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📱 | “Reverse stretch” that promotes blood circulation and softens stiff muscles


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"Reverse stretch" that promotes blood circulation and softens hardened muscles

 
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"There are various causes of stiff neck and shoulders, but most of them are caused by chronic cramping and stiffness of the myofibrils in the trapezius and rhomboid muscles that support the neck and shoulders, which causes muscle cirrhosis. It's called.
 

Many people are suffering from stiff neck and shoulders due to stooping or overuse of smartphones.Stretching and massaging ... → Continue reading

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筋肉

筋肉(Kinnik, Ra: musculus; Germany: Muskel; France, UK: muscle)AnimalHave組織One of the typicalmotionorganIs[1].

Animal movement is primarily driven by muscles. However, in the detailsCilia,FlagellaThere are some exceptions such as exercise by. The force generated by the contraction of muscles is called muscle force.Cross sectionApproximatelyProportionalTo do. In other words, muscle strength is closely related to muscle thickness.

In addition,edibleTo servemeatIs mainly muscle, and vertebrate skeletal muscle accounts for about 20% of wet weightproteinOccupied[1], Mainly thisNutritionEaten to ingest as[2].. (However, at the grocery storemeatNot only muscle but also fat (fatThe lumps of min) are sold together with not only protein but also quite high fat. )

Chinese medicineThen.muscleIt is also said.

Etymology

The English word "muscle" is a small Latin word.A mouseIt is derived from "musculus" which means. It is thought that this is because the state of muscle contraction seemed to move the mouse in the skin.[3][4].

Sort

CoelenteratesThe above animals have muscle[1].

The muscles of animals with skeletons can be roughly classified according to their arrangement.骨 格Consists of the body to contribute to posture controlSkeletal muscleAnd, it can be divided into visceral muscles that are not directly attached to the skeleton and are not directly involved in body composition and posture control. However, this classification method is a convenient classification, and according to the histological classification, which is the most commonly used classification method,Nuclear OfSkeletal muscle, MononuclearSmooth muscle,MyocardiumCan be divided into[1].. Also, in terms of whether you can move consciouslyVoluntary muscles(Skeletal muscle only)Involuntary muscles(Heart muscle/smooth muscle).

Besides this, the muscle looksColorからRed streaks (red streaks) (red muscle, typeI)White streaks (white streaks) It is also classified into two types (white muscle, type II). This containsMyoglobin,MitochondriaThe amount of mitochondria that is active appears red and the amount that is less active appears white, depending on the amount of[5][6] .. In addition, the number of these muscle fibers and the proportion thereof are naturally determined due to individual differences. Since the white muscle can contract quickly because of the development of contractile myofibrils,Quick muscle Also called (fast muscle)[6].Lactic acid thresholdFrom the above exercise intensity, fast muscles are used more[7].. There are three types of fast muscle fibers, IIa, IIx, and IIb, depending on the speed of exercise and the force exerted.[8] Divided into[9].. Red muscle is rich in enzymes that consume fats and carbohydrates[9]It is suitable for continuous slow exercise and constitutes muscles of the heart and respiratory organs.[5].. In the metabolism of lactic acidCell membraneLactic acid may need to be transported through theglycogenIs decomposed in the fast muscle to produce lactic acid, which isMyocardium OfMitochondriaMay be used in[7].. Generally called "muscle" is mainly skeletal muscle, which is important in sports because it is directly linked to improvement in power and speed.

Construction

Anatomical structure

Skeletal muscle

Skeletal musclejointな ど骨 格Is the muscle that moves the moving parts of[10].. Both ends in vertebratestendonIt is placed in a form connected to the bone through昆虫,shrimpSuch asArthropodThen.CuticleUsed to move (keratin)[10].. What the joint bends when its muscles contractFlexorWhat to stretchExtensorSay Others...sphincterClassified into[10].. Although it is a voluntary muscle, it moves unconsciously in body posture control and reflexes. 42% of adult males and 36% of females by weight[11].. The density of mammalian skeletal muscle is 1.06 kg/lAndfatAbout 15% heavier than[12][13].

Smooth muscle

Smooth muscle is a muscle without striated muscles, except for the heart in vertebrates.内 臓andBlood vesselAre the muscles that make up. Most of the muscles that make up the body of an invertebrate are smooth muscles[14].. The rate of contraction is slow and it may take several tens of seconds, but the rate of expansion and contraction is large, and the ability to hold that state is excellent.[14].Autonomic nervesUnder control of both promotion and inhibition of movement from the system[14].

Myocardium

Cardiac muscle is the muscle that makes up the heart. A characteristic of the myocardium is that the nerve fibers necessary for movement are not normal nerve fibers, but excitement is transmitted by a muscle group called. Therefore, there are no macroscopic nerve fibers.

Fine structure

The function of the muscle is to contract under the control of nerves and to measure and feed back the degree of contraction. Here, the main components areSkeletal muscleWill be used as an example, and the difference between myocardium and smooth muscle will be described later.

Muscle fiber (muscle fiber)

A cell unit that constitutes skeletal muscle. Elongated and large caused by fusion of myoblastsGiant multinucleated cellsIs. In the process of skeletal muscle development and differentiation, mononuclear myoblasts are fused together[15].

Myofibrils

A contractile structure existing in the muscle fibers of the striated muscle, which is an intracellular organ. It has a cylindrical shape with a diameter of about 1 μm, and in skeletal muscle, many myofibrils are arranged in parallel along the longitudinal direction of the muscle. In the fine structure, many sarcomere are connected at 2 nm intervals while being partitioned by a diaphragm called a Z film (Z line) having a thickness of 8 to 10 nm. The stripe pattern of the striated muscle shows this line.[16].. Also called myofibrils, muscle filaments, myofilaments[16].

Sarcomere

The smallest building block of myofibrils. The vertical connection of these is myofibrils. Individual sarcomere contracts in the presence of ATP. The skeletal muscle stripes are derived from the sequence in which the sarcomere actin filaments and myosin filaments partially overlap in parallel. Calcium ions released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum cause the actin filament to slip between the myosin filaments and cause the muscle to contract. Therefore, at that time, the entire length of the sarcomere is reduced by the amount that the actin filament slides.

In the sarcomere, in the central partdensityThere is an A band with high density and an I band with low density on both sides. The A band is composed of myosin filaments about 1.5 μm long, and the part where the actin filament connected to the Z membrane does not enter the A band is the I band.[16].. Both filaments have a cross-sectional structure in which the central myosin filament is surrounded by actin filaments in a hexagonal shape. The center-to-center distance between myosin filaments is 40 to 50 nm, and the distance to the surrounding actin filaments is about 15 nm.[16].

Energy

Muscle fibersAdenosine triphosphate Using (ATP), filaments are attracted and contracted so that they overlap each other.[1].

Muscle control

Muscles are contracted by stimulation from nerves. Nerves and muscles transmit stimuli via a type of synapse called the neuromuscular junction. From the nerve endings, acetylcholine is released, binds to acetylcholine receptors on the side of muscles, and depolarizes the cell membrane of muscle fibers. This propagates through the T tract, spreads throughout the muscle, and contacts the T tractSarcoplasmic reticulumReleases calcium. Using this calcium as a signal, the sliding motion between the actin and myosin fibers occurs.

Others

Muscle fibers originally have no ability to actively stretch, and when relaxed, in the case of skeletal muscle, they are stretched by an external action by the action of the opposing muscle. Muscle fatigue after exerciseGlycolysisIs the final product ofLactic acidAlthough there is a theory that it is brought by, there is no medical basis.

Fine structure of myocardium

Myocardium is classified into normal myocardium and special myocardium.Sinus node,Atrioventricular nodule, And the like. The function of specialized myocardium is the transmission of excitement aimed at the integrated contraction of the myocardium. Normal myocardium, like skeletal muscle, has a striated pattern, but is less ordered than skeletal muscle.

Fine structure of smooth muscle

The cells that make up smooth musclespindleHave a single nucleus in shape[14].. It has a large amount of actin filaments and a small amount of myosin filaments dispersed irregularly. Cell shapeDesminIntermediate filamentIs present and kept[14].. To contractcalciumionControlled byEndoplasmic reticulumAre thought to be accumulating ions outside the constriction in the cell membrane because they are not well developed.[14].

Mechanisms of muscle contraction and relaxation

The motor commands issued to the cerebrum are modified in the cerebellum and then efferent.Motor nervesThroughAction potentialIt is said that the connection between the motor nerves and muscles is reached.

When action potentials are transmitted to nerve endings (presynaptic terminals) at the terminals of motor nerves, the potential dependence is distributed here.Ca channelTo open a Ca current. The increase in Ca concentration due to this is ACh (acetylcholine) Release is triggered, and ACh released here diffuses into the synaptic cleft and is connected to nerve endings on the muscle side.End plateReach There is a nicotine receptor for ACh on the end plate, and when ACh binds to this, Na (sodium), K (potassium), and Ca (calcium) flow in,End plate potential (EPP)Generate. It is propagated throughout the muscle fibers through the sarcolemma,Traverse small pipe Enter the muscle fiber through the (T tube)Sarcoplasmic reticulumFrom the sarcoplasmic reticulum to Ca2+Cause the release of. As a result, intracellular Ca2+Concentration increases,TroponinAnd Ca2+Bind to troponinAllosteric changeOccurs. This changeTropomyosinMoves,MyosinThe action site of is exposed. This makes myosinActinReact to cause relative slippage, causing muscle contraction[1].. On the other hand, Ca2+Is recovered by Ca-ATPase on the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, which causes troponin and Ca when Ca concentration falls to normal.2+Are released, and muscle contraction ends in a chain.

Incidentally,ProtozoaAnd actin and myosin are present in filamentous form in the tissues of humans[1].

Muscle protein

Skeletal muscles of spinal cord animals contain about 20% protein by wet weight, which is called muscle protein or muscle protein. Half of the muscle proteins細胞Is an organizationCell membrane-Mitochondria-Endoplasmic reticulum・With cell nuclei,酵素Protein occupies. The other half are structural proteins that make myofibrils, including actin/myosin and regulatory proteins/skeletal proteins.[2].

Development

All muscles originate from the paraxial mesoderm. The mesoderm along the axis extends along the body of the fetus and is divided into segments. There are three main types,Spinal cordThe nodules that form the皮膚It is a skin segment that forms the skin, and a ganglion that forms the muscle. In this, the ganglia are divided into upper and lower nodes, which are the on-axis and below-axis muscles, respectively. In humans, the upper segment isErector spinae muscleAnd only a part of the intervertebral muscle. All other muscles, including limbs, develop from the lower segment[17].

During development, myofibrils (muscle progenitor cells) are divided into muscles associated with the spine and those that migrate once and are taken up by the body to make up all other muscles. Normally, the myofibrils made from the lateral mesoderm first form the connective tissue that makes up the outer shell. Then, myofibrils start to form skeletal muscles at appropriate places while following chemical stimulation.[17].

After birth,pubertyBefore, there was no difference in muscle development between men and women, but when a man reaches pubertySecondary sex characteristicsByAndrogenThe secretion ofshoulderAfter widening, muscles develop[18], There is a difference in muscle between men and women.

Muscle has undergone at least two major evolutions. one isCnidarianAnd the other isBilateral animalIs. They areSpongeIs thought to have evolved from a contractible cell in an organism corresponding to[19]

Gender and charm

Muscle tissue in humansSexual dimorphismIs. Muscle tissueGender differenceIs most apparent in the upper body, and on average, men have 60% more total muscle mass and 80% more arm muscles than women[20].. Therefore, the upper body strength of men is about 90% higher than that of women (comparable to the difference between male and female gorillas)[21], The average man is 99.9% stronger than a woman[22][21].. These striking sex differences in muscularity, along with evidence of strong sex differences in aggression[23], Reflects the selection pressure imposed by physical conflict in men throughout the evolution of mankind[24][25].

Preference

Women are generally considered to prefer muscular men. Muscular men featured in popular American media as attractive men[26]Is said to be more attractive than other men[27][28][29]Are experiencing with more sexual partners[30][31].. Most men also try to build muscle to attract women and become more successful in sexual competition[32].. However, very muscular men are rated less attractive than moderately muscular men[33].

Men's muscles are useful information for spousesSignalingIs believed to function. In the evolutionary adaptation environment (EEA) of the ancestor's past, the muscles of men provide accurate and direct information about their strength.[34], IndirectlyCombat abilityPredict[35].. It is believed that ancestor men with better fighting abilities were able to better utilize the resources of others, protect their own and fellow resources from threats, exploitation, looting, and protect their own children.[36].. Male muscle is also important as an indicator of the ability to acquire resources, which is an important aspect of male spousal value across cultures.[37].. For example, the strength of the upper body of Hatza men is a major factor in their male spouse value, and their hunting ability.[38]Is clearly associated with[39].. The same can be seen in modern society, where combat and physical fitness are clearly associated with peer value.[40][41].

In addition, muscles serve as clues to a man's overall condition. Since muscle tissue requires the body to be able to allocate energy to muscle growth and maintenance, muscle tissue is an indirect and honest indicator of the health of a man developing muscles and their underlying disease resistance. Is[42].. In addition, muscle development and maintenance require large amounts of energy intake[43], Being muscular also serves as an indicator of a man's ability to access energy-providing resources (such as meat). Muscle helps increase the success of some survival-related tasks and is one of the factors that can serve as a hard-to-fake and costly quality cue.[44].

Given that muscle tissue and strength provided women with important information about their potential spouse, it is speculated that modern women can accurately assess men's physical fitness, suggesting that it is. ing[45][46].. Such an assessment allows women to indirectly assess men's investment and protection capabilities. In addition,HeritabilityIs around 50%[47][48], Women are also thought to prefer men who can assess men's muscles and provide genes related to strength and muscles to their offspring[44].

According to a study published in 2019, the muscle parts of men that women find attractive are just those that are difficult to train.correlationdoing[44].. From the topOblique muscle,Gluteus maximus,Abs,Biceps,Scapula,Triceps,Calf,Deltoid muscle,Quadriceps,Pectoral muscleHad become[44].

Numerical value

Diameter of major animal muscle fibers

Numbers are from David 1977[49].

Animal筋肉Diameter (μm)
GoldfishRed muscle fiber36.0
(same)White muscle fiber49.4
Xenopus laevisHamstring169.0
Rock pigeonPectoral muscle26.8
Shrewdiaphragm18.0
MouseCalf (gastrocnemius)60.8
RatExtensor digitorum longus85.0
(same)diaphragm34.0
Guinea pigdiaphragm25.0
catdiaphragm30.0
pigdiaphragm60.0
Human capitaldiaphragm34.0
(same)Intercostal muscle50.4
(same)Deltoid muscle54.2

Major animal muscle strength

Numbers from Prosesser 1973[50].

Animal筋肉Strength (N/cm2)
OysterScallop117.7
RatFinger extensor29.4
lobsterLazy muscle27.5
ナ マ ケ モ ノdiaphragm20.6
カ エ ルSewing muscle19.6
cattenuissimus muscle13.7
DogTracheal smooth muscle7.8

Muscle degeneration

In mammals, inactivity and starvation lead to degeneration of skeletal muscle. A decrease in muscle mass is accompanied by a decrease in protein content as well as a decrease in muscle cells and dwarfing.[51].

In humans,bedI have been sleeping for a long time and have not exercised for a long time,宇宙 飛行 士 SpaceIt is known that staying in the muscle causes weakening and degeneration of muscles.Manned space flightIn the world ofWeightlessness空间I lost about 30% of my muscles as a result of spending time in[52][53].. This is not just for humans,Golden squirrelIt has been reported that it also occurs in the bat and the bearded bat.[54].

With age, there is a slow decline in the ability of skeletal muscles to maintain function and mass.SarcopeniaCalled. The cause is not clear, but it is suspected that it is related to the gradual decrease of "satellite cells" that help maintain skeletal muscle fibers, and the sensitivity or secretion necessary for maintaining muscle mass and satellite cells is also suspected. It is considered that the decay of important growth factors is involved. Although sarcopenia commonly occurs with aging and is not actually treated as a medical condition, it can make older people more susceptible to injury and trouble living.[55].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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