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🥾 | Kasaoka Islands Shiraishi Island Trekking-Mountain walk to meet the spectacular view of megaliths and the Seto Inland Sea


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Kasaoka Islands Shiraishi Island Trekking-Mountain walk where you can meet the magnificent view of megaliths and the Seto Inland Sea

 
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In addition to Obijima, Kobijima, Rokushima, and the mainland of Shikoku in the Kasaoka Islands, Mt. Ishizuchi was faintly visible to the naked eye on this day.
 

Would you like to see the island-like scenery of the Seto Inland Sea from the sky like a bird?At Kasaoka Islands and Shiraishi Island, the altitude is about ... → Continue reading

 Bingo and Kotoko

Bingo Tokotoko is a web media that Fukuyama, Onomichi, and Kasaoka send out "the charm of becoming more fond of".

As more and more people turn their eyes to the "local" from refraining from moving to distant places, Web writers and bloggers living in Okayama and Hiroshima prefectures will work together to take pride in the city they live in and to like it. raised.

We also send information unique to the Bingo area, centering on gourmet event information in Onomichi City, Hiroshima Prefecture, Fukuyama City, and Kasaoka City, Okayama Prefecture!


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Kasaoka Islands

Kasaoka Islands(Kasaoka Shotou)Seto Inland SeaIn centralIslands..The whole islandOkayamaKasaokaBelong to.Btsutyuu IslandsThere is also another name for[3][4].. 2019,Japanese heritageCertified by[5].

Overview

The Kasaoka Islands extend south from Kasaoka City and consist of about 30 large and small islands.Some of them have already been tied to the mainland by reclamation.There are seven manned islands, from the side closer to the mainlandTakashima,Shiroishi Island,Kitagi Island,Obishima,Kobi Island,Manabe Island,Mushima.Seto Inland Sea National ParkIs specified in[3][4][6][7].

The Seto Inland Sea borders the Kasaoka Islands on the east sideMizushima Nada, West sideBingo NadaIt is said.On the east side of the Kasaoka IslandsShiozawa Islands, On the west sideGeiyo IslandsMakes the eastern end ofHashirijima,Uji IslandThere is.Kasaoka IslandsBisan IslandsIt may be a part of.

List of islands in the Kasaoka Islands

  • In principle, the order of recording and area were based on the "Japanese Island Encyclopedia" (1995).[Note 2]
  • TaiziIs a manned island,ItalicWas once an independent islandReclamation of Kasaoka BayIt became a land-tied island.
Island nameReading位置Geographical Survey Institute MapSurroundings
(km)
area
(kilometer2)
SourceRemarks
205.02.5website
KamishimaKonoshimaMap[8][9][10]16.44 [11][12]Currently connected to the mainland
KatashimaKatashimaMap[8][9][13]4.5 [11][14]
(I.e.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euMap[8][9][15] 0.2386[11]A general term for Oshima and Mae Oshima.
 (Former Oshima) Map×××  [11]
TokoshimaMotokoshimaMap[8][9][15] 0.019[11]
Manabe IslandManabeshimaMap[8][9][15]7.61.46[11][16]
問島Dreadful[Question]Map[8][9][15] 0.0114[11]
Kitagi IslandKitagishimaMap[8][9][15]18.37.47[11][17]
縦島TatejimaMap[8][9][15] 0.001[11]
Kobi IslandKobishimaMap[8][9][15]2.80.3[11][18]Collectively Kobi Island and Obi IslandTobishimaThat.
ObishimaObishimaMap[8][9][19]5.51.05[11][18]
Shiroishi IslandShirai ShijimaMap[8][9][15]10.12.92[11][20]
BentenjimaBentenjimaMap[8][9][15] 0.0028[11]
Oki ShiraishiOkishiraishiMap[8][9][13] 0.0008[11]
(I.e.(I.e.Map×[9][15] 0.0027[11]
KodakajimaKotakashimaMap[8][9][13] 0.027[11]
Kogochi IslandKogochishimaMap[8][9][13] 0.0067[11]
TakashimaTakashimaMap[8][9][13]5.91.25[11][21]
Myoji IslandMyojishimaMap[8][9][13] 0.0799[11]
Sasude IslandAs expectedMap[8][9][13] 0.0447[11]
KodenshuKodonsuMap [9][13] 0.0069[11]
神岩Konoishi ×××× 0.00005[11]
Inazumi IslandInazumishimaMap[8][22][10] 0.023[11]
ToriyamaToriyamaMap[8][22][10] 0.0009[11]
YokobejimaYokobejimaMap[8][9][15] 0.0009[11]
KajikojimaKajikoshimaMap[8][9][19] 0.0576[11]
Kanari IslandPretty stripedMap[8][22][19] 0.0018[11]
MushimaMushimaMap[8][23][24]4.31.02[11]
DoujimaHabujimaMap[8][23][24] 0.0145[11]
SquirtsほやMap [9][13] 0.0006[11]
TakasagoTakasago ×××  0.003[11]

Terrain

Geography and Geology

In the Kasaoka Islands, more than 30 islands are lined up along the fault zone that runs from north-northwest to south-southeast.The topography of each island is also strongly influenced by this fault zone, and the west coast of Kitagi Island and Shiraishi Island is particularly fault scarp.This fault isSeto Inland SeaIs thought to be involved in the formation of[3][4].

Most islands are made of granite.Only Kamishima in the north is exceptionally composed mostly of rhyolite, and only a part of the southeastern end is made of granite.All islands tend to be mountainous and lack flat land, and settlements are formed along the coast and on the mountain surface except for reclaimed land since the early modern period.[6].

Kasaoka IslandsTideAnd the east side isMizushima Nada, The westBingo NadaIs.Especially in the strait about 3km wide between Takashima and ShiraishijimaShiraishi SetoIt is called (Shiraishi Seto), and you can see the phenomenon that the tide goes east and west around Seto at low tide and the tide fills from both sides at high tide.[20].

History and industry

Many archaeological sites from the Paleolithic period to the Jomon period and the Yayoi period have been excavated on the islands of the Kasaoka Islands.In particular, Paleolithic ruins are distributed more mainly on Myoji Island and Takashima than on the mainland.Ruins from the Jomon period onward have been widely found on each island, and the Otomari site on Takashima indicates that there was a large settlement on the island from the Kofun period to the Nara period.On Nishioshima, Kasaoka City, which is on the opposite bank of Yokoshima, from the former coastal areaTsumo KaizukaWas discovered, and 232 human bones from the Jomon period were excavated together.It is the first time in Japan that a large amount of human bones of the same period have been discovered, and it is the second largest number of discoveries in Japan, including subsequent discoveries.As a result, research on burial methods and tooth extraction at that time progressed, and it became extremely important for research on the Stone Age in Japan.There are ritual sites from the Nara period to the Kamakura period on Obi Island.Copper mirrorHas been discovered.These are ancientEnvoy,Envoy,DazaifuIt is considered to be evidence that the officials descending to the island stopped by this island during the voyage to perform a Shinto ritual, and these islands have long been a transportation hub of the Seto Inland Sea as a place for "waiting for the tide and waiting for the wind." Is believed to indicate[7][25][26].

on the other hand,"Japanese calligraphyAnd 'Record of Ancient MattersAs a legend ofEmperor JimmuIn the Kasaoka Islands during the eastern expedition byGyomiyaIt is said that he lived for several years.There is a theory that this Gyomiya was in Kamishima and a theory that it was in Takashima.[27][28].

Heian periodIn the Kasaoka IslandsLocal tycoonThe name of Mr. Manabe (Mr. Manabe) is "Heike story』Looks likeGenpei battleThen.HeikeIt is said that he fought about him.Kamakura PeriodLaterMr. SuyamaWas under the influence of.Muromachi PeriodKasaoka was a transportation hub during the mid-to-Sengoku periodMr. Mouri,Mr. KobayakawaHas advanced, and the Kasaoka Islands have become the base of the Navy.In the early modern periodBingo Fukuyama DomainUnder the control of Saigoku Daimyo, the port was improved and became a key port on the Seto Inland Sea route, and was frequently used as a substitute route for the Saigoku Daimyo.[7].

During the Edo period, reclamation was actively carried out in Kasaoka Bay and the Kasaoka Islands.As a result, some islands near Kasaoka Port were connected to the mainland, and Shiraishi Island and other islands were reclaimed and the urban areas and ports were improved.[7].

In the olden days, people lived mainly in agriculture, centering on upland farming on mountain slopes, especially on each island.cowWas bred.However, as the cultivated land expanded due to the increase in the island's population, there was no land for cattle on each island, which was originally poor in flat land.As a result, dependence on fisheries and water transport increased from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.[29]..The sea area between Kitagi Island and Manabe Island on the main island is a rich fishing ground.[Note 3]Especially in the early modern period, it was known as a sardine producing area.This sardine was mainly made into dried sardines and was heavily used as fertilizer in and around the Kasaoka Islands.[6][17]..In addition, Kitagi Island and Shiraishi Island are also famous as stone producing areas.[17].

When the fishing, water transportation, and stone industries were sluggish due to changes in the economic structure, flower cultivation as a commercial crop prospered temporarily on Manabe Island and other areas.However, it later declined, and the islands, which faced depopulation and aging, began to jointly focus on the tourism industry. In 2005 (Heisei 17), as a part of regional revitalization, the lunch box "Shimaben" was announced as a special product using local seafood.[31][32][33][2]. this isNHKOf the program "Hey, JapanWas jointly developed by Kasaoka City and NPO corporations.[32]..This effort was highly evaluatedMinistry of AgricultureReceived the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Award in the Village Development Division of the 22 Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Festival[34][33][35]..Besides this, in the summerSea bathingCustomers andキャンプIn addition to being crowded with customers, throughout the yearfishingThere are many customers.

Takashima, Shiraishi Island, Manabe IslandSeto Inland Sea National ParkIt is contained in, and natural stone and wood cannot be collected.Takashima and Shiraishijima are nationalScenic spotHas also been designated[21][36].

Administrative treatment

Since modern timesReclamation of Kasaoka BayIn the Edo period, Yokoshima was connected to the land, and from Showa to Heisei, Katashima and Kamishima were connected to the mainland.For this reason, administrativelyRemote island promotion lawThe target of this is only the islands on the south side of Kamishima, of which the seven inhabited islands are Takashima, Shiraishijima, Kitagijima, Manabejima, Obijima, Kobijima, and Rokushima.[3][37].

In 1957 (Showa 32), it was the first in Okayama Prefecture to be designated by the Remote Island Promotion Law.As a result, roads, ports, and electricity were improved in the Kasaoka Islands.Even after that, the water source on the islands depended on wells, but in 1975 (Showa 50), a water pipe laid on the seabed was constructed, and the water supply became perfect.[6][37].

Transition of administration and local government

Transition of local government
Island name1989
Before Meiji 22
1889
(Meiji 22)
1949
(Showa 24)
1951
(Showa 26)
1952
(Showa 27)
1953
(Showa 28)
1955
(Showa 30)
1982
(Showa 57)
Now
YokoshimaYokoshima VillageKonoshimauchi VillageKasaoka
Oaza Yokoshima
KamishimaKamishima Uchiura VillageKonoshimauchi VillageKasaoka
KamishimaOther
Kamishima Sotoura VillageKonoshimasotouraKonoshimasotouraKasaoka
TakashimaKamishima Sotoura Village
Branch island
Konoshimasotoura
Oaza Takashima
Konoshimasotoura
Oaza Takashima
Kasaoka
Oaza Takashima
TobishimaKamishima Sotoura Village
Branch island
Konoshimasotoura
Oaza Tobishima
Konoshimasotoura
Oaza Tobishima
Kasaoka
Oaza Tobishima
Shiroishi IslandShiroishi IslandKonoshimasotoura
Oaza Shiraishijima
Shiraishijima VillageKasaoka
Oaza Shiraishijima
Kitagi IslandKitagi IslandKitagishima VillageKitagishimachoKasaoka
Kitagishimacho
Manabe IslandManabe IslandManabeshima VillageKasaoka
Oaza Manabe Island
MushimaManabe Island
Branch island
Manabeshima Village
Oaza Manabe Island
Kasaoka
Oaza Manabe Island
Kasaoka
Oaza Rokushima

culture

The Kasaoka Islands are the point of contact between the mainland of Honshu and Shikoku, and at the same timeChinaBingo countryIt is located on the border of Japan, and has come into contact with East and West culture as an important port of call for the Seto Inland Sea route.In the Kasaoka Islands, you can see the characteristics of a mixture of these local cultures.[6].

In terms of accents and dialects, there are differences depending on the location even within the Kasaoka Islands.Okayama dialectHowever, there is an influence of the Shikoku dialect on Mushima and Manabe Island, which are close to Shikoku, and on Kitagi Island, etc.Hiroshima dialect-Bingo valveThe influence of is seen.As an example,Okayama dialectThe characteristic "Kyote" (horrible) is used up to Kitagi Island and Hishima, but on Manabe Island and Mu Island.Sanuki dialect"Otoroshi" is used[3].

Major islands

Yokoshima

Yokoshima is an island that was connected to the land by reclamation in the early modern period.According to folklore, this name comes from the fact that what was originally three islets has become a horizontally long island due to reclamation.Kanei yearsIn the pictorial map of (1624-1645), it is depicted as an isolated island "Yokoshima".Enpo2 years (1674) reclamation project connected to the mainland[38].

After that, there were ports in the cove, but these also became land due to the reclamation of Kasaoka Bay from Showa to Heisei.At the southern end, there were small islands such as "Odonsu", which were also integrated by reclamation.[38].

Katashima

Katashima(Katashima) is located about 3km south of Kasaoka Port and was once the closest island to the mainland in the Kasaoka Islands.It is long from east to west centering on a mountain with an altitude of 58 meters, with a circumference of about 4.5 km and an area of ​​about 0.5 km.2..It was also known as a beach.Reclamation of Kasaoka BayIs now completely continuous[14][39].

Kamishima

Kamishima(Konoshima) is an island located about 3km south of Kasaoka Port.The mainland side of Kamishima is "Uchiura", On the Seto Inland Sea side"SotouraThe village of Uchiura formed a village with the mainland, and the village of Sotoura formed a village with Shiraishi Island.Before Kasaoka Bay was reclaimed and connected to the mainland, it was the second largest island in Okayama prefecture and the largest manned island.[Note 4]was[1][12][40].

It used to be an inconvenient remote island where only rowing boats could berth, but in 1970 (Showa 45), it was with Yokoshima.Konoshima OhashiWas built and connected to the mainland and is no longer a remote island,Reclamation of Kasaoka BayIt became completely continuous in 1990 (Heisei 2).The mainland and between Yokoshima / Odenshu and Kamishima / Kodenshu are close to each other by about 100 meters in width, and are called "Kamishima Suido".The former Kasaoka BayHorseshoe crabHowever, the breeding ground was moved to Kamishima Suido due to the reclamation of the bay.[12][40][1].

Konoshimasotoura has a factory founded in the Meiji era and produces chemical fertilizers.This is Konoshima Kasei, a major fertilizer industry (in 2008)Ube IndustriesKasaoka Port became one of the important economic bases of Kasaoka City as a shipping port for chemical fertilizers.[12][40].

Kamishima Shrine in KamishimaEnki ceremony god name book"Kamishima Shrine" (List of Btsutyuu Shikinai companiesSee).Also,"Manyoshu''Tamabashu''New collection of old and new] Etc., a waka poem about "Kamishima" is recorded, and there is a theory that this is compared to the local area.[12][40].

On the south side of KamishimaTakashimaThe strait between the islands is called Kurotsuchiseto, and there are uninhabited islands such as Sasude Island, Myoji Island, and Inazumi Island.

Takashima

Takashima(Takashima) is a manned island about 2km south of Kamishima.It is about 12km from Kasaoka Port by sea route.It is accompanied by Sasude Island, Myoji Island, Inazumi Island, Kodaka Island, etc. as genus islands. In 1944 (Showa 19)Scenic spotHas been designated[21][2].

There are many archaeological sites on Takashima, and the old ones date back to the pre-earthenware era.A survey of these sites revealed the appearance of western Japan in the late Jomon period.[21][2][26].

About Takashima and Kamishima,Emperor JimmuThere is a legend that he lived. "Japanese calligraphyAnd 'Record of Ancient Matters』, Emperor Jimmu at the beginning of the eastern expeditionKibi countryCalled "Takashimamiya"GyomiyaIt is said that he lived there for three or eight years.There is a theory that this "Takashima shrine" refers to Takashima and a theory that it refers to Kamishima.[27][28].

Shiraishi Island is located south of Takashima, and the strait between the two islands is called Shiraishi Seto.Shiraishi Seto has uninhabited islands such as Kodaka Island and Kogochi Island[20].

Shiroishi Island

Shiroishi Island(Shiraishijima) is a manned island located 12km south of Kasaoka Port in a straight line and about 16km by sea.Most of the islands are exceptionally flat in the Kasaoka Islands, where flat land is scarce, but the flat land in the central part of the island was originally a cove and was reclaimed as a reclamation project during the Edo period.[2][20][36][41].

Shiraishi Island is located in the center of the Kasaoka Islands, not only the tide boundary between Mizushima Nada in the east and Bingo Nada in the west, but also the position that divides the entire Seto Inland Sea into east and west.At high tide, in the eastKitan Strait,Naruto StraitThe seawater (climbing tide) that came in from and the westToyo Strait-Kanmon StraitThe climbing tide from the island collides near Shiraishi Island.On the contrary, when the tide is low, the tide goes east and west with Shiraishi Island as the boundary.For this reason, Shiraishi Island has long been known as an important port in the Seto Inland Sea.In the early modern period, the central cove of the island was reclaimed and a large port was constructed, which was frequently used as a substitute route for Saigoku daimyo.Visited Japan in the late Edo periodEngelbert KempelIn "Edo Sanfu Travel Diary" (Genroku 4th year), "a convenient anchoring place that can never be expected in the future voyage"[20][36][41].

In 1943 (Showa 18), the nationalScenic spotHas been designated.In the center of the island, there is a granite with a height of about 10 meters.Shiraishi Island Armor RockIt has become a national natural monument.A Bon festival dance called "Shiraishi Odori", which is said to have started to mourn the dead of the Genpei War, has been transmitted to the island and has become an important intangible folk cultural property of the country.[20][36][41].

Kitagi Island

Kitagi Island(Kitagishima) is 14km south of Kasaoka Port in a straight line, and about 25km by sea.It is the largest island in the Kasaoka Islands and is considered to be the main island.The islands tend to be mountainous, including Mt. Buckli at an altitude of 225m, Mt. Tongiri (179.6m), Mt. Takayama (177.9m), Mt. Akiha (160m), and Mt. Yawata (141.7m).The flat land is scarce, and the main settlements are formed in "Toyoura" and "Kinburo" on the north bank, "Oura" on the east bank, and "Maruiwa" on the south bank.[42][43][2].

The granite produced on Kitagi Island is "Kitaki stoneIs calledInada stoneTogether with "GraniteDouble wall[44]It is said that.Kitagi stoneOsaka CastleIn addition to being used on a large scale at stone walls and gates inPrincess MunekoCemetery),Hideyoshi ToyotomiCemetery, KyotoGojo Ohashi,Meiji JinguBridge,Yasukuni ShrineTorii,Ise ShrineStone lantern,Yakushiji TempleWest Tower,Bank of Japan OfMain store old building,MitsukoshiUsed in the main store etc.[45][46][17][42][43][47].

Around Shiraishi Island and Kitagi Island, there are uninhabited small islands called Vertical Island and Yokobe Island.The islands of the Kasaoka Islands used to be buried, but they were limited to the islanders.Many workers from outside the island came to the island to cut out stones, and if they died in an accident, they were cremated on the vertical and horizontal islands.[48].

Tobishima

Obishima(Obishima) andKobi IslandAs a general term for (Kobishima)TobishimaIt's called (Hishima).The straight line distance from Kasaoka Port is about 18km, and the actual route is about 25km via Kitagi Island.These two manned islands are lined up at a distance of about 2 meters, and are famous for the sandbars that appear from Obi Island to Kobi Island at low tide.At the end of this sandbar is from the 900th century to the Kamakura periodRitual ruins(Obishima Site), And domestic Sancai (Nara Sansai), Tang dynasty bronze mirrors, and twelve dynasties have been discovered.The sandbar has become smaller in recent years, and the cause of the shrinkage of the sandbar is not clear, but it is speculated that it is related to the collection of sand on the seabed in the nearby sea.[18][49][50].

In the olden days, it was treated as a genus island of Kamishima, but in the early modern period, fishermen moved to Obijima and Kobishima and settled there, and it was treated as a branch island of Manabe Island.In the Showa period, many islanders began to work as sailors, and the population was usually about 400, but the population reached 800 only during the Bon Festival and New Year when the migrants returned home.[51][50].

Manabe Island

Manabe Island(Manabeshima) is a manned island located 18km south of Kasaoka Port and about 30km by sea.As a genus islandMushima, Oshima, Tokoshima, Tokoshima, Tokoshima, etc. 2.5km eastSanagishima(Shiozawa Islands).The island is long from east to west, with mountains at an altitude of 120m on both sides and almost no flat land.There is a cove on the north side of the island and a harbor is built[16][29][52].

It is said that it was the base of Mr. Manabe (Mr. Manabe) who arrived at the Heike clan during the Genpei War, and there is the ruins of the castle.In the early Edo periodKobori EnshuRuled, but for two years from 1617 (Genna 3)Bitchu Matsuyama Domain, From 1619 (Genna 5)Bingo Fukuyama Domain, Became a shogunate territory from 1968 (Genroku 11)[16][29].

It has prospered in the fishing industry since ancient times, and there is a record that during the Edo period, live fish were delivered directly from Manabe Island to the Edo market.The streets and buildings still retain the atmosphere of an old fishing village in the Seto Inland Sea.Prefecture's hometown villageIs specified in.Taking advantage of these streets, the movie "Setouchi Boy Baseball TeamIt became the location of[16][52][53].

Because there was no frost in 1947 (Showa 22)CamelliaCultivation was commercialized, and at its peak it became known nationwide as the "Flower Island" with a cultivation area of ​​30 hectares.However, it declined due to continuous cropping obstacles and changes in the market.[16][29][54].

(I.e.

Oshima is a general term for "Oshima" and "Oshima" in the north of Manabe Island.It is also called "Manabeshima" to distinguish it from the islands here and there.Oshima and Mae Oshima are close to each other at a distance of about 100m, and the islands are connected by a thin rocky area.Currently, all of them are uninhabited islands, but Oshima used to be cultivated.Mae Oshima has a giant tree estimated to be 400 years old.[Note 5]"(Machilus thunbergiiIs designated as a natural monument[16][55][29].

Mushima

Mushima(Mushima) is a manned island and is the southernmost tip of Okayama prefecture.It is the farthest from Kasaoka Port in the Kasaoka Islands, about 23 km in a straight line, and about 33 km on the route.It is also the southernmost tip of Okayama prefecture.About 4.5km south of mainland ShikokuShonai PeninsulaThe area between Mushima and the Sonai Peninsula has long been known as one of the difficult places where the tide flows quickly even on the Seto Inland Sea route.Therefore, it is also the first place in Okayama prefecture where a lighthouse was installed.[56][57].

Before the war, it was handled as a "live boat" that transports live fish.Awaji IslandIt was the best in Japan, but it became obsolete when the motorization of ships became widespread after the war.[56].Yokomizo Masashiof"Gokumon Island』(Kaneda Kosuke Series), Known as the stage1977 movie adaptationThen, shooting is actually done in Mushima[58][59][57].

Transportation

Due to its location, the Kasaoka Islands have been one of the most important ports on the Seto Inland Sea route since ancient times, and there have been many ports of call as bases for movement and the fishing industry.However, recent vessels that have become larger cannot enter the islands of the Kasaoka Islands.The south of Mushima has a tide boundary with the Nada, and the tide is fast, making it a place with a high risk of marine accidents.For this reason, Mushima has a lighthouse and a signal station.[57].

Currently, to each manned island in the Kasaoka IslandsKasaoka PortIn addition to regular sea routes, sea taxis are also available.However, there are concerns that the function as a connecting port will decline due to the deterioration of Kasaoka Port and the lack of parking lots.The ports on each island are also small, shared by passenger ships, fishing boats, fishing boats, and pleasure boats, and the transportation function is not high.[2][60].

Regular route as of 28

The conventional route was reorganized in 2011 (Heisei 23)[61].

  • Sanyo Steamship
    • Shiraishi Island Route (Kasaoka (Sumiyoshi Port) --Shiraishi Island)[62]
    • Mushima Route (Kasaoka (Sumiyoshi Port) --Kamishima (Toura Port) --Takashima --Hishima (Kitaura Port) --Hishima (State Port) --Kobi Island --Mushima (Mushima Port) --Rokushima (Maeura Port) --Manabe Island)[63]
    • Sanagi Motoura route[Note 6](Kasaoka (Sumiyoshi Port) --Kamishima (Toura Port) --Takashima --Shiraishi Island --Kitagi Island (Kusu Port) --Kitagi Island (Kitagi Island Port) --Manabeshima (Honura) --Manabeshima (Iwatsubo Port))[64]
    • Tadotsu Sanagi Route (Manabe Island- Sanagishima(Nagasaki Port) --Sanagi Island (Honura Port) - Takami Island - Tadotsu Port[65]
    • Mushima Route (Kasaoka (Sumiyoshi Port) --Rokushima (Mushima Port) --Rokushima (Maeura Port))[66]
    • Shiraishi Route (Kasaoka (Fushikoshi Port) -Shiraishi Island)[67]
  • Setouchi Cruising
    • Kitagishima Route (Kasaoka (Fushikoshi Port) --Shiraishi Island --Kitagi Island (Toyoura Port) --Kitagi Island (Kinburo Port))[68]
    • Kitagi Island Route (Kasaoka (Fushikoshi Port) --Kitagi Island (Toyoura Port) --Kitagi Island (Kinburo Port))[69]

Neighboring island

stage

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ Excluding those that have become tied islands due to reclamation, Mt. Buckli (225.2m) on Kitagi Island is the highest point.
  2. ^ The area of ​​the island fluctuates every year due to civil engineering work such as landfill and erosion.Geographical Survey InstituteThe area of ​​the island, which is announced every year, also fluctuates frequently.In particular, there was a change in the area calculation method between 25 and 26, so fluctuations are large.In the past, it was calculated by adding or subtracting the amount of fluctuation every year to what was measured on the topographic map in 1988 (Showa 63), but from 26 it will be the measured value by the electronic national land basic map. There is.For exampleMushimaIn the case of, 1km at the Geographical Survey Institute2It is less than.
  3. ^ Last glacial periodAt that time, the entire Seto Inland Sea was land, and it is believed that rivers originating from the Chugoku Mountains crossed the Seto Inland Sea and poured into the Pacific Ocean.A valley carved by a river at that time) remains on the seabed, and this is called a submerged fossil valley.This fossil valley passes between Kitagi Island and Manabe Island.There are multiple theories about the detailed water system, but it is said that there was a river that flowed east through the Seto Inland Sea and poured into the Pacific Ocean by the Kii Channel, and a water system that flowed west and poured into the Pacific Ocean by the Bungo Channel. The watershed was near the Kasaoka Islands[30].
  4. ^ Kakui IslandHowever, it was the largest in the prefecture in terms of area, and was an uninhabited island until the Second World War.
  5. ^ Locally, this large tree is called "rats" because it is a breeding ground for rats.[29].
  6. ^ The route name is "Sayanagi Motoura"SanagishimaNot operated to.

Source

  1. ^ a b c "Kakugawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 33 Okayama Prefecture" p458-460 "Konoshima" "Konoshima" "Konoshima Ohashi" "Konoshima outside" ""
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Okayama Prefectural Office Okayama Prefecture Remote Island Promotion Plan Retrieved November 2016, 7. (PDF) , p42-53
  3. ^ a b c d e "Okayama Prefectural Encyclopedia" Volume 590 p591-XNUMX "Kasaoka Islands" "Dialect of Kasaoka Islands" "Old Story of Kasaoka Islands"
  4. ^ a b c Tokuyama University Topographical environment in the Chugoku region Archipelago around the Kasaoka Islands Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  5. ^ "Kasaoka Islands has been certified as a Japanese heritage site as a stone island”. Public Interest Incorporated Association Okayama Prefecture Tourism Federation (March 2019, 5). 2021th of February 5Browse.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Kakugawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 33 Okayama Prefecture" p280 "Kasaoka Islands"
  7. ^ a b c d "Place Names in Okayama Prefecture (Japanese Historical Place Names)" p809-810 "Kasaoka City"
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Geographical Survey InstituteMap 20 / 1 Topographic map NI-53-27 "Okayama Oimarugame" Edited in 61 Revised in 22 Published on August 23, 8
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w 国土地理院地図 5万分の1地勢図 NI-53-27-6「寄島」明治30年測量 昭和55年第2回編集 平成7年修正 平成8年8月1日発行
  10. ^ a b c 国土地理院地図 2.5万分の1地勢図 NI-53-27-10-1「福山東部」大正14測量 昭和58年第2回改測 平成12年修正測量 平成13年6月1日発行
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Japanese Island Encyclopedia" p276-277
  12. ^ a b c d e "Okayama Prefectural Encyclopedia" Volume 961 pXNUMX "Konoshima" "Konoshima Kasei Kamishima Factory" "Konoshima Shrine" "Konoshima XNUMX Places Tour"
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i 国土地理院地図 2.5万分の1地勢図 NI-53-27-6-3「寄島」昭和53年第2回改測 平成16年更新 平成17年8月1日発行
  14. ^ a b "Okayama Prefectural Encyclopedia" Volume 614 pXNUMX "Katashima"
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k 国土地理院地図 2.5万分の1地勢図 NI-53-27-6-4「白石島」昭和53年改測 平成19年更新 平成20年3月1日発行
  16. ^ a b c d e f "Kakugawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 33 Okayama Prefecture" p1045-1046 "Manabe" "Manabeshima"
  17. ^ a b c d "Kakugawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 33 Okayama Prefecture" p382-383 "Kitagi" "Kitagi Island"
  18. ^ a b c "Kakugawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 33 Okayama Prefecture" p843-844 "Hishima"
  19. ^ a b c 国土地理院地図 2.5万分の1地勢図 NI-53-27-10-2「鞆」昭和58年第2回改測 平成19年更新 平成20年8月1日発行
  20. ^ a b c d e f "Kakugawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 33 Okayama Prefecture" p605-606 "Shiraishi Island" "Shiraishi Island Armor Rock" "Shiraishi Seto"
  21. ^ a b c d "Kakugawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 33 Okayama Prefecture" p658-659 "Takashima"
  22. ^ a b c Geographical Survey Institute地図 5万分の1地勢図 NI-53-27-10「福山」明治31年測量 昭和60年第2回編集 平成8年修正 平成10年1月1日発行
  23. ^ a b 国土地理院地図 5万分の1地勢図 NI-53-27-7「仁尾」明治30年測量 昭和54年第2回編集 平成20年修正 平成21年5月1日発行
  24. ^ a b 国土地理院地図 2.5万分の1地勢図 NI-53-27-7-3「六島」昭和53年改測 平成19年更新 平成20年3月1日発行
  25. ^ "Place Names in Okayama Prefecture (Japanese Historical Place Names)" p828-829 "Tsukumo Shell Mound"
  26. ^ a b "New Edition History Walk in Okayama Prefecture" p144-148 "Port Town in Btsutyuu" "Kamishima and the Islands Off Kasaoka"
  27. ^ a b "Okayama Prefectural Encyclopedia" Volume 44 pXNUMX "Takashima"
  28. ^ a b "Place Names in Okayama Prefecture (Japanese Historical Place Names)" p825 "Takashima"
  29. ^ a b c d e f "Okayama Encyclopedia" Volume 837 p838-XNUMX "Manabe Island" "Manabe Island Accent" "Manabe Island Bon Odori"
  30. ^ "Topography of Japan 6 Kinki / Chugoku / Shikoku" p208-220
  31. ^ NPO Kasaoka Shimazukuri Kaisha History Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  32. ^ a b Kasaoka City Hall Collaborative town development section Shimaben Project (XNUMX project) Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  33. ^ a b Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Rural Promotion Bureau Rural Policy Department Rural Planning Division 22 Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Festival Village Development Division Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Award Kasaoka Shimazukuri Kaisha, a specified non-profit organization (PDF) Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  34. ^ Ministry of Agriculture Rural Planning Division, Rural Policy Department, Rural Promotion Bureau Received the 22 Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Award (PDF) Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  35. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Island revitalization activities through collaboration with NPOs by residents (PDF) Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  36. ^ a b c d "Okayama Prefectural Encyclopedia" Volume 1286 p1287-XNUMX "Shiraishi Dance" "Shiraishi Island" "Shiraishi Island Armor Rock"
  37. ^ a b Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Remote island promotion List of remote island promotion measures implementation areas Retrieved November 2016, 7. (PDF)
  38. ^ a b "Place Names in Okayama Prefecture (Japanese Historical Place Names)" p823-824 "Yokoshima" "Yokoshima Irienitta"
  39. ^ "Kakugawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 33 Okayama Prefecture" p293 "Katashima Ruins"
  40. ^ a b c d "Place Names in Okayama Prefecture (Japanese Historical Place Names)" p824 "Konoshima"
  41. ^ a b c "Place Names in Okayama Prefecture (Japanese Historical Place Names)" p826 "Shiraishijima"
  42. ^ a b "Okayama Prefectural Encyclopedia" Volume 740 p741-XNUMX "Kitagi Stone" "Kitagi Island"
  43. ^ a b "Place Names in Okayama Prefecture (Japanese Historical Place Names)" p826-827 "Kitagi Island"
  44. ^ Hitachi Solutions Create "World Encyclopedia XNUMXnd Edition" "Kitagi Stone"Kotobank version Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  45. ^ Tsuruta stone History of Kitagi stone Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  46. ^ Narumoto stone Kitaki stone Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  47. ^ Kasaoka FerryKitagi Island Overview Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  48. ^ "Island Museum Encyclopedia" p222-223 "Kitagi Island"
  49. ^ "Kakugawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 33 Okayama Prefecture" p215-216 "Obishima Site"
  50. ^ a b "Place Names in Okayama Prefecture (Japanese Historical Place Names)" p825-826 "Hishima" "Obishima Site"
  51. ^ "Okayama Prefectural Encyclopedia" Volume 570 p571-XNUMX "Hishima"
  52. ^ a b "Place Names in Okayama Prefecture (Japanese Historical Place Names)" p827-828 "Manabeshima" "Manabe Castle Ruins"
  53. ^ Okayama Prefecture Tourism Federation Okayama Travel NetSetouchi Boy Baseball Team Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  54. ^ "Island Museum Encyclopedia" p569 "Manabe Island"
  55. ^ Kasaoka City HallLifelong Learning Division Manabeshima Inugus Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  56. ^ a b "Okayama Prefectural Encyclopedia" Volume 958 pXNUMX "Mushima"
  57. ^ a b c "Kakugawa Japanese Place Name Dictionary 33 Okayama Prefecture" p1112 "Mushima"
  58. ^ Kasaoka City Mushima Elementary School Introduction of Mushima Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  59. ^ "Island Museum Encyclopedia" p598 "Mushima"
  60. ^ Japan Passenger Ship Association Seto Inland Sea Detailed view around Kasaoka Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  61. ^ NPO CDM JAPAN Kasaoka Islands Story Kasaoka Islands route map / timetable Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  62. ^ Sanyo Steamship Shiraishi Island Route Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  63. ^ Sanyo Steamship Mushima route Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  64. ^ Sanyo Steamship Sanagi Motoura route Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  65. ^ Sanyo Steamship Tadotsu Sanagi route Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  66. ^ NPO CDM JAPAN Kasaoka Islands Story Mushima route Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  67. ^ NPO CDM JAPAN Kasaoka Islands Story Shiraishi route Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  68. ^ Setouchi Cruising Kitagi Island route Retrieved November 2016, 7.
  69. ^ Kasaoka Ferry Timetable / boarding fee Retrieved November 2016, 7.

References

外部 リンク

Mount Ishizuchi

Characters contained in this item"'It is,operating system,ブ ラ ウ ザThe display varies depending on the environment such as.

Mount Ishizuchi(Mr. Ishizuchi, Mt. Ishizuchi)Shikoku MountainsLocated in the west at an altitude of 1,982 m(I.e.so,KinkiWhen the west is "Western Japan"West JapanIt is the highest peak.EhimeSaijo CityKumakogen TownLocated on the border of.

Stone iron mountain,Mt. Ishizuchi,Mt. Ishizuchi,Mt. IshizuchiOrTakane of IyoIt is also written as. "Japanese spiritual storyIs written as "Mt. Ishizuchi"Enki ceremony OfGod name book(Enki ceremony god name book), It is written as "Ishitetsu Shrine".Maejinji TempleandYokomine TempleThen it is also called "Mt. Ishizuchi"[1].

Overview

Mt. IshizuchiMountain worship(Study road) Is known as a mountain.Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains),One hundred views of JapanIs one of theSeven Holy Mountains in JapanIt is considered to be one of the sacred mountains and is also called Mt. Ishizuchi.Ishizuchi MountainsIs the central mountain ofIshizuchi Quasi-National ParkIs designated as November 1955, 11.

To be exact, Mt. Tengudake (Tengu only, altitude 1,982 m), which is located at the highest peak.Ishizuchi ShrineThere is a mountaintop companyUlsan(Misen, altitude 1,974 m) ・ A series of mountain peaks (Nansenpo, altitude 1,982 m) is called Mt. Ishizuchi.

Triangular pointIs not installed at Mt. Tengudake or Mt. Misen, but the third triangulation point "Mt. Ishizuchi" is installed at the peak of 1,920.63 m northwest of Mt. Misen.[2]..The first-class triangulation point "Omogosan" in the Ishizuchi Mountains is on the southwest side.NinomoriIt is installed on the summit (1,929.24 m).

Geology

NeogeneUntil about 1500 million years agoVolcanoAs a mountain bodySanbagawa metamorphic beltCover,AndesiteConsists of[3]..This andesite is on the south side of the summitOmogawakeiIt is distributed in a diameter of about 7 km centered oncalderaWas forming.By the way, this caldera is not a funnel-shaped caldera that is common in Japan, but a bias-type caldera that erupts in a ring-shaped fissure.About 2 years agoLast glacial periodAround herePeriglacial actionIt is presumed that the rocks worked and the rocks were crushed to form a mountain on the rocky ridge.[3].

Flora and fauna

The forests in and around Mt. Ishizuchi are warm forests (OakFrom forest) to temperate forest (forest)BeechForest), subarctic forest with an altitude of 1,700 meters or more (forest)Betula birchHayashi,Silabiso(Shikoku Abies veitchii) Forest) and rich in variety.thisSubalpine coniferous forestIs the southernmost one in Japan[3], Exhibits diverse fauna,Bear hawk,Peregrine Falcon,DormouseBecause it is important as a habitat for such things as the nationally designated Ishizuchi MountainsWildlife reserveDesignated as (Large-scale habitat) (Area 10,858)ha, Of which the Special Protection Area 802ha).Also of the Forestry AgencyForest ecosystem protected areaIs also specified.

Organisms whose type is Mt. Ishizuchi

  • Phragmites aeruginosa Phaonia ishizuchiensis Shinonaga et Kano, 1971 Housefly, Phragmites australis, Subfamily
    • 1969(Showa44 years)May 6, 1 male specimen collected by Satoshi ShinonagaHolo type, 4 new species listed with male specimens designated as paratypes

Mountain worship

Mt. Ishizuchi has been around for a long timeMountain worshipIt is said to be a mountain ofNara periodWas known as a training dojo.Small angle,KukaiIs said to have practicedMountain buddhism,Study roadHas developed and as a base of faithIshizuchi Shrine,Maejinji Temple,Gokurakuji Temple,Yokomine TempleThere is. (The fulfillment of Ishizuchi Shrine Nakamiya was called permanent residence before the separation of Shinto and Buddhism in the early Meiji era.)

The ancient Mt. IshizuchiMt. Sasagamine,KamegamoriAnd there is a theory that Mt. Gongenyama was the center of Ishizuchi worship, or that the current two sacred areas of Mt. Ishizuchi and Mt. Sasagamine are assumed.[1][5]. (NiihamaBased on the fact that Mt. Ishizuchi in the Nara period pointed to Mt. Sasagamine at Shoboji Temple, Mt. Sasagamine is still being visited every July as a betto of Ishizuchi Gongen. )

In 657 as a tradition of KaisanPerformerAnd the Hosen who served it is Mt. Ryuo (KamegamoriIt is said that he was impressed with the training of Sue Ishido Zao Gongen at an altitude of 840 m on the hillside.Then, the Tenkawaji Temple will be opened in a large area just below it. In 737, Ishido Zao Gongen was enshrined at the height of Kamegamori and was called the shrine, and in 753 Yoshimoto solicited Kumano Gongen.The mountain is called Mt. Ishizuchi, and Tianhe Temple prospered as a special case.On the other hand, the mountain that is now Mt. Ishizuchi is called Ishizuchimine, and Yokomineji was opened by the chief priest of Hoanji Temple (Komatsu, Saijo City, Ehime Prefecture, founded in the Asuka period). The temple, which was the predecessor of Maejinji Temple, was built in the permanent residence of.After that, he was also a disciple of Ishisen and trained in Kurokawadani.Kamisen Bosatsu(From Kamino-gun, Iyo Province) praises Ishizuchi Zao Gongen and opens a mountain trail to the summit.Then, in 828, Kamegamori moved Mt. Ishizuchi to the current Mt. Ishizuchi.MitsudaMoved by (from Kazahaya-gun, Iyo Province) and became known as Mt. Ishizuchi[6].

Heian periodIn the first halfGod Buddha practiceIs said to have been done, peculiar to mountain worshipKongo Zao GongenAnd was enshrined.Then, when Emperor Kanmu (782-805) fulfilled his prayer for healing his illness and the gratitude for Heiankyo, he ordered the Kokushi to build the Shichido Garan as a permanent residence and made it the title of "Golden Temple". Was given.TenshoIn the yearToshinao Kono, Is the company territory,1610(Keicho15 years)Hideyori ToyotomiDonated the shrine to Maejinji.KanbunIn the yearKomatsu DomainmainMr. Ichiyanagi,Saijo clanmainMatsudairaThe shrine was improved by the devotion of[7][8].

Edo PeriodIn the early days, as the number of believers increased, Maejinji set up a branch office at the foot of the temple, and then the permanent main temple was called Okuzenjinji, and the branch office at the foot was called Satozenjinji.After that, the main temple function moved to the village.And over the estate of Betto and OkuzenjinjiSaijo clanA dispute arose between Maejinji Temple in the territory and Yokomineji Temple in the Komatsu Domain.From ancient times, Maejinji used to be the exclusive name for Ishizuchiyama Zao Gongen Betto.1729(KyohoIt is said that Yokomineji used the seal of "Ishizuchiyama Zao Gongen Betto Yokomineji" in 14), and both sides said that it was the beginning.京都 OfImperial PalaceI came to file a complaint.Therefore, the estate is the Sensokuyama village of the Komatsu domain, the management right and the exclusive name of "Ishizuchiyama Zao Gongen Betsuto" are changed to Maejinji, Okuzenjinji is renamed to Permanent Shrine, and Yokomineji is "Fukoyama Ishizuchisha".[Annotation 1]It was decided to call it "Betto"[1].

1871(Meiji4 years)Divine Buddha separationAs a result, Ishigane Zao Gongen became Kuebiko Ishido, and all the temples of Maejinji became Ishitetsu Shrine, Maejinji became an abandoned temple, and Yokomineji became Yokominesha.Both temples were reconstructed soon afterwardsShingon sectI will belong to. In 1902 (Meiji 35), it was decided to change from Ishizuchi Shrine to Ishizuchi Shrine.[9], Mt. Ishizuchi Komei (Mt. Ishizuchi), Mt. Ishizuchi.After the middle of the Meiji era, Ishizuchi Shrine, Maejinji Temple, and Yokomineji Temple attracted even more believers.

Every year,May 7から10 DayIn the meantime, "Oyama opening"ShintoismWas carried out, and many believersWorshipVisit for mountaineering.During the period of mountain opening from ancient timesFemale ProhibitionIt has been said, but now only July 7stFemale ProhibitionIt became.On the day of the event, women cannot climb to the summit until they reach the office or reach the Tsuchiya Harukaden.[10].

Climbing

The top of Mt. Ishizuchi usually refers to Mt. Tengudake, but due to the rocky area from Mt. Misen to Mt. Tengudake and the lack of space for many people to stay in Mt. Tengudake, just before Mt. Tengudake. There are many climbers up to Mt. Misen (about 200m before).On Mt. Misen, there is a mountaintop hut in addition to the seat of Ishizuchi Shrine.

There are three chains up to Mt. Misen, from the bottom, "one chain" (3 meters), "two chains" (33 meters), and finally "three chains" (65 meters).DetourThere is also. In front of the "Ichi no Chain", there is a "Trial Chain" (1,592 meters) over the rocky peak of Maesagamori (74 m), which is the steepest.SlopeIs.To MisenlockIs said to have been hung since the early modern period1779(Ernst & Young8 years), the chain broke, the next1780"Ishizuchi Mt. Misen Chain Muscle Nokaku", which is a record that the chain was changed in (Anei 9), is left in the old record of Maejinji Temple.From the summitSeto Inland Sea,andTosa Bay, On a clear dayMt. OoyamaStarting withChugoku Mountains,Kyusyu OfKuju Mountain RangeCan be hoped for.

The main mountain climbing courses areIshizuchi Tozan RopewayThere are three general courses: the fulfillment course used, the clay hut course using the Ishizuchi skyline or the Binga forest road, and the Omogo valley course, but as a course that does not use the ropeway, the course from the Nishinogawa trailhead to the dawn pass, and Imamiya There is also a course from the road to the company.The mountain trail from fulfillment is called Omotesando, and the trail from Omogo is called Urasando.[11]..Insufficient preparation is prohibited as there is a distress every year on the course from the Nishinogawa trailhead. Directly below Mt. Tengudake, there is a steep and overhanging north wall, which provides a rock climbing field that can be said to be the best in Shikoku.Sawanobori and Minamizawa on the southwestern slope are known as Sawanobori routes.In addition, it should be notedDogamoriからNinomoriThere is also a vertical route on the main line of the Ishizuchi Mountains that leads to Mt. Ishizuchi via.

further,"Ishizuchiyama Historic Site XNUMX PrincesThere are also worshipers who go around the place, but you can't reach it unless you go under the guidance of an experienced person.In addition, once a year in autumnIshizuchi ShrineIs holding a worship party.

Use in competition

  • Ishizuchiyama Hill Climb(Ishizuchi Hill Climb)
At the foot of the mountainIshizuchi SkylineHeld every year in late SeptemberBicycle competition(Road race, 2 heat systemHill climbRace)[12]..Local governments, tourist organizations, media, etc.[Annotation 2]It is sponsored by the "Mt. Ishizuchi Hill Climb Executive Committee".
The total length of the competition section is 18.4 km (1 km in the first section, 11.0 km in the second section, 2 km in the moving section is not measured), and the altitude difference between the start and the goal is 7.4 m.[12], The average gradient is 6.0%.

Surrounding mountains

DogamoriNinomori━ Mt. Ishizuchi ━Mount Iwaguro━Komochi Mt. Gongenyama━KamegamoriNishi KuromoriMt. IyofujiKanfuzanMt. SasagamineChichiyama
             ┃
            TsunokamiMt.
            

Literature / media

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Zao Gongen in the temple grounds
  2. ^ Kumakogen Town, Kumakogen Town Board of Education, Kumakogen Town Chamber of Commerce, Kumakogen Town Tourism Association, Omogo Furusato City Executive Committee, Ishizuchi Shrine, Ishizuchi Tourism Co., Ltd., TV Ehime Co., Ltd., Omogo District Public Hall, Each organization of the Kumakogen Town Sports Promotion Committee.

Source

  1. ^ a b c "Japanese historical place name system 39 place name in Ehime prefecture" Heibonsha,1980
  2. ^ GSI reference point results browsing service
  3. ^ a b c Hiroshi Tashiro, Kazumi Fujimoto, Nagamasa Shimizu, Masashi Takada "Mountain Map and Topography" Yama-kei Publishers,1996
  4. ^
    Explanation of the Ishizuchi mountain range
  5. ^ "Kadokawa Japan Geographic Names Dictionary] Kadokawa Shoten,1981
  6. ^ Saijo Shidan No. 63 January 17 From around page 1
  7. ^ Yasushi Ishihara "National History DictionaryVolume 2 "Mt. Ishizuchi", Yoshikawa Kobunkan,1985
  8. ^ "Nature and Humanities of the Ishizuchi Mountains" Ishizuchi Mountains Comprehensive Academic Research Report,1960
  9. ^ According to the chronological table in the rest area in front of the main shrine of Ishizuchi Shrine
  10. ^ "Mountain opening festival”. Ishizuchi Shrine. 2020th of February 3Browse.
  11. ^ "Alpine Guide Mountains in Shikoku, China" Yama-kei Publishers,1998
  12. ^ a b "Tournament holding procedure”. Ishizuchi Hill Climb Executive Committee. 2015th of February 2Browse.
  13. ^ Display of mountain name

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