Invaded a men's dressing room at a super public bath in Sapporo ... Arrested a man with a camera watch
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Police are looking at the remaining image data of a man's wristwatch with a camera.
On the 4th, a 50-year-old man was arrested on suspicion of invading a men's dressing room wearing a wristwatch with a camera at a super public bath in Sapporo ... → Continue reading
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腕 時 計
in EnglishPocket watch(English: pocket watch) Including watch (English: watch), Or a wristwatch (if you want to make a distinction)English: wristwatch).In Japanese, it is generically called "clock", but in English, it is other than these.Table clock,Wall clockThe clock that you can't wear is a clock (English: clock), And even in Japan, it is treated exclusively according to this classification in English in the industry..
19st centurySince then, pocket watches, which have been popular as portable watches, have the time to take them out of their pockets (and in some cases, open the metal lid to protect the windshield) every time they try to read the time. I had to do this, but if I wrap it around my wrist, I have the convenience of being able to read the time immediately.Also, if you want to see the pocket watch while you are in action, you need to hold it in your palm and the hand holding the watch will be blocked during the time check, but if you wrap it around your wrist, the operation will be instantaneous. , You can use all the hands and fingers of both hands at any time.However, in order to wrap the watch around the wrist in an unobtrusive manner, the watch had to be small enough, which was never easy.It was not until the 20th century that full-scale popularization began in place of pocket watches.
Initially, like the pocket watch that preceded itMainspringIt consists of a balance spring, a balance spring, an escape wheel, ankle, etc.EscapementIt was a mechanical watch with a timekeeping mechanism.Mechanical watches preceded the production of pocket watchesスイスCountries such as occupy the global market and were mainstream until the 1970s.
On the other hand, it was put into practical use as a wristwatch in the 1960s.Crystal oscillatorTimekeepingQuartz typeIs more accurate and alsoJapanSince mass production became possible at a relatively low cost in a short period of time due to the activities of the manufacturer, it has become overwhelmingly popular since then. Even as of the beginning of the 21st century, the drive system for practical wristwatches for the masses is stillQuartz typeIs common and mainstream.However, the oldspringPoweredMechanical watchIs laborious to manufacture and the manufacturing cost is high, and as a result, it makes us feel "rare" to use the mechanical type, so nowadays, the mechanism of "high-end price range products" mainly (not focusing on practicality) It is used as.In addition, worldwidePower InputIn some areas, mechanical wristwatches are used exclusively because they are not readily available.
At first, it had only the function of indicating the time, but after that, attempts were made to add various functions.For example, adding a stopwatch function (""Chronograph”),Age,tideSomething that shows the ebb and flow of the, and so on.WaterproofEfforts were also made to increase the number of diving watches, and finally a wristwatch for diving appeared ("Diver's watch)).
The intention of using a wristwatch differs depending on the person who uses it.It is basically used to know the time and time, but for example, models for mountaineers, divers, sportsmen, etc. have advanced weather resistance, durability, and additional functions in addition to the simple time and time display function. It is a practical product with.To get others to seeFashion(Clothing) Item, a kindTrinketsSome people use it as.
As the times progressed, wristwatches became popular and became a necessity, and by the end of the 20th century, many people with occupations in developed countries were wearing wristwatches.Built-in clock function in recent yearsMobile phone,SmartphoneWith the widespread use of watches, the functions of portable watches are sufficient, the number of people who do not wear watches is increasing, and the number of sales is declining.
- 1790 --Geneva watch dealerJaquet Droz & LeshawWatches are listed in the catalog.I don't know what it looks like.
- Early 19th century-Jewelry with small watches began to appear.
- 1806 --The oldest extant wristwatch (JosephineClock) is manufactured.The year of completion is unknown.
- 1810 --The Queen of NaplesAbraham-Louis BreguetI ordered a watch that can be worn on my wrist and completed it two years later.
- 1879 - Girard-PerregauxMade a wristwatch as a military item.
- 1900 - omegaAnnounces the World's First General Watch.
- 1902 - Verneuil methodMan-made byRubyManufacture is put into practical use.The bearing materials for pocket watches and wristwatches, which used to rely on the processing of natural gemstones (but low-grade rubble stones), have been replaced by artificial gemstones with stable quality, which has the effect of reducing costs and improving quality.
- 1906 - Cartier"Santos" No. 1 completed.1911, Sold for men and became popular.
- 1913 - Hattori watch shop(CurrentSeiko Holdings) Releases Japan's first purely domestic wristwatch "Laurel".
- 1926 - FortisAnnounces the world's first self-winding watch.The waterproof "Oyster case" from Oyster in the United KingdomRolexIt is installed in the clock and becomes a standard.Since then, simpler waterproof watches will be made in each country.
- 1934 --In Switzerland, the "Incabloc" watch seismic mechanism, in which the balance core (top core) is float-supported by a spring together with the stone, has been put into practical use.Succeeded in reducing the breakdown of the watch core due to impacts such as dropping.Since then, similar floating seismic mechanisms have been introduced into many watches.
- 1957 - HamiltonAnnounces the world's first electric wristwatch "Ventura".
- 1960 - BulovaAnnounces the tuning fork wristwatch "Accutron".
- 1961 - Poljotof"SturmanskiIs an astronautYuri GagarinWill be the first wristwatch used in space in history.
- 1969 ――Omega's "Speedmaster" is used on the moon and becomes the world's first watch used in extraterrestrial celestial bodies..
- 12 --Hattori Watch Shop announces the world's first quartz wristwatch "Astron".
- 1970 --Hamilton announces the world's first digital display watch "Pulsar".
- 1990 - JunghansAnnounces the world's first radio-controlled wristwatch "Mega 1".
- 2011 - CitizenAnnounces the world's first satellite radio-controlled wristwatch "Eco-Drive Satellite Wave".
- 2014 - CasioIs the world's first hybrid time acquisition system (GPSReceive +Standard radio waveWristwatch equipped with (receive) "G-SHOCK"Announcement.
- 2017 --Casio announces the world's first watch "G-SHOCK" equipped with three time acquisition systems (Connectd engine 3-Way).
Birth of a wristwatch
The oldest record of watches is the Geneva watchmakerJaquet Droz & Leshaw 1790It is said that it was listed in the catalog of..Also, the oldest extant wristwatch is a jeweler in Paris.1806It is said to be an emerald bracelet with a watch built into it.1810Breguet, a watchmaker, is the queen of Naples.Caroline Murat), I made an egg-shaped watch with a minute repeater and a bimetal thermometer that I could wear on my wrist with a blonde and gold belt and completed it two years later (currently missing).There have been examples of such jewelry being made for a long time, but most of them are one-of-a-kind items, and none have become popular.
The opportunity for the wristwatch to be commercialized wasarmyIs the demand from.Pocket watchIt is said that the artillery, who was measuring the timing of the bombardment with one hand, started by using a pocket watch attached to his wrist.The German army is asking watchmakers to commercialize this idea.1879ToGermanyemperorWilhelm I German NavyFor useGirard-PerregauxThere is a record that 2,000 watches were made in Japan...This watch had a mesh metal cover.
Other examples of use in the early days1899 OfBoer WarThere is an example of a British soldier wearing a pocket watch on his wrist with a leather belt.At that timeHoratio KitchnerIt was called "Kitchener Belt" after the name of.
omegaIs the first in the world1900Commercialized a wristwatch1902Is advertising.However, at that time, the crown position of women's pocket watches was simply changed to the side and fixed to a leather belt, and due to the rugged design, it did not become popular.After that, cases and movements exclusively for watches began to be developed, but for men stillPocket watchWas mainstream, and watches were not considered formal.
The first popular watch of a particular brand was1911In frenchCartierIt is a men's watch "Santos" with a square case released by. The prototype of "Santos" is Louis Cartier's friend aviator and millionaireAlberto Santos DumontAsked byairshipIt was a wristwatch suitable for use during maneuvering.Later, its sophisticated design became a hot topic in the social circles of Paris, and it was put on the market. "Santos" has become a classic sports watch and is still on the market as one of Cartier's representative products even today in the 21st century.
World War IWas an opportunity to promote the spread of wristwatches.Hamilton,BreitlingBegan mass-producing military watches, Men's mobile watches have completely transitioned from pocket watches to watches.After the war, many pocket watch makers turned into the wristwatch field.
As a major watch-producing country before World War II, mass production technology and parts compatibility systems have been developed since the era of pocket watches.The United States of AmericaBesides, the watch industry has developed since ancient times.スイス,The United Kingdom,GermanyHowever, British manufacturers later dropped out of the market because their old production system could not keep up with the times, and German manufacturers began to focus on low-priced products.As for American manufacturers, luxury goods manufacturers have declined since the 1960s, and only brand names have been sold off, and the manufacturers that survive in the correct sense are mass-market brands.TimexIt became only.
In Switzerland, the watch industry was formed based on a division of labor system by a huge group of small and medium-sized enterprises, and was able to supply a wide range of products from low-priced products to high-end products.The cooperation of the entire industry has progressed, and since the 1920s, the construction of a cartel for industrial defense has started in earnest. And export control of watch manufacturing machines for the purpose of preventing the growth of the watch industry in other countries).The unique structure of the Swiss watch industry maintains the international competitiveness of Swiss watches until the 1934s, and at its peak it is an integrated manufacturer that can manufacture its own movements.Manufacture), And while it has a huge number of famous and unknown watch brands (Etabrisur) supported by a large number of specialized manufacturers of movements, it has fallen behind in the modernization of the entire industry.
In addition, the movement of the Swiss manufacturer is imported as a part, and only the case production and final assembly are done in the importing country.Knockdown productionA type of technique, "chablonnage," isTariffIt has been seen since the end of the 19th century in the pocket watch era for the purpose of restraint, and it was popular even in the era of mainstream watches. Since the beginning of the 20th century, some of the major American watch makers have set up their own local factories in Switzerland to produce movements and reduce labor costs (at that time, even with mass production technology, labor costs in the United States home country (It was already expensive), but there was also a movement to avoid the profit escape policy of the Swiss watch industry and the Swiss government.
Self-winding watch (Automatic watch) Means that a semi-circular weight (rotor) is built into the watch, and the weight rotates when the wearer swings his arm to generate power.springIs to wind up.The self-winding mechanism itself with a weight is Swiss for pocket watches.By1770It was conceived around that time, but it was a technology that fits better with a wristwatch that is swung around the wrist and has easy inertia, rather than a pocket watch that fits in a pocket and is carried in a stable state.Breguet, on the other hand, developed a pendulum self-winding "Perpetuel", but it was not widely used due to its complicated structure, and most 19th century pocket watches were key-wound and.Patek PhilippeIs one of the founders of 1842It was a manual winding by the crown invented in.
The first practical self-winding watch was in the United KingdomA half-turn rotor type (winding the mainspring only when the rotor rotates in one direction) developed by Switzerland in 1926.FortisIt was released from.Next, the Swiss self-winding full-rotation rotor (which can take out the rotational force in a certain direction by combining gear mechanisms regardless of the rotation direction of the rotor and wind the mainspring) is more efficient.RolexDeveloped in 1931, the company marketed it under the name "Perpetual" and spread the Rolex name with a waterproof mechanism called the Oyster case.
The weakness of the method represented by the early Rolex self-winding watch is that it is thicker and bulkier than the hand-wound movement due to the presence of the rotor, and major watch makers are thinning in the process of improving the self-winding movement. Trial and error was made to simplify and simplify, and how to efficiently extract power.One-way rotation type and transient models that limited the rotation width of the rotor like some OMEGA models were also seen, but since the 1950s, the automatic winding of the two-way full rotation type rotor has been significantly thinned. Has become a favorite and has become popular, and the full-rotation rotor type is becoming more common in current self-winding wristwatches.In addition, the shape of the rotor has changed from the semicircular shape of the Perle era to the outer circumference.FriSuch as重金属The rotation efficiency is improved by using or using a hollow shape.
Most self-winding watches can be hand-wound with a crown, but some are dedicated to self-winding for the purpose of simplifying the structure.The self-winding type stores the power of the mainspring to an appropriate degree while it is attached, and tends to be more accurate than the manual winding type.If you don't wear itWinding machineSince the mainspring can be wound up by setting it in, there are cases where collectors of mechanical watches use such a device.
in Japan1913,Hattori watch shopHas released the first domestically produced wristwatch "Laurel", but the 7-stone movement was a shared item with a pocket watch.It is not easy to compare with Swiss and American products with watch technology with strict size restrictions, and the evaluation of watches made in Japan is also in Japan.Second World WarIt was never expensive until later. As of 1957, Swiss products were very widespread in the Japanese watch market, and about 200 million Swiss watches were inflowed annually, but only about 30 were imported by regular routes. Was mostly smuggled..In the high price rangeomega,LonginesAmong the low-priced products, Swiss brands such as Enika, Juvenia, and Cima were popular.
Nevertheless, since the 1950s, Japanese wristwatch technology has steadily advanced and has come to overwhelm imported products in the domestic low-priced market, and since the 1960s.カメラIt became a major export product along with.Seiko "Marvel" (released in 2) and Citizen "Homer" (released in 1956), which were sent out from the top two brands at the time when the manual winding low beat type was the standard, are both high while referring to Swiss watches. Attempts have been made to rationalize the structure and increase the size of parts in order to achieve both accuracy and automatic production, and this product has become a technical turning point for both companies.1955The first domestically produced self-winding watch "Seiko Automatic" was released in Japan, and after that, "Grand Seiko" (1960) and "Citizen Domestic watches with precision comparable to those made in Switzerland, such as the "Chronometer" (1962), have appeared.Equipment with seismic and waterproof functions, self-winding and calendar mechanisms have also been introduced rapidly.1964ToTokyo OlympicsSuppress overseas manufacturers as official timekeeping equipmentSeikoWas adopted.Seiko adopted electronic timekeeping and realized no trouble with timekeeping for the first time in the Olympic Games.With this as an opportunity, watches made in Japan will be recognized worldwide.
Japan's major watch makerscalculatorA comprehensive manufacturer that has grown from the field to electronics in generalCasio calculatorExcept for, all companies have entered the field of pocket watches and wall clocks.With SeikoCitizen clock, Casio are the three major manufacturers.It was the third domestically produced mechanical wristwatch era.Orient(Yoshida Watch Shop → Toyo Watch is the predecessor) is now due to poor performanceSeiko Epson CorporationSurvive under the umbrella.Ricoh ElemexIs the successor to the former Takano Precision Industry, which originated from a wall clock maker, and has been producing watches under the "Takano" brand since 1957, but since it was based in the Chukyo area, in 1959Isewan TyphoonIn 1962, business performance deteriorated due to severe damage.RicohWas acquired by Ricoh, and later the watch brand was changed to Ricoh.
Improved accuracy and electric power
Mechanical wristwatches have a balance that replaces the pendulum, and the higher the frequency, the more accurate the watch tends to be.The balance of a standard wristwatch has a frequency of 4-6 times / sec.Low beatHowever, high-precision wristwatches have multiple vibrations of 8-10 times / second.High beatAlso called.Most of the modern mechanical watches made in Switzerland have high beats, and even those made in Japan have many high beats.However, if the high beat specification is used, the fatigue and wear of the members will be accelerated, which is disadvantageous in terms of durability.
Battery-powered watches are AmericanHamiltonDeveloped by and released in 1957, "Ventura" is the first..This is a system driven by an ultra-small motor, and the balance was used in the final stage of speed control as well as the mechanical type.The method of using a small button-shaped battery has been followed in subsequent battery-powered wristwatches.
In 1959, it ’s still AmericanBulova tuning forkDeveloped the type watch "Accutron"..The watch is equipped with two ultra-small tuning forks, which are battery-powered to vibrate and obtain a constant cycle of vibration due to the characteristics of the tuning fork.This vibration is used as direct power to drive the minute and hour hands via a latch that transmits the driving force in only one direction.The vibration cycle was 2 times per second, which was the highest level of accuracy before the appearance of quartz watches, but Bulova was not active in technology disclosure and movement supply.1976Has been discontinued.
Quartz watchIt was invented in the 1920s, but at that time it became an active element.Vacuum tubeBecause I was usingClosetBecause it is an averagely large stationary clock and it is expensive,observatoryResearch institutes such asBroadcasterIt was only used slightly in demand that required extremely accurate timekeeping means.In order for quartz watches to become portable and widely used,Integrated circuitWill be available cheaply1960 eraI had to wait.
196912On the 25th, Seiko announced the world's first commercially available quartz wristwatch "AstronWas released..The list price at that time was 45 yen, which was 42 yen at that time.Popular carToyota CorollaWas more expensive than..The high frequency is overwhelming, and the daily difference within ± 0.2 seconds far surpasses the tuning fork type "Accutron" of Bulova as well as the mechanical type., Monthly difference within ± 3 secondsAchieved high accuracy.Silver batteryDrive for over a year.
Not limited to watches, clocks, etc.Quartz watchAs is common to all, the frequency of the crystal oscillator is 2, which is easy to handle, such as obtaining 1 second by repeating a simple division of 32,768 Hz(= 215 Hz) is used exclusively.
Quartz wristwatches have far less error than mechanical and earlier battery-powered wristwatches, Seiko said.As a result of the above, each company entered the manufacturing industry and rapidlyAs a result, it swept the market in the 1970s.From the Swiss side, watch production in Switzerland is at Seiko.Quartz watchThis is called a "quartz shock" because it was cornered to a dying state by mass production of.
Flashing numbers, so-calledDigital typeThe first watch on the market in 1970, in the United StatesHamiltonIt was "Pulsar".But the pulsar is redLight emitting diode(LED) is used for the display, it is easy to break and repair is difficult, and the time is set exclusively.magnetWith a special structure such as putting it closer to the back side, it disappeared from the market within a few years with followers of the same type who had some problems with practicality.
The realization of a practical digital wristwatch was after thatliquid crystalAfter the introduction of the liquid crystal display (LCD), LCD wristwatches appeared from Gruen, Seiko, etc. from 1972 to 73 (the accuracy was secured as a quartz type from the beginning).Initially, it was considered to be an extremely expensive product due to its rarity (the parts other than the caliber, which account for most of the cost of low-priced mass-produced watches, were made into high-end specifications).However, electronic devices, which have no moving parts other than the electrical contacts of button switches and are suitable for mass production, have been promoted to lower prices in a short period of time, and are generally cheaper than needle-type products. There is.
Watches manufactured for children's and novelty purposes are cheaper but more accurate than conventional hand-type and mechanical watches equipped with tooth club escapements (Swiss lever escapements). Cheap pin-lever escapements, which are extremely inferior in durability, were the mainstream, but liquid crystal digital watches were positioned as products that renewed and pioneered such low-end markets.
Since then, the alarm function, stopwatch function, and other wristwatches have become more sophisticated and cheaper at the same time, and watches that were once high-end products have become familiar items that even children can buy, and have become consumables.It is said that 3 watch shops with engineers (watchmakers) who handle conventional mechanical watches have been closed all over Japan, eliminating the need for regular disassembly and cleaning as before.
Mechanical rehabilitation and decline of Japanese manufacturers
In the 1980s, the goodness of mechanical wristwatches made by skilled workers, although inferior to quartz in accuracy, began to be re-evaluated, and Swiss-made luxury mechanical wristwatches gradually regained popularity.
Quartz watchSince its introduction, in Europe, the reorganization and selection of mechanical watch makers and specialized makers that manufacture movements have progressed, and from the viewpoint of cost cutting, automation equipment has been introduced for the manufacture and processing of parts, and movements are shared on a global scale. Has advanced.As a result, in SwitzerlandEtaHas gained a large share of the movement supply to the European mechanical wristwatch industry.For this reason, luxury brands can concentrate their technology and cost on differentiation by casing (final assembly that determines accuracy, finish, durability, design, etc.) while sharing the same type of movement as popular brands.
On the other handManufactureThere is also a manufacturer that can consistently perform from development / manufacturing to assembly and finishing of the movement except for some special parts called.
An unknown assembly maker who does not specialize in watchmaking puts a low-priced quartz movement made in Asia in a low-priced case and sells it at a cheap price of about 1000 yen-3000 yen, which is common in Japan after the 1980s. It became.Many of these unnamed low-priced watches are assembled in China and other countries, and since they were distributed to the market through a general merchandise wholesale route that does not specialize in watch sales, rather than the wholesale route of conventional watch dealers, the watch industry It was called a "miscellaneous clock".At the beginning, such low-priced watches were unpopular because of the poor manufacturing quality around the case (the poor design that did not consider disassembly and repair, and from the early days when it first appeared on the market, from conventional watch stores. However, the accuracy itself has reached the required level due to the quartz method, and by the 1990s, the case design and assembly technology had improved and it was sufficiently practical in terms of waterproofing. As it has become sexually active, it has swept the mass-market price range worldwide.
In this way, quartz watches, which are easy and highly functional, and mechanical watches, which are high-class crafts and luxury items, have come to be segregated.
At the same time that Swiss-made mechanical watches began to grow steadily, the performance of Japanese-made quartz watches deteriorated sharply, and the price competition with Asian-made quartz watches was lost, resulting in a significant loss of market share. It was.Moreover, Japanese manufacturers have lost most of the craftsmen who have the mechanical watch technology that has been recognized worldwide since the 1970s due to the quartz technology they created, and they were in a difficult situation.
Searching for a new watch
Completely from the mid-1980sCommoditizationThe movement to seek new added value has begun to replace the hands-on wristwatches and LCD digital wristwatches.The trends of each company are described below.
Seiko reinstated and gained fame as a luxury mechanical wristwatch in the 1960s.Grand SeikoWe refocused on mechanical wristwatches, such as reviving them.In addition to the mechanical type, we are also researching and putting into practical use new methods such as viscous sweep, kinetic, and spring drive. Since the beginning of the 2000s, the credor brand ultra-high price range products such as "Spring Drive Sonuri" and "Seiko SpectrumWe are also making models with new concepts such as.
Viscous sweep is a quartz wristwatch with a tuning fork-like sweep hand movement, It was a method realized by dampers and springs, but the movements adopted were limited to 1988S5 in 21 and 90S5 in 42.
Kinetic (AGS) is the method used for the movement of the world's first self-winding power generation quartz wristwatch "Seiko Auto Quartz" released by Seiko in 1988...At the time of release, the mechanism name was AGS (Automatic Generating System), but it was changed to Kinetic in 1997.Kinetic is a quartz wristwatch that has a built-in rotor like a self-winding watch, accelerates the rotation of the rotor generated by swinging the arm about 100 times with gears, and stores the generated power in a capacitor without battery replacement."Kinetic auto relay" with a built-in auto-relay function that automatically stops the movement of the needle when it is not attached to save power, and when it is attached again and vibration is applied, it detects it and automatically returns to the current time. There is also a "kinetic perpetual" perpetual calendar that shows the correct date not only in small months but also in leap years, and a "kinetic direct drive" that supports manual winding and has a power reserve display function.
Spring Drive was released by Seiko in 1999The mechanical movement incorporates a speed control mechanism that uses a crystal oscillator, and while using a mainspring as the power source, it achieves the same high precision as a quartz watch...The mainspring wound by manual or automatic winding generates electricity at the same time as moving the needle, and the power is used to operate the speed control mechanism equipped with a crystal oscillator...Therefore, the balance used in the mechanical speed governor and the battery used in the quartz watch are unnecessary.Seiko positions this Spring Drive as "the third drive mechanism that stands side by side with the mechanical type and the quartz type"..
Citizen's "Eco-Drive"PhotovoltaicDriven by.Also, using the difference between the outside air temperature and the wearer's body temperatureSeebeck effectThere was also an "Eco-Drive Thermo" wristwatch that was powered by the electrical energy generated by the company (currently, we do not sell watches that use the Eco-Drive Thermo).
Casio calculatorIs a tough wristwatch with impact resistance that does not break even if dropped from the 2nd or 3rd floor, contrary to the common sense that "a wristwatch breaks easily if dropped on the floor".G-SHOCK(G-Shock) was released in 1983.This G-Shock is in a harsh situation because of its ruggednessGulf War,Iraq warIt is said that it was favored by soldiers on the battlefield.Initially, only digital watches were developed, but in 1989, "Digiana" watches were added to the lineup.In Japan, such robustness is rarely emphasized, and it was not a hit as soon as it was released due to its slightly thicker size and rugged design considering impact resistance, but in the 90's it was a movie work etc. Appeared (appeared as a measure of the sales promotion department), or productscollectionWith a boom in mind, "Limited merchandiseAs a result of adopting a measure to introduce a large number of products, and as a result, one person purchases a large number of products, the number of sales has greatly increased.
SwatchHas gained the support of users by adding value to inexpensive quartz watches, such as vibrant colors, designs by famous artists, and limited sale in small numbers.When we started production of digital display watches,Nicholas NegroponteWith the cooperation ofInternet timeWas proposed, but it has not become widespread.
Around 2010, many wall clocks used to move sweep hands for the purpose of avoiding the sound of the second hand, but all quartz watches used to move hands in seconds, except for Seiko's ultra-luxury spring drive machines (wall clocks). Rhythm Watch Industry has announced a new method called Silent Step (the product is a Citizen brand).Under the umbrella of Citizen's technologyBulovaReleased a quartz wristwatch that drives 16 times per second.Citizen and Bulova had previously partnered on a tuning fork wristwatch, and Citizen was domestically produced by introducing technology from Bulova.
In addition, new mechanisms for escapements in mechanical wristwatches are being devised.A long-established Swiss manufacturerUlysse Nardin 2001"Freak" announced in the introduction of a new escapementlubricating oilIs unnecessary.OmegaGeorge DanielsInvented byCo-AxialWe have introduced a new mechanism called ", and have succeeded in significantly reducing friction in the escapement mechanism (ankle claws, escape teeth) that transmits power to the speed governor, which is the heart of mechanical watches.Furthermore, in recent years, "freaks" and "Co-AxialDevelop a unique escapement to follow, or use it as an escape wheel, ankle, or balance spring.siliconThere is also a movement to aim for oil-free and accuracy improvement by adopting advanced materials such as new special alloys and new special alloys, and a situation that should be called an escapement revolution is emerging.
Baselworld in May 2013 (Basel Fair),SwatchAnnounces Sistem 51, Started to be released around the end of the same year, and has been on sale in Japan since the spring of 14. The Sistem 51 has the same performance as a mechanical self-winding watch, which normally costs more than 10 yen, but according to Swatch's announcement, it is modern with a fully mechanized manufacturing process and the number of parts from which the "51" is derived. By redesign, A wristwatch that proposes a mechanical type as a new concept in the same price range as the fashionable styling similar to other quartz type of Swatch (as a traditional styling and inexpensive mechanical type)Seiko Fiveand so on).
1990,JunghansReleased the world's first radio-controlled wristwatch "Mega 1".. In 1993, Citizen launched the world's first multi-station radio-controlled watch.Radio-controlled wristwatches have been selling well since the beginning of the 2000s.
Radio clockIt is,Standard radio waveThe time is automatically corrected by receiving.Basically, the time is ticked by the quartz method, but several times a day,Atomic clockSince the standard radio wave managed by is received from the transmitting station and automatically corrected to the correct time, if the environment is such that the radio wave can be received, no error will be accumulated and the correct time can be kept forever.
Satellite radio watch
2011, Citizen is the world's firstArtificial satelliteReleased a limited number of satellite radio-controlled wristwatches "Eco-Drive Satellite Wave"..Also, in 2012, SeikoGPS satelliteReleased the satellite radio-controlled wristwatch "Astron".
In July 2014, the world's first time adjustment by receiving either satellite radio waves or terrestrial standard radio waves from CasioFunction "GPShybridEquipped with "Radio Solar"G-SHOCKReleasedAnd in October it was a full metal bodyOCEANUSAlso installed in.
Unlike radio-controlled clocks, it is not necessary to adjust the time via a transmitting station, and it is possible to obtain the current location time if the environment is such that location information can be received outdoors.
Mobile phone with clock
With clockMobile phoneWith the spread of, instead of looking at the wrist watchPocket watchThe phenomenon of taking out a mobile phone and checking the time, which goes against the era of the early 20th century, is becoming common.In Japan, there is a survey result that almost half of the people say that they check the time on their mobile phones even when they are wearing a wristwatch..
2001, Citizen and IBM Japan jointly developed prototype "WatchPad 1.5"BluetoothThe world's first installation.2006, Released the world's first "i: VIRT" as a wristwatch that enables Bluetooth communication.
in recent years,SmartphoneWatches that can be linked via Bluetooth,Smart watch(Watch type device) is widespread.Linkage functions such as automatic time adjustment, time signal, world time, stopwatch, and mobile phone search work with the smartphone app.
No carry-on to the test site
Apple WatchSuch asWearable computer(Smart watch) With the adventThe United Kingdom OfUniversity of LondonSo, I issued a notice not to bring any wristwatches to the venue like mobile phones, and instead budgeted to buy a table clock to check the time during the test.Japan also,Japan English Proficiency AssociationCarried out byIELTSIn addition to completely prohibiting bringing in watches in the test, of course smart watches that check glasses at the receptionSmart glassesThe rules have been revised accordingly..
A wristwatch equipped with a case that protects the movement from moisturewaterproofCalled a wristwatch.Many of the watches on the market today have some kind of waterproof specifications.The standard is described in ISO 2281 / JIS B 7021 as a standard for water resistant watches for general use.In some old waterproof watches, "Waterploof" or similar notation is used., Today's waterproof watches all use "Water Resistant" or "Water Resist" for short.
The waterproof function of a wristwatch is expressed by "atmospheric pressure" or "water depth (m / ft)".Basically, "waterproof for daily life" (waterproof for 3-5 bar), which is safe even if it is hit by light rain or splashed with water in daily water work, 10-20 bar waterproof for swimming and diving, etc. And full-scaledivingThere are various levels of diving wristwatches (water resistant from hundreds of meters to 3 meters in extreme cases).Be careful about how to read the display. Just because it is water resistant to 30 bar does not mean that it is okay to dive to a depth of 3 meters.This pressure means that it can withstand this water pressure in a stationary state, and its use such as swimming is not guaranteed if it is water resistant to about XNUMX atmospheres.When expressed in terms of water depth, it has the ability to actually dive as shown, but care must be taken as it may not be able to fully demonstrate its performance and may be flooded if maintenance is neglected.
|Use case||For saturated diving|
Water resistant to 300m
|For air diving|
Water resistant to 200m
|Strengthen daily life|
20 ATM water resistant
|Strengthen daily life|
10 ATM water resistant
|Strengthen daily life|
5 ATM water resistant
|Regulations by JIS B 7023 / JIS B 7021||2 types of diving clock||1 types of diving clock||Type 2 waterproof watch||Type 2 waterproof watch||Type 2 waterproof watch||Type 1 waterproof watch|
|Use to the extent that it can withstand rain and splashes when washing hands||○||○||○||○||○||○|
|Use to the extent that it can withstand water work (cooking / washing)||○||○||○||○||○|
|Marine sports such as yachts and boats, onboard work such as fishing.Light underwater use in pools, etc.||○||○||○||○|
|Swimming,Diving-SnorkelingUse in shallow water such as||○||○||○|
|scuba divingUse in air diving, etc.||○||○|
|Saturation divingUse in||○|
This type of watch appeared before and after World War I, and the early idea was to put the watch in a separate case with a glass peephole and a screw-in lid for operating the crown, and wear the watch with a belt. There was something to do.Although it was waterproof, it was bulky and difficult to use, and it looked bad.
A typical example of the early adoption of a modern waterproof structure was in 1926.RolexIs.It adopts the "Oyster case" method, which is a machined and integrated structure developed by Oyster, and has a screw-down crown in the case of the wristwatch body, realizing a more compact and smart waterproof watch than before. In 1928, a female reporter wearing a RolexDover StraitSucceeded in long-distance swimming, and widely touted Rolex's waterproofness.
The principle of the screw-in crown is ideal, but if the crown is used frequently for winding the mainspring or adjusting the time, it will wear and the airtightness will decrease...As a simple alternative, use the back cover and the packing of the crown.O-ringA method of ensuring waterproofness using a rubber ring called is widespread.Increasing the number of rings will increase the airtightness, and even if the airtightness decreases due to aging of the rings, it can be restored by replacing the rings.In addition, the case material is less likely to rust.stainlessA method of improving the airtightness by making the back cover part as flat as possible and making it as flat as possible without considering frequent opening and closing has also been generalized.
The O-ring method was widely used on the Allied side during World War II for conventional military watches, and after the war it became widespread in popular watches.A method of more strictly waterproofing is also performed in combination with a screw-in crown, which is currently the most common waterproofing method.However, most of the early O-ring type waterproof watches had the level of waterproof performance of "daily life waterproof" in modern times, so in the early 1960s when waterproof watches appeared in the field of the price range for the masses in Japan, it was advertised by the manufacturer. Coupled with this, users have been overconfident in their waterproofness and have taken a bath or swim while wearing them, causing problems that cause the watch to break due to water intrusion.
For watches that require durability, some manufacturers have adopted a method similar to a kind of multiple case structure and a method of further improving airtightness by using an O-ring together. The high-performance version of the "Omega Seamaster" series is a typical example..
Quartz watches have a wide range of stores (other than specialized watch stores) that undertake battery replacement at a low price, but at this time, is the installation and reassembly of waterproof O-rings as rigorous as the production process at watch makers? Cannot be confirmed (with some exceptions).Therefore, some watch stores say that the waterproof function cannot be guaranteed after replacing the battery, but some shops replace the battery with a new O-ring for free.
If you are a watch specialty store, not only O-ring replacement but also waterproof inspection is carried out when you replace the battery.However, it may be a paid option.
For battery replacement at the manufacturer, for example, Casio requires O-ring replacement and waterproof inspection, and these cannot be omitted.
Equipped with a dial coated with luminous paint, it can be visually recognized even in dark water, and by ensuring a waterproof function with a screw-in crown and O-ring, it can withstand water pressure of 100 m or more.Diver's watchAppeared for military use in the 1930s.A luminous waterproof watch was indispensable for safety reasons to control the dive time.Officine PaneraiThe large diver's wristwatch is an early example of this, but its full-scale spread was after World War II. In 1943Jack-Eve CousteauIt seems that the spread of the Aqualung device devised by the company after the war made scuba diving easier.
There is also a wristwatch as an arts and crafts.For materialFri,SilverSuch asPrecious metalWith plenty ofRuby,diamond such asjewelryIt is a wristwatch as a gorgeous ornament studded with.At the extreme, there are even hundreds of millions of yen watches, such as the use of large diamonds of several carats for the windshield.Some are manufactured by manufacturers, but some are made by processing existing watches, and are sometimes called after-diamonds.
These watches are often mechanical rather than quartz.
Watch for the visually impaired
A wristwatch that allows visually impaired people to directly touch the hands and dial with their fingers so that they can check the time.The dial is provided with protrusions, and when checking the time, the cover part covering the dial is opened and touched with a finger.Of course, it can also be used as a normal wristwatch.The method itself is a follow-up from the pocket watch for the visually impaired that appeared earlier.
In addition to such wristwatches, there are also digital watches for the visually impaired that notify the time by voice.
In Japan, wristwatches and pocket watches for the visually impaired are those in which the time is known by touching the hands or dial.Consumption tax lawAs "articles for the physically handicapped" in the enforcement orderconsumption taxIs not subject to taxation.Also, before the consumption tax was introduced, many watches and pocket watches were taxed.Excise taxHowever, watches for the visually impaired were not taxable.Both are measures that take welfare use into consideration.
A mechanical / hand-type wristwatch that has various functions in addition to the time display is called a "complex wristwatch" or simply a "complex wristwatch".Mechanical wristwatches such as tourbillons, minute repeaters and perpetual calendars are highly rated and very expensive.On the other hand, non-permanent calendar functions, sun & moon display, and electronic time sound (repeater, sonuri, alarm) functions are often not included in this.Except for simple calendars and electronic alarms, it is more hobby than practical.In addition, the thickness of the dial (case) of a complicated wristwatch tends to increase as the function becomes more complicated.
- In addition to the function to display the timeStopwatchIt is a watch that also incorporates the functions of.
- Moon phase
- The phases of the moonMechanism to represent.Although it is a remnant of the lunar calendar, it indirectly represents the ebb and flow of the sea, and the age of the moon is an important index in fields such as fishing, shipping, trade and astronomical observation, and occupancy.
- The orthodox design was drawn on the disc in a semi-circular window on the dial.MonthThe appearance and disappearance expresses the fullness.Two moons are drawn on the disk and it makes one rotation in 2 days.This idea18st centuryGenius watchmakerAbraham-Louis BreguetIs the invention of.One cycle of the moonSince the average is 29.530589 days, there is an error of about 965 day in 1 days, but there are some particularly elaborate ones with less error.Other than this design, a shutter display type similar to a date calendar, a pointer display type that shows the moon age hand or the moon on the board with multiple months drawn, a ball that is painted in gold and black rotates, etc. Rarely exists.
- As a variation of the 24-hour counterMoon phaseThere is a disk with the sun and the crescent moon drawn on it with the same appearance as, but this is called the "Sun & Moon" function that makes one rotation in 24 hours and distinguishes between day and night.
- Moon phaseOther than the planetarium or a wristwatch that tracks the movement of celestial bodiesAstronomical watchCalled.Astrology toolAstrolabeThere are those that automatically display the position of the planet, those that announce the lunar eclipse and solar eclipse, those that display the position of the moon, and those that automatically display the constellations.The famous manufacturer of mechanical typeUlysse NardinAs a manufacturer of quartz movements,CitizenAnd so on.
- Abraham-Louis BreguetWith the technology invented by重力It is a mechanism that disperses the influence of gravity by rotating the escapement in order to correct the error caused by.A very complicated mechanism and advanced technology are required to rotate the parts that are originally fixed to the watch body, and at one time it was said that "there are only 10 or less craftsmen in the world who can manufacture", but Hong Kong There are also movements such as mass production at.
- When you pull the lever on the side of the watch,bellA mechanism that informs you of the current time based on the tone and number of times.A very high level of technology is required to achieve this with mechanical wristwatches.In addition to the minute repeater that tells you the time in minutes, there are also five minute repeaters that tell you up to 5 minutes and a quarter repeater that tells you up to 15 minutes.
- A mechanism that rings the bell for the number of times when it reaches zero minutes every hour and reports the time.Furthermore, the time signal in 15-minute units is called Grand Sonuri.At the same time as the time signal, it may be combined with an automata that activates gimmicks such as Karakuri dolls placed on the dial.
- Day(Date) and dateDay of the weekThe one that shows (day-date) is common, and the one that shows Sunday, day of the week, and month is called a triple calendar.There is a method of displaying numbers and a method of displaying on the board with a needle (pointer).The large date pointer, which is placed in the center together with the hour and minute hands, has a crescent-shaped hand tip for identification.
- Month,Sunday,calendar yearCan be displayed, once every four yearsleap yearHowever, a calendar mechanism that does not require manual date correction from the end of February to March 2 is called a perpetual calendar.There are also semi-permanent calendars that require date correction only at the end of February in leap years, and annual calendars that require date correction only at the end of February every year.
Additional functions by digitization
Compared to mechanical clocks, digital clocks are much easier to add functions such as time measurement (stopwatch), calendar, and alarm, as well as functions that are not related to timekeeping, such as calculators and games, from the early days. There was a product with such an additional function.Furthermore, by attaching various sensors, functions different from conventional watches (temperature,(I.e.Measurement, electroniccompassSo-called "digital gadget" functions such as) have been added.Digital watches tend to have a thicker dial (case) as their functions become more complex.
Gender difference / wearing method
WatchDominant armOften worn on the opposite arm.In addition, Japanese women often wear the board with the board facing the inside of their arms (the number is extremely small in the world), but it is rare for men.Women's watches are designed to be smaller than men's watches, but in some cases they are smaller than necessary.Watches that are intermediate in size between men's and women's sizes are called boys' sizes.
In addition, due to the background of the establishment of the wristwatch, when the wristwatch first appeared, it was considered to be more informal than a pocket watch and was not worn when dressed, but such a thing is no longer said.
Bracelet and belt
Watches began to spread as women's accessories.braceletThe origin is the one with the watch case attached to it.Next, as a practical tool, wristwatches were required to be strong and comfortable to wear, and a style was born in which a wire was passed through a leather belt and both ends of the wire were welded to the case body.However, since it is inconvenient to remove the belt when it is damaged, a style of passing the spring rod through the joint of the belt and fitting the spring rod into the lug has been established, and it will continue to the present day.Along with this, bracelets that connect pieces to achieve both comfort and strength have also appeared and developed, and the style of fitting into a lug via a spring bar has also been adopted.NATO strapThere is also a belt in which a pull-through type belt is passed directly through a spring rod.
The current mainstream material for bracelets is stainless steel, which is relatively inexpensive and easy to maintain.Others plated on gold or iron,TitaniumMetals such as are often used.In rare cases, there are bracelets made of shellfish, bones, and acrylic resin.The shape of the bracelet has the following types and characteristics.Since the bracelet can adjust the arm circumference by adjusting the pin, you can wear a wristwatch that is larger than the belt.
- Solid block
- Block-type pieces carved from a single metal block are fastened to each other with pins or screws.It is relatively expensive, but durable.
- Roll block
- Wrap another metal plate around one metal plate to finish it in a block shape.Cheaper than solid blocks.Some are skillful and look like solid blocks at first glance.
- It is made by entwining fine band-shaped parts.Although it was difficult to process and was obsolete, it has regained popularity in recent years due to its excellent fit and classical quality.
- The "U" -shaped pieces are stacked and connected so as to mesh with each other.It's elaborate, but it's rarely seen in recent years.
- The S-shaped plate is connected via a leaf spring to expand and contract.Although it requires less trouble to adjust the size, it has drawbacks such as many moving parts, troublesome maintenance, and easy pinching of hair between plates, so it is not often seen in recent years.
The current mainstream is a solid block or roll block made of the same material as the case.From a single unit to a dozen or so units, connect the blocks = pieces with pins or screws.As the number of frames increases, there are many moving parts, so it is soft and comfortable to wear, giving it a luxurious appearance. However, due to cost, ease of maintenance, strength, etc., 10 to 3 stations are the mainstream.Some manufacturers take measures such as improving the fit with a unique shape that makes full use of ergonomics.
For luxury watches, the belt is traditionally a natural reptile, mammalleatherIs used.In general, reptile leather is considered to be high-class because of its water resistance and luxurious appearance, but mammal leather is superior in terms of fit and low cost.Therefore, in order to give the calf leather a luxurious feel, it is often embossed with a pattern like crocodile skin, or the reptile belt is lined with calf or rubber.In any case, it is common to sew the front surface using a good-looking material or part and the back surface using a soft material or part.To improve the fitTannedThere are also manufacturers who devise ways.In addition, the color of this stitched thread may be the essence of the design.In recent years, there are cases where artificial leather is adopted.Since the belt does not have pins, it is difficult to adjust the size of the arm split unlike the bracelet, so it is necessary to wear a size as close as possible to the arm circumference.Depending on the size, it is often the case that a wristwatch is smaller than a bracelet wristwatch.The belt is more suitable for formal wear.
Compared to Europe and the United States, metal bracelets tend to be preferred over leather belts in Japan.It is thought that this is largely because the leather belts tend to hurt because they sweat a lot in Japan due to the hot and humid summer climate.
In sports models such as divers, single-molded rubber and polyurethane are often used with an emphasis on durability (although it is durable, it will decompose over time after several years of use).In recent years, an increasing number of manufacturers have adopted rubber and silicone belts even for luxury watches.
- Ostrich (Ostrich）
- Plant system
Belt and breath clasps, also called "buckles" or "clasps".In general, there are many of the following types.
- Hole fastening type
- It is often used for leather belts and rubber belts, and the pin is passed through a small hole in the belt to fix it.When the pin is wide, it is sometimes called "tan" (tongue).
- Tri-fold type
- Connect the top plate, middle plate, and bottom plate with hinges.Cover the lower plate with the middle plate, cover it with the upper plate so as to wrap it, and fix it with metal fittings.
- Double door type (double door type)
- A buckle that connects joint plates to both ends of one plate and then connects the upper plate to it. Fasten the two top plates so that they cover the center from both sides of the bottom one plate.
- A simple buckle that can be slidable and its length can be adjusted by raising the stopper plate on one side of the fastener.There is no need to remove the top when adjusting the length, and no special tools are required.Popular with quartz watches.
- Break-action type (two-fold type)
- Open and close the two hinged plates, hold the buckle on the other side and attach it.
- NATO strap (NATO belt, G10 strap, G10 belt)
- A belt that allows a pull-through belt to pass directly through a spring bar.The feature is that metal fittings are attached so that the belt does not hang down.The belt is made long so that it can be worn over clothes, and if there is any excess, the size can be adjusted by folding it back twice.The origin is this type of beltNATOFrom where is used.The prototype is a British military watch belt during World War II, adopted under the code name "G1973" as a NATO equipment standard in 1098, and some standards have been revised in 2013. Nylon material is the only formal product after 2013 (leather is also available before that), but there are various materials on the market that copy the structure, such as nylon, cotton, and leather, and the length is short for the wrist only. There are many cases where it is made.
- Leather breath watch
- A belt that doubles as a decoration by combining a leather bracelet with a leather belt.
In addition, some metal fittings are provided with a release button or a small holding plate to prevent accidental dropping.There is also an extension method that allows you to extend the length of the breath by pulling out the plate stored in the buckle.There is a way to store only the buckle and use it for another bracelet or belt. Because the size depends on the productRemember the size of the buckleThere is a need.
- ^ For example, "Citizen"" The clock business of the brand is "rhythm".
- ^ Chuokoron-sha "Social History of Watches"
- ^ Chuokoron-sha "Social History of Watches"
- ^ Marco Richon "OMEGA SAGA" Chap.7
- ^ WATCH WIKI "SANTOS" 
- ^ History ｜ Seiko Holdings Co., Ltd.
- ^ Marco Richon "OMEGA SAGA" Chap.7
- ^ "Clock History Chronology" p.180.
- ^ WATCH WIKI "MEGA1" 
- ^ a b "The world's first photovoltaic clock "Eco-Drive Satellite Wave" that receives time information from artificial satellites”(Japanese). Citizen Holdings (September 2011, 6). 2013th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "World's first "GPS + radio reception", hybrid G-SHOCK announced-Casio”. ITmedia (June 2014, 6). 2020th of February 4Browse.
- ^ "Casio, "G-SHOCK" equipped with the world's first three time acquisition systems”. PC Watch (March 2017, 3). 2020th of February 4Browse.
- ^ Chuokoron-sha "Social History of Watches"
- ^ "Military clock story"
- ^ "Dissemination of wristwatches in the military during World War I”. Seiko Museum. 2019th of February 12Browse.
- ^ According to Nagao's description in "Postwar Domestic Watches" (1994 Tombow Publishing) p28 by Yoshio Nagao and Yoshitaka Kimura.
- ^ "World's Special Watch Encyclopedia" p.133.
- ^ "World's Special Watch Encyclopedia" p.133.
- ^ "World's Special Watch Encyclopedia" p.133.
- ^ "From the roots until today's achievements ..”. Federtywfdywoiration of the Swiss Watch Industry. 2007th of February 12Browse.
- ^ "World's Special Watch Encyclopedia" p.134.
- ^ "Clock History Chronology" p.180.
- ^ Seiko Quartz Astron 35SQ (Epson Milestone Products)
- ^ "World's Special Watch Encyclopedia" p.134.
- ^ "Clock History Chronology" p.180.
- ^ "Clock History Chronology" p.180.
- ^ "World's Special Watch Encyclopedia" p.134.
- ^ "Clock History Chronology" p.180.
- ^ "Development of viscous sweep system"NOT 110002775858
- ^ SEIKO TECHNOLOGY
- ^ SEIKO News-Seiko Watch Corporation
- ^ Marine Master Professional Spring Drive equipped model (Prospex "sea") About Prospex --Seiko Watch Corporation
- ^ Healed by a complicated clock of 1575 million yen --Nikkei Monozukuri --Tech-On!
- ^ SEIKO News-Seiko Watch Corporation
- ^ http://news.mynavi.jp/news/2013/05/17/090/
- ^ http://www.swatchgroup.com/en/services/archiv/2013/swatch_sistem51
- ^ WATCH WIKI "MEGA1" 
- ^ "world's first.Supports 39 time zones around the world.Solar GPS watch <Seiko Astron> Catch satellite signals and quickly get the current time anywhere on the planet”(Japanese). Seiko Watch (March 2012, 3). 2013th of February 6Browse.
- ^ Sony x Casio! Approaching the key device of the world's first "GPS hybrid radio clock"! | Mynavi News(March 2014, 3 My navi）
- ^ Hybrid "G-SHOCK" released --2014 --News release(Casio Computer dated June 2014, 6)
- ^ ASCII.jp: Casio Computer, the world's first full-metal GPS radio wave and Bluetooth wristwatch(ASCII.jp editorial department dated September 2014, 9)
- ^ Even if you wear a watch, half "check the time on your mobile phone" --japan.internet.com Daily Research
- ^ "Long-established Citizen "Do not fight Apple" watch strategy (The world's first Bluetooth watch is made by Citizen)”. Toyo Keizai ONLINE (November 2018, 11). 2020th of February 4Browse.
- ^ "Has the Apple Watch changed the world?Prohibition of bringing watches to the test site spreads around the world”. INTERNET Watch (March 2015, 3). As of August 23, 2017オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2015th of February 8Browse.
- ^ The wording on the main body regarding the waterproofing of watches was not unified in the past.In the case of Citizen, the seismic mechanism introduced earlier was named "Parashock", so there was a time when it was called "Para Water" in the waterproof watches developed after that in the 1960s.
- ^ In the early 1930s, Rolex was one of the first in the wristwatch industry to put into practical use a highly efficient full-rotation automatic winding mechanism with the intention of avoiding wear on the crown due to winding the mainspring and maintaining waterproof performance for a long period of time.For this reason, the classic waterproof Rolex self-winding has a fairly thick structure, commonly known as the "bubble back", for the purpose of accommodating a thick self-winding mechanism.
- ^ OMEGA's "Seamaster" series has been on the market since 1948, but initially it was a name that simply meant "waterproof model", and before the 1960s it also included a rudimentary waterproof model of "daily life waterproof" level. Was there.Therefore, not all Seamasters use a multiple case structure.
- Keiji Kasagi,Koichi Namiki Co-authored "Watch Trivia Notebook", Diamond.
- "Dare to return to mecha because of this era," D & M Nikkei Mechanical, July 2002, Nikkei BP, pp. 7-75.
- Kenji Ninomiya, "Handbook of World Countries and Latest Statistics", Ninomiya Shoten.
- Imai Imai Spring, "Military Clock Story" Kobunsha Bunko
- Separate household pictorial "World's Specialty Clock Encyclopedia" Sekai Bunka
- "Clock History Chronology" Kawai Planning Office
- Changes in watch design Patent Office
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Classification of the term "image"
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- MImage file format
- There are many image file formats,W3CRecommended byRaster formatToJPEG,PNGEtc.,Vector formatToXMLCan be expressed because of the baseSVGThere is. Also,Adobe OfVector formatDocument filePDFInternational standard ISO 32000-1:2008It became.
- Image element
- Color expression
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- ^ Museo_de_Altamira
- ^ Sadatoshi Miura "Preservation status of Lascaux cave paintings"(Takamatsuzuka Tomb Mural Degradation Cause Investigation Group (XNUMXth) Material/Culture Agency)
- ^ "Kangxi character web version"763 page
- ^ "Kangxi character web version"116 page
- ^ Document management-Portable document format / ISO Store
- "Video Revolution CG-Computer Graphics Changes Society, Art, and Industry" ISBN-978 4872463040