Slow life that was too hard 121st Let's prepare properly this time
If you write the contents roughly
It is a four-frame manga "Too Hard Slow Life" that OL who lived in the city and longs for living in the country.
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4 comic strip cartoon
Form and positioning
4 pieces arranged side by sideConsolidationAnd the 4th frame,endingIs the basic form of expression. In modern Japan, the vertical arrangement of coma is common, but historically this is not always the case (see below), and even in regions other than Japan,PeanutsYou can see a horizontal arrangement like "" and a two-column configuration (a square character). Even in modern Japan, there are works with two rows in one row, or two rows. For the sake of convenience, 2 frames (1 frames in 2 rows are 2 times as many as other frames. It may be included in the final page depending on the work, but it is often included in the 5st page. The big punch also serves as the title cover), 2 frames (Sudden and sudden), the number of frames may change to 8 frames. Recently, a punch line has also been placed in the third frame.2-step punchLaughter in a form that does not necessarily follow the transfer of words and phrases, such as what is called a subtitle and what is originally a title of the content (subtitle) is also an element of the punch line. There are many things to take.
Short comics using multiple frames can be seen outside of Japan, but there are not necessarily four main frames in the world, there are many three in Europe and America, and three in Thailand in Southeast Asia is common... Meanwhile, in East Asia South Korea,ChugokuHas become a style with four frames established.
There are two types of four-frame comics, one with a subtitle and the other without.For the type with a subtitle, the content that is the target of the subtitle is often drawn in the 4rd or 3th frame. As the name of "4-frame manga" indicates, there are many works in which the story is completed in 4 frames, but there are also many works in which the story progresses in chronological order regardless of the presence or absence of subtitles. It is virtually the same as a story manga.
As mentioned above, various methods are used to arrange the frames, but the rare ones are the 1st and 4th frames, and the 2nd and 3rd frames are 2 vertically long and half the width. There are also works drawn in a format like "II" lying side by side..
History in Japan
In Japan, a collection of caricatures and caricatures was published in woodblock prints in the Edo period, but some of them were made into continuous stories in the form of frames... It was issued in the late Edo periodHokusai cartoonIn ", there are four pictures on the page, with "Ochi" at the end of the picture.Shimizu IsaoWrites "The origin of 4-panel manga".
From the end of Edo, the style of Western European comic stripsCharles WargmanIntroduced to Japan by et al.The Western-style four-frame manga that was first introduced in Japan was published by Wagman.Japan Punch]1876It is considered to be a work published in.. Eventually, a newspaper published by a Japanese (Current newsEtc.) and magazines (“Group, Etc.) began to draw comics that seemed to be influenced by this. One theory is thatIppei OkamotoIt is said that the work drawn by the movie was inspired by the film of the movie.. However, in this era, four-frame cartoons were not the mainstream, but mainly single-page cartoons, and various styles such as two-frame, three-frame, and six-frame cartoons were drawn. A manga artist representing the late Meiji periodKitazawa RakutenIn the “Jiji Manga” (starting in 1902) manga page of “Jiji Shimpo”, which was mainly the Stayed at the point.
Also, in this era, the arrangement of 4 frames was a mixture of 4 vertical frames and 2 columns (“Tana”).
During the Taisho era, comic strips from the United States and Britain were published in Japanese newspapers and magazines, and the comic strips produced by Japanese comic artists were serialized in a way that influenced them. Among them,1923Started inMasa Chan's Adventure"(Sentence·Oda Kosei,picture·Shoichi Kabashima)When"Carefree dad"(Yutaka Aso) Became a four-frame cartoon hit.. The "Adventure of Sei Chan" started with "Tanoji" arranged in two rows at that time, but the place of publication is "Asahi GraphFromTokyo Asahi Shimbun1923 times vertical layout was adopted by the time of October 10, 20.. In addition, the serialization in this "Tokyo Asahi Shimbun" is considered to be the first of four daily newspaper comic strips... on the other hand,Hochi ShimbunThe "Nonkina Dad" posted in was started with 8 frames, and after it became 6 frames, it became 1923 frames from November 11, 26, and it came to be posted in the upper left of the paper (the frame layout is " ”Character” shape).. Also, while "Adventure of Jang Chan" used speech balloons and the explanations on the margin, "Nonkina Dad" was also the first four-frame cartoon to develop the story only with speech speech..
With the hit of these two titles, newspapers began to compete for 2-frame comics, and the situation called the first "newspaper 4-frame cartoon" boom appeared... inside that,Ryuichi Yokoyama"Edokko Ken-chan", which began serialization in the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun from 1936,Fuku-chanIt is a hit work. Following the decline in the number of comics due to the war (due to the reduction of newspapers such as the use and evasion of comics by the newsgroups and the abolition of evening editions), the publication of comics resumed after the Pacific War.Local newspaperからHasegawa Machikoof"Sazae"Shotaro Nanbuof"Yaneura 3The popular "newspaper four-frame comic boom" will occur.. AlsoOsamu TezukaThe debut work was a four-frame cartoon that started in 1946.Machan's Diary"was. In addition to Hasegawa, Ryuichi Yokoyama who has returned,Yomiuri Shimbun"TodorokiWas serializedAkiyoshiSince 1954Mainichi Newspapers"MappiraWas serializedYoshiro KatoIn the early 4s, four long-lived newspaper comic strips representing the postwar period were released by.
After that, as the Japanese economy grew rapidly, the four-series cartoons serialized in the newspapers were related to economic activities from the ones depicting the everyday life of the family.Office workerWill change to the one in whichFuji Santaro""Sanwari""Mr. Assate"other).. However, against the diffusion of tastes brought about by high growth, newspapers have restrictions on public order and morals and radical expressions, expressions fall into mannerism, and characters appear to have no poison or individuality. did.. Under such circumstances, a new style of four-frame manga will appear in magazines that are easier to target and have fewer expressions. The representative manga artistHisaichi Ishii,Ueda MasashiMet.. Ishii "Good luck! Tabuchi-kun!The hit of “” caused the third “4 panel comic boom”,sports newspaper・The number of 4-frame works published in the evening paper increased... In the 1980s, magazines dedicated to four-frame comics were launched one after another.
From the late 1980s to the 1990s, the borderlessness of story manga progressed, and the manga author who normally writes story manga often had a series of four-frame manga. "It's contagious."(Yoshida Tank・Since the premise that "4 frames = Kisetsu-Kunsei" has collapsed due to the appearance of (work), absurd stories, trivia, writer's personal miscellaneous notes etc. are the subject matter rather than the work that pursued the fun of the conventional punch Will increase. In the 2000s, so-called "Moe 4 Koma" magazines were launched one after another,Anime-ゲーム-DoujinshiSuch assub cultureThe connection withMoeWorks that emphasize other elements have become mainstream.
Classical positioning in Japan
4-panel comics were once said to be the basis of comics in Japan. For exampleOsamu TezukaIn "How to Draw Manga," after explaining the expression of manga, in the chapter "Making a plan", I touched on four-frame manga, which is said to be "the basics of manga striping"... He also explains that many manga artists have drawn four-frame manga, and when he had no time to make a presentation, he drew many four-frame manga, which became his property. It also mentions that the basics are kimono transfer and that it is possible to draw long comics by developing four frames.
For the works serialized in manga magazines, each 4 frames are given a punch, but the next 4 frames are not completed as a story, but several (depending on the work, generally 10- Often around 15) 4 frames often take the form of an expression that makes up one story. Such a form, or a work that takes this form,4 storiesIt is called.
The four story frames can be further divided into the following.
- One series is one story, and there is basically no change in the correlation between the characters.
- A series of multiple episodes is one story, and there is basically no change in the correlation between the characters.
- It changes the correlation between the characters little by little as time goes by.
- One year after the start of serialization, one character will age, and there are continuous changes in age and other settings.
- Settings such as age do not change over time.
- It does not change the correlation of existing characters, but adds new characters little by little to change the story.
- For a while after the start of the series, "1 episode was completed" as in 1. above, but the correlation started to change as in 2. above.
- This is the reverse of 3. above, but for some time after the serialization started, there was a continuous change over time in age and other settings as in 2. above, but the change stopped halfway.
The number of works called story 4 frames increased because the number of young readers increased with the spread of 4 frame manga, when the generation of cartoonists changedStory cartoonIt is thought that the reason is that the number of manga artists familiar with is increasing. From the beginning, it was intended for relatively older people, and it was preferable to summarize the story with one 4-frame work without changing the basic relationship at all, but since the younger generation has increased the number of stories I started to like it. Unlike the four newspapers, several pages per month every few pages-the appearance of a monthly four-frame comics magazine with dozens of four-frame comics was also a suitable medium for posting story comics. for that reason,Hisaichi Ishii,Koji Aihara,Maya Koikeda,Walnut chinoThe genre of story 4 frames was established by enthusiastic writers such asManga Time LovelyAnd 'Manga Time Jumbo, Etc., a four-frame magazine for young people was born.
However, since it is a four-frame manga to the last, there were many cases in which there was a solid succession in each four-frame work while advancing the story as a whole. However, since around 4, writers with some background in story manga often turn into four-frame manga artists, and the fourth frame ends with a ``story-like result'' that does not require laughter. , Among them, the number of works in which only the development that continues to the next story is drawn even in the fourth frame is increasing. Such works are also seen as "story manga with only four pieces", and there are many people who feel that it is uncomfortable to call such a work as a four-frame manga, but before the war After the war, comics often had a fixed frame rate, and some view it as a return to the original story comics that were too complex like comics from the latter half of the Showa period.
In addition, as in 2-2 above, a serialized work that has a storyline that changes seasons and trends despite the fact that the age does not change is commonly referred to as ``4 frame comics'' or story comics.Sazae-san method,Sazae's space-timeOrIsono Space TimeIt is sometimes expressed as ". this is,Hasegawa Machikoof"SazaeIs the main stage
Alternatively, in the case of the work described in 4. above, expressions such as “this work entered Sazae-san's space-time from the middle” are also used. However, since "Sazae-san" was also old in the early days, the most typical "Sazae-san space-time" can be said to be an example of 4. above.
Absurdity 4 frames
A format commonly found in the late 1980s and early 1990s.Shunji Enomotoof"GOLDEN LUCKY] OrYoshida Tankof"It's contagious.],Koji Aiharaof"Kojien],Yoko Sugaharaof"Mood is metaphysical],Kobayashi Dougushiof"Green onionIs typical. Often published in magazines other than four-frame specialized magazines such as youth magazines. At first glance, it's unclear whether it's a good fit or not, and the story itself is hard to understand, but there is something that makes me laugh. Four frames of such absurd development are "G of G4 frames of gag such asWhen to loosenThere are also parts that have been passed on to the four Moe-type frames.
In the late 1990sMoeThe number of 4-frame manga that emphasized is beginning to increase, and such works are generally4 MoeIt is called. In 1999Dengeki DaioWas serialized inAzuma Kiyohiko"Azumanga the GreatWas a big hit, and in the same year, he was the lead author of a beautiful girl comic magazine for adults.Goko GotoBut"Comics life』Is the first work for the general public and becomes a story 4-frame mangaPounding sister life, And "Spocomi" (predecessor was "Monthly Manga Palo Baseball News4) magazine for youth who inherited the same magazine code after theManga Club Original] Is happening such as the first issue. From this, in 1999, the so-calledThe year when the influx of "otaku culture" into the four-frame manga world began in earnestAnd, it became one of the cornerstones of the later Moe 4-frame trend.
The criteria classified here are the presence or absence of the moe element. As a general rule, the emphasis is placed on the picture rather than the conventional 4-frame manga, and most of the characters are still beautiful girlsMoe pictureThe feature is that it is a pattern that belongs to (=mainly liked by men). Other than that, it does not have elements that are generally difficult, but due to the character of the Moe 4 frame format, the character's individuality is often neglected, and the story often progresses due to continuous small blurring. .. Since it is not a requirement to add a punch in the fourth frame, many works include the features of the fourth frame of the story. Generally, there is a tendency that the punch of the 4th frame becomes pale, and there is no punch in the 4th frame, and there are even endless developments of "acceptance" and "rolling" toward the next 4 frames. This is because the character of the moe character is more important than the impact of the punch line. In addition, so-called "weakness-type four-frame comics" (eg, "Lucky ☆ Star","When to loosenEtc.) are often described as “loose works” in the sense that the atmosphere of the whole work progresses loosely and weakly, but the latter is made in a series of developments that are dropped in principle in the fourth frame. Therefore, it can be said that the former and the latter are similar in nature. As a term that refers to the content of style style that focuses on the description of everyday life, which is often seen in Moe 4 frames and animations based on it, with emphasis on moe type expressions.Air systemThere is also a term.Ueda MasashiAfter revealing that he will use "ideas based on real things" for punches, he said "I do not have any specific expectations for punches" regarding the tendency of "air punches" of 4 moe. After all, it depends on the character, and I don't think character-based manga will last long," he said..
Also, story manga andLight novel,Pretty gameMany of the artists are from the illustrator of, and there are not a few works that incorporate emotional development and so-called "crying" settings due to the influence of these fields. SlapstickLove comedyThere are works that rush through with high tension from beginning to end by applying the technique of such works, but in terms of characteristics such as style, it is common with Moe 4 frames and is usually grouped as the same kind.
It is difficult to identify the originator of the four moe, and we have not been able to narrow down to one work that everyone is satisfied with. Whether or not it can be a moe is a problem not only for the work, but for the reader as well. It can be said that even a traditional four-frame work can be moted depending on the recipient.
The pioneer of the Moe 4-frame magazine is "Manga Time Kirara] (First published in 2002), but there are multiple mothers.
- OLA four-frame magazine mainly targeting women-``Manga Time Jumbo(Existing since the early 1990s, the first issue was published in 1995),Manga Time Lovely] (First published in 1995), etc.
- You can already see the sprout of four moe here. These are the traditional four-frame format, while focusing on characters, the design is also an important factor, and there was an influx of manga manga artists. He was fully equipped with the qualities of 4 Moe. In the latter half of the 4s, conversely, "jumbo" and others were influenced by the "Kirara" system, and shifted to men-oriented and moe-centered systems.
- Youth magazine4-frame manga published in, etc.Mamise TamamiHas been drawing ahead of others for several years before the momentum of 4 moe-types began to be popular, and he has been active as the leading person in 2010 moe-types in the latter half of the 4s..
- Beautiful girl comic magazine for adultsFour-frame cartoon posted as a chopstick rest- Tree,Takashi Miyasaka,Shinjo RuruWriters such as Ra are produced from here.
- Game parody4 frames- Shinseisha-Enix-FutabashaThose published by etc. are counted as one of the origins. It goes without saying that the characters are the main focus, and there are also works in which the style of drawing is similar to that of story manga, as in the four Moe frames since the 2000s.
In addition, the reason why many writers who are active in the doujinshi world began to enter the four-frame manga industry is also considered to be the trend of four-frame moe and the first issue of "Kirara", but before that From the four-frame comic magazine, Chino walnutMitsue Aoki-Sanri YokoOriginally, the writer who said that he was also a doujinshi, was a writer who later debuted as a manga artist.
Moe Four-frame Special Magazine Early 4s-Launched one after another in the middle, but many were not long-lived except for the "Manga Time Kirara" series. Five magazines were launched in 2000, but by the following year,Manga Time Kirara MAXOther than that, it was forced to be suspended. (Futabasha "Moeyon』Up to issue No. 13, "COMIC Gyutto!" No. 3, "Comic Megami Magazine" No. 2, "Manga Gakuen 4th grade" No. 1 only)-After that, in September 2006Ichijinsha"Manga 4 KINGS PARET" was launched. In 2008, sister magazine "Manga Parette LiteWas launched, but since April 2011 the two magazines have been discontinued and both magazines have been integrated (“Lite” was discontinued).Manga 4 panel』Was renamed.
In addition, in 2003, Takeshobo published an eclectic magazine of general magazines and Moe 4-frame magazines.Manga Life MOMO] Is the first issue. The eclectic type has long been a unique position of "MOMO", but from the latter half of the 2000s, youth 4-frame magazines such as "Manga Time Jumbo" and "Special" published by Houbunsha came to follow, and published by the same Takeshobo. "Manga Club Original" and other items have begun to follow this by returning to a content similar to the original magazine composition. At the same time, the proportion of Moe 4 frames in the general 4 frame magazines has increased year by year, and not only one genre of "Moe" but also a role as "a place to discover new writers in the whole 4 frame magazine world" It was supposed to be responsible.
From around 2010, companies tend to avoid launching high-risk new magazines and adopt policies to monetize existing 4-frame magazines and publish them on the Web 4-frame site. Under such circumstances, Houbunsha's "Manga Time Lovely" is also trying to break away from the conventional four-frame magazine for women, and since the March issue issued in February 4, it is the same as the conventional Moe 2011 frame generation, or more than that. In addition, it was renewed as a story four-frame magazine targeting younger comic lovers.
Due to the nature of the work itself, the ratio of males and females among the subscribers is overwhelmingly male, and it is about half and half in general four-frame magazines, but in the Kirara and Parette series the male to female ratio is 4:9 to 1:. Go up to 8. Even in the eclectic type, there are more male readers at 2:7 in "MOMO", and the same tendency is seen in "Jumbo".
There are many criticisms and prejudices from other genres for Moe 4 frames,Weekly Shonen Jump”Bakuman.Was criticized in the work,Big Comic Spirits"of"Whimsical concept] There was also criticism in the work.
The main publication media areNews (Chinese), Commercial magazines (ordinary comic magazines, 4 comic comic books (abbreviated as "4 comics")), anthology-style books,DoujinshiEtc. recent years[When?] TheWeb comicsThe number of announcements by is increasing.
Placed in newspapers is generally in the upper left corner of the social aspect, has been published in many general newspapers (only published in the morning, sometimes in the middle). The work to be posted is decided after being selected by the reporter in charge from the posting candidates presented by the author in advance. In addition, in preparation for unexpected situations, so-called "drawing pools" are also stocked. It is expected to play a role as a refreshing agent for newspapers, and in order to accommodate a wide range of readers, it is based on the classical succulent transfer, and the topic is often seasonal or seasonal. However, there is a strong tendency to avoid strong stimuli for similar reasons. Nevertheless, due to the characteristics of the newspaper media, it is criticized for its unintended interpretation (see page "Thinking about female disdain in the mediaIn many cases, this has led to the posting of works with safe contents that are increasingly separated from reality. There are many restrictions, and because it is serialized in a monopolistic and long-term manner (often due to the death of the author, the series ends), it often falls into rut.
Korean newspapers often draw satire on current affairs and people related to politics, economy, society, and culture in general, and are often called "mankaku".
Long-term serial record
- "Peanuts"Charles M. Schulz.. 17897 episodes in total. However, this is not only the short story of four-frame comics (the number of unspecified frames is 4 to 1), but also the number of story comics with more frames. Dog characterSnoopyAlso known as "".
- "Jankenpon"Shoji Izumi(Asahi elementary school newspaper）1969~2021現在連載中（2020年8月4日時点で16289回。2018年3月26日の第15452回で『ほのぼの君』の合計回数15451回を抜いて新聞連載漫画の最多回数記録を達成した。「一つの4コマ漫画として最も多く発行された回数」としてGuinness World RecordsIt was described in the 15095th work that it was certified as. )
- "Manmaru housing complex"Odashige(Red flag）1974~2021Currently serialized (2021 times as of August 1, 28. Second place with a difference of 16080 episodes from "Rock, Paper, Scissors")
- "Heartwarming"Kimihiko Tsukuda(Tokyo Newspaper,Chunichi Shimbunother)1955~2006 Total 15451 times (Old "Honobono Kimi" ~ "Chibikko Gentleman" ~ New "Honobono Kimi" were retitled and retitled, and the total number of times)
- "Kobo-chan"Ueda Masashi(Yomiuri Shimbun）1982~2021現在連載中（2021年1月13日時点で13756回）2021年1月7日に13750回となり、毎日新聞『アサッテ君』の記録を更新し、子供が対象の朝日小学生新聞および政党機関紙である赤旗を除く一般全国紙4紙での単一タイトル4コマ漫画で最長記録を達成した.
- "Mr. Assate"Tokaibayashi Sadao(Mainichi Newspapers）1974~2014 13749 times
- "Mappira"Yoshiro Kato(Mainichi Newspaper)1954~2001 13615 times
- "Sanwari"Yoshishi Suzuki(Yomiuri Shimbun)1966~2004 11240 times
- "Goripapa Family" Atsushi Jimbo (Japan Agricultural Newspaper）1987~2021Currently serialized (2017May 5It was reported in the Nihon Agricultural News that it achieved 10000 times at that time.. The exact number of stories as of July 2020 is unknown because the number of stories is not posted on the paper.）
- "Fuji Santaro"Sugar Sampei(Asahi Shimbun）1965~1991 8168 times
- "Nono-chan"Hisaichi Ishii(Asahi Shimbun）1991~2021Currently being serialized (2019 times as of August 8, 1. Renamed from "My Neighbors Yamada")
- "Sazae"Hasegawa Machiko(Evening Fukunichi→New Year's paper→Asahi Shimbun）1946~1974 6477 times
- "Todoroki"Akiyoshi(Magazine "Manga" → Yomiuri Shimbun)1943~1972 6152 times
- "Fuku-chan"Ryuichi Yokoyama(Asahi Shimbun, Mainichi Shimbun, etc.)1936~1971(Including "Edokko Ken-chan" before the title change)
4-frame manga works are posted as main contentsCartoon magazine(Commercial magazine)4-frame magazineIt's called "Yon-coma". This is an abbreviation for "4 frame comic magazine",Houbunsha,Take Shobo,Futabasha,Bunkasha, Etc.FormatIs B5 size (182mmMost of them are 257 mm. Most of the binding methods are saddle stitching, but flat binding is also increasing. The number of pages is around 200 pages for saddle stitching and around 220 pages for flat stitching.
The price including tax is approximately 1 yen to 270 yen per book,2004From around that time, "Manga Time Kirara MAX" (first published on May 2004, 5) was 24 yen,Moeyon] (First published on July 2004, 7) is set to 9 yen, respectively, with some exceptions exceeding 420 yen (all prices are those of the first issue). Moe 400-frame magazines including "Manga Life MOMO" may not have any advertisements other than their own advertisements.Toranoana,Melon booksDoujin shops such asbroccoliIs a game and character goods company), and the price is generally around 350 yen, which is generally higher than usual.
In many cases, the title of the magazine starts with Hiragana and begins with "manga," such as "manga○○○". In the narrow sense, only the magazines that fit this are called 4-frame magazines. Among these are irregular or real periodic special numbers, mainly reprinted works (mainly featuring one or a small number of cartoonists) =Reprinted 4 panel magazineIs included. Current[When?]Some of the published periodical (narrowly defined) four-frame magazines include those that have been released from re-recorded magazines and have increased the volume of their first works, and have been renewed to ordinary four-frame magazines.
In the broad sense, 4-frame magazines also include those whose titles start with "really were", such as "really there was a XX story", but the former are original manga works (normal manga works). In contrast to the latter, the latter mainly focuses on posts from readers made into four-frame comics, and in particular to distinguish it from the former (four-frame magazine in a narrow sense).True story 4 panel magazineSometimes referred to as. The originator of the true story 4 framesTajima MilkIn "A Really Amusing Story" (currently a really amusing story), "Ai no Itonami" (currently Ai no Itami SP,Yutaka GotoProduct), the mainstay of other medical real storiesKanae AnsaiOr nakedly draw your own love experienceSakuragi SayumiWriters such as Rata are active mainly in true story 4-frame manga.
About Moe 4 Top Magazine# 4 MoeSee section.
In addition to this, "Mikosuri Half Theater" and its special editions, separate volumes, etc.AdultThe four-frame manga worksErotic 4-frame magazine,4 smile magazine(There are also many real story four-frame magazines that include a lot of content for adults, but the names are not clearly distinguished. Ordinary adult four-frame magazines are mainly male readers. On the other hand, there is also a difference that the true story system tends to have many female readers). For the sake of convenience, it is called 4 frames for adults, but since it is a work whose purpose is to make people laugh about the material and sex appeal, it is not designated as a so-called 4-ban manga.
The adult four-frame magazine became a secret boom after the appearance of "Mikosuri Half Theater", and in the early 4s, the first issue of the magazine began and became a state of temporary disorder. However, most of the magazines were short-lived, and only "Mikosuri Half Theater" remained in detail. The "Mikosuri Semi Theater" itself was redesigned in 1990 to focus on non-fiction (actual story) 2010 frames, and in 4 it was re-routed to an adult story manga magazine. At that time, the sex appeal/lower story 2013-frame cartoon magazine as a creation disappeared from the publishing industry, and in 4 the magazine itself was suspended. Other"Bitaman, "Abeman" → "Ecchi Ipponsen" → "NAMAIKI!" (Takeshobo) and "Manga Smile Gakko" → "SHOWGAKKO" (Peace Publishing), launched as a four-frame magazine for adults There are also some that have been rerouted to adult comics magazine. By the way, now[When?]Since "SHOWGAKKO" was closed, he has been writing manga in the magazine.Kagami FumiAnd was a regular postcard post in the magazineMayumi OginoThe ironic result is that he will later be active in the 4-panel comic magazine. Similarly, "Manga Shower" (IchimizushaThere is). This magazine has become a mature erotic erotica magazine "Manga Shower"[When?]Then, although the magazine name was returned as "manga shower", it is a very general that emphasizes nude gravure rather than manga.Erotic booksHas been published. As well as now[When?]Erotic booksThe four-frame magazines for the former adult are "", "Kalbi POWER" (bothWako PublishingThere is). There are not a few writers who have changed their lives due to the shrinking market, and at the time they released popular works represented by "Iwatani TenhoAfter that it was divided into twoJunior idol OfImage VideoAnd has produced and sold the "" series (by the way, the one who used to appear in the series was Shotaro's real daughter).
In addition, at this time, there are four kinds of strange four-frame magazines, "Manga Laugh Up", which has 4 magazines for families, adults, and sports performing arts in one magazine, and special number "Manga Pocket" (Kosaido Publishing). It was In both magazines, about 4% works for the general public: 5% works for adults: about 3% for sports entertainment and others (absurdities, etc.) It was a unique four-frame magazine that co-exists in one magazine, ranging from radical works that explicitly describe sexual acts to works with a warm and warm atmosphere set at home. However, because the contents were such that the readers were incompatible with each other in this way, it did not last long, and all were suspended early. In addition, in the four-frame magazine published as of 2, "The chief goes! Special』(Bunka Publishing Co., Inc., “Invincible Love S*girl” special edition → “Mikosuri Han Theater” special edition) is taking the form of publishing four general-purpose/adult/true story series in one volume. Although it is close to this, it is designed to balance the whole magazine by keeping the description of adult works relatively soft.
In addition, although it differs for each magazine, reader posts, questionnaires, puzzles, fortune telling, text works (essayEtc.) is also posted. The questionnaire is conducted with a prize, and cash and cash vouchers are set as prizes. recent years[When?]Is also appearing with prizes such as the author's colored paper and signed books.
Also, unlike other manga magazines, the cover is featured by one writer for several consecutive months. The reason for this is that "the same work is serialized in multiple four-frame magazines at the same time, so changing the cover page will confuse the reader." For readers who bought a magazine that was noticed for the purpose of killing time instead of subscribing to magazines, each 1 frame magazine has a similar magazine name and it is difficult to distinguish them, so There is a theory such as "to make an impression that it is a magazine of the same issue as the previous issue" to encourage continuous subscription," but it is not certain. Also, unlike the other four-frame magazines, the "Manga Time Kirara" series is "developing a strategy to attract readers who became fans of specific writers and works as regular subscribers (= create enthusiastic readers and target At the beginning, I was not particular about the fixed system for the cover, but in recent years[When?]There are times when will be fixed as an animated signboard work. Cover authors are also basically responsible for the opening color (some magazines at Houbunsha may be in charge of the opening other than the cover author). The number of pages is often around 8 pages each time, and in the case of Takeshobo, the serialization related to serialization is also posted at the same time, and the cover artist is treated as a special sign of a magazine literally.
As of January 2020, the cover authors of the four-frame magazines and the period in charge are as follows.
- Manga Home:Munko(Raika Days) April 2005-
- Manga time:Ueda Masashi(Otoboke section manager → Deputy Otoboke department manager) April 2004-
- Manga Time Original:Ayu Hirano(Radical Hospital) April 2002-
- Manga Time Kirara: * We are not particular about fixing
- Manga Time Kirara MAX: * I'm not particular about fixing
- Manga Time Kirara Carat: *I'm not particular about fixing
- Manga Town: *Not fixed
- Take Shobo
- Manga 4 frames Pareto: * We are not particular about fixing
- KADOKAWA (ASCII Mediaworks Brand Company)
- Comic Dengeki Daiuji: * Not fixed
- KADOKAWA (Media Factory Brand Company)
- Comic Kien: * Not sticking to fixed
Of the works serialized in the four-frame magazineBookThe format is mostly A5 (148 mm x 210 mm), which is slightly larger than that of many other styles of B6 format (128 mm x 182 mm) or smaller. The price varies from publisher to label and from label to label, so it ranges from 600 yen to 900 yen. In particular, the above-mentioned Moe 4 frames are set at high prices, and major labels that are sold together with general magazines have established separate labels (Houbunsha = Manga Time KR Comics, Takeshobo = MOMO selection) and other comics and series / price It takes the form of distinguishing. Many of these books contain two books (eight frames) per page, but on the other hand, there are new book-sized books with one book per page, which has begun to increase from works such as Hisaichi Hisashi. It is a little cheap.
In addition, not only for the beginning and end of the book and the text, but also for the back of the cover (coverOf the main body of the book with the removedCover-The back cover is often called), and it is one of the pleasures for readers who bought a book to flip the cover.
The works that are made into books are limited to those that have gained some popularity in serialization, and even if the serialization continues for a long time, the book may not be released. Also, even if the first volume of the book is released, if the sales are not good, the second volume and subsequent volumes are often not released even if the serialization continues. It is said that the number of titles in Volume 1 is about half that of Volume 2 in the four-frame comic book. Therefore, even if the serialization is completed, it is not uncommon for the book to remain unfinished forever. In addition, even if it is completed with a book, there are cases where a considerable number of unrecorded stories remain in the case of medium- to long-term serialization. Distributing the uncollected book as a fanzine, and there are also cartoonists who give the readers of a four-frame comic book, but this is a rare example. It may be adjusted by advancing the development from the middle so that it is completely contained in a book mainly with 4 story stories and completed, but in such cases it is premised that the serialization is discontinued, Considering the fact that there are many cases like this, he is a blessed person. When selling books, various sales promotion measures (fairs) may be carried out, but in the past, the fair was mainly developed by a single company and linked with published books and published magazines. In 2, TakeshoboHakusensha"Mizushina & Momose Comics Fair" was held as a joint project of the two companies, and they were the main writers of both companies.Takayuki MizunaとMamise TamamiTarget comic purchasersOriginal special bookmarkAs a gift, a joint fair for two companies has been held by different publishers. Furthermore, from around 2, sales promotion measures were implemented by selling the work of one writer on the same day by multiple publishers and advertising it as a joint fair (eg, 2000,Maemon,Kodansha・Takeshobo／2004,Mari Mori, TakeshoboShogakukan). The special mention was made in October 2004Naoki ShigenoAt the "Three Run Fair", three books, one each from Takeshobo, Futabasha, and Hakusensha, were released on the same day. Following this, from January to March 3, Houbunsha, Takeshobo,Media WorksFrom three companies,Masakazu OiEach of the books was released around the 27th of each month. In all cases, sales promotion measures beyond the boundaries of each publisher, such as "three companies joint project", a joint sweepstakes contest, and multiple advertisements in magazines, including those published by other companies Is being done. Since thenWalnut chino,Tomoko OgasawaraSimilar measures were taken with regard to such measures, and became a standard measure for sales expansion for books by authors serialized in 4-frame magazines.
Computer gamesWorks (especiallyVideo games) A four-frame cartoon work that was created by using the world view and characters ofGeparo("GameParodyStands for "). Originally created works of other worksDoujinshiIn the field of Geparo, in addition to being published by a publisher unrelated to the game maker, there are also cases where the game maker itself publishes and sells a book of Geparo's work. Most of these books are written by multiple authors.AnthologyBecause it takes the format, a book of four-frame manga works based on computer game works isゲームAnthologyIs collectively called (also simply abbreviated as "unsolo").
Unlike the four-frame magazines mentioned above, the works recorded in the game anthology are often published only in books without being published in magazines.
4-panel manga theater
For old and representative labels,Enix(laterニ ッ ク ス ク ウ ェ ア ス · エ) Published by4-panel manga theaterThere is. "Dragon quest The commercial success of the "4 Panel Manga Theater"Boy cartoonmagazine"Monthly Shonen GanganWas the driving force behind
This was the starting point for companies to compete and publish game anthologies. This genre has existed for a long time, but now[When?]It can be said that many of the works are based on the "4 Koma Manga Theater". In addition, amateurs who are not professional manga artists (and not coterie authors) are sometimes appointed, which often led to the debut of professionals. It was one of the basic policies. The representative manga artist who made a professional debut from this label isHiroyuki Eto,Ami Shibataetc.
4 Koma Manga Kingdom
It boasts a history that is second only to the above-mentioned "4 Panel Manga Theater"Futabasha The1986Around that time, as a manga about game software,NES adventure game bookIt is said that it has been launched as a label, and it is said that it will be lined up in the "4 frame manga theater" as the history of game comics, or in some cases it may be the oldest label.1991Attention was paid to the success of the 4-frame manga theater, and it was made into a series as "4 frame manga kingdom".1993Has grown to realize the first magazine.
Since the regulation standards were considerably looser than those of the 4-frame manga theater, which was said to be strict in terms of expression, a number of high-quality laughter stories andmanga artistIs born. More game software than the 4-frame manga theater was also made into cartoons. At its peakNintendoMany games have been published for this game, and as a rival to the 4-panel manga theater, it boasted top class popularity among game comic labels. The representative manga artist who made a professional debut from this labelRyo Sasakietc.
Most of them are on individual websites and official websites of 4-frame comics. 『livedoor daily 4 frames], “Manga Time Kirara web”, “Pixiv communication"Such,Portal siteAnd some are provided as content for 4-frame comics on Web comic sites.
recent years[When?]Takeshobo is deepening its relationship with Livedoor with "Daily 4 Frames" as an edge, exchanging authors between the two companies and co-sponsoring the Newcomer Award. On April 2009, 4, Daily 27 A new web 4-frame comic "Let's borrow a part of the Koma site"Manga Life WIN] Was opened. It is mainly used by popular writers in the "Manga Life" series, but due to the fact that it is an Internet medium, the lineup of works has a composition with a focus on four moe-types rather than the magazine series published by the company. ing.
On February 2010, 2, Houbunsha also launched the "Web 23 Comic", co-operated with the same "Daily 4 Com" as the third 4 coma medium following "Manga Time" and "Kirara". It opened but closed in full March 4.
A four-frame Web comic that replaces the "Manga Parette Lite" that Ichijinsha discontinued from June 2011, 6Manga 4 panel online] Is open.
List of 4 frame magazines
The publications are listed in order from the earliest issue to each publisher.
Published by Houbunsha
- Manga time
- Manga Seven (suspended)
- Manga Time Original
- Manga Time Family (Old: Separate Manga Time/Discontinued)
- Manga sports (Suspended)
- Manga Home
- Manga Time Special (Suspended)
- Manga Time Lovely (Suspended)
- Manga Time Jumbo (Suspended)
- Manga Time Kitsch!! (suspended)
- Manga Time Optional → Manga Time Natural (suspended)
- Manga Time Pop Selection → Manga Time Pop (Suspended)
- Big bang 4 frames (suspended)
- Manga Time Dash! (suspended)
- Manga Time Kirara
- Manga Time Kirara Carat
- Manga Time Kirara MAX
- There was really (raw) story only here(Suspended)
- There was a very real (raw) story only here (Old: Extra edition was really there (raw) Story only here/suspended)
- Manga Time Kirara Miraku(Suspended)
- Manga Club (Old: Genius Club) Known as "Mankura" (suspended)
- Comics life (Former: Gagda)
- Manga Life Original Known as "Raiori"
- Manga Club Original (Formerly: Manga Palo Baseball News → Monthly Spokomi) Popular name "Kuraori" (suspended)
- Manga Life MOMO (Former: Manga Life Original Momose Mami special edition) (suspended)
- Animaru Paradise(→Nekojikan) (suspended)
- Ultra 4 frames (suspended)
- There was a really funny story (temporary: A really funny story)
- A really entertaining story entertainment Zukyun! (Old: A funny story I really had Itonami Special → A really funny story DX → A truly amazing scoop Manga Zukyun! → A really funny talk Zukyun!)
- Quickly Paradise(Suspended)
Published by Futabasha
- Manga Action Land (suspended)
- Manga Town (Old:Cartoon action Family special edition Crayon Shin-chan special issue)
- Manga Town Original (Suspended)
- Moeyon (Suspended)
Published by Shonen Gahosha
- Manga smile room (suspended)
- Mikosuri Half Theater(Suspended)
- Mikosuri Semi Theater Annex (suspended)
- Monthly Manga Chareda! (suspended)
- Monthly Ikeike section manager (in 1997,Shigeki Ando(Discontinued due to death)
- Monthly Squid and Thorough (suspended)
- Manga Aloha! → Manga 4 Komadon (suspended)
- There was a really funny story
- A laughable story that really existed 4 laughter laughs → A fun and laughable story (suspended)
- A separate story that was really funny (Suspended)
- Special issue The funny story that was really special
- Special issue There was a funny story Pinky
- The chief goes! Special
- Takano Mune Special (suspended)
- Manga Heim (suspended)
- Comic lol up (suspended)
- Pleasant Honpo (suspended)
- COMIC Gutto! (Suspended)
Published by East Press
Published by Japanese publisher
- Cat's tail
Published by Asahi Shimbun
- A true laughing story (published by Asahi Sonorama) → Fami Dora Comic → A true story of the bomb family (suspended)
- Manga Gakuen 4th grade (suspended)
Published by Gakkensha
- Comic megami magazine (Suspended)
Published by Akita Shoten
- All funny stories (suspended)
Taiyo Tosho Publishing
- A blog that really existed
Published by Ichijinsha
- Manga 4 panel(Old: Manga 4 Tops Kings Parette)
- Manga 4 KINGS PALLET Lite → Manga Parette Lite(Suspended)
Published by Mediax
- Manga Dokan Komachi (Suspended)
Housewife and Life Publishing
- Comic PASH!
Published by KADOKAWA
- 4-frame nano ace(Suspended/edited by Kadokawa Shoten BC)
- Comic Dengeki Daioji(Edited by ASCII Mediaworks BC)
- Comic kun(Edited by Media Factory BC)
Published by Tatsumi Publishing
- Manga! Hokusai (suspended)
List of 4-panel manga artists
List of 4-panel manga works with articles
- ^ a b Shimizu, 2009, Preface pp.ii-iii
- ^ Example: Michiyoko Origami, "Kawahara Manager and Gal Subordinates", Volume 2, page 29, right.
- ^ Shimizu, 2009, pp.2-6
- ^ Shimizu, 2009, pp.8-10
- ^ Shimizu, 2009, p20. However, "Japan Punch" itself has few 4-frame comics, and as a whole, single-frame comics are the mainstream, and most of the comics are 1 or 2 comics.
- ^ NIPPON giant "Taro Okamoto, a man who expressed his past and future with his whole body" (NHK, 2006)
- ^ Shimizu, 2009, pp.34-35
- ^ a b c d e Shimizu, 2009, pp.51-53,58-64
- ^ Shimizu, 2009, p71
- ^ Shimizu, 2009, p95
- ^ Shimizu, 2009, pp,106-124
- ^ Shimizu, 2009, p129
- ^ a b c Shimizu, 2009, pp.136-138,145-146
- ^ Tezuka (1977), p.125
- ^ Even though time passes, you're still young "Sazae-san's space-time" Nikkei newspaper electronic version, August 2013, 8
- ^ Tsunehiro Uno "Chapter 5 "Air system" and pseudo-homosexual communication 1 "Air system" and moe 4-panel comics"Re-establishment of politics and literature" Shueisha WEB Literature RENZABURO(2011 3 年 月 日 18)
- ^ "Otoboke Manager" but not "Manager Kojima Shima" "4 Frame Manga Master" Masashi Ueda Long Interview #2 (3rd page) Bunshun Online, July 2017, 7
- ^ An solo by Mikio Igarashi and Bokubura Okawa drawn by "Koizumi-san who loves ramen" Comic Natalie January 2018, 1
- ^ "[Asahi Elementary School Shimbun] Special award of the Japan Cartoonist Association Award for Shoji Izumi, the creator of the XNUMX-panel comic "Jankenpon"”. PR Times. 2019th of February 3Browse.
- ^ "Asahi Elementary School newspaper's “Janken Pon” is 1 times, updating the record of the most number of serialized comics in the same title”. Netorabo. 2016th of February 12Browse.
- ^ ""Kobo-chan" has a total of XNUMX times, the most in the national newspaper serialized manga ... "Assate-kun" exceeded: Entertainment / Culture: News”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online (September 2021, 1). 2021th of February 1Browse.
- ^ ""Goripapa Family" serialization XNUMX times, animation production commemorative feature”. Japan Agricultural News. 2019th of February 8Browse.
- ^ August 2019, 8 is 22 days after May 2017, 5,Newspaper suspension dayIt is estimated to be a little over 1 times as of the same day, because there is about once a month.
- ^ "Manga Life Original July issue released today! !". Takeshobo 4-panel manga magazine official site. 2016th of February 6Browse.
- Shimizu Isao "Four-frame cartoon" 2009, Iwanami ShotenIwanami Shinsho"
- Osamu Tezuka "How to draw cartoons from portraits to feature films" 1977, Kobunsha <<Kappa Homes"