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📱 | Google announces crowdsourcing tool to protect endangered languages


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Google announces crowdsourcing tool to protect endangered languages

 
If you write the contents roughly
However, what is different is that it is crowdsourced.
 

Many languages ​​are spoken all over the world.Many of us watch on TV, listen to movies and music, our surroundings ... → Continue reading

 Ubergizmo Japan

Ubergizmo Japan is a technology media featuring the latest trend news for gadgets, smartphones, games, technology, home entertainment products, and product review articles from the perspective of consumers.


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Crowdsourcing

Crowdsourcing(English: crowdsourcing) Is the process of soliciting the contributions of an unspecified number of people and acquiring the services, ideas, or contents they need.This process is often used to perform tedious, fragmented tasks and to finance start-ups and charities.A coined word that combines crowd and sourcing to outsource work to specific people.ア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グIs contrasted with.

Crowdsourcing, in a narrow sense, refers to a new form of employment in which work is outsourced to an unspecified number of people.In a broad sense, it does not necessarily require employment relationships, and may refer to all projects jointly carried out by an unspecified number of people, in which case.Open street map(OSM)reCAPTCHAIs a typical example.

Overview

Traditionally,ア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グIn this way, there was a trend for companies to outsource highly specialized work to the outside.However, in recent years, with the spread of the Internet, there are increasing cases of outsourcing such work to an "unspecified number" of people outside the company.Collectively, they are called crowdsourcing.The purpose is to procure and aggregate intellectual productivity and contents from a large number of people and obtain business results.

For example,P & GFor product developmentBoeingFor assembling the aircraftCommercial PBWIncorporates such techniques into text, illustration, audio, and music.[1]

The concept itself is not new, mainlyPCインターネットTraditionally by usingInternal jobIt can be said that it is a kind of development form of, and it can be said that it is a digital internal job as a similar concept.

Definition

In 2005en: WIRED MagazineEditors Jeff Howe and Mark Robinson discuss the term "crowdsourcing" after a discussion of how businesses use the Internet to outsource work to individuals. Was born[2]..Howe and Robinson came to the conclusion that something like "outsourcing to the crowd" was happening, which led to the coined word "crowdsourcing."Howe first published the definition of "crowdsourcing" in a blog post accompanying "The Rise of Crowdsourcing," an article in WIRED magazine in June 2006 (and published a few days later).[3].

"By simple definition, crowdsourcing is the act of a company or institution that outsources a function that was once performed by an employee to a network of unspecified (and generally large) people in the form of a public offering. This can take the form of group work (when work is coordinated), but is often done by a single individual. Important prerequisites are open recruitment and potential. Is to use a large network of workers. "

Darren C. Brabham defined "crowdsourcing" as "online decentralized problem-solving and production model" in an article on February 2008, 2.[4].

In crowdsourcing, issues are assigned to the crowd in the form of a public offering.When the crowd submits the deliverable, the deliverable belongs to the client.A monetary reward may be given to the worker who submitted the deliverable.On the other hand, fame and intellectual satisfaction may be the only rewards.Crowdsourcing can produce deliverables from amateurs and volunteers who work in their spare time, or from professionals and small businesses unknown to the client.[5].

Crowdsourcing clients are primarily motivated by the benefits of crowdsourcing.One of its benefits is the ability to collect large quantities of deliverables and information at a relatively low cost.Workers, on the other hand, are motivated to contribute to crowdsourced tasks through social contact, intellectual stimuli, and extrinsic motives such as time-killing and extrinsic motives such as financial gain.

Due to the ambiguous boundaries of the term "crowdsourcing," many collaborations are considered crowdsourcing, even if they are not.This situation has led to the spread of definitions in the scientific literature.[6], Various authors have lost the big picture that the term refers to and give different definitions of crowdsourcing depending on their area of ​​expertise.

Researching more than 40 definitions of cloud sourcing in the scientific and general literature, Enrique Estellés-Arolas and Fernando Gonzalez Radron de Arolas, business scholars at the Valencia Institute of Technology (Spain) Guevara (Fernando González Ladrón-de-Guevara) integrated the definitions[6].

"Crowdsourcing proposes that individuals, organizations, nonprofits, or businesses work voluntarily through flexible public offerings to mixed, multi-individual groups with varying knowledge. A type of participatory online activity. There is always mutual benefit in performing tasks of varying complexity and modularity in which the crowd brings their workforce, money, knowledge and / or experience to participate. That is, the worker needs to receive some kind of satisfaction such as financial benefit or social awareness, self-esteem, personal skill growth, while the client is the outcome of the worker's business. (The format differs depending on the type of activity performed) and use it to your advantage. "

Henk van Ess emphasizes the need to "return" the results of crowdsourcing on ethical grounds.His unscientific, non-commercial definition is widely cited in tabloids[7].

"Crowdsourcing focuses on the professional desire to solve problems and share solutions freely with everyone."

Crowdsourcing systems are used to accomplish a variety of tasks.For example, what the crowd gathers to develop new technologies and do design work ("community-based design")[8] Or "dispersionParticipatory design(Also known as "), which improves or executes the steps of the algorithm (also known as"en: human-based computation(See), or those that collect, systematize, or analyze large amounts of data (see).en: citizen scienceSee) and so on.

Crowdsourcing site

Crowdsourcing sites include comprehensive sites that allow you to outsource work without limiting the type of job or business field, and specialized sites that are created by narrowing down the types and fields of work.[9].

Comprehensive site

Specialized site

Problems with crowdsourcing sites

In 2013Cloud WorksAccording to a survey of Japanese crowdsourcing sitesWriterBusiness hourly wages tend to be too low[9]..In addition, even if you get only a low reward at the beginning of participation, trust will be created by accumulating orders on the crowdsourcing site, and transactions may be completed with a high desired reward.[9]

Crowdsourcing sites can easily order jobs, so the examination has not caught up and inappropriate job contents are often posted and it is regarded as a problem.[10][11].

At the crowdsourcing site in 2020, measures are being taken for low-priced projects, but the problem has not been fundamentally resolved.

Current situation and problems

Opportunities have been provided to those who have the ability but have difficulty working in a company in an urban area due to restrictions such as regional, time, and age, such as local residents. ..On the other hand, since we trade with an unspecified number of people who have no acquaintance in the form of performance compensation, there is a difference in recognition between the ordering party and the business consignee depending on the content of the request for which it is difficult to quantify the achievement rate, and there is a risk of developing a dispute. There are cases where it becomes apparent.Also, along with that, newIn-house business lawDamage has also been reported, and caution is being given.[12]

Bashing the labor force

Crowdsourcing has a lot of "cheap projects of about 1 to 0.1 yen per character" like writing a WEB article.[13]..Some projects, such as "1 yen per character", will almost certainly only give you a reward below the minimum wage level if you replace it with employment.[13]..It has been pointed out that with the advent of crowdsourcing, the labor force's buying and selling has become structured.[14].. There is also a calculation that about 20 in 8000 people can earn more than 1 yen.[14].

A freelance web writer who was using Lancers and CrowdWorks at the time said in an interview in 2019, "Even if you work every day without rest, you will only have it after paying the fee (to the crowdsourcing side) every month. It's about 15 to 20 yen. Is it the number of writings? It's about 50 every month. "[13]..It has been pointed out that crowdsourcing is a hotbed where "orderers and contractors are not equal, so" 1 yen per character "and" name-only business owners "are rampant."[13].

Ordering Stealth Marketing Ads

It is often pointed out that movie word-of-mouth sites often include clear Sakura reviews with 5 stars written by all reviewers from the first day of screening.[15]. AlsoAmazon,Rakuten,Google mapEtc,Cherry blossomIt has been pointed out that the act of writing highly rated reviews on products and restaurants is being bought and sold on crowdsourcing sites.[16].

It is said that the PR company that received the order from the distribution company ordered the movie Sakura review from the next subcontracted SNS promotion company, and the final reviewers are those who registered with Lancers, CrowdWorks, etc.[15]..It has been pointed out that Sakura Review is a "poor business" in which a housewife is forced to do a job of several tens of yen, and the former contractor sells it for several hundred yen, and the PR company makes it a job of tens of thousands of yen.[15]..Also, while pretending to be a personal blog, I ordered the description from crowdsourcing and posted it as it is.affiliateIt is also pointed out that the form of earning[15].

In principle, Lancers prohibits orders for stealth marketing, and "Immediately suspend posting of cases that have been judged to be inappropriate by conducting a violation check similar to stealth marketing (omitted).[17], "It is against morals to specify the content of the word of mouth, so we are dealing with it in accordance with the" request guideline ".[16]".

Conservative Political Blog Article Creation Request Problem

Cloud WorksThe request for creating a blog article was 800 yen per case, but the content was a case of writing a blog article saying "People who vote for the Communist Party are anti-Japanese."[18]..In addition, there were other projects such as the operation and management of a conservative (anti-Democratic / anti-Korean) summary blog site, and the creation of political / entertainment current affairs videos.[10]..When these projects become a hot topic on the netCloud WorksThe side announced that it will delete the relevant case and strengthen the response to discrimination and political cases.[11].

footnote

  1. ^ Wykinomics
  2. ^ Safire, William (February 2009, 2). “On Language”. New York Times Magazine. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/08/magazine/08wwln-safire-t.html?_r=3&ref=magazine& 2013th of February 5Browse. 
  3. ^ Howe, Jeff (June 2006, 6). “Crowdsourcing: A Definition”. Crowdsourcing Blog. 2013th of February 1Browse.
  4. ^ Brabham, Daren (2008), “Crowdsourcing as a Model for Problem Solving: An Introduction and Cases” (PDF), Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 14 (1): 75–90, two:10.1177/1354856507084420, http://www.clickadvisor.com/downloads/Brabham_Crowdsourcing_Problem_Solving.pdf 
  5. ^ Howe, Jeff (2006). “The Rise of Crowdsourcing”. Wired. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds.html 
  6. ^ a b Estellés-Arolas, Enrique; González-Ladrón-de-Guevara, Fernando (2012), “Towards an Integrated Crowdsourcing Definition” (PDF), Journal of Information Science 38 (2): 189–200, two:10.1177/0165551512437638, http://www.crowdsourcing-blog.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Towards-an-integrated-crowdsourcing-definition-Estell%C3%A9s-Gonz%C3%A1lez.pdf 
  7. ^ Claypole, Maurice (February 2012, 2). “Learning through crowdsourcing is deaf to the language challenge”. The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2012/feb/14/web-translation-fails-learners 
  8. ^ Whitford, David (January 2010, 1). “Crowd Sourcing Turns Business On Its Head”. CNN. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=93495217 2012th of February 2Browse. 
  9. ^ a b c "New Work Style by Information" "Third Industrial Revolution" 2015 pp.181-190
  10. ^ a b It was mass-produced with blog articles, YouTube videos, and crowdsourcing of several tens of yen each, which beat the opposition and fueled anti-Korean.
  11. ^ a b Regarding the suspension of posting of political blog article creation projects
  12. ^ Be careful of work-at-home business ※Broken link
  13. ^ a b c d `` The Facts of Youth'' Living in Crowdsourcing (Toyo Keizai) 2019.
  14. ^ a b 2020.
  15. ^ a b c d 2019.
  16. ^ a b Bought word of mouth. Is it rampant on Google Maps, Amazon, Rakuten?It was a hotbed (BuzzFeed Japan) 2020.
  17. ^ About transmission on some social media (Lancers) 2020.
  18. ^ CrowdWorks "People who vote for the Communist Party are anti-Japanese" blog article creation request, posting cancellation

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