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💪 | Yoko Kumada releases exciting video from the morning of the holiday "I woke up" unintentionally


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Yoko Kumada releases exciting video from the morning of the holiday "I woke up" unintentionally

 
If you write the contents roughly
The standard body fat percentage for women is 20-29%, but Kumada revealed in a story released last month that her body fat percentage is 16.8%.
 

Yoko Kumada has released a gravure photo shoot on Instagram.Some fans liken it to a "goddess" for its sexyness.Sauce ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

body fat percentage

body fat percentage(Ishibo Uritsu,British: body fat percentage; BFP) IsAnimalContained in the body offat Ofmass OfWeightThe ratio to.In this article,Human capitalHandles the case of.

The definition is the mass of fat in the body (kg) / body weight (kg)) x 100 (unit%).Since it is not easy to directly measure the mass of fat in the body, there are various measurement methods as described later.

Relationship with obesity

obesityIndicates "a state in which body fat has increased more than necessary", but it is difficult to measure the body fat percentage, and thereforeBMISimple diagnostic methods were widely used. However, in recent yearsBody fat meter(Body composition meter) has become popular, and the number of cases of determining obesity based on the body fat percentage is increasing.

Proper body fat percentage

The lower the body fat percentage, the better, but not too low.body temperatureMay lead to weakness and weakness (because muscles are broken down to produce energy)[1].FemaleIn the case ofhormoneOut of balancephysiologicalIrregularity and early onsetmenopauseMay be invited. For professional athletes, less than 10% is not uncommon.

The proper body fat percentage is said to be as follows. No clear global standard has been set.

Tokyo Jikei University School of Medicine Health Criteria (1993)
SortMen under 29Men over 30Women under 29Women over 30
Appropriate range14 - 20%17 - 23%17 - 24%20 - 27%
obesity25% or more25% or more30% or more30% or more

The above criteria are for 1993Jikei University School of MedicineA value used as a criterion in health medicine. Of yoreTanitaIt is described in the manual of[2].

Tanita standards[3]
Sort18-39 year old man40-59 year old man60-99 year old man18-39 year old woman40-59 year old woman60-99 year old woman
Thin10% or less11% or less13% or less20% or less21% or less22% or less
-standard11 - 16%12 - 17%14 - 19%21 - 27%22 - 28%23 - 29%
+ Standard17 - 21%18 - 22%20 - 24%28 - 34%29 - 35%30 - 36%
Light obesity22 - 26%23 - 27%25 - 29%35 - 39%36 - 40%37 - 41%
obesity27% or more28% or more30% or more40% or more41% or more42% or more

Exclude those who are pregnant, undergoing artificial dialysis, or have swelling symptoms.

OMRON standard[4]
SortWomen over 15Male
healthy20 - 29%10 - 19%
Mild obesity30 - 34%20 - 24%
Moderate obesity35 - 39%25 - 29%
Severe obesity40% or more30% or more

OMRONAccording to the standard, the standard of the body fat percentage that is considered healthy is 10 to 19% for men and 15 to 20% for women over the age of 29, and when the body fat percentage is higher than that, it is considered obese.

American Council on Exercise Standards (2009)[5]
SortFemaleMale
too skinny10 - 13%2 - 5%
athlete14 - 20%6 - 13%
healthy21 - 24%14 - 17%
Average25 - 31%18 - 24%
obesity32% or more25% or more

Main body fat percentage measurement methods

There are several methods for measuring body fat percentage, and the following are the main ones.

Underwater weighing method (underwater weighing method)

Archimedes principleThis is an application of the above, in which the whole body is submerged in water, the weight is measured with a scale in water, and the body density is calculated from the difference from the weight in the atmosphere. Although it is a relatively accurate measurement method and is used as a reference for other measurement methods, it has the following problems. The density of adipose tissue is generally 0.9007 g/cm3And the density of tissues other than fat is 1.1000 g/cm3Is said to be[6].

  • In order to eliminate the effects of buoyancy caused by air on the body surface or inside the body, measurements must be taken while exhaling. Therefore, the measurement is painful.
  • The equipment is inevitably large and measurement is not easy.
  • There are few facilities with facilities

Air replacement method

How to measure the body pressure by entering the sealed device and measuring the pressure change of air[7].. It is a relatively accurate measurement method based on almost the same principle as the underwater weighing method, and it is a method that is simple and does not cause any pain.Grand Sumo OfWrestlerIs known to measure this. The device called "BOD POD" by Life Measurement, Inc. in the US is famous.

Dual energy X-ray absorption method (DXA, DEXA)

Of two different wavelengthsX-rayA method of irradiating the whole body and measuring the body composition from the difference in transmittance[7].. OriginallyBone densityAlthough it is a method of measuring, the measurement accuracy of body fat mass and muscle mass is also high, and in recent years, it has been said that it is the gold standard as a measuring method instead of the underwater weight measuring method. DXA or DEXA is an abbreviation for “Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry”.

Subcutaneous fat thickness method (Caliper method)

A method of measuring the thickness of subcutaneous fat using a subcutaneous fat gauge (caliper) and then substituting the measured value into the calculation formula.[7].. This is a simple method, but there are drawbacks such as the distribution of subcutaneous fat varies from person to person, and there are errors, that measurement requires some skill, and visceral fat cannot be measured.

Bioimpedance method

A weak electric current is passed through the body,ImpedanceThe method of measuring and estimating the body fat percentage from it. This is the most convenient and most popular method at present, and most of the commercially available body fat meters are this method.[7].. However, it is difficult to calculate an accurate value due to the following problems.

  • The bioelectrical impedance changes greatly depending on the physical condition immediately after waking up or immediately before going to bed, and there are large variations in the measured time even on the same day.
  • Estimate body fat percentage from bioelectrical impedancealgorithmHowever, it differs depending on each manufacturer of measuring instruments. Therefore, there are large variations among devices.
  • A person with a high muscular ratio cannot measure accurately because the bioelectrical impedance is different from a general person.
    • Some devices have an "athlete mode" to overcome this drawback.
  • Heart pacemakerIf you are using a, the current may cause the pacemaker to malfunction and cannot be used.

Other methods

Other methods include the following.

CT method, MRI method
CT,MRIA method of taking a cross-sectional image of the body using and calculating the body fat percentage from it. Although the accuracy is quite high, it is not often used because the device becomes large. Abdominal CT examination indicates "visceral fat type obesity" when the area (cross-sectional area) of visceral fat at the navel is 100 cm² or more.[4].
Internal potassium measurement method
In the bodypotassiumIs a method that focuses on the fact that is not contained in adipose tissue, measures potassium in the body with a large-scale device called a "human counter," and calculates the body fat percentage from there.[8].
UltrasonographyIt uses the same device asUltrasoundTo take and measure cross-section images of the body by[9].. It is relatively accurate.
Near infrared spectroscopy
BicepsIn the center ofNear infraredIrradiates and absorbs its lightSpectrumTo calculate body fat percentage based on[9].
Sulfur hexafluoride dilution method
It is based on almost the same principle as the air displacement method,Sulfur hexafluorideThis is a method of adding a certain amount of gas.

Source/Footnote

Related item

body fat percentage

body fat percentage(Ishibo Uritsu,British: body fat percentage; BFP) IsAnimalContained in the body offat Ofmass OfWeightThe ratio to.In this article,Human capitalHandles the case of.

The definition is the mass of fat in the body (kg) / body weight (kg)) x 100 (unit%).Since it is not easy to directly measure the mass of fat in the body, there are various measurement methods as described later.

Relationship with obesity

obesityIndicates "a state in which body fat has increased more than necessary", but it is difficult to measure the body fat percentage, and thereforeBMISimple diagnostic methods were widely used. However, in recent yearsBody fat meter(Body composition meter) has become popular, and the number of cases of determining obesity based on the body fat percentage is increasing.

Proper body fat percentage

The lower the body fat percentage, the better, but not too low.body temperatureMay lead to weakness and weakness (because muscles are broken down to produce energy)[1].FemaleIn the case ofhormoneOut of balancephysiologicalIrregularity and early onsetmenopauseMay be invited. For professional athletes, less than 10% is not uncommon.

The proper body fat percentage is said to be as follows. No clear global standard has been set.

Tokyo Jikei University School of Medicine Health Criteria (1993)
SortMen under 29Men over 30Women under 29Women over 30
Appropriate range14 - 20%17 - 23%17 - 24%20 - 27%
obesity25% or more25% or more30% or more30% or more

The above criteria are for 1993Jikei University School of MedicineA value used as a criterion in health medicine. Of yoreTanitaIt is described in the manual of[2].

Tanita standards[3]
Sort18-39 year old man40-59 year old man60-99 year old man18-39 year old woman40-59 year old woman60-99 year old woman
Thin10% or less11% or less13% or less20% or less21% or less22% or less
-standard11 - 16%12 - 17%14 - 19%21 - 27%22 - 28%23 - 29%
+ Standard17 - 21%18 - 22%20 - 24%28 - 34%29 - 35%30 - 36%
Light obesity22 - 26%23 - 27%25 - 29%35 - 39%36 - 40%37 - 41%
obesity27% or more28% or more30% or more40% or more41% or more42% or more

Exclude those who are pregnant, undergoing artificial dialysis, or have swelling symptoms.

OMRON standard[4]
SortWomen over 15Male
healthy20 - 29%10 - 19%
Mild obesity30 - 34%20 - 24%
Moderate obesity35 - 39%25 - 29%
Severe obesity40% or more30% or more

OMRONAccording to the standard, the standard of the body fat percentage that is considered healthy is 10 to 19% for men and 15 to 20% for women over the age of 29, and when the body fat percentage is higher than that, it is considered obese.

American Council on Exercise Standards (2009)[5]
SortFemaleMale
too skinny10 - 13%2 - 5%
athlete14 - 20%6 - 13%
healthy21 - 24%14 - 17%
Average25 - 31%18 - 24%
obesity32% or more25% or more

Main body fat percentage measurement methods

There are several methods for measuring body fat percentage, and the following are the main ones.

Underwater weighing method (underwater weighing method)

Archimedes principleThis is an application of the above, in which the whole body is submerged in water, the weight is measured with a scale in water, and the body density is calculated from the difference from the weight in the atmosphere. Although it is a relatively accurate measurement method and is used as a reference for other measurement methods, it has the following problems. The density of adipose tissue is generally 0.9007 g/cm3And the density of tissues other than fat is 1.1000 g/cm3Is said to be[6].

  • In order to eliminate the effects of buoyancy caused by air on the body surface or inside the body, measurements must be taken while exhaling. Therefore, the measurement is painful.
  • The equipment is inevitably large and measurement is not easy.
  • There are few facilities with facilities

Air replacement method

How to measure the body pressure by entering the sealed device and measuring the pressure change of air[7].. It is a relatively accurate measurement method based on almost the same principle as the underwater weighing method, and it is a method that is simple and does not cause any pain.Grand Sumo OfWrestlerIs known to measure this. The device called "BOD POD" by Life Measurement, Inc. in the US is famous.

Dual energy X-ray absorption method (DXA, DEXA)

Of two different wavelengthsX-rayA method of irradiating the whole body and measuring the body composition from the difference in transmittance[7].. OriginallyBone densityAlthough it is a method of measuring, the measurement accuracy of body fat mass and muscle mass is also high, and in recent years, it has been said that it is the gold standard as a measuring method instead of the underwater weight measuring method. DXA or DEXA is an abbreviation for “Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry”.

Subcutaneous fat thickness method (Caliper method)

A method of measuring the thickness of subcutaneous fat using a subcutaneous fat gauge (caliper) and then substituting the measured value into the calculation formula.[7].. This is a simple method, but there are drawbacks such as the distribution of subcutaneous fat varies from person to person, and there are errors, that measurement requires some skill, and visceral fat cannot be measured.

Bioimpedance method

A weak electric current is passed through the body,ImpedanceThe method of measuring and estimating the body fat percentage from it. This is the most convenient and most popular method at present, and most of the commercially available body fat meters are this method.[7].. However, it is difficult to calculate an accurate value due to the following problems.

  • The bioelectrical impedance changes greatly depending on the physical condition immediately after waking up or immediately before going to bed, and there are large variations in the measured time even on the same day.
  • Estimate body fat percentage from bioelectrical impedancealgorithmHowever, it differs depending on each manufacturer of measuring instruments. Therefore, there are large variations among devices.
  • A person with a high muscular ratio cannot measure accurately because the bioelectrical impedance is different from a general person.
    • Some devices have an "athlete mode" to overcome this drawback.
  • Heart pacemakerIf you are using a, the current may cause the pacemaker to malfunction and cannot be used.

Other methods

Other methods include the following.

CT method, MRI method
CT,MRIA method of taking a cross-sectional image of the body using and calculating the body fat percentage from it. Although the accuracy is quite high, it is not often used because the device becomes large. Abdominal CT examination indicates "visceral fat type obesity" when the area (cross-sectional area) of visceral fat at the navel is 100 cm² or more.[4].
Internal potassium measurement method
In the bodypotassiumIs a method that focuses on the fact that is not contained in adipose tissue, measures potassium in the body with a large-scale device called a "human counter," and calculates the body fat percentage from there.[8].
UltrasonographyIt uses the same device asUltrasoundTo take and measure cross-section images of the body by[9].. It is relatively accurate.
Near infrared spectroscopy
BicepsIn the center ofNear infraredIrradiates and absorbs its lightSpectrumTo calculate body fat percentage based on[9].
Sulfur hexafluoride dilution method
It is based on almost the same principle as the air displacement method,Sulfur hexafluorideThis is a method of adding a certain amount of gas.

Source/Footnote

Related item


 

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