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This section mainly describes air purifiers.
History and overview
The history of air purifiers19st centuryfirstIndustrial revolutionAt the timeThe United KingdomIt is said that it started from.The energy source at that time was mainlycoalIt is said that it was made for the purpose of removing the soot generated by burning it.[Needs verification]
Until then, cleaning the air was done by ventilation, but as the places where clean air should be taken in began to be polluted, it was necessary to actively remove pollutants in the air.
On the other hand, the first household air purifier in Japan (with a filter)1962Around Matsushita Electric Industrial (currentlyPanasonic) Has been released. Sometimes as ifHigh economic growthIn the middle of the period,Yokkaichi asthmaSuch asAir pollutionbyPollutionIs the eve of becoming a social problem.This is in EnglandLondon smogIt coincides with the appearance of an air purifier on the eve of the incident.
Of course, it is still often used to remove such so-called air pollutants,1980From around this time, this also became a social problem.hay feverOften used for (in highly airtight homes)smokingThere are also problems such as).However, what many people have come to use in recent years is1990It is from around.
2003The penetration rate of air purifiers in Japan is estimated to be about 23%, which is more than double that of 10 years ago.However, although it has continued to grow more than the previous year's shipment almost every year, the amount of Japanese cedar pollen scattered was extremely small.2004(2003) was lower than the previous year.Although there are various demands, it can be said that the demand for pollinosis countermeasures is still large.
As for the movement of household air purifiers in recent years, it is noteworthy that large air volume types that surpass conventional commercial use have begun to appear.In addition to antibacterial products, there are an increasing number of products that are said to decompose and remove various allergens, and it is becoming more like a health home appliance rather than an air conditioner home appliance.
In the consumer electronics industry,フ ァ ンWith formulaionAlthough it has been classified as a formula, nowadays, major home appliance companies have withdrawn from the ion type due to its low performance, and the ion type air purifier that remains even as of 2020 isMail order,インターネットIt is often sold by a limited number of sales methods, such as those sold above.
Almost 100% of the products sold at home electronics retail stores are fan-type, so we often display and explain the differences in the filters and various special mechanisms, performance, and additional functions.vice versa,humidifier, Dehumidifying dryers, fan heaters, air conditioners, etc. are also equipped with an air purifying function.Classifications, names, and performance indications that are in line with the current situation and are easy for the general public to understand are required.
Some humidifiers that do not have an air purifying function can be expected to have some air purifying effect depending on the method.
Fan type (filter type such as HEPA)
The fan type is the mainstream method as of 2020.Fan,Air conditionIn the same way as above, the air is forcibly sucked in by a fan, filtered by a filter, and the clean air is blown out.The fan used is suitable for pushing out airpropellerSuitable for suction, not a fan (fan such as a fan)Sirocco fan(Used for ceiling-mounted ventilation fans, etc.).Some models use a cross-flow fan.A long time ago, many products with abundant air volume that would be used for business purposes came out.
Many fan-type air purifiersHEPAFine-grained called (Hepa)Non-woven OffilterCollects and filters fine particles with. A finer filter than HEPAULPASome have adopted (ULPA).Both HEPA and ULPAClean roomIt is a high-performance filter used in a purifier for.In household air purifiers, ULPA is too fine-grained, and air resistance is large and disadvantageous even when increasing the air volume, so there are not many models adopted in recent years. Those with a lower rank than HEPA are generally called high-performance filters, and the filter fibers themselves areStatic electricityAn electrostatic filter that is tinged with dust and can efficiently collect dust is often used.When the grade is further lowered, a filter such as a high-density non-woven fabric called a fiber filter is used.
About the smellActivated carbonTake the method of adsorption with.Not activated carbontitanium dioxideSuch asPhotocatalystThere are also models that use deodorant.Some of them have the same principle as the ionic formula.Electrostatic dust collectionSome are also used (mostly called plasma).Occurs in the discharged partplasmaDeodorizes (low temperature plasma. The substance is various radicals)Bacteria-Some models are used to decompose allergens.
Compared to the ion type, the fan type has a body size andpower consumptionIs large,noiseIt is also disadvantageous in that respect.If the filter becomes dirty, it must be replaced, which increases running costs (although some models have started to use dust collection filters that do not require replacement).However, many can control the air volume, and the motorInverterIf the air volume is reduced in the high-end model that adopts control, the power consumption and noise are equal to or less than the ion type.
Some are equipped with dust and odor sensors, timers, remote controls, etc.Many of them have a built-in microcomputer and can perform various automatic operations according to the program.
The dust collection efficiency displayed on the household purifier is the theoretical value / standard value of the filter alone, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the purifier.Some of the special-purpose products used for clean rooms and clean booths, such as those for business use and medical use, display the actual performance when using a purifier (in the actual clean room, the purifier is used in the room design. It is built-in and rarely uses a single purifier).
It is called mechanical dust collection as opposed to electrostatic dust collection.It is also called a filter type or a filter dust collection type.Such distinctions, including the plasma mentioned above, are causing confusion for consumers.
For commercial use (especially for industrial use), air purifiers (dust collectors) for electrostatic precipitators are often used.It is similar to the ionic type in that it uses electric discharge, but in many cases the positive and negative electrodes are opposite.Dust collectorThe number of electrodes is large in order to improve the efficiency of the dust, and it is a multi-stage type in which the part for charging dust and the part for collecting dust are separated.Unlike the ionic type, a fan is usually used.Since plasma is generated with discharge, it is often called a plasma type for home use.The running cost is low because the electrodes are basically washed and reused.
Some have only the effect of collecting dust, some remove the cause of odor, and some have a deodorizing filter.A fan-type precipitator that uses a filter may be used in combination with electrostatic precipitators with a simple structure (this combined type is now often referred to as electrostatic precipitators).Sometimes used for air conditioners.
In principle, it can collect finer particles than a purifier using a filter.
Household electrostatic precipitator
In recent years, the electrostatic precipitator (electrostatic charging) method has come to be seen even in household air purifiers.This is a method in which dust and dirt sucked into an air purifier is positively charged and adsorbed on a negatively charged filter.
Filters include filtration filters and those with parallel plates lined up.
Compared to filtration type such as HEPA filter, it is more resistant to clogging and can be cleaned.Further, the electrostatic precipitator (electrostatic charging) method using a parallel flat plate does not easily deteriorate its performance even under harsh conditions.
Not all purifiers with a function called plasma collect dust by electrostatic precipitator.Some are equipped with a very small plasma generator and catalyst to improve the deodorizing performance in that part (main deodorization is done by activated carbon).
Since it does not collect dust, it cannot be included in the electrostatic precipitator, even though it is plasma.
ionThe formula is at a certain distanceelectrodeHighVoltageIon flow in the air by applyingDischarge), The fine particles that have entered there are charged, and the dust is collected on the electrode with the opposite charge (however, the classification here is limited to those that do not use a fan).Some companies called it electronic or electrostatic precipitators.Even from the principle, it is weak against odors, and basically there is no fan, so only fine particles in the immediate vicinity can be taken (for the principle,Ion enginereference).
By continuous operation, it is possible to slowly collect ultrafine particles floating in the air for a long time little by little, but it is completely powerless to collect fine particles of a size that falls relatively quickly.It has the advantage of low power consumption, and a small amount of electricity is generated during discharge.ozoneMay have some effect on deodorization (a large amount of ozone is toxic), but quick deodorization is not possible.Many thingsnegative ionHowever, its health effects have not been clarified.Depending on the structure and arrangement of the electrodes, some may generate a slight amount of wind (called electronic wind), but it is better to think of it as an interior that has some dust collecting effect.It is basically silent (it may make a slight noise if the electrodes become dirty).
There is a method of covering the dust collecting electrode with a paper towel or the like and replacing it when it gets dirty, or a method of using a bare electrode and washing it when it gets dirty.Charged dust may pass through, and if there is a wall nearby, it may adhere and become dirty.It is dangerous if the electrodes become too dirty and short-circuited (although many are equipped with safety devices).
There was also a fan type and ion type switching type.It is a method to stop the fan and switch to the ion type at the time of weak or quiet operation, but nowadays, due to the high performance of the motor used for the fan type, there is no point in switching to the ion type in terms of both noise and power consumption, and it is sold. There are no more models.
As mentioned above, the air purifier cleans the fine particles and odors contained in the air, but the performance of the dust collection filter type has almost reached the end, and it has been improved. No (the use of HEPA has become commonplace since the mid-1990s, and basic performance hasn't changed since then).Therefore, at least for household products, it is necessary to consider the basic increase in air volume and air flow, except for new products aimed at enhancing so-called additional functions or improving convenience and novelty. ..
Some manufacturers are promoting miniaturization (thinning) of the main body size of the fan type, but in general, the smaller and thinner ones have smaller fans, and when compared with the same air volume, there is a tendency for noise to increase.Since the thickness of the filter must be reduced, the area is also reduced and the efficiency is reduced.
In recent years, the dust collection filter has been specially treated.pollenSuch asAllergenSome call it inactivating.Some use plasma (radicals) generated in the discharged part for deodorization and decomposition of allergens.As long as it is collected on the filter, its function should not be useful, but it is considered to have a certain effect because it collects dust when the filter is replaced.
In addition, there is a recent antibacterial boom and hygiene boom, and each company's own ion generator is used to deodorize and sterilize, and ultraviolet lamps (ultraviolet lamps).Germicidal lamp),ozoneSome models have a built-in device to generate.
Air purifiers with a built-in humidifier are also beginning to appear.If the filter gets wet, it may lead to the growth of mold and the like.
Many air purifiers are equipped with dust sensors, odor sensors, etc., but their performance varies.Some models can change the direction of the wind that blows out, and some models perform highly automatic operation by using a sensor to detect air pollution.There are some models that detect whether a person is in the room with a sensor and learn the pattern of air pollution in the room, but it is doubtful how practical these additional functions are.These seemingly advanced special features are often not adopted with model changes (they may be re-adopted in a few years).
Acetaldehyde,ammonia,Acetic acidDeodorizing specialized type (not a deodorizing machine) that is said to be resistant to odors such astobacco Ofnicotine,tarThere are also products with a filter that can be said to be able to remove such substances efficiently.Deodorizing and deodorizing performance is attracting attention as the number of people who keep pets indoors increases and nursing care is provided at home.
However, even if the smell and visible smoke are removed,tobaccoAnd exhaust gasgasNot all harmful substances can be removed, which is clearly stated in the instruction manual and packaging.Therefore, it is abundant in tobaccoCarbon monoxideCannot be removed.
Air purifiers called "smoke tables" have also been used for business purposes, but nowadaysHealth promotionByPassive smokingMust be prevented and is complete in most buildingsSeparation of smoking areas(Isolation of smoking space and de facto ventilation) is mandatory.Most of the smoke table structure uses electric dust collection.
So-calledSick houseIt is better to think that the air purifier cannot cope with the odors and harmful gases generated one after another from houses and furniture.Even when using it, after confirming its performance, it is necessary to select a model that is resistant to those gases and use it as an aid to ventilation.
However, it is equipped with a special degassing agent filter or uses a large amount of activated carbon.Chemical hypersensitivityThere are a few air purifiers as a countermeasure.Most of the body is made of metal because patients with multiple chemical sensitivity may react to a small amount of gas (which is said to be due to plasticizers) generated from the plastic used in the body of the purifier. It has special specifications such as.However, even this is ancillary, and it goes without saying that ventilation and measures against the source are important.Some are imported and some are made in Japan, but they are not sold at general consumer electronics stores.Contact a store that sells allergy-related items.
Nowadays, there is also a citizen's health consciousness,hay feverIt is becoming a product that is sold not only in the season but throughout the year.
Many companies have the next hay fever (summer to autumn)Japanese cedar pollinosis) In order to introduce new products for the season, it may be possible to purchase the old model that remained in the store at a low price after that.Many imported products from overseas are becoming more common, but many of these products do not undergo model changes every year like Japanese products.On the other hand, such foreign brands may be sold at a slightly insane price (mostly by mail order).
About terms and expressions
Recently, words are often paraphrased so as not to violate the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.For example, the term "allergen" implies that reducing it will have a medical effect, which may violate the law.Therefore, the consumer electronics industry uses the term "allergen".
On the other hand, the functions of purifiers have come to be actually tested and promoted with a basis.This is to avoid an improper display, but it complicates the performance display.For example, there is a display saying "○ types of pollen are decomposed", but this does not change the pollen regardless of the type.On the contrary, consumers may misunderstand that pollen without labeling cannot be dealt with.
There may be a statement in the advertisement that it seems to be effective for cigarettes, but it is included in cigarette smoke because the gas component cannot be removed by the filter of the purifier.Carbon monoxideThe gas component that accounts for 96.7% of cigarette smoke is not removed.Therefore, the advertisement of each manufacturer has a proviso such as "Carbon monoxide contained in cigarettes is not removed" in the corner.
Furthermore, there is an advertisement that it is inactivated by ions that release various viruses, etc., but this is based on a very small experimental device, and the results were not obtained in the actual room. ..
Ion generation by plasma discharge is millions of times at the same timeozoneDespite the fact that ozone is generated, it does not mention ozone at all and explains with words such as "Ozone may smell when used."
When choosing a household purifier for general use, the floor area shown as a guide (tatamiLook at the number).Especially when the purpose is to remove pollen and house dust, it is recommended to use twice the size of the room as a minimum guideline (for example, a 2 tatami room is displayed as 6 tatami mats).If you're comfortable with your budget and body size, it's best to go beyond that.
This is because the larger the air volume, the faster it is possible to collect fine particles of a size that easily falls, such as pollen.You can quickly clean the dust that rises when you walk and the dust that collects when cleaning.If you don't clean it quickly, it will just fall to the floor again.Even if the dust collection performance of the filter is sufficientAir volume is importantYou need to understand that well.At the same time, it must be understood that it is not a device that cleans dust on the floor.
The floor area displayed as a guide isJapan Electrical Manufacturers' AssociationThe performance is displayed according to the JEM1467 standard (the definition of an air purifier is also based on this. Therefore, the one dedicated to the smoke of a small desktop type cigarette is not an air purifier according to the standard). , It can be said that it is a little far from practical use.In addition, it should be notedThere is no guarantee that the products of companies that do not belong to the industry association will be labeled according to this standard.Even the ion type cannot display the performance according to this standard.
There is also a standard for deodorizing performance, and there are models that display the performance according to it, but since many are not displayed, it is not possible to compare the performance at the time of purchase.In fact, those with such performance indications have high deodorizing performance, and manufacturers can be considered confident.If you want to prioritize deodorizing and deodorizing performance, you should select such a model.
However, when used in heavily polluted areas or in rooms with heavy smokers, even filters with a lifespan indication of 2 or 3 years will expire in a few months (ie, the filter will smell). Sometimes.Such performance (life) differs depending on whether the deodorizing / deodorizing filter is activated carbon or a photocatalyst.In general, those equipped with an activated carbon filter tend to emit odors more easily when the humidity is high, such as during the rainy season.
Overseas such as the United States and European countriesAssociation of Home Appliance AppliancesAuthenticateCADRBased on the index (Clean Air Delivery Rate), the performance of air purifiers is evaluated numerically, and it is used as a standard for consumers to compare and select air purifiers.
In-vehicle air purifier
There are products that claim to be in-vehicle air purifiers, but none have the performance to call them air purifiers.Car makers in recent yearsAir conditionIt is appealing that the performance of the filter of is improved.
Air conditioner filter
Filters that cover the air intake of indoor air conditioners are on sale.It is a product that sells dust collection and deodorant functions, and by using these, it has the effect of reducing large dust and a certain amount of odor.As a side effect, it reduces the adhesion of dirt inside the air conditioner.
Generally, clean air is blown above the rear of the main body, but there is also a type that blows air from the side of the main body.It is necessary to be careful about the installation location so that furniture etc. do not block the air circulation.
There are some special ones that blow clean air from the front or back of the main body to the front (rear) (although there are few at present, which are available in imported products), but in that case, the device is placed at face height. By installing it on the side and directing the wind toward the face, you can breathe clean air efficiently.The type that blows air from the side of the main body may be installed in the same way by changing the direction (this does not apply if the air is circulated by other air conditioning equipment).However, if it is exposed to the wind for a long time, the skin, throat and nose may become dry and not good.
Various types of purifierssensorThe performance of the product varies, and if you rely on it, you will not be able to remove pollen and house dust efficiently.If you know that something you want to remove is floating there (for example, when you know that pollen is coming in because you opened the window), manually switch to the mode with the highest air volume. It is better to clean it quickly.
There are various automatic operations such as pollen mode and smoke mode, but most of them change the strength of the air volume.Some of them change the sensitivity of the sensor, but it is efficient to understand each feature well and use them properly.
If the purpose is to remove smoke from cigarettes and kitchens, it is efficient to install it at the top of the room.For general purposes such as removing pollen and house dust, it can be installed on the floor of the room.If you have multiple rooms and want to clean them all, it is better to install one in each room (or one in each room) because it can be a little smaller than installing a large purifier with the total floor area of all floors. Move each time).Smoke from kitchens often contains oil, and if you inhale a lot of it, the life and cleaning interval will be shortened.
In either case, it is necessary to select an appropriate air volume in order to efficiently circulate the air in the room.In particular, since smoke and the like float in the air for a long time, it is often thought that it may take time to collect dust, but as time passes, many of them adhere to the walls of the room.
Some indicators prompt you to clean the filter, but they only count the operating time and may not need to be cleaned if you can visually see that the filter is clean.However, you should clean the filter as much as possible.Depending on the model that adopts the electrostatic precipitator, if the part where high voltage is applied becomes dirty, there is an indicator to encourage cleaning of that part.
Especially in the case of pollinosis, there are symptoms that appear even without allergens (symptoms that appear late), and not all can be solved by using a purifier.However, even if the effect on pollinosis cannot be confirmed, pollen may not be removed very well in many cases due to improper use.It is not a medical device that improves symptoms just by installing it.It is dangerous to swallow the reputation of others, as the severity of the symptoms varies from person to person.The effectiveness of air purifiers against pollinosis is the discoverer of cedar pollinosis.Yozo SaitoIt has been proved by (at the time of discovery, belonging to Tokyo Medical and Dental University).Depending on the user, the purifier may be used only during the period of Japanese cedar pollinosis, and it may be stored at other times, but the activated carbon may adsorb the odor during storage and shorten the life. You should know that it is possible.If it absorbs odors even when not in use, it is better to use it all year long unless it is unnecessary (however, it is inefficient to open the window and use a purifier).If it is to be stored, at least the deodorizing filter should be sealed with a plastic bag or the like.
- At the Japan Electrical Manufacturers' AssociationMay 1 TheAir purifier dayとanniversaryIt is stipulated in.
- For air purifiersElectrical Appliance and Material Safety LawBecause of this, it is not possible to sell without the PSE mark.2008May 4Because.