspired by the Takarazuka Revue and Disney, this work pioneered story manga in subsequent shojo manga.[43].. In 1954, after the completion of the "Jungle Emperor" serialization, "Manga Shonen" became "Manga Shonen".Fire bird』Started serialization. The "Phoenix" series continued to be drawn for many years while changing magazines such as COM, Manga Shonen, and Wild Age due to suspension of publication, and became Tezuka's life work.

Until then, Tezuka had been serializing monthly magazines.DrawnIt forced us to review the complicated story composition that we had done in the book, and turned Tezuka to theatrical methods such as creating attractive characters and simple story composition to attract readers.[44]..On the other hand, the newly drawn book ends with two books, "Bambi" and "Sin and Punishment" in 1952, but insteadPostal LawDue to the revision of the magazine, the number of magazine appendices increased sharply during this period, and Tezuka worked on a number of feature-length works drawn in the form of an appendix booklet in parallel with the serialized works, and in this form, works of the book era one after another.RemakeWas done[45].

In terms of personal life, he moved from Takarazuka to Tokyo in 1952, and was introduced by the editorial department of "Manga Shonen" in 1953.Toshima ward OfTokiwa 莊Move in[46]After that, at Tokiwa-so, following TezukaHiroo Terada,Fujio FujikoMoves in.Tezuka handed over Room 14 where he lived to Fujiko Fujio and moved from Tokiwa-so, but even after that.Shotaro Ishimori(Later renamed Shotaro Ishinomori),Fujio AkatsukaTokiwa 莊, where people who later became famous manga artists moved in one after another, became the manga artist Mt. Liang.At this time, Tezuka became a Tokiwa 莊 cartoonist.moviesIt is recommended that you watch a lot of books, and Tezuka himself always watched 365 books a year for more than XNUMX years.[Note 6].

In 1953, Tezuka was in Kansai.ChoreographerBecame the top painter in Japan, but the workplacewoodenSince it was a two-story building, Tokiwa 莊, he was surprised by the newspaper reporter who came to the interview, so he said that he consciously bought luxury goods after that.[47].

"Astro boy""My songokuWhile serializing popular works of children's manga such as "Tezuka" in 1955, Tezuka published a manga magazine for adults "Comic book』(Bungeishunju Shinsha) Has published "The Collapse of the Third Reich" and "The Wandering Record of Insect Girls", and here we are trying a touch for adults that is different from the round pattern for children.[48].. From 1955 to 1958, Tezuka produced many works that showed his intellectual interest.[48], 1956 SF short series "Lion booksIn addition to starting "Manga" in the learning magazineBiology"Manga Astronomy" etc.Learning cartoonThe latter was the subject of the 3rd Shogakukan Manga Award (1957).Besides this, works for young childrenPicture story,Novel,essayWe are now doing activities that go beyond the boundaries of cartoonists.[49], In 1958Toei video(Currently Toei Animation) director Daisaku Shirakawa commissioned the company to make a feature-length manga movie for theaters, "Journey to the West"("My songoku』Is in charge of the original draft composition of the original)[50].

Fight against graphic novels

Since around 1958, in each manga magazineJiro Kuwata,Tsunayoshi Takeuchi, Mitsuteru Yokoyama and many other popular cartoonists have appeared, and Tezuka at this time was just one of those cartoonists in terms of popularity.[51]..What further threatened Tezuka was the emergence of new ones during this period.DramasWas the existence of.The popularity of graphic novels that portray the darkness of society in a straightforward manner plagued Tezuka at the time, causing him to fall down the stairs, rush to the base of graphic novel artists in Osaka, and participate in rallies.[52].

Initially, it was serialized in graphic novel magazines, but Tezuka'sassistantTezuka started to borrow dozens of book rental graphic novels.neurosisIt is said that he fell into a psychiatric evaluation[53]..Already in 1957, "Golden Trunk" ("Golden Trunk"West Japan Newspaper』Serialized), trying to touch the graphic novel style, gradually incorporating the methodology of graphic novels into his own work[54].

In 1959, following the weekly magazine boom, the weekly manga magazine "Boy magazine(Kodansha) and "Boy sundae』(Shogakukan) Was launched, and since then the monthly boys' magazine has gradually disappeared.At this time, Tezuka was invited to become an exclusive writer for Shogakukan (however, the first generation of "Shonen Sunday").Editor-in-chief OfToyota Kame CityProposed an exclusive contract by presenting a contract fee of 200 to 300 million yen (at that time), but testified that it was refused.[55].. ) However, I was confused by the invitation from Kodansha, and after all, I serialized "Dr. Thrill" by myself in the first issue of "Shonen Sunday", and only drafted 13 serials for "Shonen Magazine". To Shotaro Ishimori, "Harimao』Is serialized[50].. same year,Takarazuka HotelsHave a wedding ceremony at.

ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ン

From animation production
As mentioned above, from childhoodDisney movieTezuka, who lovedア ニ メ ー シ ョ ンHe had a keen interest in (Note: until the 1960s, it was generally called a cartoon movie), and animation production was a long-sought job.Disney's "Bambi" (released in the United States in 1942) was particularly influenced, but it was released in Japan in 1951 after the war (Disney's "Snow White" (released in the United States in 1937) and "Pinocchio". (Published in the United States in 1940) was also released in Japan after the war).
Japan is Disney during the warFleischer brothersAlthough the release of American animation was prohibited, in 1942 (Showa 17)[56]Asia's first feature-length movie for theaters, the first video work released in Japan during the warSaiyuuki The Iron Fan(China, 1941, 73 minutes, monochrome), I was impressed.When I visited China in 1980, a long time after the warShanghai Animation Film StudioFace-to-face with the director Wan LaimingSon GokuI made an illustration that Atom shakes hands with[57].
In 1945, the year of the defeat before becoming a professional cartoonist, Tezuka was left unburned in Osaka.ShochikuzaIn the feature-length cartoon movie "Momotaro Sea God SoldierI was deeply moved when I saw it, and at this time I decided to make a manga movie with my own hands in the future.[58]..When he came to Tokyo in 1946 (Showa 21) after the war, he saw a poster recruiting animators and went to the manga movie production company "Ashida Manga Seisakusho" (Iwao Ashida) to apply for employment, but he was refused.
Manga was a way for Tezuka to get funding for animation production[59].critic OfSoichi OyaFrom (OverseasAs a ridiculous meaning of leaving Osaka, where I was born, and earning money in Tokyo)[60]I drew manga so much that I was ridiculed.He also called himself "Disney Madness".Also, as mentioned above, he is also commissioned by Toei Animation.
Established Mushi Production
In 1961, Tezuka is his productionTezuka ProductionsEstablished a video club in.Initially started with 6 staff[61]..The first work, "A Certain Street Corner Story," is a 1-minute color feature-length animated work that takes a year to cover everything from staff salaries to production costs with the manga manuscript fee drawn by Tezuka.Blue ribbon award,Ministry of EducationReceived numerous awards such as the Encouragement Award[61]..Then in 1962, the video club said,Mushi ProductionIt was renamed.It is said that Mushi Production had more than 400 full-time employees at its peak.
Astro boy
After the name change to Mushi Production, Japan's first 30-minute TV animation series (called TV manga at that time)[Note 2]I started to make "Astro Boy".However, at the beginning, it is completely impossible for a staff of less than 10 people to produce a full animation program that requires a number of pictures like Disney for weekly TV broadcasting, and it is possible to broadcast weekly. Various to significantly reduce the number of pictures toLimited animationI came up with the method of devising.To realize a weekly animated program (already in the United States)Hannah Barbera ProductionsAlthough limited animation was produced with reduced man-hours, various limited animation methods and styles created by accumulating trial and error and ingenuity were later produced in Japan. It will have a big impact on the whole.Mushi Production's Astro Boy became a very popular work representing Japanese TV animation at that time.
Jungle the Great
In 1967, based on his own manga, "Jungle the GreatWon the San Marco Silver Lion Award at the 28th Venice International Film Festival. Since 1969, "Animerama Trilogy" (second work "ク レ オ パ ト ラ(Director) will be produced (Note: The first animerama "Thousand and One NightsTezuka is strongly involved in the planning and production of the second Cleopatra, but the third animerama "Sorrowful BelladonnaIs a work made after Tezuka resigned from Mushi Production, and Tezuka has no involvement at all).This was the opposite of traditional children's animated films, and was a theatrical animated film made for adults.
Also, Mushi Production is an animation director.Sugii Gisaburo,Rintaro,Koichi Yamamoto,Dezaki,Ryosuke Takahashi,Yuno Tomino,Soji YoshikawaSuch,animatorAs Kazuko Nakamura,Sadao Tsukioka,Yoshiaki Kawajiri,Toyoo Ashida,Yoshikazu Yasuhiko,Akio Sugino,Shingo Araki,Hideaki Kitano,Moribi Murano,Akihiro KanayamaAs a creatorMaruyama Masao, Fuyunori Gobu, Yoshinori Kishimoto, Atsumi Tashiro, Tatsumasa Shimizu, Hiroshi Wakao, Yoko Hatta,Susumu Akitagawa, Akio Sakai, Yuji Nunokawa, etc., produced many human resources who would later become Japan's leading animation producers.
Merits and demerits of low animation production costs
Even if you use the limited animation method, 30 video artists (animators) are in charge of 1 videos per video (at the lowest level) for the 2,000-minute frame of TV broadcasting, and one person is 5 videos a day. Finish[62]It was decided that a harsh working situation would be created.In addition, 1 yen per work[Note 7] It was decided that the production department would be strangled by selling at the exceptional production cost.
Tezuka sold the animation at a low price because the production cost of ordinary TV programs at that time was about 50, it became easier for sponsors to accept it if it was cheaper, and it entered the competition of others. He says it was because he thought it would prevent him from[63], This was later Tezuka himself "a big mistake"[63]As I admitted, it was a big miscalculation as a result. After seeing the great success of "Atom", others started to enter this field one after another, and many programs were produced and broadcast on a low budget.[64].
But initiallymanagementMushi Production, who had a hard time, said that "Atom" was a big hitCopyright(Merchandising) Revenues have made huge profits, and the scale has expanded rapidly due to the fact that we were able to sell the right to broadcast works and the right to develop derivative products overseas. The total number of employees increased from 400 to a maximum of 550 at one time), and "Atom" made Mushi Production profitable.[65].."Astro Boy," which had been broadcast for four years, almost used up Tezuka's original manga in a year and a half from the start of the broadcast, and after that, the episodes originally made by the staff of the Mushi Production literary club were fighting to gain popularity. The tendency to be drawn became stronger, and Tezuka's favorite animation-like humor was lost from "Astro Boy".[65][Note 8].
Also, during Tezuka's life, he was sometimes accused by magazines of "It is Tezuka's fault that the animator's salary is cheap", but Tezuka argues that "But, I can't stand it personally. Hey, there's a voice like this. When Tezuka sold that Astro Boy, he was able to get a ridiculous low price, so until now TV animation has been difficult to produce because the production cost is low. It's not a joke. " That is common sense for the production cost at that time, so if you want to sprinkle twice that, even if you make a mistakesponsorDidn't buy Atom.Then, the TV anime era would have been a dream story. "I think it cost about XNUMX to produce, and I took out about XNUMX. However, Atom hit me, so the anime program was hit, and about half a year later, the anime one. It was instantly fluttering. The production cost was a million! In other words, the company stepped on when the moto could be taken and the change came even if it was put out that much. Then, as you can see, the production cost is now. The lower limit is XNUMX million yen, and the sponsor will give out about XNUMX or XNUMX million yen. "[66].
またSugii GisaburoHe also said that Japan would not have become the world's number one producer of TV animation unless Tezuka Osamu established his own limited animation method in Japan.
Achievements in art and animation
一方で、アート・アニメーション(手塚自身は商業アニメーションに対比して「実験アニメーション」と言っていた)の分野にも功績を残している。虫プロで「ある街角の物語」(1962年,38分)、「おす」(1962年)、「めもりい」(1964年)、「人魚」(1964年)、「タバコと灰」(1965年)、「しずく」(1965年)、「展覧会の絵」(1966年、33分)、「創世記」(1968年)、その後に手塚プロで「ジャンピング」(1984年)、「おんぼろフィルム」(1985年)、「プッシュ」(1987年)、「村正」(1987年)、「森の伝説」(1987年,29分20秒)、「自画像」(1988年)と長編、短編の非商業作品を制作した。第1回広島国際アニメーションフェスティバルグランプリに『おんぼろフィルム』が選ばれている(Honorary chairmanPaul Grimault,ExaminationChairman TheRaoul Servais, Selection Committee Chairman Antoinette Moses).At the idea of ​​Tezuka, who was the president of Mushi Production, a subsidy system of 20 yen was set up for the production fund of the experimental work (according to Tezuka, Mushi Production was originally established by experimental animation It is said that it was for production).

Stagnation and resurrection

Even after embarking on animation production, Tezuka was energetically announcing manga works.During the establishment of Mushi Production, many manga works were related to animation, and in parallel with the animation, the original version of "Astro Boy" was serialized and Japan's first color TV animation "Jungle the GreatThe remake version of the same work was serialized in conjunction with "", and there was also a plan to make it into an animation at the beginning.Ambassador MagmaIs being serialized from 1963 to 1965.[67]..In connection with other anime works,W3The W3 incident, which caused troubles in serialized magazines, was also an event in 1965.

In 1966, Tezuka published the experimental manga magazine "COM] Is launched.PrecededSanpei ShiratoGekiga work "Kamui biographyIs a signboard workガ ロ』In opposition[68], Shotaro Ishinomori, featuring Tezuka's "Phoenix"Shinji NagashimaAmbitious works such as were posted. In 1967, the mysterious cartoon "Vampire, Followed by "Dororo" serialized in "Shonen Sunday".These were at that timeMizuki ShigeruWas caused byApparitionIt was a work that was conscious of the boom[69][Note 9].. In 1968, the youth magazine "Big comic(Shogakukan), "Play comics』(Akita Shoten) Etc. have been launched one after another, and seinen manga has started in earnest, and Tezuka also wrote "Big Comic" in "Big Comic".Swallowing the earth''Ayako''Kirihito Hymn, "Play Comic" and "Bottom of the air』Series and other works for young people.Tezuka's works for young people during this periodSecurity struggleThere was also a social background such as, and many of them were dark and gruesome.[70].

On the other hand, in Shonen Magazine, "Hyakumonogatari", which is an adaptation of "Faust" set in Japan,Nagai Hao"Harenchi Academy』Hit[71],Sex education"Manga"Maria』(Weekly Shonen Champion), "Apollo's song』(Weekly Shonen King) Etc., but by this time Tezuka was already regarded as an old type cartoonist in Shonen Magazine, and it was becoming less popular as expected.[72]..In addition, the animation business has continued to be sluggish, with Mushi Production Shoji, which was the owner of the company in 1973, followed by Mushi Production.[Note 10] bankruptcyHowever, Tezuka is also personally estimated to be 1 million yen.debtI was supposed to carry[73]..Tezuka himself recalls the "winter era" from 1968 to 1973, when he was in a difficult situation as a writer.[74].

"Black Jack," which was serialized in "Weekly Shonen Champion" (Akita Shoten) in 1973, also said that it would take care of the end of Tezuka, which was originally sluggish in boys'and childhood magazines.Muramura TaizoIt started with the kindness of the editor-in-chief[75]..However, in the boys' manga magazine at that time, which was all about trying to attract readers in long-lasting battles, the serialization of "Black Jack" in the one-shot format every time was fresh, and Tezuka in the latter half. It was decided to grow into a hit work that represents[76]..Furthermore, in 1974, "Weekly Shonen Magazine"(Kodansha) serialized" The Three-Eyed One "continued, and Tezuka made a full-scale revival.[77].

In 1976, the "Phoenix", which had been suspended, became "Manga boy』(Asahi Sonorama) Resumed with the first issue. As of 1977, Tezuka had "Black Jack," "The Three-Eyed One," "Buddha," "Firebird," and "ユ ニ コ''MW』And had six serials.Also, cartoons of the same periodpaperbackAlong with the boom, Tezuka's past works have been republished one after another, and Kodansha's "Kodansha" from June of the same year.Complete Tezuka Osamu MangaWith the publication, Tezuka confirmed his reputation as a "leader of manga" and "god of manga."[78].

Late years

In the 1980s,Bakumatsu"Hidamari no Ki" (Big Comic), which traced its roots from the period from the Meiji era to the Meiji era,Adolf Hitler"Message to Adolf" serialized in a general weekly magazine on the subject ofWeekly Bunshun), Etc., will be working on a new masterpiece of seinen manga[79].. "Hidamari no Ki" won the 29th Shogakukan Manga Award, and "Tell Adolf" won the 10th Kodansha Manga Award in the general category.

When interviewed by NHK in 1985[80]So I spent only 1-1 hours a day writing manga and making animations. While admitting that his physical ability had declined, he said, "I can't draw a circle well," but told the interviewers, "(If I can overcome the aging of my body).I will draw for another 40 years (100 years old).Only ideas are ready for bargain sale"He showed a strong desire for creative activities.

Die

However, three years later, in March 3, he complained of stomach upset and was examined. As a result, he had advanced scirrhous gastric cancer.[Note 11]He was hospitalized and resected three-quarters of the stomach. He was discharged from the hospital in May and showed the same prolific behavior as before, but his body gradually became thinner than before he was hospitalized, and his physical strength became so weak that he could not continue drawing without occasional breaks.In November of the same year, "If you don't participate, it's an international problem."[81]And shook off the restraints around himPeople's Republic of ChinaShanghaiI attended the Animation Festival at Hiroshima International Animation Festival, but when I returned to Japan, my physical condition deteriorated.Hanzomon HospitalHospitalized in.At this point, the cancer was already in the terminal stage and the cancer had spread to the liver.

The following day, January 1989, 1, Tezuka Productions PresidentTakayuki MatsutaniWhen he came to visit him, he said he was asking, "What is my medical condition, please ask you."When I talked about what I heard from the doctor after lying down about stomach cancer, he said only one word, "Yes ..."[82]..Even in the hospital bed, Tezuka continued to serialize manga, breaking the doctor's and wife's restraints.

After January 1, the same yearComaBut when consciousness recovers, "pencilGive me. "His son, Makoto, said, "(My father at this time) made me hold a pencil when I woke up from a coma, but soon I lost consciousness repeatedly."[83]..Despite being in a state of death, he tried to get up saying "I'm asking you to do my job", and my wife tried to put her to sleep saying "I'm okay" and kept her obsession with work until the end.[84][85].

He died in the hospital room of Hanzomon Hospital at 1989:2 am on February 9, 10. 50 years old[1]..According to Matsutani, who witnessed the death, this "I'll ask you to work" was Tezuka's last word.February 2th, commuting to nightHigashikurume shiAt home[86], Funeral on March 3, TokyoMinato-ku OfAoyama funeral homeAs a company burial of Tezuka Productions[87]Each was run.

"Gringo''Ludwig B''Neo Faust』And other works were left unfinished[88][89]. Also,Takeshi UmeharaThe novel "GilgameshI was enthusiastic about animating the movie, but it ended up being planned.[90]..In his diary, which was written until three weeks before his death (January 3, 1989), his physical condition at that time and ideas for new works were written in a row.

It is said that no one around him told Tezuka that he had stomach cancer, and that Tezuka himself had no doubt that he would continue to live.[83]..However, in one of Tezuka's last works "Neo Faust" drawn at the hospital, the main person has stomach cancer, and doctors and others do not care about it, but he knows that he has stomach cancer. The content is drawn that he will die.

Style and achievements

What Tezuka was influenced by

Milt Gross
Tezuka's "movie-like" page layout isMilt GrossEarly graphic novelHe Done Her WrongAffected by[91].
デ ィ ズ ニ ー
Tezuka has been drawing his own manga since he was a child.Tagawa bubbly"Norakuro",Ryuichi Yokoyama"Fuku-chan"ofCopyI started to play, but I came out when I was 7 years oldGontarobyMickey Mouse OfPirated versionI became obsessed with books and began to copy this book (according to Tezuka, it was a picture that looked exactly like "I want to send it to Disney, the head family").Tezuka's design was a round design that was strongly influenced by Disney until around 1955, when it was influenced by graphic novels, and was also called "Disney style."I first encountered Disney animation when I was nine years old, and it was performed every New Year at the "Manga Movie Tournament" held at the Asahi Kaikan in Osaka.When my dad bought a home projector, there was also "Mickey's Train Trip" in the performance film.Since then, he has been fascinated by Disney animation, and in 9 Disney's "snow WhiteWas released 50 times at the movie theater, and the next "BambiIs said to have been seen more than 80 times.
Charles Chaplin
Tezuka is a "respected filmmaker"Charles ChaplinとWalt DisneyAre listed[92].
Tezuka, who often goes to the cinema when he has free time, admits that he has been greatly influenced by Chaplin.Tezuka says that it is great that the theme of the Chaplin movie is narrowed down to the three elements of "eating," "sleeping," and "living," and "how can I draw a manga that will remain in posterity?" Every time I get a question, I say, "Watch Chaplin's movie anyway. That's all."[93].
Fleischer brothers
Incidentally,Kentaro TakekumaIs Tezuka's specialty, "Missing dressing roomFrom "Meta-Gag" and "Character Metamorphase"Fleischer brothersIt is pointed out that it is also influenced by the animation of[94].
Wan Laiming
In addition, Takayuki Matsutani, the president of Tezuka Productions, who was also the editor and manager in charge of Tezuka, was most loved and respected by Wan Laiming, and many people recognize that Tezuka is influenced by Disney. However, he said that he was actually influenced by Chinese animation, especially Wan Laiming, and that the time was earlier and more influential than Disney.[95]..When I visited China as a judge at the 1988st Shanghai International Anime Festival in 1, just before I fell ill.KoukiReunited with Wan Laiming[95], Produced by Tezuka Productions on August 1989, 8,Nippon TV Of24-hour TV "Love Saves the Earth"In "Tezuka Osamu Monogatari I am Son Goku" aired on TV, the scene where I met Wan Laiming in China was reproduced, and Tezuka in February of the broadcast year did not see the completion of the draft of the sickbed Tezuka. Became one of his last works because he died[96].
Literature, theater, Takarazuka culture
Fusanosuke Natsume, along with Disney, described "the externality and foreign culture that Tezuka brought to manga."literature,theater,TakarazukaIt lists culture.In his childhood, Tezuka's house had Shinchosha's "Complete Works of World Literature," and he often read foreign literature.Later cartoonizedDostoevsky"Crime and PunishmentAnd Goethe's "Faust" have been read dozens of times, and in particular, "Faust" has been cartoonized by Tezuka three times, including the adaptations "Hyakumonogatari" and "Neo Faust" set in Japan. ..In addition, Tezuka became a theater youth because he was attracted to Takarazuka Revue, and he belonged to the theater club at the university. Appearing in the role of a shop[97]..Natsume sees the influence of Takarazuka Revue on the exaggerated facial expressions and poses of early Tezuka works, and the background like a stage set, and at that time, the idyllic scenery and futuristic scenery that are characteristic of Tezuka manga live together. It is believed to be derived from the artificial landscape of Takarazuka[98].
Others
As a child, the house also had a "Nakamura Manga Library"[99].
Occurred in July 1972Asama Sanso IncidentAbout, "I read these people as the'manga generation', but it is extremely dangerous that such a generation spreads among the young people who grew up in the video. It is a time to reflect on how to draw as a cartoonist. I think I'm coming to[100].

Innovation of Shin Takarajima (Shin Takarajima)

"Shin Takarajima" in 1946, co-written with Shichima Sakai, the earliest work of Osamu Tezuka, was postwar.Story cartoonThere are many readers who are influenced by reading this work and aspire to be manga artists.Fujiko Fujio[101], Shotaro Ishinomori[102],Chiba Tetsuya[103],Mikiya Mochizuki[104],Kazuo Umezu,Keiji NakazawaSuch.Started graphic novelTatsumi Yoshihiro[105],Shoichi Sakurai[106],Masaaki Sato[107] Also talks about the shock.

On the other hand, "Tezuka learned from the movie at" Shin Takarajima ".revolutionIntroduced a traditional technique and changed the style of manga so far. "[108]..This is not partly correct or not all correct.Tomohide KureIn his book "Overview of Contemporary Manga" (1986), "Shin Takarajima" has one page and three columns.Frame splitIs rather mediocre, and the composition is also a prewar work.Speed ​​Taro』(Sagyo Shishido) is not as innovative as it is, but rather" Tezuka no Tenbun "can be seen in the development of the story.[33]..Yoshihiro Yonezawa also pointed out the same thing, saying, "It is based on a one-page, three-tiered split, and there is no proper use of ups and longs." I see the newness in the place where[109]. Also,Haruyuki NakanoIn his book "Mysterious Manga Artist Shichima Sakai" New Treasure Island "Legendary Light and Shadow", he touched on the career of former animator Sakai, and in Tezuka's subsequent works, "cinematic expression" has receded. From this, it is speculated that Sakai's achievements were great in the "cinematic expression" of "New Treasure Island."On the other hand, Fumio Noguchi criticized Nakano's theory, and the innovation of "Shin Takarajima" was a speedy action regardless of the lines of time and situation that had relied mainly on the explanations of the characters. It is said that it was done by frame division and composition (this is the "cinematic method"), and such expressions were not seen in "Speed ​​Taro" before that, but rather Shichima Sakai after that. It is said that it also influenced the work of[110].

In 1938, the background to the above-mentioned topics was born.Ministry of InteriorIssued "Children's Reading Material Niseki Suru Instruction Guidelines"Expression regulationWas done for nearly 10 years, so the prewar manga expression was forgotten, and the impact and influence of touching "Shin Takarajima" in such a situationFujio FujikoⒶThere was something that a veteran writer who supported the manga world later said[111][112].

Fusanosuke NatsumeSaid that he changed the "reading of frames" as the achievement of Tezuka manga in the Akamoto era.Until then, Japanese manga, like the current four-frame manga, read the frames placed on the right side vertically in one page, then move to the left side and read vertically again. It was being read.However, this reading greatly limits the method of frame division, so during the Akamoto era, Tezuka read the frames in the upper row from right to left, then moves to the lower row and reads from right to left. I gradually tried and permeated the current reading[113]..In addition to this, early Tezuka made the characters' designs more symbolic, and used subtle changes in lines to dramatically increase the variation of character modeling and facial expressions.StreamlineSweat,OnomatopoeiaThe number of cartoon-like symbols such as these has increased dramatically compared to the past, and the wide range of expressions like this makes it possible to draw complex stories in which many people are intricate.[114], Also of the picturesymbolBy advancing the conversion, it also created a situation where anyone can draw manga by learning symbolic expressions without learning pictures.[115]..Also, in terms of story, what separates the story of prewar manga and Tezuka manga is the introduction of tragedy such as "death of the hero".dead,EroticismBy incorporating the above into the work, it became possible to draw a diverse story world, and it was decided to prepare for the variety of stories in the subsequent manga world.[116].

The symbolization and systematization of the above patterns facilitated the parallel work division of labor in manga production, and made it possible to hire an assistant and introduce a production system.[117]..Tezuka was the first to introduce an assistant system (similar to animation production) and a production system for manga production.Other things Tezuka introduced in manga production,G penUse of (because it can be drawn quickly. Until then, in mangaRound penWas common),Screen toneThere is adoption of[118](Note: Osamu Tezuka was not the first to introduce screentone into manga production in Japan).

Theme of Tezuka's work

Tezuka was brought about by his own experience of war.life"Dignity" is mentioned as one of his themes.[119].

Tezuka said that he was a convert who put himself in manga and repeatedly converted according to the flow of the times, and said, "There is only one principle that can not be reversed even if it is killed by all means. It is exempt from war. That's why I want to continue drawing only the anti-war theme. "[120].

Tezuka calls the child a "future person" and says as follows.

Even in the early Showa period, which was said to be a dark era, I think I was able to spend my childhood in a truly blessed environment.However, it was almost lost in adolescence due to air raids and poor life.My father was in war, couldn't study, was hungry, and lost a lot of friends.When I was hit by an air raid and the surrounding area became a mountain of fire and corpses, I was in despair and thought that the world was over.So on the day after the war, when I was no longer worried about air raids and the town lights flashed all at once, I inadvertently banzaied and spilled tears.This is a fact.I was very happy from the bottom of my heart.I enjoyed the happiness of peace and was happy to be alive.I think this is the most emotional impression of the Japanese people at that time.

Let's convey this experience to the generation of Sun Tzu (Magoko), never to wage war again, never to have weapons again.Everyone who survived that day, that time, had that kind of emotion.Especially children who lost their homes and families and became orphans in the war must have vowed so.Before I knew it, it had weathered and became a mere corpse, and once again the government was heading in the direction of a bad smell.For the sake of the children, of course, the adults have to stop it, and at the same time, the children themselves have to nurture the people who reject it.After all, as I mentioned earlier, I think that there is no choice but to teach children the joy and importance of living and the dignity of life.Education that gives children the belief that they protect not only human life but all living things from the destruction and misery of war, and the culture of children must be based on it.Children never follow on the political subject of anti-war, peace, and so on.Isn't it important to take the initiative in teaching from the dignity of life?[121]

In his work, Tezuka has the duality of an angel and a devil.Different racewhile,Different cultureConflict betweenConflictThe theme is repeated.Tezuka got drunk shortly after the warAmerican soldierI was hit and shocked for no apparent reason, and it is said that this is the original experience of this theme.[122]..However, "Jungle the Great"Thicklip, Aggressive image "BlackThe view has been criticized, and in 1990 after Tezuka's death, "Meeting to eliminate black discriminationHas been accused of.After that, in Tezuka's bookDiscriminationA proviso has come to be added to explain the expression received as[123].

Also, when drawing a mangaProfessional-FlaxAnd evenFirst bookWhether it's a veteran or a veteran, the painter must adhere to it.KinsokuAs, "Basic human rightsYou can make any kind of bitter and harsh depiction by saying "Don't tease", but "戦 争,disasterMake fun of the victims ofOccupationLook down ""People,PeopleAndMassesDon't just make a fool of yourself, "I want to be careful from both the painter and the reader when there is a comic that makes a mistake."[124].

Fusanosuke Natsume finds the theme that Tezuka pursued under the keyword "life."Natsume introduced the following dreams that Tezuka often had when he was in elementary and junior high school, and these dreams were life, transformation, and amorphous.Eros, Says that he has almost completely stated "the core of Tezuka's writer's qualities" such as how to relate to the world.[125].

When I was a kid, my dreams weren't flying dreams or anything like that, and what I was seeing changed steadily, and what changed was sexual and led to my excitement. [Omitted] The shape is not always constant and changes to various things.For example, I have someone walking with me, but I don't know what it is, but it's always changing shape.It's always different to set up for me.At the same time as that fear, I feel a sex appeal. [Omitted] It's really a different dimension.I don't know if it's an alien or a woman, but it's around me anyway.It always changes.
I lived in Takarazuka, but on my way home from school there was a lonely swamp, and I went home through it.When I was in elementary school or junior high school, I often dreamed of going through it.Next to the swamp, a mysterious thing is waiting for me, swaying.Grab it and bring it to your house.I'm in trouble if I run away, so I close the shutters and close the bran so that I can never get out, and I usually wake up when the object faces me.In the meantime, by the time I find it, it comes to me, catches it and goes home, I don't know what it is, but it always changes. [Omitted] So you can be a woman, a man, or a monster. [Omitted] In other words, there is something like the fun of always moving.There is a feeling that what is moving is alive.In other words, by being constantly changing, we are evolving while changing, or trying to work on something, that is, we get an active feeling.So, what about me is that I'm always passive and I just look at it in the form of seeing it, feeling it, accepting it, but the other party is flowing one after another in some way.
—"The life and sex of Mr. Higeoyaji?" Mitsutoshi Ishigami, "The World of Osamu Tezuka", Tokyo Sogensha, 2003

According to Natsume, around 1950, Tezuka created a dense work by extending such "the prototype of life that continues to transform indefinitely" to the whole world of manga with drawing lines.However, when the degree of freedom of drawing lines was lost due to the influence of graphic novels, the theme of the work was the view of life that could not be realized by drawing lines, and the pan-life thought that appears in "Phoenix" was drawn. That it was[126].

Narumi lengthWritten by the book "The Origin of Moe" (PHP new book 2009) says "MoeThe reason why the culture was born in Japan is largely due to Tezuka, and the reason is "My daughter""Moe personification(Personification) ""Kemono""LoliSince the dawn of Japanese manga, genres such as "kei" have been used extensively in manga "intentionally", and it has spread.[127].

person

Age, background and blood type

Osamu Tezuka was born in 1928 and was 1946 years old on January 1, 4 when he made his debut. When "Book" was introduced, he was introduced as 17 years old as follows.

"Osamu Tezuka (sic), the author of the new manga" Diary of Ma-chan "serialized from tomorrow (sic), is the same crispy shaved and nineteen-year-old brother as you.Every day, I go to Osaka Imperial University School of Medicine to study to become a doctor, but I have loved manga since I was little and have been writing various manga since I was in the second year of national school. Was done.I'm very good at it, so I decided to serialize it for everyone.Please pet the faint Maachan[128].. 』\

Whether or not there is a relationship is unknown, but at this time Tezuka was used on a daily basis at that timeCounting yearsThen, on New Year's Day 1946, when this article was published, he was 19 years old.In addition, in a dialogue between Tezuka and Shotaro Ishinomori in 1989, he proceeded with the story with the body that "I made my debut at the age of 20" and rebuked Ishinomori who made his debut at the age of 17.[129]..In his later years, the date of birth was established in 15 (Taisho 1926).[130]..The true year of birth was revealed to the general public shortly after his death, and even in newspapers that convey obituaries, a mysterious situation occurred in which the year of birth differed depending on the type of newspaper.Even a cartoonist who was in a close position was surprised to know his true age.[131].

In addition, Tezuka is a graduate of the Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Imperial University, and as mentioned above, the newspaper at the time of his debut introduced him as "Osaka Imperial University School of Medicine (Mama)". In a magazine contribution written by Tezuka in 1978, he recalls that he was actually a student of the Imperial University School of Medicine.[132][133]..But in the 1980s[134][135]"Entered the old system Naniwa High School Rioto in 1944" "Osaka University School of Medicine in 1945"Preparatory courseIn some cases, a career that was different from the fact was introduced as "admission". After the death of Tezuka (some books are introduced as it is), Kosei Ono's "Osamu Tezuka" (Bronze Shinsha, 1989) made it possible that neither "Naniwa High School" nor "Osaka University Preparatory Course" existed in the first place. Have been pointed out[24]..It is not clear why some books have introduced Tezuka's history in a way that is different from the facts.

On the other hand, the blood type was sometimes introduced as type B in the profile, but now it is calm because it is type A.[136]..Regarding this, in Tezuka's own book, "I was told that it was type B when it was inspected during the war, but around the 1980s.Detailed examinationI was informed that it was type A. "[137]..My son, Makoto, is also type A.

Talent and working techniques

Occasionally letting editors do solid painting led to the later assistant system.Tadashi IizawaWas amused and published it as a novel called "Betaman", but he came to be criticized by manga critics who were critical of Tezuka, saying "Tezuka is not drawn alone", and the 1957rd Shogakukan Manga Award. Since receiving the award (XNUMX), he has been away from the Manga Award for many years.[129].

Was Tezuka's assistantJun WatabeTezuka did not draft with a pencilPen holderI testify that I was doing[138]..Freehand and fairly accurateYen,Straight lineCan be drawn and shakesTaxi,airplaneTezuka, who was always chased by the deadline of the manuscript, said that he drew it quite accurately.VehicleIt was not uncommon to finish the work in.)The year before his deathHayashiya Kikuzo (currently Kikuo)"Mr. Kikuzo, I can't draw a circle," he said.On the other hand, Tezuka said about his manga, "çľľIt repeatedly emphasizes that it is a sign, not a sign (manga semiotics), and in the background is Tezuka'sSketchIt is said that he was liable for power[139]..In my work, I often included scenes that treated my own drawing power in a self-deprecating manner.

As mentioned above, I was always chased by the deadline for manuscripts.This is often used as a material for his own comics.The reason is that he hardly refused to come to work.It is said that some editors used the pen name to call them "lie bugs" and "late bugs" because they did not meet the deadline and kept the editors waiting.

While pioneering manga techniques himself, when graphic novels became popular, he incorporated a graphic novel touch into his own paintings, and Shigeru Mizuki's "Gegege no KitaroWhen it became popular, a youkai manga was released in "Dororo", and "Gekiga" was opposed to the mainstream magazine "Garo". There were many counter-measures such as launching "" by himself.

Speed ​​readingHe is also good at reading a book of about 500 pages in about 20 minutes.[140].A coffee shopBefore the meeting, I stopped by the bookstore and talked about the ideas I got from the books I browsed, and wondered when the teacher was studying even though I was busy (Lecture by Macoto Tezuka).

While working on the production of manga, he once talked with the editor of another magazine on the phone about ideas for manga with a completely different theme (Lecture by Macoto Tezuka).

Tezuka is known to have been an extremely hard worker, sleeping only about four hours a day, and it is said that he rarely slept any longer.During the heyday, they often slept only a few days a month.After Tezuka's death, a rival who was alive until the age of 1Mizuki ShigeruIn his essay manga "The Power of Sleep," he said that he was able to live longer by practicing 1 hours of sleep a day, while Tezuka pointed out that he died prematurely because he had been staying up all night. ..

As a doctor license holder

Tezuka had a doctor's license, but he has already been active as a professional cartoonist since the days of the Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Imperial University, and during his internship.patientHe had never worked as a professional doctor except for the fact that he was seeing a doctor, and he was repelling many of the people who came to see him with a focus on interest, such as editors and assistants.[141]. However,Fuyuhiko OkabeWhen he goes abroad with Tezuka and feels sick, Tezuka examines him.At that time, Okabe returned to Japan without believing in Tezuka and inspected it at the hospital, but as Tezuka said, he drank too much.[142].

Tezuka's mother is the direct reason why Tezuka stopped becoming a doctor and became a manga artist.Tezuka says "Horseback foalWith the excuse of watching an anime movie, I took my mother out and talked about whether to become a manga artist or a doctor in the lobby of the movie theater before the performance started.The mother answered without hesitation to do what she liked and decided to go alone with a cartoonist.[143]..By the way, the Firebird appeared in the movie "The Little Humpbacked Horse" at that time, and this became one of the ideas of Tezuka's "Firebird".Also, this is one of Tezuka's last works that he had cut in the hospital room.Blue blinkIt is also the original work of.

In addition, Tezuka's teacher, who was a student, told Tezuka that he was drawing manga all the time during class, saying, "Tezuka-kun, you can't be a good doctor even if you continue to be a doctor. There are always five or six patients. I'll kill you. For the sake of the world, give up the doctor and become a cartoonist. "[144]..Tezuka also says that when he sees a patient's face during his internship, he inevitably draws a portrait on a medical record.According to his son Makoto, TezukabloodIt is also said that he abandoned the road because he hated to see.It is said that the university graduated with the condition that he would never work as a doctor.

Specialization issurgicalIs.Introduced by the professor in chargeNara Medical UniversityBecame a research student ofAtypicalsperm細胞InmembraneElectron microscopic study of structure "(SnailStudy of atypical sperm cells.Thinking about the mechanism of human sperm development through the study of snail sperm) in 1961medical doctorGot[145].

Since the doctor's license is valid for life, Tezuka continued to hold the doctor's license (Medical Registration No. 28 on September 9, 18) even after becoming a professional manga artist.After his death, the license was returned to the government after his death from an expert on November 150476, 2003, when the actual product was publicly displayed in the exhibition "DNA of" Black Jack "" at the Takarazuka Tezuka Osamu Memorial Hall. It was pointed out that it violated the law that stipulated that it must be done.As a result of discussions with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, a special measure was taken in which the ministry once performed the return procedure as prescribed and then transferred it to the bereaved family.According to the Examination License Office of the Medical Affairs Division, Medical Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, "there are few such cases in the past."As a result, the driver's license that is currently left behind and displayed in the memorial hall is stamped with a red mark of "erasure".[Note 12].

Relationship with professional baseball

Tezuka OsamuProfessional baseballClosely related to, especially "Atoms (currently:Tokyo Yakult Swallows)"When"Saitama Seibu LionsThere is a connection to.

The current Tokyo Yakult Swallows was born under the name "JNR Swallows", and in 1965 the management organization was at that time.Fuji Television Network, IncThe presidentMizuo NaruoWith the intention ofFuji Sankei GroupIt was acquired by the company and changed to "Sankei Swallows". In 1966, "Astro Boy" was a signboard program of Fuji TV belonging to the Fuji Sankei Group, and because Astro Boy was serialized in the Sankei Shimbun, "Astro Boy" was renamed and made Tetsuwan Atom a mascot character. "Atoms" was born. "Sankei Atoms" changed to "Atoms" in 1969, and management rightsYakult HeadquartersWhen I moved to, it changed to "Yakult Atoms". "Yakult Atoms" is the direct predecessor of the current "Yakult Swallows".

In addition, "Saitama Seibu Lions" is also connected to Tezuka. 1978,Crown writer lions Seibu GroupToAcquisitionWhen it became Seibu Lions (renamed Saitama Seibu Lions in 2008),Jungle the Great』Main characterLeoWas adopted as a mascot until 2008uniform OfHatAlso used was a Leo design (it has been occasionally worn in reprinted uniforms since then).However, Tezuka is a teamYoshiaki TsutsumiSince the owner designated him as "Leo as an adult", his father "Panja" is said to be the model.[146]..Also, the original character, Leo's younger sister,LinerHas also appeared since 1981.

In 2008, Tokyo Yakult Swallows reprinted the 1969 visitor uniform as the "Yakult Atoms Revival Series" (co-sponsored by Tezuka Productions as a project to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the birth of Osamu Tezuka).Nippon Life Celebrity Exchange Battle,Seibu DomeIn the Seibu battle held in, it was a strange confrontation with Leo, and it was named Tezuka Osamu Derby.

In April 2013, "Yomiuri Giants"GIANTS x ATOM", a collaboration project between "Astro Boy" and "Astro Boy" was announced.In this project, the characters of Astro Boy will commercialize key chains, uchiwa, towel handkerchiefs, etc. wearing Yomiuri Giants uniforms.Tokyo DomeIt will be sold at the inside goods stand.

In addition, Tezuka himselfHanshin Tigers fanMet. 1950New year's cardThen, "I'm thinking about baseball, but I don't feel like writing because I'm sick of Hanshin's slump these days," said the uniform from 1949.[Note 13] WearedtigerCommented along with the illustration that is pretending to be[147], I didn't actually draw a baseball-themed work.However, "Dr. Tiger's Rare Trip" serialized in 1950, when he wrote the New Year's card, is a journey (not playing baseball) in which a baseball team called "Tigers" travels here and there. When Hanshin won the championship in 1985 and played against Seibu in the Japan Series, he said that he was very weak, saying, "Both win."[148].

Closely related cartoonist

Fujio Fujiko
The two of Fujiko Fujio are Osamu Tezuka's "Shin TakarajimaI was shocked and aspired to become a manga artist.When they were students, they sent postcards to Tezuka as fans of Tezuka, and in response they received a handwritten postcard saying, "I'm looking forward to the future with a solid touch."The postcard is written with a picture of Tezuka's character so that the string of letters approaches the center while changing the angle, and it is really unique like Tezuka that you read the string of letters while spinning around the postcard. It was.This postcard increasingly spurs their aspirations for cartoonists.Fujiko Fujio initially posted a manga under the pseudonym "Fujio Tezuka" after Tezuka.However, because it was too explicit, it was changed to "Fujio Fujio" with the meaning of "not even the legs of Tezuka".
When I was a high school student, we both visited Tezuka's parents' house.After that, he made his debut as Fujiko Fujio, and will move in and live in the "Tokiwa 莊 Room 14" where Tezuka lived.Tezuka leaves a deposit and a desk for drawing manga for the two who have no money.Therefore, Fujiko Fujio's early works were drawn at Tezuka's desk.[Note 14]..About living in Tokiwa 莊 Room 14, where Tezuka I admired livedFujiko F. Fujio"I was impressed by how wide a yojohan is.[149]".Fujio Fujiko AIn his own manga, he depicts Tokiwa 莊 Room 14 in a magnificent space-like scene.After that, he often helped Tezuka's work as an emergency assistant for Osamu Tezuka.
Fujiko F. Fujio continued to respect Tezuka as "the greatest manga god" throughout his life, and praised Tezuka in his autobiography and manga writing books.Fujiko Fujio A also respects Tezuka and the autobiographical manga "Manga RoadIn ", Tezuka appeared as the greatest teacher, and Tezuka was often described as" god ", saying," Tezuka Osamu was a god for both of them "and" No, he was also a god for manga boys all over Japan.The fact that Tezuka is now called the "God of Manga" has a great influence on them (before that, he was also called the King of Manga).When Fujiko Fujio celebrated the 25th anniversary of the cartoonist, Tezuka TouchDoraemonI am giving away a colored paper with Doraemon-style leopards.The 25th anniversary party is organized by Tezuka and takes them to the second party.[150].
Tezuka suddenly popped up in Fujiko Fujio's studio and said, "Hahaha, I'm here", and even though I didn't have any particular business, I sometimes visited there.[150]..Also, when Fujiko Fujio A was drinking at a yakitori restaurant in Shinjuku, Tezuka sometimes came to hear that.Tezuka and Fujiko F. Fujio sometimes watched movies such as "Planet Solaris".
Tezuka wrote in Fujiko's book, "Ghost Taro"There has never been a work that drew the concept of ghosts so cutely into the world of children. In the United States, a ghost child was the main character.CasperThere is an example, but it is much more blurry than this and the personality is wonderful. "In terms of ease of drawing characters, there is nothing that can match Oba Q. (Remarks before the current character manga became popular in Japan)"[151].
Fujiko's Doraemon appears in Tezuka Osamu's manga "Nanairo Inko", and the main character's name is Fujio in "Golden Trunk". "Obake no Q-taro" appears in "Dororo" and "Vampire". In "Gachaboy Ichidaiki", Tezuka himself depicts Fujiko F. Fujio and Fujiko Fujio A assisting Tezuka.In the postscript of "Jungle Emperor" in the complete Tezuka Osamu manga, words of gratitude and encouragement are written for the assistants of Fujiko Fujio.Tezuka served as the matchmaker for Fujiko's wedding.Fujiko F. Fujio said in a memorial sentence when Tezuka died, "I continued to read the teacher's manga even when I became a high school student ... and when I noticed, I was also a manga artist."[152].
The ceiling of "Tokiwa 莊 Room 3" where Tezuka, Fujiko F. Fujio, and Fujiko Fujio A lived was brought back by Tezuka when Tokiwa 莊 was dismantled.The reason is, "I brought the rice into the room and cooked it or boiled it. The smoke at that time should have soaked into the ceiling. I will ask the landlord to hand over the ceiling board as a memorial."[153].
Shotaro Ishinomori
Ishinomori (formerly Shotaro Ishinomori) was also shocked by Osamu Tezuka's "New Treasure Island"[154]..When I was a junior high school student, I sent a thick fan letter to Tezuka, and he received a reply from Tezuka with a thicker envelope, and he became more and more a fan of Tezuka.[155].
IshinomoriUniversityWhen I was in school, I started posting in the post section of "Manga Shonen," which was serialized by Tezuka.Tezuka praises Ishinomori, who sent him to the manga boy, as a "picture of a genius boy."[156]..Then, at the request of Tezuka, who is writing "Astro Boy," Ishinomori interrupted his studies and acted as Tezuka's assistant.Tezuka says that he helped him with his work by seeing the picture of Ishinomori, who gets better each time.During his experience as an assistant, Tezuka was supposed to have had a hard time, but he took Ishinomori to the movie.At that time, Ishinomori said, "In my last-minute work, one day, at night, I stole the editor's eyes and secretly took me to the movie theater. I'm probably the same at that time. I'm a movie boy. I'm sorry to the editor, but I was piggybacking on it. "Then, when Tezuka introduced him to the editor, Ishinomori made his debut as a manga artist.After that, Ishinomori lived in Tokiwa, where Tezuka lived.Tezuka often makes Ishinomori appear in his manga.Shotaro Ishinomori's wedding matchmaker was Tezuka, although he was late.TV movie "HarimaoIn the manga version, Tezuka was the original and the drawing was co-written by Ishinomori. In 1959, Ishinomori was dispatched to the production site of Toei Animation's theatrical animation "Alakazam the Great" as a substitute for Osamu Tezuka, along with Sadao Tsukioka, who was Tezuka's assistant.Later, this experience was held by Ishinomori in the Toei Group.Goranger(Super squadron series), Etc., which leads to the opportunity to take charge of the original special effects work.
In addition, Ishinomori had a conversation shortly before Tezuka died, and Ishinomori described Tezuka as "a manga media that was thought to only express events in a funny way. Not only Pathos but also tragedy and deep philosophy. The attempt to draw a drama by bringing in philosophical thoughts was unprecedented. "[157]..Tezuka talked with Ishinomori's manga "Kamen RiderIs praised as "a work that is not inferior even if it is read repeatedly and repeatedly"[158].
When Ishinomori was 19 years old when he had no money after his debut, he secretly drew a work called "Firebird Kazetaro" using the idea of ​​Tezuka's masterpiece.All the manuscript fees obtained from this work were used to purchase audio equipment.
Fujio Akatsuka
Fujio Akatsuka also decided to become a cartoonist by encountering Osamu Tezuka's manga "New Treasure Island" and "Lost World".[159]..When he was 18Kunio Hase, With Shotaro IshinomoriA drop of inkI visited Tezuka's house as a companion to draw[160]..At that time, Tezuka was busy with the deadline, but they were impressed by drawing caricatures of Akatsuka and playing the piano.When Akatsuka made his debut as a new manga artist, Tezuka advised, "Kun Akatsuka. To become a good manga artist, watch a first-class movie, read a first-class novel, and listen to a first-class music."Following Tezuka's words, Akatsuka went to a record shop and said to the clerk, "I want to listen to first-class music. Please give me a first-class record." But the clerk was in trouble because he didn't know what to give.[161]..After that, Akatsuka also lived in Tokiwa, where Tezuka lived.Tezuka also told the members of Tokiwa 莊, "Don't study manga from manga." "Watch a first-class play, read a first-class book." Akatsuka said, "So we (Tokiwa 莊) (Members) didn't drink much at that time. Instead, let's go see a movie, listen to music, go to a jazz concert, read a novel, because Professor Tezuka told me to do so. "I didn't understand at that time. Then I understood the meaning later. What Mr. Tezuka said is really big. Listen to good music. Watch good movies. Good plays. Look, I now think again that it was a really important teaching. "[162]..Tezuka often makes Akatsuka appear in his manga.At the same time, did Tezuka like Akatsuka's gag "Shae"? He uses it for multiple works such as "W3" and "Phoenix".In Tezuka's "Black Jack" "Avina Island" episode, Akatsuka's "Genius Bakabon"Daddy appears.
Akatsuka once served as an assistant to Tezuka during the Tokiwa 莊 era.In addition, Akatsuka is planning a magazine and draws a parody manga of Tezuka's work called "Astro Boy!" Under the pseudonym "Fujio Akatsuka".[163]..Among them are the Phoenix and the Leopard.On the cover, it says, "I will dedicate this one to Mr. Osamu Tezuka, who gave me this manga."
Mizuno Eiko
Hideko Mizuno was also shocked by Osamu Tezuka's manga when she was in the third grade of elementary school and aspired to become a manga artist.Mizuno told him he wanted to meet Tezuka when he was 3 and went to Tokyo to meet Tezuka.A few years later, Mizuno moved to Tokyo and became a resident of Tokiwa 莊 where Tezuka lived.Mizuno became a pioneer of female shojo manga artists (most of the previous shojo manga were drawn by men).
Mizuno looks back on Tezuka and says as follows. "How do you describe the shock when I first encountered the teacher's manga? There was a gorgeous fantastic world! SF, westerns, mysteries, fairy tales ... one after another. A fascinating world I don't even know! It was my daily routine to run around the bookstores in the city and not miss any of them. It was frustrating to take the book I finally bought home and walk while reading. While I was crazy, I passed in front of my house. I didn't cry when my parents died. I cried so shocked that I couldn't see anything in the last scene of the jungle emperor ... " I finally decided to draw manga myself and started my career as a manga artist. I was thrilled when I came to Tokyo at the age of XNUMX and finally met a real teacher! Smiley at a coffee shop in Ginza. The glare of the teacher who kindly welcomed me! I am happy to be able to live with the new talented people at that time in the apartment Tokiwa manga, where Mr. Tezuka first moved in![164]Tezuka wrote about Mizuno in his own book, "Genius Hideko Mizuno."[165].
Yokoyama Mitsuteru
Mitsuteru Yokoyama is also impressed by Osamu Tezuka's "Metropolis" and aspires to become a manga artist.However, after graduating from high school, I got a job once.
One day, Tezuka meets a smart young man who was taken by the president of Osaka Tokodo.The president is the young manKobe BankThe president said, "I'm going to make my debut at home, but how about it?"Tezuka read his work and praised him as "it might sell," and the young man made his debut as a manga artist.That young man is Mitsuteru Yokoyama[166]..After that, Yokoyama based on Tezuka, "Golden city"The cave of Tarzan" was drawn.Tezuka calls Yokoyama "as much"cometThere is no man who fits the description of "like".[166]. "Tetsujin 28Was a big hit in "Shonen" magazine, halving its popularity with Tezuka's "Astro Boy".As a Sankei Shimbun reporter, Yokoyama, who had experience in industrial coverage, thought that "it can only be big at first, then it will be small", and made Tetsujin 28-go a large robot in consideration of Tezuka Osamu's "Astro Boy". He also said.It seems that Tezuka and Yokoyama had a relationship even in private, and when Yokoyama just came to Tokyo, Tezuka gave various advice.[167]..Yokoyama has also experienced Tezuka's assistant.
When Tezuka died, Yokoyama said, "I've always thought about referring to Mr. Tezuka's work, so I'm influenced by all the works. In terms of technique, I'm very good at taking angles. He said, "I used to cast shadows behind me and shoot them on the wall. When I was young, I used to feast on meals. He was kind and very caring about others."[168].
During his lifetime, Tezuka said, "Mr. Yokoyama worked in various genres, but this" Tetsujin 28-go "and"Shadow circle of Iga"in addition"Three Kingdoms』Three are probably epoch making.If there is an entertainment manga merit award, I think that Mr. Yokoyama should definitely give it to him first. "[169].
Reiji Matsumoto
Leiji Matsumoto also aspired to become a cartoonist by reading a book drawn by Osamu Tezuka at the class library when he was in the second and third grades of elementary school.[170]..It was Tezuka's "New Treasure Island," "King Kong," "Dr. Mars," and "Moon World Gentleman."
Matsumoto says, "Mr. Tezuka's manga was faster and cooler than any other manga before. Perhaps the manga boys all over the country were surprised at that time."[170]..Matsumoto becomes a regular in the posting section of "Manga Shonen," which was serialized by Tezuka.And when I was a high school student, I saw it from Tezuka and said "Tetsutaikou Tetsuka (help me. Tezuka)"telegramTo receive.At first, Matsumoto thought it was a prank, but it wasn't a prank, but a telegram that Tezuka really asked for an urgent assistant.So Matsumoto went out as an emergency assistant to help Tezuka and asked him questions about the manga artist.This event strengthened Matsumoto's desire to become a professional cartoonist.[171]..Even after Matsumoto became a professional cartoonist and moved to Tokyo, he had a close relationship with Tezuka, and Tezuka suddenly visited Matsumoto's boarding house by himself and came out from the outside of the window, saying, "Hey Matsumoto-kun. I was invited to do so. "
Matsumoto says that he got along with Tezuka because they are open-minded.[172].
Tezuka's manga "BaruboraA character named "Reiji Matsumoto", modeled after Leiji Matsumoto, appears in "", and is involved in important scenes in the story as a manga artist and book collector.
Matsumoto is Japan's first 30-minute TV anime series.[Note 2]There is also a connection with "Astro Boy" that became.Matsumoto said, "I'm Astro Boy, but I'm also involved. In the middle of the night before the screening, Mr. Tezuka called my boarding house," Help me! "And said," The projector is broken and I can't edit. So I took my projector with me. The second half of the first episode of Astro Boy was edited with my projector and a preview was held.[173].. ". "I, Mr. Tezuka, and Mr. Shotaro Ishinomori are self-proclaimed anime enthusiasts. I had a dream of making an anime movie in the future, and I lent various equipment and materials to each other. Both of them have died. I still have the equipment I borrowed from them, but now it's a relic. "
Matsumoto is also an avid collector of Tezuka Osamu's works, owns all the early works that Tezuka himself did not have, and also owns the first edition of "Shin Takarajima", which is priced at millions of books. In 1, the personal discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Osamu Tezuka became news.
Nagai Hao
Go Nagai also says that he was influenced by Osamu Tezuka and aspired to become a cartoonist.[174].. "My life began with the work of Professor Tezuka."[175] He often read Osamu Tezuka's manga when he was a kid and was always shocked.Nagai first went to Tezuka Productions to become an assistant to Osamu Tezuka, but unfortunately he couldn't get in touch with Tezuka and instead decided to help with the work under Shotaro Ishinomori, who was introduced to an acquaintance.[176].
Looking back on his half-life, Nagai said, "When I was a boy, spending time with Tezuka's work was the happiest time. Even when I had a bad time at school, Tezuka manga healed my heart. It was natural that I wanted to be a cartoonist like Mr. Tezuka, and I became a cartoonist, but I couldn't become Mr. Tezuka ... I became Go Nagai. "[177]..Also, when Go Nagai drew Black Jack in the anthology comic "Black Jack ALIVE", Black Jack, Go Nagai himself, and Tezuka from his school days appeared together, and Black Jack made "You" to Tezuka when he was a student. Is more suitable for doctors than manga artists. "All the characters of Osamu Tezuka and Go Nagai are about to disappear (if Osamu Tezuka had not become a manga artist, Go Nagai would not have become a manga artist either. Expression).
After Nagai's debut, he had a private friendship with Tezuka.Tezuka and Nagai have traveled together multiple times, traveling with members of the science fiction writer club, andSan DiegoI have been to a comic convention in Japan.In Los Angeles, the movie "ShiningI saw.Tezuka always advised Nagai, "Go-chan, draw a lot of short stories. Short stories are important."[178].
Tezuka gave a speech at Nagai's wedding (the photo of that time was published in the May 1989 issue of "Comic Box").
Mitsutoshi Furuya
Furuya also aspired to become a cartoonist by reading Tezuka's manga "New Treasure Island".[179]..He described the situation at that time as follows: "I was also shocked to read Mr. Tezuka's" Shin Takarajima "when I was a kid. There was a sense of speed compared to the previous manga, There are no stories or pictures in Japan until now. I felt like I had a glimpse of Americanized culture like Disney movies. I don't know if I read it hundreds of times, and I read "Shin Takarajima" and became a manga artist. I decided to do it. My debut work "Mikan no Hana Blooming Hill" also refers to Mr. Tezuka's manga a lot. "After that, Furuya experienced Tezuka's assistant.When Tezuka gave his salary to his assistant, he said, "I'll definitely watch a movie," and gave him 1000 yen with a smile (at that time, it was an era when restaurant set meals could be eaten for 50 yen, and even watching a movie would change. Will come).Furuya was always happy to watch the movie[180]..As an assistant, when he came out of Tezuka and the hotel at dawn, he said, "I'm walking with Osamu Tezuka."
Saito Takao
Takao Saito also longed for Osamu Tezuka and aimed to become a manga artist.After reading Tezuka Osamu's "Shin Takarajima," he was excited to say, "I can make a movie out of paper!"[181]..When I was a student around 30, I asked Osamu Tezuka's home as an aspiring manga artist.However, unluckily, Tezuka had already moved to Tokyo, so Saito couldn't meet Tezuka and decided to go home after just talking a few words with Tezuka's mother.[182][Note 15]..Saito at that time had a round pattern like Tezuka.
After that, Saito testified, "I longed for Tezuka and aimed to become a manga artist, but I couldn't draw a picture with a round touch like Tezuka, and it became the current picture."Saito contributed to the development of a field later called "graphic novel", and as a big rival of Tezuka, he greatly shaken his life as a manga artist.
When Saito set up a workshop with Yoshihiro Tatsumi and said, "It's overthrowing Tezuka!", All of them were enthusiastic Tezuka fans except Saito, so "I'm saying something you don't know. Was said[183].
Saito later co-wrote with Tezuka in the manga "Voice from the Past," and at that time the original was Tezuka and the drawing was Saito. "Big comic], Shotaro Ishinomori, Fujio Fujiko A, Takao Saito, and Osamu Tezuka are competing as four major writers.
When Tezuka died, Saito said, "I feel like the big mountain I've been climbing has suddenly disappeared."[184].
Tatsumi Yoshihiro
I was shocked by Tezuka's "Shin Takarajima" and aspired to become a cartoonist[105]..Looking back on those days, Tezuka said, "The work of the author, Osamu Tezuka, who I saw for the first time, built an epoch-making world that completely overturned the conventional wisdom of manga." "For me, Osamu Tezuka is comparable to God. It was there. "[185]..As a boy, Tatsumi has visited Tezuka's house in Takarazuka.[186]..Tezuka gently invited Tatsumi into his room, read the four-frame manga that Tatsumi brought, and advised, "Why don't you draw a feature film? From now on, there will be more and more places to announce the four frames. Please draw a feature film."This is a great advice for Tatsumi.He also asked Tezuka to show him the color page before the first episode of the Jungle Emperor, and said that he was shocked by his trembling.[187]..After that, Tatsumi made his debut as a manga artist and drew a manga called "Tetsuwan Genta" influenced by Astro Boy of Tezuka.However, a few years later, I dared to search for a "non-manga" that is different from Tezuka Osamu.[188]..As a result, Tatsumi became a pioneer of graphic novels. The name "graphic novel" was also devised by Tatsumi.
Tatsumi also sent some sealed letters with the content of "Gekiga Declaration" to Tezuka.However, Tezuka later advised Tatsumi on the trend of graphic novels that became commercialist.[189]..In addition, when Tezuka won the Bungeishunju Manga Award, Takao Saito was invited to the award ceremony with Masaaki Sato and Tatsumi.[190]In 1982, I also accompanied Tatsumi on a trip to France.[191].
Tsuge Yoshiharu
When he was in the 4th grade of elementary school, he began to be absorbed in Tezuka Osamu's manga.When a new issue came out, I used to run to a bookstore.I couldn't get my mother to buy it because of my poverty, so I waited for my grandfather, a thief who came back about once every three months, and bought it. Was sold to a toy store to make money.If I still couldn't get it, I would wander around the bookstore to shoplift. At the age of 3, he aspired to become a manga artist as a profession where he could fantasize alone in the room and write his favorite pictures.Visit Tezuka Osamu, who lived in Tokiwa-so at that time, ask about the amount of manuscript fee, etc., and strengthen his determination to become a professional[192].
Sanpei Shirato
Shirotsuchi in the book rental era drew a cartoon with a picture similar to Tezuka.In Shirotsuchi's early work "Arashi Ninja", you can see the influence, such as the appearance of the character of Tezuka's star system.[193]..Shirotsuchi said, "When I was doing picture-story shows, I studied Mr. Tezuka with so-called humor manga.[194].. ".Tezuka also mentions that, "For example, Sanpei Shirato and Yoshiharu Tsuge's former works are much more Tezuka-like than those of the mature era, probably using my manga as a textbook. I didn't want imitation. "[195]..Shirotsuchi gradually stopped his Tezuka style and turned to a graphic novel artist, standing out as Tezuka's biggest rival.When the graphic novel boom occurred, Tezuka launched "COM" in opposition to "Garo" led by Shirotsuchi.Tezuka said, "Since the appearance of Sanpei Shirato, children's comics have come to require heavy drama, reality, and ideology."[196]..In Tezuka's manga "Neo Faust," a scene appears in which a character reads a white clay manga and tries to learn lessons from the content.When Tezuka died, Shirotsuchi said, "I noticed that I was eating food in this world someday, but Mr. Tezuka is our great senior and is unforgettable for many Japanese people. I will continue to be a person. Although it is the fate of a person, it is really disappointing.[184].. ".
Katsuhiro Otomo
Otomo has said that he has been a fan of Tezuka since he was a kid, and especially when he was a boy, he went home to watch the anime "Astro Boy" when it was time to air.[197]. AlsoMarble chocolateHowever, I often bought it because I wanted Atom's extra sticker. "My first favorite of Tezuka's works is Astro Boy, but I also like Big X, and when I was a high school student, I read the Phoenix," he said.[198]..Katsuhiro Otomo posted a manga in the magazine "COM" by Osamu Tezuka, which was serialized by Phoenix when he was a high school student.In his early debut work "FIRE BALL", "Atom" is used as the name of the enemy's computer.
In addition, Otomo's masterpiece "AKIRAOn the last page of the final volume of "", there is a sentence saying that this work is dedicated to Tezuka.Otomo is in charge of the script for the animated movie "Metropolis" based on Tezuka's work. 2005 director's work "Steam boyThe title of "Astro Boy" is also conscious of the English title "Astro Boy" of "Astro Boy".In the stage greeting, "Steamboy was aware of the world view that Mr. Tezuka was trying to do."
In the special issue of Otomo of the magazine "Eureka", Tezuka praised Otomo's drawing power, saying, "I'm not doing the basics of drawing, so I'm dying to be shown such a picture. I will give up without a second." Is[199].
In addition, Tezuka said, "With the advent of Mr. Katsuhiro Otomo, the graphic novels have been overwhelmed. The few but reliable lines have proved that the screen remains whitish and more realistic than the graphic novels. Otomo is responsible for the decline of graphic novels, and he highly appreciates his achievements.[200].
When Tezuka invited Otomo to the party, he said, "I saw your picture. I saw the manga with magnifying glass, but the drawing is still not crazy. It's amazing!" Acclaimed[201]..Otomo responded by saying, "But I don't draw deformed pictures like Mr. Tezuka," Tezuka said, "I can draw anyone's picture if I want to, but a picture like Daijiro Morohoshi. I can't draw a picture like Yukinobu Hoshino. "[202].
Otomo's favorite Tezuka character is refracted and has shadows.Rock homeTalking[203]In Metropolis, which was written by Otomo, Rock Home, which does not appear in the original story, appears in the entire movie with an important role.
Otomo 1993 NHK Radio "Sunday coffee room When he appeared in "Astro Boy's Gift", he talked about the birth of Otomo's style as follows. "I've loved movies since I was in high school, and I've only watched movies, but the manga that Mr. Tezuka made is a very cinematic manga, compared to the old manga. There is an old manga from the old days, but compared to that, it's wonderful that the camera angle is very cinematic and the cuts are split. After all, I want to try it again with the imagination like the old days. It's natural because Mr. Tezuka made it, which is very close to the cut of the movie, but there was that, I want to try it myself. "" I'm like Mr. Tezuka. I can't draw the number of manga, so I'm competing with the number of lines. "Also, when Tezuka said that he would" give up "to Otomo, he said," I thought I could say something like that. " ..When Otomo was invited to a manga party by Tezuka, he said, "I was very surprised when my wife answered the phone and said,'Osamu Tezuka called me.'"[204].
Otomo drew Astro Boy with Otomo Touch in 2014 Anime Business No.3.
Moto Hagio
Hagio met Tezuka's manga "Shinsengumi" when he was in the second year of high school, and was shocked to become a manga artist.She describes the shocking situation as follows: "The climax scene of" Shinsengumi "is, needless to say, a duel scene in the riverbank where fireworks rise. This scene is important for his justice that has supported and nurtured Juro Oka. The compassion, enthusiasm, and trust are depicted as collapsing. The best friend Daisaku was actually a spy in Choshu. Juro Oka, who was ordered by Toshizo Hijikata to slash the enemy, walks while suffering. There is a big piece. There are three or four big spies in that piece, and Juro Oka, who has fallen into a double bind, is torn between the interests and loyalty of the Shinsengumi group and the individual will and friendship. The suffering is spelled outIt was a mistake.But that was my belief.Actually there are only two lines.. "Great work ... forgive me".These two lines were worth XNUMX lines to me.This scene is a bit of a pain in my heart, and I still can't forget the impact.[205].. "Actually, I was shocked and decided to become a manga artist at the age of seventeen." Hagio said that he was dumb for about a week after reading this.
After that, Hagio became a manga artist and had several conversations with Tezuka in magazines.Tezuka is Hagio's work "There are 11 people!"There are 11 people! I think it's a masterpiece as a space opera."[158]..Hagio is a big Tezuka fan who owns all of Tezuka's works, and when Tezuka died, he said as follows. "I have a picture of Mr. Tezuka. I also have a signature book. I also have a handwritten picture. But I wanted Mr. Tezuka to live longer because I don't need anything anymore. I'm sad. What should I do? Tezuka Teacher, please reply[206]. '
Machiko Satonaka
Satanaka was absorbed in Tezuka's work with "Nakayoshi," which was just launched immediately after entering elementary school, and was reading it.However, she wasn't satisfied with that alone, and she went to a book rental shop to devour Tezuka's work.[207]..I desperately bought something that wasn't on the rental book, and borrowed it from my friend's brother.Among them, I was particularly crazy about "Astro Boy".Even when I tried to do something wrong, I told myself, "Atom wouldn't do this."Satonaka says, "Thanks to Astro Boy for living without glare. Thanks to Professor Tezuka who created Astro Boy."However, when she was in the fifth grade of elementary school, a movement to expel bad books occurred, and "Astro Boy" was sometimes criticized as a bad book.Satonaka aims to become a manga artist, thinking, "This will destroy the manga! I want to protect it!"Satonaka became a manga artist at the young age of 5. In 16, Satanaka decided to take the Shinkansen alone with Tezuka to move the event, and talked with Tezuka for three hours to Osaka.Satonaka said at that time, "I was in a state of oxygen deficiency and my heart was pounding, but Professor Tezuka was kind."In that, Tezuka said, "I want to draw the ultimate eroticism! Eroticism is wonderful!" When asked "What do you want to draw in the future?", And how did Satanaka, who was a young woman at the time, answer? He said he was in trouble because he didn't know.However, he also says, "I was happy just listening to it."In addition, Tezuka talked about his wife's newly-married era and his son.
Shotaro Nanbu
Around the same time Tezuka started serializing newspapers such as "Diary of Ma-chan"Hasegawa Machikoof"Sazae("Evening Fukunichi"), Shotaro Nanbu's "Yaneura 3"("Osaka newspaper』) And other newspaper serialized manga had begun.Tezuka got acquainted with the South through the "Osaka Shimbun" and formed a group called "Three Men's Club" with another Masami Takeda, and the three of them often discussed movies and manga.At that time, the popularity of "Yaneura 3-chan" in the south was overwhelming, and many people thought that "three" in "three men's club", which means a trio, was three of three.[208].
Climbing up
Due to Baba's gentle personality, he was dating as one of Tezuka's close friends.At Tezuka's funeralYoshiro KatoWithCondolenceI read.One of Tezuka's works "Seven colorsIn "Noboru Baba's picture book work"11 Piki no NekoIs used as the key to the story as Noboru Baba's work.[Note 16]..In addition, Tezuka has made Baba appear in his own work as a character from early on, and some of them are "The film is aliveIn some cases, such as Shishido Baiken of "" and Mr. Baba of "W3", they are appointed in important roles. The reason why he was selected as an important role in "W3" is that Baba told Tezuka, "Hey, sometimes make it a better role than Lumpen."Baba is interested in the scene where Mr. Baba, who is a model of himself, says, "Taiyaki can understand the cat by the anchor in the tail."When Tezuka went on a trip to Baba and Kyushu, Tezuka said "Birdman Anthology"I was surprised at Baba, saying," The pen often runs. "[209]..Baba talked about Tezuka, saying, "Mr. Tezuka appeared and became more and more popular. As the popularity increased, the magazines were flooded with Tezuka-style paintings." "I can't find a word to say. I've been with him for 40 years. He was a pioneer and was the first person to do Astro Boy's animation on TV. The first day of this month (Tezuka) I went to see him on the 1th, but he was asleep and couldn't talk. I thought he was very thin and dangerous, but ... really great. I lost someone. "[210].
Isao Kojima
When Tezuka entered the world of "adult manga" after 30, exchanges began between "young" writers of adult manga artists.[211]..Kojima played a leading role in Tezuka's "world of sake and women" and invited Tezuka to the night town of Ginza.[212]..Later, both of them saidCartoon groupBecome a member and deepen exchanges[213]..In addition, Tezuka, who was a manga artist who "cannot draw an adult woman," began to draw an image of an adult woman, imitating the glamor female character of Kojima's manga.Also, in 1963, led by Kojima, "Japan Cartoonists AssociationIn support of the establishment of "Children's cartoonist"[214].
Takashi Yanase
He had a friendship from the 1960s to his later years.Tezuka was active as an adult cartoonist in the theatrical anime "A Thousand and One Nights" (1969), and was not as famous as he is now.Art directorIt has been appointed as a character design as well.As a thank-you, Tezuka put out pocket money, and the anime movie "Yanase's original draft"Gentle lionWas produced (Nobuo Ofuji AwardAwarded).
Yanase wrote about Tezuka "Anpanman"The good thing about manga in elementary school at that time was how well Tezuka Osamu's mane could be done." "The name Tezuka Osamu is my own name," he wrote in his suicide note. I heard it from the news, but it was an event in a completely different world and had nothing to do with me. "One day, the phone rang," Hello, Yanase-san, Osamu Tezuka, "" Ah, thank you, "" Actually. This time, I decided to make a feature-length animation with Mushi Production. "" Oh, it's hard. "" So, I'd like to ask Mr. Yanase to design a character. Can you accept it? "" It's okay. " That's about it. ”It was a conversation like this. At that time, Tezuka Osamu was already close to the god of manga, established fame and earned X times as much as I did, but because the world was completely different from me, most of it. I wasn't interested. "" So why did you call me? I don't know. Many manga artists are joking. I thought this was Tezuka Osamu's joke and forgot about it. I got a call from a professional. "" Osamu Tezuka has already passed away to a distant country, but I want to ask again "Mr. Tezuka, why did you ask me?" "But Chiya Ichiya is a box office. Tezuka-san said to me, "Please feel free to make some animation shorts to thank me for the hit." "Eh, really?" "The production cost is from my pocket money. That's why I decided to work on animation for the first time. Anyway, because it was a work I could make myself, I chose a gentle lion who was already doing it on the radio and had a script and music. OvernightKoichi YamamotoI knew most of it because I was looking at how to do it, and I also drew the storyboard side by side with Osamu Tezuka, so I knew the point. "[215].
Around the time of "A Thousand and One Nights", Tezuka, who was drawing works for children, increased the number of works for adults, and conversely, Yanase, who was drawing works for adults, increased the number of works for children. That is expressed as "the intersection of fate"[216].
In 2009Edo Tokyo MuseumAt the "Tezuka Osamu Exhibition" held in Tokyo, "What I learned is the sincerity of Tezuka Osamu's life. Even if I try my talent, I can't quite match it, but I feel that being honest is somewhat It is possible if it becomes possible. Of course, if it is not far, it will be somewhat closer. In that sense, Mr. Osamu Tezuka is a master of my life. "(Yanase is 9 years old than Tezuka. Is long).
Hiroo Terada
Terada and Tezuka lived together in Tokiwa.Cartoonists gathered one after another in Tokiwa-sou after Tezuka handed over Room 14 to Fujiko Fujio, so Tezuka referred to the period he lived with Terada as "Tokiwa-so Prehistory". Is expressed as[165]..The rooms of Terada and Tezuka were facing each other.Tezuka and Terada were only about three years old, and Tezuka called Terada "Tera-san."
Terada talks about Tezuka: "Osamu Tezuka was probably the first to draw manga with an assistant like he does now. With the advent of Tezuka, the world of shōnen manga has changed dramatically. Until then, it was rather a stage-like way of making, but since then it has changed to a cinematic one. I started to write the background in detail. The story of a fairly complicated story is the world of manga. The ones that appeared in will be after Mr. Tezuka[217].. Tezuka wrote about Terada in his own book, "Mr. Hiroo Terada has a tremendous passion for children's manga, and he drew his works with a high-ranking belief, and produced masterpieces such as" Sportsman Kintaro "and" Uniform Number 0 ". That belief hasn't changed from beginning to end. He's the type of cartoonist I admire. "[218].
During the graphic novel boom, Tezuka survived by drawing graphic novels himself, but Terada could not do that and continued to work on children's manga, but he gave the manuscript he drew to a graphic novel writer (Takao Saito) who had no acquaintance at all. He sent him and said, "You shouldn't draw something like this. If you draw a manga, draw something like this."Terada's manga is discontinued, and Terada tends to stay home. 1981NHK SpecialIn "Contemporary Manga Artist Ritsuden", a program was broadcast in which Tokiwa 莊 members held the same 莊 kai, but Terada did not come.At that time, Tezuka said, "What about Terra?" And when he learned that Terada wouldn't come, a disappointing figure was aired, saying "Oh, sorry ...".After that, Terada rarely met Tokiwa 莊 members, but after having a banquet with his old friends at home in 1990, he continued to stay in his room and died in 1992.
Fukui Eiichi
FukuijudoManga"Mr. Igaguri"("Adventure king1952-serialized in 1954)[219] Was extremely popular when serialized, and at that time Tezuka regarded Fukui as his biggest rival.[220]..Not only as a rival, Fukui appeared in "Monster on the 38th degree line" drawn by Tezuka, and there was a piece in which Tezuka appeared in "Igagri-kun" drawn by Fukui.However, Fukui, who was drunk, argued with Tezuka, saying, "Hey, this Osaka person, don't make a lot of money!" "Think about it." "I can only think of drawing for money, this Osaka person!"[220][Note 17].. Around 1954, Tezuka made Fukui's anger by introducing a work imitating "Igagri-kun" as an example of a bad story manga in the "Manga Class" serialized in "Manga Shonen", and received Fukui's protest. I apologize for the arbitration of Noboru Baba[220]..Tezuka apologized for the next month's "Manga Class" by depicting a manga teacher being involved in a person with a silhouette that seems to be Fukui and Baba.[220]..Some time later FukuiSudden death due to overworkIn response to the news of his death, Tezuka wrote that he felt "relieved" at the disappearance of his competitors and fell into self-loathing.[222][Note 18]..Tezuka was in high school when he was an assistant right afterShotaro IshinomoriI'm putting out postcards. "Eiichi Fukui has passed away. I'm on my way home from the funeral. I had angina. I stayed up all night. I went out for a drink and collapsed. It's like the publisher killed me. Sad. I feel like I can't finish it. If I settle down, I'll let you know in detail later ... "Ishinomori, who received the letter, said that Tezuka's sadness seemed to ooze out from the lines.[223]..After that, Tezuka made the clouds floating in the sky into the shape of Fukui in the manga "The Man Who Destroys the World" and expressed his feelings of mourning in the manga.[224]..The cloud had the shape of a gentle Fukui face during his lifetime, with a cloud in the shape of an angel's ring above his head.Tezuka was shocked by the death of Fukui, and even announced to "Manga Boy" serialized by Tezuka and Fukui that he would quit the cartoonist in two years, and intended to quit the cartoonist and become a doctor.[225].
Mizuki Shigeru
At the time of his debut, Shigeru Mizuki sold only manga with a style like Osamu Tezuka, saying, "I came to think that (Osamu Tezuka) was a rival. I refracted against him who reigned in the manga world from a young age. "If Mr. Tezuka walked along the big road of concrete painting, it would be like I was walking on a narrow and winding bad road," he wrote in his book "Mr. Mizuki's Theory of Happiness." Talking in.
Was the editor-in-chief of "Weekly Shonen Magazine"Uchida MasaruAccording to Mizuki's youkai manga, which was serialized in the same newspaper in 1965.Kitaro in the graveyardTezuka said that he fell down the stairs at home because of the shock he received from the contents.[226]..Eventually "Gegege no KitaroWhen the "Yokai boom" occurs due to this work, which has been renamed, Tezuka is aware of this and announces "Dororo".[69]..At a publishing party, Tezuka spoke to Mizuki, who he had no acquaintance with, and made a negative statement.Mizuki did not argue at all on the spot, and later resembled Tezuka based on this experience.coffinA short story with a craftsman as the main characterThe most ill'[227] I drew.It is a story that the hero who looks a lot like Tezuka just tries to be the best and encounters a terrible eye.Also, based on Mizuki's work, "GeGeGe no Kitaro" at Takarazuka Family Land, the hometown of Tezuka.AttractionIt is said that Tezuka made a unavoidable remark even if it was taken as a difficult habit in response to the fact that[228].
Mizuki didn't name Tezuka directly in a magazine interview, but "Mizuki Sun (first person in Mizuki) always draws only what he thinks is funny. I thought about drawing something that would appeal to someone. I've never done that. People who draw with that in mind are third-person. "[229].
Naoko, the eldest daughter of Mizuki, was a big fan of Tezuka who draws cute pictures rather than the youkai manga of her father, Shigeru Mizuki.Mizuki's second daughter, Etsuko, said, "It seems that Mizuki was concerned that her sister had read Tezuka-san's manga quite a bit."Mizuki's daughter told Mizuki, "Dad's manga has no future. Tezuka's manga has a future."Mizuki said he was furious, saying, "This is reality! I'm drawing reality!"When Mizuki's daughter got a signature from Tezuka, she said, "Unlike my dad's miscellaneous signature, he drew it carefully! ], Disappointing Mizuki.
On the other hand, Tezuka's son, Makoto, was a fan of "GeGeGe no Kitaro" when he was a child, and he liked it more than his father's manga, which was in sharp contrast to Mizuki's daughter.
The movie "Youkai Heaven", which was later produced by Makoto, was influenced by Mizuki, and both Osamu Tezuka and Shigeru Mizuki appeared as guests.According to Tezuka, the appearance in this movie was from Makoto "To MizukiSpecial appearanceI want you to do it, but do you know it personally? "[230]..Tezuka replied, "Oh, I've got a lot of relationships with you," and it can be seen that Tezuka and Mizuki had friends as manga artists.
Tezuka's manga "HEMizuki appears in the scene where the face of the main character IL becomes a monster.At that time, Mizuki spoke a line that was interested in IL.Similarly, in the story of the "Gaikotsu Show" in Tezuka's manga "The Three-Eyed One", Mizuki appears in the scene of Sharaku and his friends who boarded a TV station, and talks about the Three-Eyed Boy.The recipient, the talent, replied, "I'm scared of the story of Sensei Mizuki." In "Phoenix Phoenix", Akanemaru has a dream of being reborn as various creatures, and Kibi no Makibi when he wakes up from the dream is Mizuki's character "Nezumi OtokoIt has changed to the appearance of.Tezuka used to call Mizuki for permission when he made Mizuki appear in his manga.When I took a group photo of a manga artist and his wife in the March 1969, 3 issue of Weekly Shonen Magazine, Tezuka and Mizuki were shooting side by side.
As mentioned above, it is sometimes said that "Tezuka and Mizuki are in disagreement", but Mizuki himself denied the disagreement with Tezuka in a later book.[231].
Morohoshi Daijiro
Tezuka PrizeThe entry "Biological cityTezukaYasutaka TsutsuiThis work was unanimously sent the Tezuka Award from Tezuka.Moroboshi andNoshinobu HoshinoTezuka said, "I can't draw only Moroboshi-san's picture."In Tezuka's manga "Ludwig B", we talk about Moroboshi.Taro Minamoto,Sakaguchi TakashiHe evaluated it as a "genius" and said, "The person who takes good care of himself and shows his personality is strong after all. It works everywhere. This kind of thing wins with his personality." I'm telling the main character, Ludwig.
Jun Ishikawa
Ishikawa at the eventHideo AzumaWhen I was present with Tezuka, I was introduced to Tezuka as "these two are like gods among young people."At that time, Ishikawa said, "It was a strange feeling to be called God by God."[232]..At that time, Tezuka said, "Mr. Ishikawa hasn't been influenced by me at all." Ishikawa said, "(That's not true. There is no cartoonist who is not influenced by you.)" Said in.In addition, Ishikawa has received a call from Tezuka because he wants to appear as a character in "Rainbow Parakeet". When he appeared in "Rainbow Parakeet," Ishikawa played the role of kissing Hideo Azuma.Tezuka's work "Patriotism" is "Mr. Ishikawa's Patriotism is interesting, isn't it?[232]"He also said.
When Tezuka died, Ishikawa shocked him by saying, "Osamu Tezuka was dead when I woke up this morning." "I thought that historical people would not die. I just thought that he was a transcendental existence." Told[233].
Takeichi Terasawa
Terazawa wasn't a fan of Tezuka, but he happened to see an ad for an assistant recruitment in "Black Jack," which was serialized in Weekly Shonen Champion, and posted his work to Tezuka Productions.At that time, it was rejected at the discretion of the hiring manager of Tezuka Productions, but later, when Tezuka Osamu saw the picture of Tezuka directly, he liked the picture of Tezuka and was hired as an assistant of Tezuka.[234]..In Jump Comics, Terazawa's "CobraIn the first volume, Tezuka contributed to the postscript.Tezuka said in it, "Actually, when I recruited an assistant, Terazawa-kun was spilled out for some reason. I noticed later that I hired him again in a hurry. Such a great picture is drawn. Why do you overlook people! Thus he joined the four hires, which eventually led him to the top professional path. "" His paintings are detailed. It was elaborate and beautiful. Especially when I was able to draw the background, it was outstanding. "" I think it was a great success for Terazawa to put the first professional work on the jump, "he praised Terazawa. doing.At that time, although Terazawa was an exclusive assistant to Tezuka, he did not work overtime alone and returned home early saying, "I'm going home because I'm going to do my own creative activities," but Tezuka treats it generously. It was.The reason is, "He is a very talented child, so I wanted him to graduate from his assistant and make his debut as soon as possible."Terazawa said he was surprised to see Tezuka cutting the manuscript of the Phoenix with a cutter and changing the composition, "Wow, do you think like this!"In addition, Terazawa described Tezuka as "The teacher was amused by my idea. I'm sure I wanted that kind of new blood." "I didn't teach you how to take a step, but I got a very good time. It was a valuable experience for me that could not be converted into money[235]".
Adachi Mitsuru
Adachi posted to Tezuka's magazine "COM" while in high school.And in the COM rookie award, "Insects and Boys" was selected as the second honorable mention by Tezuka.Since then, it often appears in the reader's corner of "COM".When Tezuka died, Adachi wrote the following memorial on "Weekly Shonen Sunday". "February 2th, when I passed away, was my birthday. For me, who was born in the year of Astro Boy's birth, the influence of Professor Tezuka is immeasurable. Without the magazine" COM "sponsored by Mushi Production. , I wouldn't have drawn a manga work. I pray from the bottom of my heart.[236]. '
Fusanosuke Natsume
Natsume sent her manga to various people while working for a small publishing company.I was wondering if doing so would bring me a job, but this was totally wrong, he said.However, Tezuka Osamu sent a handwritten postcard to Natsume, and among them, "I think the 24P one was the most interesting", and praised Natsume's work.Natsume says "I can't believe it"[237].. In 1977, when Natsume actually met Tezuka, he said, "Oh, send me a self-published book. That book is interesting, so if you lend it to the editor, it won't be returned. Weekly Asahi and Young Comic work I'm seeing you, "said Tezuka, and Natsume was impressed.At the same time, he also stated his impression that he was a scary person.This is a respectful and awe-inspiring commentary on Tezuka's professionalism, who also checks his work, which was an unknown newcomer at the time.
At the time of Tezuka's death, Natsume said as follows. "Since I knew that I had died, I wrote a memorial sentence from one end to the other in the series. I was relatively calm while I was writing, but when I finished writing, a convulsion came up from around the epigastrium and cried." "Woooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo" Since I knew Mr. Tezuka's death, I was calm on the surfaceMonthly Comic TomI wrote a memorial sentence in (the magazine published by Ludwig B), and cried as soon as I wrote "Goodbye, Mr. Tezuka". "" Osamu Tezuka was influenced by me and others. I didn't receive it, or it wasn't such a superficial existence, so when I was asked to give only one work, I wanted to say "I can do that!"[238]'

Closely related animation director

Yuno Tomino
When Tomino was in elementary school, he first came into contact with Tezuka's work with "Atom Ambassador", which was serialized in the magazine "Shonen" at his friend's house for a year.[239]..And from April of the fifth grade of elementary school, I asked my parents to buy a "boy" every month.At that time, Tomino said, "My thesis was that you shouldn't buy magazines that feature manga. When I overwhelmed them and asked them to buy them from April, I happened to serialize" Astro Boy. " It was the month when it started. It was really shocking. Until then ... Young people may not understand even if you give such a title, but the manga of "Norakuro", that is, the manga before the war remains scattered. That's right. Inside the house. I was really surprised that a completely new manga that wasn't an old military story came because I felt like I was reading something like that and muddying the tea. However, it is concluded that Mr. Tezuka drew a story that he had to read the story above all, that is, I'm sorry if I only looked at the picture, no, this is not a vulgar manga. I think it was a very amazing work in the sense that it made me feel like a child.[239].. Tomino also said that Tezuka's "coming world" was even more shocking.Tomino said, "I knew a girl for the first time in manga" when I was in the sixth grade of elementary school, and Poponia of "The Coming World" raised the frame to remove the mask.
In 1964 (Showa 39) after graduating from Nihon University, Tomino joined Mushi Production, an animation production company established by Osamu Tezuka.Tomino was selected directly from Tezuka for the production of Astro Boy, and most of the production in the latter half of the animation was done by Tomino.Tomino's first directorial work is based on Tezuka's manga.Sea Triton".Tomino looks back on Tezuka Osamu and says, "I was taught that all animation can be conveyed without moving it.[240].. "I was already used to making things at a weekly pace, but I was so busy that I didn't have time to discuss production theory." "Mushi Production, a cartoonist, and an animator. There is no way that the person who is there is the president. When I asked me, "Why don't you do the production?", I thought that I couldn't do it because the salary was cheap unless I directed it quickly. I thought he wasn't the president.Because my view of the movie and Mr. Tezuka's view of the movie were different.I thought that Mr. Tezuka's view of movies was sweet.I don't think there is any work that Professor Tezuka is satisfied with. "You can't make a movie as you like. Don't think you can make it just because you like it. If you still make it, I want you to have the same speed and scholarship as Professor Tezuka. I'm one hundred millionth of that. I'll do my best to be able to do it. "" (When I brought the content to the in-house recruitment of the "Jungle Emperor" scenario) I knew from Hana that it would be adopted.Because no one can read the storyboard, even my storyboard is adopted.The standard for Mushi Production's story is that the manga picture should be clear, and there is nothing that is conscious of visual evaluation, so I thought it would be a Rin-chan (= Rintaro) -like story. "That doesn't mean that Tezuka-sensei can't read the story." It is my evaluation that he was not good at anime content. Writing such an episode does not detract from the fact that he is a pioneer of TV animation, and he is a genius as a manga artist. Does not pollute[241]'
Tezuka is directed by Tomino, "Mobile Suit Gundam"Since Mobile Suit Gundam, it has become difficult to receive anime for children," he said.
Tomino recalls the time when Tezuka died as follows: "The next morning when I heard that the teacher had died, I would like to go up to the teacher's house and stay close even if I couldn't see his face. I hope. I'm still not ashamed of that act. I wouldn't be able to imitate even one tenth of the teacher's extract, but I want you to know that there is something to follow here for living people. Greed[242]. '
Rintaro(Shigeyuki Hayashi)
Rintaro transferred from Toei Animation to Tezuka Osamu Mushi Production in 1963.This is because Toei Animation couldn't produce what I wanted to do.Rintaro tried to direct "Astro Boy" with his wish.He described Tezuka as "a great manga artist, the chief who forgot to sleep and eat and worked with him. I remember when I was working side by side with a video desk.EarthquakeIt started to rattle and rattle.When the teacher gets on the right trackPoverty shakeThere was a habit of doing.Also, I had a deep knowledge of music.While scratching the storyboard from the morningBeethovenI was playing the 5th (Fate Symphony).Due to commercialism, anime became bigger and bigger, and it was far from the anime that the teacher originally wanted to do.But the teacher was worried and didn't let go of the anime.I think I made a private film and balanced it.But I think I wasn't satisfied with any of the works until the end. ".
Sugii Gisaburo(Gisaburo Sugii)
Sugii grew up reading Tezuka's works from an early age.He says, "I met Mr. Tezuka's" New Treasure Island "when I was seven. I also remember the rough feel of the paper. Unlike other manga, Mr. Tezuka's manga is a movie rather than a reading. I had the impression that I was watching. "" I learned how to make a movie from Tezuka Manga. "" I first met Mr. Tezuka in his early twenties. I was a fan and a person above the clouds since I was in elementary school, but I'm calm. Thinking about it, the teacher is still in his thirties. Mushi Production was made by a young man in his thirties who gathered young people in his twenties. What I learned the most wasEntertainmentThat's a challenge.If you don't always challenge, you will get old.So don't repeat the same thing.I wonder if the teacher really liked manga, he liked movies rather than manga, and he wrote movies. "
Tezuka called Sugii "Gicchan".
Dezaki
Desaki grew up drawing manga, admiring Osamu Tezuka since he was in the 4th and 5th grades of elementary school.After that, he joined Mushi Production.He said, "I longed for Tezuka Osamu, and I was frustrated to become a cartoonist, and I happened to be a Mushi Production. I could take action from here even in front of my teacher. I regret that I should have made some memories. Once I showed Atom's manga, "Mr. Tezaki,EntertainmentDon't forget. "I like dark stories and I've been doing that much.Ever since then, I've been wondering what entertainment is, and I've come to this day.Whether it's manga or anime, the main character of Tezuka's work is always worried.I was run over there, so I said,Mech robotWhat is? ”“A humanWhat is it? ”Always bothered Atom.That's why I was told, "Don't forget about entertainment," but I long for such a hero who has conflicts in his heart due to anti-power, and I am aiming for such a work. "
Ryosuke Takahashi
Takahashi also grew up admiring Tezuka Osamu from an early age and joined Mushi Production in 1964. "I was also a fan of Professor Tezuka, and I thought he was from another world. I met him at Mushi Production's exam and thought," It's real! "GodAs I worked with him, he became more and more "just an older man".When I slept under the desk all night, I felt some oppression, and when I saw it, the teacher was sleeping next to me.I fell asleep with Mr. Tezuka.Later in my studioTakadanobabaWhen I brought it to Takadanobaba, Tezuka Productions was also in Takadanobaba, so I was asked to meet him on a slope once in a while, and he became more and more old-fashioned.Since his death, his greatness has grown stronger.I strongly feel that I am the greatest person I have lived and met. After "Astro Boy", the number of 30-minute TV animations increased, and the popularity of Tezuka animation temporarily declined.Then the teacher made a feature film for adults and made it a big hit.When the industry was eating that direction again, I did a two-hour animation this time on TV.He was a pioneer and a challenger.I'm trying hard to make something new by inheriting that will. "When I try to work now, I wonder how the teacher would say if he was alive," and there was no check by the teacher, and he said, "The teacher has died." That's how it is. "
By the way, Takahashi's directorial work "Armored cavalry bottomsThe main character Kiriko is taken from the characters in Tezuka's work "Black Jack".[243].
Hayao Miyazaki
Miyazaki was critical of Tezuka's animated cartoons.In the news of Tezuka, Miyazaki pays homage to Tezuka's achievements in the history of manga, but "I can't appreciate anything he did for animation." It's a mistake for everyone to insist on that, "he said, criticizing Tezuka as an animation writer for being the same as the landlord of a rakugo Nagaya who gathers shopkeepers and listens to Gidayu.On the other hand, TezukaTelevision AnimationIn the early days, "Astro boyAs for the case where making ”with a cheap budget set a precedent for lowering the production cost of animation in Japan.JapanIs inevitable in the process of achieving economic growth, and states that "it happened that Mr. Tezuka was the only one who triggered it."[244].
On the other hand, regarding manga works, in a later interview in 2009, he revealed that "Shin Takarajima", which he read at the age of 7, had "an indescribable shock" and said, "Our generation is in the burnt marks after the war. The shock of encountering "Shin Takarajima" in the future would not be imagined by future generations. It was a completely different world, a world that opened up in front of me. The magnitude of the shock is Disney's mane. I think it was something that couldn't be dismissed due to the influence of American comics. "He was also captivated by the subsequent SF trilogy of "Lost World," "Metropolis," and "The Coming World."At first, Miyazaki, who was working to become a manga artist, turned to an animator because the painting looked like a sub-stream of Osamu Tezuka.In addition, regarding Tezuka's animation, he said that the conventional evaluation did not change, "I may be relieved that Mr. Tezuka made a terrible animation. I can compete with this."[245].
According to the contribution of the magazine, "When I think that I have to draw a manga by myself after the age of XNUMX, how to remove the influence of Mr. Tezuka who is infiltrating myself is a heavy burden. I don't remember imitating it at all, and I don't really resemble it, but I was told that what I drew resembled Mr. Tezuka. It was very humiliating. Some people said that, but I thought it shouldn't be the case. And when I had to admit that I was similar to Mr. Tezuka, I burned all the scribbles in the drawers of the chests. I burned everything, decided to start anew, and started sketching and drawing to do some basic study. But it couldn't be so easy to get out ... "[244]In a subsequent interview, he said, "I've been struggling with Mr. Tezuka for a long time. It's a'gratitude', but it's not as easy as it sounds."
Miyazaki participated as one of the animators in "Doggie March", which was originally drafted by Osamu Tezuka in 1963, the year he joined Toei Animation. In 1977, he also laid out the original draft of Osamu Tezuka, "Tenguri, the Child of the Meadow."
Tezuka is Miyazaki's "Lupin III The Castle of Cagliostro"I thought it was interesting. All of our staff were looking at it with fun," he said.Puff』Speaking in an interview[246].
1981A collaboration between Tezuka and Miyazaki, "Rolf," was also planned for.TezukaAnimageOn the paper of, he said as follows. "'Rolf' --- It was about half a year ago that Mr. Miyazaki was obsessed with making this famous underground comic into a feature-length anime.Jarinko ChieAround the time when the drive was over, I had a dream of making this an international anime.Yasuo OtsukaHe spoke with him.We want to make this dream come true, no matter how long it takes.That would not be possible without the strong support of the president of Company T and the original author.I want to make it happen with just one moss.Mr. Miyazaki will surely be able to make a tremendous movie. "[247]..This collaboration did not happen, but Rolf's project changed its name and shape to "Nausicaa of the valley of wind][248].
When Tezuka saw that "Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind" was a big hit, he said, "I was very disappointed."Kei IshizakaIs reminiscing[249]..In addition, Tezuka will be in his later yearsanimatorIn the originalTokiwasoResident'sShinichi SuzukiWithCastle Laputa in the SkyI saw[250]..After watching the movie, Tezuka asked Suzuki "Is it interesting?" And said "Yes?" To Suzuki who answered "Yes." And said that he was looking at Miyazaki as a rival.
Miyazaki2011In his book published in, he commented on his remarks to Tezuka, "Because Mr. Tezuka died younger than I am now.[Note 19]Nowadays, I think that he is younger than me.It's not something that the elderly say. "It has said[251].

Others

The trademark isberetAnd thick black-rimmed glasses.I rarely take off my hat in public, and the video shows me laughing and laughing, "Don't show when you're not wearing a hat."[252]..However, when walking in the city, during work, in a taxi, etc., I often took off my beret (this makes it difficult to notice that Tezuka Osamu is walking in the city even if I take off my beret. It seems that there were also advantages).The beret was originallyRyuichi YokoyamaYokoyama eventually stopped using a beret, but Tezuka characterized himself as a beret, black-rimmed glasses, and a large nose in his manga. I didn't change it.The custom of wearing this beret was passed on to the members of Tokiwa-so, and Shotaro Ishimori and Fujiko Fujio also wore berets.Also, it is called "Mr.", which is often used by Tokiwa-so cartoonists.TitleOriginally used by Tezuka, Hideko Mizuno testified that it was used regardless of the age of the other party and spread because it was convenient.[253].

He was 170 centimeters tall, which was large for a prewar birth.[254].visionIs strongmyopiaMet.I had a bad tooth because I liked sweets.In particular, he loves chocolate so much that he can't work without chocolate, and he found a biting chocolate bar in his work desk that was locked after his death.[255].

Known for doing an extraordinary amount of work, he never looks down on his family, and he has a habit of having a family restaurant and dinner on his birthday and Christmas, so make a plan. I went on a family trip during the New Year and summer vacations[255].Keiichi TanakaWas described as "God not only as a cartoonist but also as a father"[255].

Cartoonist with experience as an assistantMitsutoshi FuruyaAccording to Tezuka, he couldn't drink much alcohol and didn't smoke normally.He said he wasn't smoking well when he smoked at the bar[256].

Chronological Table

  • November 1928, 11-Born in Toyonaka-cho, Toyono-gun, Osaka (currently Toyonaka City). * From birth to 3 years old on Aioi-dori, Okamachi, moving to Sone, Okamachi (near Hagi-no-ji Temple) from 2 to 2 years old.
  • 1933-Hyogo prefecture at the age of 5KawabeThe family moves to the mansion of their original grandfather at the foot of the hill on the river surface (Kawamo) in Obama Village (currently Takarazuka City).From around this time with my motherTakarazuka RevueGet close to.
  • 1935-Entered Ikeda Normal School Attached Elementary School (currently Osaka University of Education Ikeda Elementary School).
  • 1939-Add an insect to your name "Osamu" and use "Osamu" as a pen name.
  • 1941 --Enrolled in Osaka Prefectural Kitano Junior High School (currently Osaka Prefectural Kitano High School).
  • March 1945-Graduated from Kitano Junior High School.Labor mobilizationEncountered the Osaka air raid in June. In July, entered the Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Imperial University.
  • January 1946, 1-Professional debut four-frame cartoon "Machan's Diary(Osaka version of the Shokokumin Shimbun (later Mainichi Elementary School Newspaper)) started serialization.
  • 1947 --A feature-length manga book (Akamoto) by Shichima Sakai.Shin TakarajimaWas published (the first edition was published on January 1, April 30, June 4, and July 20, and a cumulative total of 6 copies were sold).
  • 1950 (22 years old) --When I stopped by the school children's company while in Tokyo and met Kenichi Kato and showed the manuscript for the book I had, the serialization was decided and "Manga Shonen" magazine published "Jungle the GreatSeries has begun.
  • 1951-Repeated one year and graduated from Osaka University School of Medicine (old system).Every day broadcastingAt the time of openingannouncerPassed the recruitment test.When I passed by by chance and took the exam, I passed the exam, and later on the same station's program "Adoribu Land』Speaking in.Started serializing "Atom Ambassador" (initially planned to be Astro Boy) in Kobunsha's monthly magazine "Shonen".
  • 1952-Obtained a doctor's license. The route was changed from "Atom Ambassador"Astro boy(In the serialization notice, Astro Boy) is serialized following "Shonen".Shinjuku-ku, TokyoYotsuyaAbout a year and a halfBoarding house(Yotsuya intersection (northwest corner, in front of Metro No. 2 entrance) 2nd floor of "Narukiya Aomonoten". Later stage of manga work "Yotsuya Kaidan". Writing place such as "Astro Boy").
  • 1953 (25 years old) --Moved into Tokiwa-so, 5-chome, Shiinamachi, Toshima-ku, Tokyo (currently 3-chome, Minaminagasaki, Toshima-ku). "Ribbon KnightIs serialized in Kodansha's monthly magazine Shojo Club.
  • 1954 --Introduced in the April 29, 1954 issue of Weekly Asahi, pages 4-11, as "The Unknown Two Millionaire Child Manga Artist, Osamu Tezuka".
  • 1954 --In October, Zoshigaya, Toshima-ku, boarded at Namiki House in the valley.
  • 1957 --Rented house in Hatsudai, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo.
  • 1958 (30 years old) --Received the 3rd Shogakukan Manga Award ("Manga Biology" and "Biiko-chan").Became a part-time employee when he was offered to produce a feature-length all-natural color manga movie "Nishiyuki" for theaters based on the manga "Boku no Songoku" from Toei Animation in Higashioizumi-cho, Nerima-ku (currently Higashioizumi).
  • 1959- Ichio MatsushitaParticipated in the "Story Manga Study Group" formed by (Ichio Matsushita) (requested Matsushita to be a wedding mediator).
  • 1959-Married to Etsuko Okada in October. "Weekly Shonen Sunday"Dr. Thrill" will be serialized from the first issue.
  • 1960-Builds a home designed by himself in Tanihara-cho, Nerima-ku (currently Fujimidai, Nerima-ku).
  • 1961-Received a doctorate in medicine from Nara Medical University.Established Tezuka Osamu Production Video Department with 6 people, mainly human resources drawn from Toei Animation (registered as Mushi Production Co., Ltd. in December), and a non-commercial animation work in a building built in a corner of my garden Started production of "A Story of a Street Corner".Eldest sonXuan(Real name: Shin) is born.
  • 1963 (35 years old)-Mushi Production's production, which he founded and served as presidentJapan's first30 minutes every weekTelevision AnimationSeries[Note 2]"Astro Boy" (monochrome work) will start broadcasting on Fuji TV from January 1st (broadcast for a full four years). "A Story of a Street Corner" won the Arts Festival Encouragement Award, the 1st Noburo Ofuji Award, and the Blue Ribbon Educational Culture Film Award.
  • 1964-The eldest daughterRumikoIs born.
  • 1965 --Japan's first one-hour TV anime "New Treasure Island" was broadcast on January 1 (this was originally a manga based on Osamu Tezuka, which was made into an independent anime program that was completed once a month for one hour. It was the first work of the Iku concept "Mushi Pro Land", but it was judged that it was impossible to continue production from the management point of view, and only this one work was made and canceled).Japan's first color TV anime series "Jungle the GreatWill be broadcast on Fuji TV from October 10th.As a correspondent reporter for the Mainichi ShimbunNew York World ExpoPassed to coverRiceAt that time, I happened to meet Walt Disney, who was only once in my life, in front of the Pepsi Cola building at the exhibition site. W3 case.Established "Mushi Production Shoji", a company that made the copyright department of Mushi Production independent.
  • 1967-Mushi Production begins publishing the monthly magazine "COM", which states "Fire bird"Started serialization."
  • 1968 (40 years old) --The TV program "The Vampires" produced by Mushi Production begins broadcasting on Fuji TV.Established Tezuka Productions for manga production.
  • 1969 --Released the feature-length animation "Thousand and One Nights" for adults.
  • 1970-First in "Phoenix"Kodansha Publishing Culture AwardAwarded in the children's manga category.Japan World Exposition"Fujipan Robot Hall" at (Osaka Expo)[Note 20]Produced.Shonen Gaho-sha's "Weekly Shonen King" magazine serialized "Apollo's Song" has an excessive sexual depiction, and in some areas it is against youthBannedReceive.
  • 1971-Retired as president of Mushi Production. (The president of Mushi Production continues).Created the Tezuka Productions Video Club and produced the TV anime series "Marvelous Melmo".Asahi Broadcasting(Current:Asahi Broadcasting TV.TBS series) Broadcast.
  • 1972-"Buddha] Started serialization.
  • 1973 (45 years old) --Mushi Production and subsequent Mushi Production go bankrupt.Even after retiring from the management of Mushi Production, Tezuka is a large individual.loan guaranteeBecause I was doingReceivableYou will be chased by someone, but your acquaintanceKenzo Kasai(CurrentAprica Children's ProductsPresident)ButGuardianTherefore, the dissipation of copyright was avoided. November 11th, "Weekly Shonen Champion"black JackSeries has begun.
  • 1974-Moved from Nerima Ward to Shimoigusa, Suginami Ward.
  • 1975-Received the 21st Bungeishunju Manga Award for the manga works "Buddha" and "Animal Tsurezure Kusa". Received the 4th Japan Cartoonists Association Award for Special Excellence for "Black Jack".
  • 1977-Received the 1st Kodansha Manga Award for Boys for his manga works "The Three-Eyed One" and "Black Jack".Kodansha "Complete Tezuka Osamu Manga(Initially, a total of 1 volumes for the 3st to 300rd periods are planned).
  • 1978 (50 years old)-Became the first chairman of the Japan Animation Association (JAA).
  • 1978-Broadcasted Japan's first one-shot 24-hour special anime program "One Million Years Earth Trip Bander Book" in the summer "2-hour TV" of Nippon Television.
  • 1979-Due to the development and achievements of children's cartoonsIwaya Sazanami Literature AwardAward.
  • 1980 --Released the feature-length animation "Firebird 2772" for theaters in Toho Western-style painting.San Diego Comic ConventionInkpot AwardAwarded.As a manga ambassador to the Japan Foundation, he gave a lecture on contemporary Japanese manga culture at the United Nations Headquarters and a university in the United States.
  • 1983 (55 years old) --Received the 29th Shogakukan Manga Award (youth / general category) for the manga work "Hidamari no Ki".
  • 1984-Experimental animation "Jumping"Zagreb International Animation FestivalWinner of the Grand Prix and UNESCO Awards.
  • 1985-Experimental animation "Broken Down Film" won the Grand Prix at the 1st International Animation Film Festival Hiroshima Tournament.Received the Tokyo Metropolitan Honor Award.Received the Kodansha Manga Award Special Award for the 40th anniversary of his life as a manga artist, with the completion of "Kodansha Osamu Tezuka Manga Complete Works" (3 volumes for the three terms originally planned).Participated in the "Japan-France Culture Summit 300" held in France in July of the same year (sponsored by Asahi Shimbun, Ministry of Culture, International Plaza for Communication CICOM, sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and France).
  • 1986-Received the 10th Kodansha Manga Award in the general category for the manga work "Message to Adolf".
  • 1987-He is the general producer of the local exposition "Aoi Expo" held in Okazaki City, Aichi Prefecture.
  • February 1988, 2-Asahi Prize Award Commemorative Lecture (Asahi Hall, Yurakucho, Tokyo), Lecture title "Animation and Me".
  • October 1988, 6- Ken Takahashi,Minoru Yajima, Founded "Japan Insect Club" with Eiji Tanaka and others and became the first chairman[257].
  • 1988 (60 years old) --Received the Asahi Prize for his creative achievements in the postwar manga and animation world.Received the Ofuji Award at the Mainichi Film Awards for the experimental animation "Legend of the Forest".Received the CIFEJ Award (Youth Film Award) at the Zagref International Animation Film Festival.He was hospitalized in a hurry due to poor physical condition (it turned out to be scirrhous gastric cancer, but he could not tell himself). On November 11st, he will give the last lecture of his life at Ikeda Elementary School attached to Osaka University of Education.
  • February 1989, 2-Died of gastric cancer at Hanzomon Hospital (died 9 years old).CommandmentsIs a resident of the Hakugein-den Kakuen Mushi.Order of the Sacred Treasure from the Japanese government after his deathHonor[258].Japan SF Writers ClubReceived the 10th Japan SF Grand Prize Special Award.
  • 1990- Tokyo National Museum of Modern ArtRetrospective exhibition.A retrospective exhibition was held in a prestigious museum less than a year after his death.The retrospective exhibition of manga artists at the National Museum of Art is said to be unprecedented.In the same year, he received the 1th Japan Cartoonists Association Award, Minister of Education Award for all achievements.
  • 1993-Started publishing the 4th Kodansha Osamu Tezuka complete works (then the 1997th term was completed in December 12, and a total of 4 complete works were completed).
  • 1994-In Takarazuka City, Hyogo Prefecture,Takarazuka Osamu Tezuka Memorial MuseumOpened on April 4th.As a memorial performance of this, Takarazuka Revue Flower Troupe is the first in the 25th generationStage performanceAsBlack Jack Dangerous bet"Phoenix" is performed.
  • 2002-RiceEisner AwardEntered the "Manga Artist Hall of Fame".In the same year, the Japan Cartoonists Association and five publishers proposed that November 5, the birthday of Osamu Tezuka, be "Manga Day."
  • 2004-The English translation of the manga "Buddha" won the Eisner Award for Best International Works.
  • 2007-In commemoration of the 2008th anniversary of his birth in 80, the service of "Tezuka Osamu O (On Demand) Magazine", in which readers select and publish Tezuka Osamu's works, will be launched.
  • 2008-Special edition of past comics from Shogakukan to commemorate the 80th anniversary of birth,pure goldLaunch of products such as Astro Boy, event in Takarazuka, hometown,The United States of AmericaSan FranciscoTezuka Osamu Exhibition at Hiroshima International Animation Festival,Tokyo International Film FestivalThe anime works that he has worked on in the past are featured and screened.
  • 2009- Edo Tokyo MuseumHeld a special exhibition "Osamu Tezuka Exhibition" at.
  • October 2009-Kodansha "Complete Works of Osamu Tezuka Bunko』(200 volumes in total) published.
  • April 2011-June 4, 28-Museum of Osaka University Samurai Kaneyama Shugakukan holds the 6th exhibition "Museum of Osaka University, Osamu Tezuka-Doctor? Manga artist?-" * Url =https://www.museum.osaka-u.ac.jp/jp/exhibition/P13/P13.html
  • 2012- Setagaya Literature MuseumHeld "The Largest Tezuka Osamu Exhibition on Earth" at.
  • 2013 --Special exhibition "Astro Boy 50th Anniversary-The day Astro Boy flew" at Nerima Ward Ishigami Park Furusato Bunkakan (Date: January 2013th-March 1th, 19).
  • 2013 --Osamu Tezuka Exhibition at "The World Children's Art Museum, Okazaki", Okazaki City, Aichi Prefecture.Approximately 170 items such as manuscripts and favorite items are exhibited (holding period: April 2013, 4-?).
  • 2013- Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Contemporary ArtSpecial exhibition "Osamu Tezuka x Shotaro Ishinomori Manga Power" (June 2013-September 6, 29).Or later,Hiroshima Prefectural Museum of History(November 2013, 11-January 15, 2014),Osaka History Museum(January 2014, 1-March 15, 3),Yamanashi Prefectural Museum(January 2014, 3-March 21, 5),Miyagi Museum of Art(January 2014, 5-March 31, 7),Nagano Shinano Art Museum(October 2014, 10-December 4, scheduled) touring.
  • 2014- University entrance examination center examinationOn the second day (Sunday, January 1th), Tezuka was taken up in the question of Japanese History B, and his books and manga were used. * Note: There have been several examples of Osamu Tezuka's texts appearing in school textbooks during his lifetime.
  • April 2014, 4-The life of Osamu Tezuka, who traces manga and anime works, is published on Google's website "History Archive (Google Cultural Institute)".
  • May 2014, 5 (?) --At a comic salon in Barcelona, ​​Spain, Osamu Tezuka's "The Book of Human Insects" won the award in the foreign works category * The first Japanese manga work to receive the award.
  • 2014ĺš´7月12日から8月31日 - 滋賀県立近代美術館で「手塚治虫展」(2014ĺš´7月12日-8月31日)開催。
  • July 2014, 7-Cartoon "The Mysterious Underground Phantom(The Mysterious Underground Men, by Osamu Tezuka (PictureBox)) won the Eisner Award for Best International Asian Works.
  • 2014ĺš´7月19日から10月5日 - 湯前まんが美術館(熊本県球磨郡湯前町中央公民館(那須良輔記念館))で「火の鳥連載60周年記念 阿蘇と手塚治虫」展(2014ĺš´7月19日 - 10月5日)開催。
  • September 2014th to 9th, 5-Special feature on experimental animation of Osamu Tezuka at Brillia Shortshorts Theater in Minato Mirai, Yokohama (September 9th-September 14th, 2014). * Commemorating the completion of the "Forest Legend Second Movement".Macoto Tezuka's talk show on the first day. * Open to the public following the world premiere screening at the 9th Hiroshima International Animation Festival on August 5, 9.
  • November 2014rd to 11th, 3-"Osamu Tezuka's Beauty Painting Exhibition" was held at GALLERY KAI in Kichijoji, Tokyo.
  • February 2015-May 2, 28-"Black Jack Exhibition of Doctors" held at Kyoto International Manga Museum.
  • From December 2015th to December 12rd, 17 --- "Tezuka Osamu Cultural Festival-Kichimushi '12-" was held at Libest Gallery Sou in Kichijoji.
  • From July 2016th to August 7st, 30-Special exhibition "Osamu Tezuka and Aizu" will be held at "Manabeko", Aizuwakamatsu City Historical Materials Center.
  • September 2016th to November 9th, 10 --- "Osamu Tezuka's Special Manga" exhibition will be held in the special exhibition room on the 11st floor of Saitama City Manga Museum.
  • January 2018-March 1, 25-Exhibition "Osamu Tezuka, Manga no Kamisama" held at the AngoulĂŞme Museum in France.
  • July 2018th-September 7nd, 13- TaiwanTaipei City OfEslite bookstoreHeld "Manga God-Osamu Tezuka 90th Anniversary Exhibition" at the Dunnan store. "Tezuka Osamu BookstoreAlso opened a store.
  • October 2019, 4- Takarazuka Osamu Tezuka Memorial MuseumWas reopened.
  • January 2019 TV animation "Dororo" starts broadcasting
  • October 2019, 10- KioxiaAs the first of "# World New Memory"Artificial intelligenceTezuka Osamu's new manga production project "TEZUKA 2020" announced by Tezuka Osamu, titled "PaidonIn February and April 2020MorningThe front and back parts were posted in[259][260].
  • September 2020, 9-The Steering Committee for The Harvey Awards, a manga award sponsored by US publisher Fantagraphics, will be inducted into the Hall of Fame for Osamu Tezuka on September 28, 2020. Announced that it will award the Harvey Awards Hall of Fame. url =https://www.excite.co.jp/news/article/Atpress_228464/
  • From March 2021th to April 3th, 24 "Creation of Osamu Tezuka" will be held at Hankyu Umeda Gallery on the 4th floor of Hankyu Umeda Main Store.

Related person

家族

grandfather·Taro Tezuka TheJudicial officerIt was founded in 1886 (Meiji 19).Kansai Law School(CurrentKansai University) Is one of the founders.Osaka District CourtProsecutorからNagoyaCourt of AppealsAttorney General,NagasakiHe has served as the director of the Court of Appeals.Great-grandfatherRyosen Tezuka TheVocational schoolLearned fromOrchid doctorIn 1858 (Ansei5 years) in EdoKandaOtamagaikeSmallpox(CurrentFaculty of Medicine, University of TokyoHe is also one of the founders of).His life was in the later work of Osamu Tezuka, "Hidamari no Ki"fictionIt is drawn withFukuzawa Yukichi Ofautobiography("Fukuo Autobiography』) Also has a record.Ancestor TheHeian period OfMilitary commander-Tezuka MitsumoriIs said to be.family tree[261] (In addition, when he was a writer, many books introduced his birth year as Taisho 15 (1926)).

Father, porridgeSumitomo MetalWork foremployeeAndカメラHe was a modern person who loved.Hand-cranked 9.5mm film, which was very rare at the timeprojectionI own a machine (putty baby), and Osamuprimary schoolFrom 2rd gradeValais, SwitzerlandOn Sundays while at homeチ ャ ッ プ リ ン Ofcomedymovies,Max Fleischer,デ ィ ズ ニ ーI was able to watch an anime movie[262]..Therefore, Osamu dreamed of becoming an anime director rather than a cartoonist from an early age.[263]..Before I got into the camera, my dad was enthusiastic about manga and had an understanding of manga, so at homeTagawa bubblyof"NorakuroThere were more than 200 comic books such as the series, Nakamura Bookstore's "Nakamura Manga Library", and "Nakamura Manga Book".[264]..Also, when he later discovered a love letter that his father wrote to his mother, he discovered that a manga was drawn on the love letter, and he thought, "I am the son of my father."[265]..In his later years, Kasu was entertaining fans visiting Tezuka as a fan club caretaker.

Mother Fumiko is Hideo Hattori (armyLieutenant general[266][267].Army Academy11 period[266][267]-Army War College23 period[267],SergeantOfficer[267], The final assistantLogistics Officer[267].. ) Daughter[266],StrictDisciplineI grew up under the hood and was absolutely obedient to my husband, but during the war my husbandConveningWhen it is doneCost of livingAndField workからNeighboring groupShow the work style of serving as an officer of[268]On the other hand, instead of lullabies for childhood curePicture bookAnd manga by using different voices for each characterStorytellingWas there.My mother also likes manga, and later the eldest son of the insect, Makoto, was the insectStudyWhen I was reading "Norakuro" in the corner of the pageFlip book cartoonI found.I thought it was due to the insects, but later it turned out that it was drawn by Fumiko.[269].. Died January 1983, 1, at the age of 4[2].

The worm is earlyautobiographyWriting badly about my father and lifting my motherOedipus complexBare[Note 21] Is taking action.Plenary power on father and force on motherHost SekishiroAs a result, or as a recollection of actions that are harmful to the insects themselves, some of them were later virtually withdrawn in essays, etc. (My father bought a manga in his early autobiography, etc.) It was said that my mother bought the manga, but in later essays it was rather different from my father's buying it).In an interview after the death of the insect, her real sister Minako stated that she was never a powerful father and was enthusiastic about home services.[270]..This is also mentioned in "My Manga Period".

Osamu is the firstborn, and has a younger brother, Hiroshi, who is two years younger, and a younger sister, Minako, who is four years younger (who changed his name to Uto after marriage).Hiroshi said, "When I was a kid, I was talking about insects, and when I was talking about it, I got into a fight. It was a fight, and if I thought I would win lightly, my big brother was strong. , I used to say yowamushi or nakimushi, but that's just a lie. " In "BS 2th Anniversary Project Tezuka Osamu 4" broadcast on February 2009, 2, with Tezuka's classmatesTezuka Osamu Memorial Hall in Takarazuka CityI'm visiting.Minako said, "戦 争Has started and my brother has changed somewhere.Until then天国It was a life like, but the war startedMilitary trainingMy brother's pride was hurt by being forced to do so. "Minako is a Tezuka characterLeopardIs also the creator of[271].

His wife, Etsuko (maiden name, Okada), was a bloodless relative and childhood friend.MarriageFirst baby boomBecause it overlapped withmarriageOnly twice beforeA dateCan't[272]Anda wedding ceremonyThen I was trapped up to an hour ago and drew the manuscript and was late[273]..Etsuko is a high school girl Umehana (currentlyBaika Junior and Senior High School), And because this school was "a terrible and prestigious school in Osaka" at that time, Tezuka married Etsuko in the hope of "an interesting child with iron-burning skin", but he actually tried to get married. And found that it wasn't[274].

There are 3 children.The eldest sonFilmmaker OfTezuka Makoto (The real name is "Makoto", and it was named because Mrs. Etsuko liked the word "Truth Ichiji").The eldest daughter is a planning producerGlobal environmental movementHouse'sRumiko Tezuka(The winner of the prize for the girls' magazine was named "Rumiko").The second daughteractressTezuka Chiiko (Chiiko, "Thousand and One Nights』Named after).Also,Voice actor OfKaoru MatsuyamaIs a niece.

His wife, eldest son, and eldest daughter have published a book about Osamu Tezuka.

Assistant experience

It is said that Tezuka Osamu was the first to start a full-time assistant system (production production system) for manga production work in Japan.The list below is not complete.Tezuka Osamu thought that it would be good for assistants to stand alone in about 2-3 years.

Tokiwa-so / Hatsudai era

  • Fujio FujikoⒶ(Motoo Abiko) --Assisted in the final episode of "Jungle Emperor" serialized in "Manga Shonen"
  • Fujiko F. Fujio(Hiroshi Fujimoto) --Assisting "My Songoku", which has not been published in the magazine, with Tokiwa-so members
  • Shotaro Ishinomori (Shotaro Ishinomori) --When I was in high school, I assisted several people such as "Astro Boy" and "Lightning Human Volume" serialized in Kobunsha "Shonen".
  • Fujio Akatsuka --Assisted with Ishimori in "Firebird (Greece)" published in "Shojo Club" (pen insertion)
  • Yokoyama Mitsuteru --Assisting "Astro Boy" serialized in "Shonen"
  • Jiro Kuwata --Assisting "Astro Boy" serialized in "Shonen"
  • Shinji Nagashima -"Tange SazenAssist
  • Reiji Matsumoto -Assisting "Compound Eye Majin"

Animation production staff

The list below is not complete.It is said that there were more than 400 employees at the height of Mushi Production.

Other people who supported Tezuka's creative activities

  • Shimakata Michinen (Michinen) ――After working at Meiji Seika, he was invited to the former Mushi Production as a manager and general manager of the president's office.The first president of Tezuka Productions.
  • Masanobu Kiyono --Transferred to Bunminsha after working for Mushi Production.
  • Kenzo Kasai-Founder of childcare product manufacturer "Aprica".Supporting the reconstruction of Tezuka when the former Mushi Production went bankrupt.In that connection, he also served as a director of Tezuka Productions. Died in 2017.
  • Haruji Mori --Become an employee of Tezuka Productions and is in charge of the complete works of Osamu Tezuka of Kodansha.Later, the director of the Tezuka Productions Materials Office. He passed away in 2016.
  • Minoru Kotoku-Manager of his later years.After Tezuka's death, he served as an animation production producer and publishing director. Died in 2020.
  • Yoshihiro Shimizu-Joined Tezuka Productions as a part-time job and worked on the production of TV specials conducted by Tezuka.After that, he officially joined the company. Director as of 2020.

The actor who played Osamu Tezuka

Editor of the magazine

This is still an incomplete list.

  • Yoshihisa Arai (Editor in charge of Kodansha "Shojo Club", "Phoenix") * Contributed to "God's companion 13 + 2".
  • Kazuo Aoki(Editor in charge of "Weekly Shonen Champion" at Akita Shoten)
  • Nobumichi Akutsu (Akita Shoten's "Adventure King" and "Manga King" editor-in-chief "Adventure Mad Age" "My Songoku". Former Akita Shoten Director-General, died September 2007, 9) * "God's companion Contributed to "Person 12 + 13".
  • Kunihiko Akutsu(Editor of "Shonen Champion" at Akita Shoten)
  • Hidetsugu Ioka (Kodansha "Weekly Shonen Magazine")
  • Yoshihiko Ito (Editor in charge of "Weekly Shonen Champion" at Akita Shoten (Editor in charge of the 4th generation of Blackjack), current President of Gentosha Comics)
  • Masaru Uchida (Kodansha "Weekly Shonen Magazine") * Editor-in-chief of Shonen Magazine.W3 casereference.
  • Shizuo Oura (Shio Publishing Co., Ltd., in charge of serializing "Buddha" for 7 years)
  • Otsuka Kohei(Akita Shoten "Weekly Shonen Champion" Deputy Editor-in-Chief, Film Critic)
  • Shunji Owada (Editor of "Weekly Shonen Champion" at Akita Shoten)
  • Mitsuji Okamoto (Editor of "Weekly Shonen Champion" at Akita Shoten) * First in charge of "Black Jack"
  • Kenichi Kato (School children's company"Manga Shonen") * Before the war, he changed his job from an elementary school teacher to Kodansha and became the editor-in-chief of "Shonen Club".After being banished from public office due to the defeat, he started his own school children's company.The result of deciding to publish the manuscript for Akamoto, which was carried by Tezuka who happened to visit there, became the feature-length serialized manga "Jungle Emperor".
  • Muramura Taizo(Akita Shoten "Shonen Champion") * Editor-in-chief at the time of serialization of "Boku no Songoku" (Akita Shoten "Adventure King"), and later the editor-in-chief of the boy champion at the start of the "Blackjack" serialization.
  • Masanori Kariya (Daiwa Shobo)
  • Yasuhiro Kono (Editor of "Weekly Shonen Champion" at Akita Shoten)
  • Otoko Kuma (Deputy Editor-in-Chief of Akita Shoten "Weekly Shonen Champion")
  • Hiroshi Kuwata (Editor in charge of "Shonen" at Kobunsha)
  • Yoshiyuki Kurihara (Kodansha Weekly Shonen Magazine Editor "The Three-Eyed One")
  • Kaneaki Kobayashi (Shonen Gahosha, Akita Shoten)
  • Hidetaka Shiba (Shogakukan "Big Comic") "Swallowing the Earth" "Kirihito Hymn" * Contributed to "God's Accompaniment 13 + 2".
  • Shuichi Shinoda (Daitosha) * Also served as an advisor to Osamu Tezuka's fan club.
  • Rikichiro Toda (Shonen Gahosha)
  • Toyoda Kameichi (First Editor-in-Chief of Shogakukan "Weekly Shonen Sunday")
  • Kazuhiko Nakamura (Shogakukan "Shonen Sunday", Dororo's Tezukaban)
  • Takashi Nagasaki * Since he contributed the sentence "I was in charge of Professor Tezuka ..." in the production announcement of "Phaedon", he seems to have been in charge of editing some work, but the details are unknown.
  • Takero Makino (First Editor-in-Chief of Kodansha "Nakayoshi", First Editor-in-Chief of "Weekly Shonen Magazine") * When he was the editor in charge of Kodansha "Shojo Club", he asked Tezuka to serialize ("Princess Knight").
  • Hiroshi Matsuoka (Editor in charge of Asahi Sonorama's book "Sun Comics" and magazine "Manga Shonen", "Astro Boy" and "Phoenix") * Contributed to "God's companion 13 + 2". * Current Executive Producer, Media Factory Comic Publishing Division.
  • Takayuki Matsutani(Takayuki) (Editor of "Manga Sunday" by Jitsugyo no Nihonsha) * After that, he worked as a manager of Osamu Tezuka for 1973 years from 16, and since April 1985, he has been the president of Tezuka Productions. * Contributed to "God's companion 4 + 13".
  • Akira Maruyama(Editor in charge of Kodansha's "Shojo Club", "Princess Knight" and "Firebird" (both for Shojo Club)) * In addition to books and interview articles, he has also contributed to "God's Accompaniment 13 + 2".
  • Masayuki Minejima(Editor of Jitsugyo no Nihonsha)-The first editor-in-chief of "Weekly Manga Sunday"
  • Teruo Miyahara (Editor-in-Chief of Kodansha "Weekly Shonen Magazine" (4th generation), "W3 (Shonen Magazine Version)", "Three-eyed One", "Osamu Tezuka Manga Complete Works") * Contributed to "God's Accompaniment 13 + 2" Yes.
  • Shigeo Nishimura (Shueisha "Weekly Shonen Jump")
  • Isao Noguchi (Editor of Mushi Production)
  • Ichiro Hashimoto (Asahi Sonorama, editorial department of Asahi Sonorama, former editor of Shonen Gahosha, editor-in-chief of "Sun Comics")
  • Takeo Fukushima (Editor-in-Chief, Editor of Jitsugyo no Nihonsha "Manga Sunday")
  • Toshio Suzuki (edited by Tokuma Shoten "Comic and Comic" and "Animage")
  • Akio Ueno (Editor-in-chief after working as an editor in charge of "XNUMXst grade elementary school" and "XNUMXrd grade elementary school" at Shogakukan)
  • Hideo Yoshikura (Editor of Shueisha "Monthly Shonen Jump")
  • Tadasu Nagano (Editor of Shueisha's monthly "Funny Book", later the first editor-in-chief of Weekly Shonen Jump)
  • Takuji Kurokawa (Former Editor-in-Chief of Shonen King, in charge of "Norman", "General Onimaru", "Paper Fort", and "Apollo's Song") * Contributed to "God's Accompaniment 13 + 2".
  • Toyoda Kameichi ("Dr. Thrill", "0 Man", "Captain Ken", "White Pilot" at Shogakukan "Shonen Sunday") * Contributed to "God's Accompaniment 13 + 2".
  • Goro Suzuki ("Prince of the Meteor" and "Oh! Our Three" at Shogakukan "Friends of Junior High School Students") * Contributed to "God's Accompaniment 13 + 2".
  • Mikio Ikeda ("Tell Adolf" in "Weekly Bunshun" by Bunshun) * Contributed to "God's companion 13 + 2".
  • Fumio Ishii (Mushi Production Shoji "COM" second editor-in-chief "Firebird" (COM version)) * Contributed to "God's companion 13 + 2".
  • Toshihiko Suzuki (Editor-in-chief "Swallowing the Earth" when Shogakukan "Big Comic" was first published) * Contributed to "God's Accompaniment 13 + 2".
  • Osamu Takeo (Editor of "Friend of Hope", "Shonen World", and "Comic Tom" by Ushio Publishing Co., Ltd. In charge of "Buddha" and "Ludwig B") * Contributed to "God's Accompaniment 13 + 2".
  • Kuniho Yamazaki (Mushi Production "COM" first edition editor-in-chief (until March 1969 issue) "Phoenix" (COM version))
  • Junya Yamamoto (Shogakukan)
  • Katsuya Shirai (Shogakukan)
  • Motohiro Miki (Shogakukan)

The person who introduced Tezuka's work to the world

Frederick L. Shot
In addition to translating many works by Osamu Tezuka, he wrote many books introducing Japanese manga, including Osamu Tezuka, overseas.Having lived in Japan for study abroad, he had a close relationship with Tezuka, starting with the translation of the Phoenix.
In 2017, he was awarded the 2017 Japan Foundation Award for his achievements in international cultural exchange through manga for many years.

Writers outside Japan

Mauricio de Sousa
BrazilCartoonist.
Tezuka in 1984Japan FoundationSince visiting Brazil for a cultural expert dispatch project, Tezuka has had a close relationship with him whenever he goes to Brazil, and vice versa.According to Souza, Tezuka seemed to regret the introduction of violence into his work, calling the relatively peaceful Souza style "the manga should be like this."[275]..Combine each other's characters into one workcrossoverThere was a plan to make it appear as, but it was temporarily abandoned due to Tezuka's death.However, with the publication of Japanese manga in Brazil and the publication of Souza characters and books arranged in the style of Japanese manga, the plan was reinvigorated and realized.[276].Parody,TributeIt is said that it is the first time in history that Tezuka's character officially appears in someone else's work, not a remake.The story of Amazon's protection was published in February and March 2012 in two volumes.
Characters on the Tezuka side are Sapphire from "Princess Knight", Leo from "Jungle Emperor", and Atom from "Astro Boy".
  • Mauricio de Sousa (2012). Turma da Monica Jovem: Tesouro Verde. Panini. ISBN 9788573518764 

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Introducing the author of "Modern Manga Vol. 1926 Osamu Tezuka" (Chikuma Shobo), who claimed to have been born in 6.
  2. ^ a b c d Before that, as a TV animation,Mole Aventure''Three new videos''Instant history''Fairy manga calendar] Is broadcast.
  3. ^ The first appearance was Takeshi Kaiko "Manga God, Osamu Tezuka" (Weekly Asahi February 1964, 2 issue).By the way, Tezuka used to prefer katakana notation "manga" to kanji notation "manga" like his book "I am a manga artist".
  4. ^ However, Minoru Ishihara, who will be described later, has questioned the fact that in an interview after Tezuka's death, "Tezuka called a bully to his home and was entangled in a manga."According to Ishihara, everyone said "it's strange" at each alumni association, but Tezuka himself said, "I'm sorry, I'm sorry." (Hiroaki Ikeda et al. "Osamu Tezuka Complete Dismantling New Book" Shueisha, 2002, p238)
  5. ^ There is a clear distinction between old colleges and vocational schools, and for graduates of vocational schoolsBachelor's degreeWas not awarded.
  6. ^ It is said that he rushed to the movie theater even at dawn. "Watching, shooting, and projecting" (written by Osamu Tezuka)
  7. ^ However, we interviewed the people involved in the animation "Astro Boy" and re-examined the materials.Nobuyuki TsugataActually, "Initially, 1 million yen per bottle was paid by the agency as a production cost."According to Tsugata, the production fee has been raised little by little since then, saying, "Mushi Production is definitely making management efforts and getting results. Since I made" Astro Boy "for 155 yen, after that If there is still an evaluation that "the animation production environment has deteriorated", it must be said that it is short-circuited. "(Nobuyuki Tsugata," Osamu Tezuka as an animation writer-its trajectory and essence, "NTT Publishing, 55).
  8. ^ AnimatorYasuo OtsukaTezuka, on the other hand, longed for the ideal anime, but finally failed to achieve it.CommercialismIt's not because Tezuka was ignorant of anime technology, but because of it. "I don't think it would have been possible to have a good animation if you weren't interested in acting design and animate. In fact, Mr. Tezuka had no evidence of learning the basic techniques of full animation from his predecessors such as Disney, and he was able to train animators. It's really strange that we started from cartoon-like Limited without doing it. "(Otsuka" Drawing Sweaty Augmented Revised Edition "P95" Chapter 4 Dawn of the TV Animation Era ")
  9. ^ The youkai in "Dororo" seems to have been influenced by Mizuki.PointillismIs used (Natsume, 151-152p).
  10. ^ Tezuka himself retired from management in 1971.
  11. ^ However, due to medical practice at the time, he was not notified that he had cancer until the end, and he was told that he had gastric ulcer.
  12. ^ Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX of the Ordinance for Enforcement of the Medical Practitioners Act enacted by the Cabinet based on the provisions of Article XNUMX of the Medical Practitioners Act states, "When a doctor is sentenced to die or is about to be lost, the Family Register Act (Showa XNUMX). A person who is obliged to report death or loss pursuant to the Act No. XNUMX of the Year shall apply for cancellation of the registration of medical registration within XNUMX days. " "When applying for the cancellation of medical registration, a doctor must return the license to the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare via the prefectural governor of the place of residence. The provisions of Article XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX. The same shall apply to those who apply for the cancellation of medical registration registration. "For this reason, the bereaved family should have taken the procedure to return the doctor's license within XNUMX days after death, but since it is exhibited and stored in the memorial hall, there is no risk of misuse, and the culture of the doctor's license Special measures were taken beyond the original provisions of the decree because of its value as a property.
  13. ^ There is no vertical stripe of the trademark, and the design has "OSAKA" drawn on the chest.
  14. ^ This desk is on display at Kozenji Temple in Himi City, Toyama Prefecture, the birthplace of Fujiko Fujio A.
  15. ^ In another conversation, Tezuka was at home at the time, but said his mother had returned him to "I'm away."
  16. ^ However, what is explained in the workInoue HisashiIs a drama version of the story written in 1971.
  17. ^ Ushio cleaningHas written almost the same content in his book as a hearsay (however, the last part of "Osaka people" is a derogatory word for Kansai people called "luxury six").[221].
  18. ^ Tezuka wrote in "I am a Manga Artist" that Fukui's death was "about a month after" the apology, while he apologized for "a day when it snows like cotton."[220], It is inconsistent with the fact that Fukui died in late June.
  19. ^ As of 2011, Miyazaki is 70 years old and Tezuka is 60 years old.
  20. ^ Fuji Baking Robot Museum will be in Aichi Youth Park (currentlyAichi Earth Expo Memorial Park), And in 2005Aichi ExpoBut it was exhibited.
  21. ^ It is often pointed out that the existence of the father is rare in the works of Osamu. (Sakurai, 34p)

Source

  1. ^ a b Jiji Press "Jiji Yearbook 1990 Edition"Jiji Press, 1989, 205 pages.
  2. ^ a b Tezuka Productions. “About the 1980s Osamu Tezuka". Tezuka Osamu Official Website. 2019/8/10Browse.
  3. ^ (I.e., p. 22.
  4. ^ (I.e., pp. 24-28.
  5. ^ Natsume, pp. 70-71.
  6. ^ (I.e., p. 31.
  7. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 20.
  8. ^ North, p. 20.
  9. ^ Tezuka 1997, p. 20.
  10. ^ Tezuka 1997, pp. 20-22.
  11. ^ a b Tezuka 1997, p. 13.
  12. ^ Tezuka 2009.
  13. ^ Tezuka 1997, pp. 6-9.
  14. ^ (I.e., p. 32.
  15. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 29.
  16. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 274.
  17. ^ a b (I.e., p. 45.
  18. ^ Tezuka 1997, p. 52.
  19. ^ (I.e., p. 58.
  20. ^ Tezuka 1997, pp. 52-59.
  21. ^ (I.e., pp. 48-50.
  22. ^ Tezuka 1997, p. 62.
  23. ^ Incidentally,1947With the change of name from Osaka Imperial University to Osaka University, the Faculty of Medicine was also renamed the Faculty of Medicine attached to Osaka University.
  24. ^ a b (I.e., p. 59.
  25. ^ Tezuka 1999, pp. 57-60.
  26. ^ Tezuka 1999, pp. 61-65.
  27. ^ a b Yonezawa, p. 13.
  28. ^ Toshie Kawamoto "Mr. XNUMXnd generation Katsura Haru Danji's art and people"Sadao Osada,Blue frog, August 2002, pp. 2-130.
  29. ^ Tezuka 1999, pp. 89-90.
  30. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 90.
  31. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 91.
  32. ^ Yonezawa, p. 82.
  33. ^ a b Kure, p. 128.
  34. ^ Yonezawa, pp. 14-15.
  35. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 96.
  36. ^ Yonezawa, pp. 15-16.
  37. ^ Yonezawa, p. 16.
  38. ^ Tezuka 1999, pp. 98-99.
  39. ^ According to the published doctor's license of Osamu Tezuka.
  40. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 100.
  41. ^ (I.e., pp. 72-73.
  42. ^ Yonezawa, p. 21.
  43. ^ Yonezawa, p. 27.
  44. ^ Yonezawa, p. 23.
  45. ^ Yonezawa, pp. 23-24.
  46. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 183.
  47. ^ Tezuka 1999, pp. 184-185.
  48. ^ a b Yonezawa, p. 31.
  49. ^ Yonezawa, pp. 32-33.
  50. ^ a b (I.e., p. 118.
  51. ^ Yonezawa, pp. 85-86.
  52. ^ (I.e., p. 119.
  53. ^ Tezuka 1999, pp. 216-217.
  54. ^ (I.e., p. 121.
  55. ^ Toyota, pp. 59-63.
  56. ^ "Asia's first feature-length anime "Princess Iron Fan" screened at New Chitose Airport, with a lecture by Hidenori Okada”. Movie Natalie (March 2017, 11). 2018/3/8Browse.
  57. ^ "Tezuka Osamu Tezuka 20 years of death poem Others Astro Boy Astro Boy Goku”. NetEase (October 2009, 10). 2017/11/6Browse.
  58. ^ Tezuka 1999, pp. 33-34.
  59. ^ 山 本.
  60. ^ Soichi Oya wrote in "Japanese People's Minerals" serialized in "Bungei Shunju" in 1958. Is likened to the way Chinese people are in the southern regions and Japan. "
    Kazuo Fudano "Osaka Ben" Honmamon "Course" Shinchosha, 2006 ISBN-978 4106101601 p20
  61. ^ a b Tezuka 1999, p. 237.
  62. ^ (I.e., p. 136.
  63. ^ a b Tezuka 1999, p. 242.
  64. ^ (I.e., p. 142.
  65. ^ a b Tezuka 1999, p. 249.
  66. ^ "Special Feature of the Story" July 1979 Issue Dying Animation
  67. ^ Yonezawa, p. 50.
  68. ^ Yonezawa, p. 55.
  69. ^ a b Yonezawa, p. 54.
  70. ^ Yonezawa, pp. 56-57.
  71. ^ Yonezawa, p. 59.
  72. ^ Yonezawa, pp. 59-62.
  73. ^ (I.e., pp. 166-167.
  74. ^ Natsume, pp. 169-170.
  75. ^ Natsume, p. 170.
  76. ^ Yonezawa, p. 65.
  77. ^ Yonezawa, p. 67.
  78. ^ Yonezawa, p. 72.
  79. ^ Yonezawa, p. 93.
  80. ^ NHK Special"The Secret of Tezuka Osamu's Creation" (broadcast on January 1986, 1)
  81. ^ Osamu Tezuka, Takayuki Matsutani "Osamu Tezuka Words Beyond the Wall" Kanki Publishing, October 2014, Chapter 10.
  82. ^ Broadcast on February 1989, 2 "Good morning! Nice day"
  83. ^ a b Makoto Tezuka "My Father Osamu Tezuka" Asahi Journal Extra Edition April 1989, 4 Issue "Osamu Tezuka's World"
  84. ^ NHK "Osamu Tezuka Message to the End of the Century" January 1999, 1 15:22 --00: 22 Broadcast
  85. ^ Shueisha's new book "Mr. Tezuka, the deadline is too long!" Kazuyoshi Fukumoto 2009
  86. ^ Tokyo Yomiuri Shimbun morning edition "1 fans at the funeral of Osamu Tezuka, who is now the eternal" Phoenix "" (March 1989, 3)
  87. ^ Tokyo Yomiuri Shimbun morning edition "Osamu Tezuka's farewell to 2000 people / Higashikurume, Tokyo" (February 1989, 2)
  88. ^ Yonezawa, p. 80.
  89. ^ NHK Special"Life-My Father, Osamu Tezuka" (April 1989, 4)
  90. ^ Hayao Miyazaki "Turning Point" (p.116, Umehara's remarks)
  91. ^ "A Yiddishe Manga: The Creative Roots of Japan's God of Comics (PDF). " Innovative Research in Japanese Studies. Wix. 2014/7/17Browse.
  92. ^ Yasushi Watanabe "God fascinated by animation", Takenaka Shimotsuki ed. "Birth!" Osamu Tezuka "", Asahi Sonorama, 1998, 101-102p
  93. ^ De Agostini "Weekly 100 People" No. 20 "Charlie Chaplin", published October 2003, 10, 21p
  94. ^ "Tezuka Osamu's Torn Dream (2)"
  95. ^ a b "Osamu Tezuka and "Goku"". Chinese net. 2018/3/8Browse.
  96. ^ "The "edge" of Osamu Tezuka and Son Goku (3)". People's network (September 2017, 7). 2018/3/8Browse.
  97. ^ Tezuka 1999, pp. 21-22.
  98. ^ Natsume, pp. 67-92.
  99. ^ Remarks by himself in "Chapter 1992 Encounter with Manga", "Osamu Tezuka's Culture", Osamu Tezuka + Listener = Jun Ishiko "Mystery of Osamu Tezuka Manga", Kodansha, XNUMX
  100. ^ Yasushu Kuno (2002). The truth about the Mt. Asamayama villa caseKawade Shobo Shinsha. P. 314 (Quoted from "Asahi Shimbun" dated February 1972, 2)
  101. ^ "I've drawn only shounen manga together" p.20
  102. ^ Shotaro Ishimori "Introduction to Manga Artists for Boys" Akita Shoten, 1965.
  103. ^ "Manga Artist Directory 1 Manga Artist Visit" edited by Japan Manga Academy (Tadao Kimura) Kusane Publishing Co., Ltd., 1989, p.84.Interview with Tetsuya Chiba.
  104. ^ Tatsuya Seto ed., "The 10 Men Who Created Comics, Spring and Autumn of Giants," Wanibooks, 2002, p.107.Interview with Mikiya Mochizuki
  105. ^ a b Tatsumi, p. 18.
  106. ^ Shoichi Sakurai "I was the creator of graphic novels" April Publishing, 1978, p.32
  107. ^ Masaaki Sato "Aiming for the" Star of Drama "Nobody wrote" History of Drama Insider "" Bungei Shunju, 1996, p.11
  108. ^ Osamu Takeuchi "Osamu Tezuka" Heibonsha, 1992, 224-232p
  109. ^ Yonezawa, p. 97.
  110. ^ Fumio Noguchi "Osamu Tezuka's" Shin Takarajima "" Shogakukan, 2007
  111. ^ "Takanaka Shimotsuki" Birth! "Osamu Tezuka" Background of Raising the Manga God "(1998, Asahi Sonorama)
  112. ^ Fusanosuke Natsume "Where is Osamu Tezuka?" Chikuma Shobo, 1992, 48p
  113. ^ Natsume, pp. 44-46.
  114. ^ Natsume, pp. 47-66.
  115. ^ Yonezawa, pp. 161-162.
  116. ^ Yonezawa, pp. 162-163.
  117. ^ Yonezawa, p. 181.
  118. ^ (I.e., p. 116.
  119. ^ Tezuka 1997.
  120. ^ Tezuka Osamu Essay Collection (3) (Tezuka Osamu Manga Complete Works) P185-186 Kodansha 1997
  121. ^ Involuntarily banzai and spilled tears: Osamu Tezuka and War: TezukaOsamu.net (JP) Osamu Tezuka Official Website http://tezukaosamu.net/jp/war/entry/47.html Osamu Tezuka Manga Complete Works "Osamu Tezuka" Lectures "" Message to Future People "Kodansha, 1986" Message to Future People "published by Iwanami Shoten
  122. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 53.
  123. ^ Osamu Takeuchi "50 Years of Postwar Manga" (1995, Chikuma Shobo)
  124. ^ From "How to Draw Manga" published by Kobunsha
  125. ^ Natsume, pp. 188-189.
  126. ^ Natsume, p. 189.
  127. ^ Takeshi Narumi "Origin of Moe" PHP Shinsho 2009
  128. ^ Osamu Tezuka Debut Works Mainichi Newspaper 1991
  129. ^ a b Shotaro Ishinomori "Manga Super Evolution" (Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 1989)
  130. ^ Taku Sugiyama "Anime Handbook" Akimoto Shobo, February 1981, p. 2.NCID BA40504320.
  131. ^ The fact that 1989 February 2 Friday broadcast TV Asahi "Hello 10 o'clock cartoon world of god Osamu Tezuka's pass away!", "" Seen young do not ", teacher nominal through Tezuka's as born in 2 It means that he was on TV. "
  132. ^ 1978 "Proposals for 20 years old" Ocean Planning Collection
  133. ^ 1992 "Osamu Tezuka Daizen 1" Magazine House
  134. ^ "The Beginning of Tezuka Manga" (1980 famous publication)
  135. ^ "Eureka" Osamu Tezuka Special Issue (February 1983)
  136. ^ "Cartoonist / Anime Writer Biographical Dictionary" (Nippon Associates)
  137. ^ Tezuka (1987), pp.6-7.The original text says that it was "four years ago" that it underwent a detailed inspection, but since 1982, "Kinema Junpo』, And since the issue of this part is not specified, it is unclear how many years it specifically refers to.Tezuka himself was not convinced that he was type A and said, "I'm definitely (quote note:Blood type personality theoryI think it's a B type. "
  138. ^ "Blackjack Creative Story" Volume 2 p9 Akita Shoten
  139. ^ Eiji Otsuka, Go Sasakibara "Manga Anime as a Culture"Kodansha modern new book, 2001, 19p
  140. ^ TBS systemShining Japanese star! Make Osamu Tezuka "
  141. ^ Supervised by Tezuka Nian Museum "Tezuka Osamu's Truth, Mystery, Secrets and Resume" p.72
  142. ^ International Photo Information "Unique Dialogue Norakuro and Atom" August 1967
  143. ^ From the contribution of Minako Uto, the sister of Osamu Tezuka in the postscript of Kadokawa Bunko "Firebird 13 Greece / Rome"
  144. ^ Osamu Tezuka "I am a Manga Artist" 1979
  145. ^ Osamu Tezuka "Electron microscopic study of membrane structure in atypical sperm cells"Nara Medical Journal, Vol. 11, No. 5, Nara Medical Society, October 1960, 10, pp. 1-719," NOT 120004973463.
  146. ^ "Seibu Lions was born on October 1978, 10. Background and trivia". SUUMO Journal(July 2012, 10). http://suumo.jp/journal/2012/10/12/30668/ 2018/3/8Browse. 
  147. ^ Osamu Tezuka also left his face in the correspondence 60 years ago when he was a tiger fan(Asahi Shimbunポ September 2008, 9).The name of the team in 25 was "Osaka Tigers", but from that time it was commonly called "Hanshin".
  148. ^ Weekly Shonen Magazine March 1989, 3 "Memories of Professor Tezuka"
  149. ^ Fujiko Fujio "Tokiwa-so Youth Diary" Kobunsha
  150. ^ a b "Osamu Tezuka is an alien" Monthly Bungei Shunju April 1989 issue
  151. ^ Shogakukan "Fujiko Fujio Self-Selection Collection 8" 1981 -Mr. Fujiko is a bumpy combination Osamu Tezuka-
  152. ^ Shogakukan "CoroCoro Comic" February 1989, 2 issue
  153. ^ Asahi Shimbun "Dismantling of cartoonist Mt. Liang'Tokiwa-so'" December 1982, 12
  154. ^ Shotaro Ishinomori's Manga Class
  155. ^ Shotaro Ishinomori's Manga Class
  156. ^ Tezuka 1999.
  157. ^ Shotaro Ishinomori "Memory of Words" 2008 P.132
  158. ^ a b Akita Bunko "All Osamu Tezuka!" 2007
  159. ^ Interview with Fujio Akatsuka, Japan Manga Academy Archived August 2008, 9, at the Wayback Machine.Reference.
  160. ^ "Tokiwa-so's Youth, My Manga Training Era," pp. 44-46.
  161. ^ Mitsutoshi Furuya "My Tezuka Sensei" 2010 P.55
  162. ^ Fujio Akatsuka 120% Shogakukan Bunko 1999
  163. ^ Jiyu Kokuminsha "Special Feature of Fujio Akatsuka" 1997
  164. ^ Akita Bunko "Tetsu no Senritsu" Osamu Tezuka From the postscript at the end of the book by Mizuno
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  167. ^ Kazuyoshi Fukumoto "Professor Tezuka, the deadline is too long!" Shueisha "Shueisha New Book", 2009 P.44
  168. ^ February 1989, 2 SPA!
  169. ^ About Mitsuteru Yokoyama "Reprint Tetsujin 28-go" Volume 1979 Daitosha XNUMX
  170. ^ a b Reiji Matsumoto “Creation of the Future-Dreaming Ideas” 2010 p.111
  171. ^ Reiji Matsumoto “Creation of the Future-Dreaming Ideas” 2010 p.129
  172. ^ Leiji Matsumoto "Future Creation-Dream Ideas" 2010 p.133
  173. ^ Tezuka Productions, p. 136.
  174. ^ Anthology "Black Jack ALIVE" (2005, Akita Shoten)
  175. ^ Sankei News west 2012.10.26 From "Go Nagai" Collaboration with Professor Tezuka, Dreams Realize "Atom-Mazinger Z ... Genealogy will be shown at a special exhibition"
  176. ^ Go Nagai "Manga Artist" p. 35 (1992, Jitsugyo no Nihonsha)
  177. ^ Tezuka Productions, p. 140.
  178. ^ Tezuka Productions, p. 142.
  179. ^ Tezuka Productions, p. 150.
  180. ^ Mitsutoshi Furuya "My Tezuka Sensei" 2010 P.45
  181. ^ "Exploration Bakumon』Broadcast on January 2013, 1
  182. ^ Kinnohoshi Co., Ltd. "Osamu Tezuka Monogatari-Manga Dream 1945-1959" 2009, P.151
  183. ^ Tezuka Productions, p. 148.
  184. ^ a b Shogakukan "Big Comic" March 1989, 3
  185. ^ Tatsumi, p. 11.
  186. ^ Tatsumi, p. 6.
  187. ^ Yoshihiro Tatsumi "A Drifting Life" Seirin Kogeisha
  188. ^ Tatsumi, p. 145.
  189. ^ Tatsumi, p. 292.
  190. ^ Tatsumi, p. 304.
  191. ^ Tatsumi, p. 320.
  192. ^ "Yoshiharu Tsuge's own history" "Yoshiharu Tsuge complete works, separate volume Ten years of suffering / Memories of Hatago" Chikuma Shobo 1994 ISBN-4 480-70169-9
  193. ^ Sanpei Shirato "Storm Ninja" Shogakukan Creative
  194. ^ Shinichi Kusamori "Manga Thoughts"
  195. ^ Manga textbook "Science of Thought" March 1982 issue
  196. ^ Osamu Tezuka "I am a Manga Artist" Daiwa Shobo, 1988, 178p
  197. ^ Kadokawa Shoten "Katsuhiro Otomo x Metropolis" July 2001, 7 P. 1
  198. ^ Kadokawa Shoten "Katsuhiro Otomo x Metropolis" July 2001, 7 P. 1
  199. ^ Yuri Squid Extra Edition "General Feature Katsuhiro Otomo" Razor Sense "" August 1988
  200. ^ COMIX BOX "Special Feature: Our Tezuka Osamu" 1989
  201. ^ "1 Million Osamu Tezuka" (1989, JICC Publishing Bureau)
  202. ^ According to an interview with Kei Ishizaka
  203. ^ Movie Metropolis Official Website
  204. ^ NHK-FM Radio "Sunday Cafe Astro Boy's Gift" May 1993, 5
  205. ^ From Osamu Tezuka's masterpiece collection 11 "Shinsengumi" postscript by Hagio.
  206. ^ April 1989 issue of "SF Magazine"
  207. ^ Tezuka Productions, p. 144.
  208. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 87.
  209. ^ From the postscript of "Birdman Anthology", a complete collection of Tezuka Osamu manga
  210. ^ Hochi Newspaper February 1989, 2
  211. ^ Masayuki Minejima "Recollection My Tezuka Osamu" (Yamakawa Shuppansha) P.47
  212. ^ Masayuki Minejima "Recollection My Tezuka Osamu" (Yamakawa Shuppansha) P.47
  213. ^ Masayuki Minejima "Recollection My Tezuka Osamu" (Yamakawa Shuppansha) P.72
  214. ^ Masayuki Minejima "Recollection My Tezuka Osamu" (Yamakawa Shuppansha) P.72
  215. ^ Takashi Yanase "Anpanman's Will" Iwanami Shoten 1995 P146
  216. ^ Takashi Yanase "Anpanman's Will" Iwanami Shoten 1995 P154
  217. ^ Mediocre Punch May 1984 My Boy Manga Magazine
  218. ^ Osamu Tezuka "I am a Manga Artist" Daiwa Shobo, 1988, 144p
  219. ^ Mr. Igaguri - Manga Library Z(External link)
  220. ^ a b c d e Osamu Tezuka "I am a Manga Artist Osamu Tezuka Autobiography 1" Daiwa Shobo, 1979, pp.133 --137
  221. ^ Tomio Sagisu "Osamu Tezuka and I"Kusosha, 2007, pp.128 --129
  222. ^ Tezuka 1999, pp. 171-176.
  223. ^ Shotaro Ishinomori's Introduction to Manga Artists Akita Bunko
  224. ^ "Tezuka Osamu Monogatari-Manga Dream 1945-1959"Gold star company, 2009, p.183
  225. ^ Yoshito Miyasuo "Charm of Manga Manga" 1978.Tezuka's personal talk by a dialogue between Tezuka and Yoshitomi
  226. ^ Eiji Oshita"Chapter XNUMX The Diversifying World of TV Animation Beyond" Akuma-kun "" "Japan(Japanese)Heroes dominate the world "Kadokawa Shoten, June 1995, 11,ISBN-4 04-883416-9, 110.
  227. ^ First appeared in Shogakukan's "Big Comic" October 1969, 10 issue, Kadokawa Bunko "Awesome Record"
  228. ^ Noriyuki Adachi "Walking with Youkai, Shigeru Mizuki" (1994,文藝 春秋)
  229. ^ From an interview with Mizuki, Volume XNUMX of Kodansha "GeGeGe no Kitaro TV Anime DVD Magazine"
  230. ^ Tezuka 1987, p. 17.
  231. ^ Mizuki Sun's Theory of Happiness, page 174
  232. ^ a b Jun Ishikawa "From K" (Futabasha"Weekly manga action』March 1989, 3 issue)
  233. ^ Manga information magazine "Pafu" April 1989
  234. ^ Akita Shoten "Black Jack Creative Story 1"
  235. ^ Akita Shoten "Black Jack Creative Story" Volume 1
  236. ^ Shogakukan "Weekly Shonen Sunday" March 1989, 3 "Manga God Osamu Tezuka's death"
  237. ^ From the column of Fusanosuke Natsume, "Weekly Asahi", March 1989, 3
  238. ^ Fusanosuke Natsume "Where is Osamu Tezuka?" Chikuma Shobo 1992
  239. ^ a b NHK BS2 "Weekly Osamu Tezuka" April 2009, 4 Guest Yoshiyuki Tomino
  240. ^ Sankei Shimbun News "Astro Boy and Osamu Tezuka talked about by Director Tomino of Gundam"(November 2013)
  241. ^ Yoshiyuki Tomino "Healing of ∀"
  242. ^ Kawade Shobo Shinsha "Bungei Separate Volume General Feature Osamu Tezuka" 1999 P.18
  243. ^ Mushibo "New Animation Firebird Interview with Director Ryosuke Takahashi"(November 2004 issue)
  244. ^ a b Hayao Miyazaki "When I saw Osamu Tezuka's" God's Hand ", I separated from him."COMIC BOX』(Fusion Product) March 1989
  245. ^ Hayao Miyazaki's Tezuka experience "I don't worship because it's the origin"(As of January 2009, 4Archive) YOMIURI ONLINE, April 2009, 4.
  246. ^ May 1980 Pafu
  247. ^ Tokuma Shoten "Animage" August 1981 issue
  248. ^ Tokuma Shoten "The art of Nausica" June 1984, 6
  249. ^ What I thought about Hayao Miyazaki's criticism of Tezuka.
  250. ^ 2020 CCC Media House, "The definitive edition of the manga god Osamu Tezuka's work (creation)"
  251. ^ Hayao Miyazaki "Tobira to the Book" Iwanami Shoten, 2011, pp137-138.
  252. ^ NHK special feature "Osamu Tezuka's secret of creation" (broadcast on January 1986, 1)
  253. ^ "Let's talk about the youth of "Enthusiastic Stadium" and "Tokiwa-so""Weekly HyundaiNovember 2019, 11th, 2 merger issue, Kodansha, October 9, 2019, p. 10,2019/10/28Browse.
  254. ^ Hiromichi Masuda (February 2013, 2). “Why was Tezuka Osamu able to continue producing hits?". ITmedia Business OnlineITmedia. P. 2. 2019/12/6Browse.
  255. ^ a b c "[Keiichi Tanaka's pen and chopsticks-a favorite of cartoonists-] Episode XNUMX: Osamu Tezuka's "Chocolate"". Gurunavi Everyone's rice. 2015/5/30Browse.
  256. ^ Memories of Osamu Tezuka and Fujio Akatsuka talked about by cartoonist Mitsutoshi Furuya
  257. ^ Information on Japan Insect Club
  258. ^ "About the honor (Osamu Tezuka pen name Osamu)". National Archives. 2019/4/28Browse.
  259. ^ "AI wrote" Osamu Tezuka's new manga "and started the project" TEZUKA 2020 "". Comic Natalie (Natasha). (April 2019, 10). https://natalie.mu/comic/news/349814 2020/6/18Browse. 
  260. ^ "Osamu Tezuka's new manga, AI technology for the first time in 30 years" resurrection "son, Makoto Tezuka" just like in a manga "". Oricon News (Oricon). (April 2020, 2). https://www.oricon.co.jp/news/2156142/full/ 2020/6/18Browse. 
  261. ^ Family tree of Osamu Tezuka (Yasuaki Fukase: "Manga God Osamu Tezuka and his family", History and Journey, Akita Shoten, February 2000 issue)
  262. ^ Tezuka 1997, pp. 17-19.
  263. ^ Interview with Tezuka, an interesting encyclopedia of anime trivia (1984, Hakusensha)
  264. ^ Tezuka 1997, pp. 10-12.
  265. ^ Supervised by Tezuka Nian Museum "Tezuka Osamu's Truth, Mystery, Secrets and Resume" p.12
  266. ^ a b c Sakurai 2015, p. 61
  267. ^ a b c d e Qin 2005, pp. 545-611, Part 3 List of Army War College graduates-I Army-1. Army War College graduates
  268. ^ (I.e., p. 37.
  269. ^ (I.e., p. 40.
  270. ^ Collected in "Tezuka Osamu Complete Dismantling New Book"
  271. ^ Broadcast on February 2009, 2 "BS 9th Anniversary Project Osamu Tezuka 20"
  272. ^ Tezuka 1999, p. 217.
  273. ^ (I.e., p. 122.
  274. ^ North, p. 25.
  275. ^ E o projeto continua !: Henshin!(As of January 2010, 9Archive) (Portuguese).
  276. ^ Panini lança edição e special que reúne Turma da Mônica Jovem com personagens do japonês Osamu Tezuka, o pai do mangå, em aventura na Amazônia[Broken link] See (Portuguese).

References

Tezuka Osamu's own work

other than that

Related item

外部 リンク

  1. ^ Tezka Macoto '6D -Macoto Tezuka Blog-: SUWA as well as the Tezka Macoto '6D -Macoto Tezuka Blog-: DALI reference.
  2. ^ [1]

 

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