Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🥾 | Introduction of the current state of sika deer ecology and feeding damage Omogosangaku Museum Spring Exhibition ・ Until 27th

Photo Exhibition A special exhibition displaying the horns and skulls of sika deer

Introduction of the current state of sika deer ecology and feeding damage Omogosangaku Museum Spring Exhibition ・ Until 27th

If you write the contents roughly
The council is composed of prefectures, Saijo City, Kumakogen Town, universities and NPOs, and is engaged in activities to protect rare plants in the Ishizuchi Mountains from feeding damage by sika deer.

A special exhibition "Let's know about the sika deer in the Ishizuchi Mountains-Let's know!" → Continue reading

 Ehime Shimbun

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


NPOIs "Nonprofit Organization "or"Not-for-Profit OAbbreviation for "rganization" in a broad senseNon profit organizationThat thing.In a narrow sense, non-profit social contribution activitiescharitableCarry out activitiesCivic groupsThat thing.In the narrowest senseNon-profit activity promotion law(1998An organization that has gained legal personality (established in March)Specified nonprofit corporation).In addition, it should be noted米 国,英国In such cases, it is called Non-profit, South Korea,TaiwanIn such cases, the expression NPO is used.


Definition in the Johns Hopkins University International Comparative Research Project

Made since 1990Johns Hopkins UniversityIn the International Comparative Research Project, NPOs were defined as meeting the following requirements in order to enable international comparisons.

  • (1) Being a formal organization
  • (2) Being a non-governmental organization (Non-Political)
  • (3) Do not distribute profits (Non-Profit Distributing)
  • (4) Self-Governing
  • (5) Being voluntary (Voluntary)

In the first stage of the research project until 1994,

  • (6) Being a non-religious organization
  • (7) Being a non-party organization

Was added, but for comparison purposes only, in the second stage, the above definition in the narrow sense, (2) and (6) were excluded from the requirements, and co-operatives and mutual organizations were added. The survey was conducted in two ways, with a broad definition.[1]

The above definition is common, but if NPO (Non-Profit Organization) is the analytical concept of an organization, the definition of NPO is James & Rose-Ackerman (1988), depending on the importance of the recognition target of the cognitive entity. Hayes (1996), Dentsu Research Institute (1996: 23-24), Tao (1999: 4-5), Tao / Yoshida (2009: 3-4), Murakami (2014: 96), etc.Also, in LM Salomon's research, in addition to the above five definition components, "public benefit", that is, "acting and contributing for public purposes" is added as the sixth component ( Salamon, 5: 6-1999).Of the multiple definition components, the most important characteristic of NPOs is "not sharing profits", that is, "non-profit sharing constraints".This is because the other characteristics of the definition components are private companies that adopt a certain social contribution as their management philosophy and adopt the organizational structure of a joint-stock company.However, "non-profit sharing restraint" is indispensable for NPOs (non-profit organizations) as a pure type.Also, since NPOs are "Non-Profit Organizations", if you think of them as volunteer organizations that depend only on donations and grants regardless of profit activities, include "social business" organizations in NPOs. Can no longer be done. It is quite possible for NPOs to carry out commercial activities, and it is rather common today for commercial organizations to pursue public interest from their social responsibilities and contribute to society (Shinhara, 10).Therefore, it is realistic to think of NPOs as “Not for Profit Organization”.Even in private companies, the meaning of social contribution is included in the perseverance of the main business and its fulfillment itself (Murakami, 11: 2003).Businesses that damage society are transient, and the continuity of commercial business operations is naturally linked to some sort of social contribution.Therefore, the "non-profit sharing constraint" of whether or not to share profits is the difference between "non-profit" and "profit" pure type.

NPO in a broad sense

NPOs in a broad sense are general organizations / organizations that do not redistribute profits (Non profit organization) Means.The antonym in this case is a commercial organization, that is,Company(Company lawAccording to) and so on.In this sense,Corporation,Foundation,Medical Corporation,Social welfare corporation,School corporation,Religious corporation,Intermediate corporation,Cooperative, In the end of the areaResidents' associationEtc. are also NPOs in a broad sense.Even if you have various legal personalities stipulated by law, there is no limit to making profits in order to maintain the business you are doing or the organization / organization itself.Many organizations have paid and unpaid full-time employees.

AmericaIt is said that this word became widespread because the name "NPO" was used in the Internal Revenue Service enacted in. The civil rights movement of the 1960s ignited the development of NPO activities.originally"Small governmentIn the United States, which has been established as ", there is a need to build a better environment for civil society through the voluntary non-profit activities of citizens, and the activities of non-profit organizations are protected and regulated by the laws of each state. ..For exampleWikipediaWikimedia Foundation, which operatesFloridaIt is a non-profit organization based on the law.Most financial resources are private or privateDonationCovered by, as a general perceptionMarketBe a member of the economy.

NordicThen,スウェーデンModern as specified in the 1809 Constitution ofOmbudsmanIs the origin.As you can see from the fact that it is stated in the Constitution, it is a well-established administrative agency.As a general rule, financial resources are contributed by the welfare state, so it has the property of acting as a government agent.

FranceThen, the association (association association) established based on the law of 1901 is carrying out activities similar to NPOs in Japan and the United States (sports and cultural activities in addition to social welfare purposes).Based on a long tradition, it doesn't belong anywhereCivil societyIt is active as the core.

NPO in a narrow sense

In a narrow sense, an NPO means various volunteer groups and civic activity groups, and in a narrower sense, a "specified non-profit organization" may be referred to as an NPO. NPOs that have been certified by the national government or prefectures under the "Non-Profit Activities Promotion Law" are commonly called NPO corporations.in Japan,1995 OfGreat Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeWith this as an opportunity, the need for legal personality has been highlighted by civic activity groups, volunteer groups, etc., and in order to facilitate the acquisition of corporate status by civic activity groups, the New Frontier Party proposal, the Liberal Democratic Party / Social Democratic Party / PRESTO coalition ruling party proposal, the Communist Party proposal, etc. have been proposed. However, the four-party bill "Civil Activity Promotion Bill", which is a revision of the Democratic Party of Japan, passed the House of Representatives in June 4.However, after the House of Councilors Liberal Democratic Party made amendments such as changing "citizen activities" to "non-profit activities" due to the opposition to the word "citizens".1998ToNon-profit activity promotion lawWas proposed by the legislature and passed and enacted almost unanimously.As a result, those that meet the conditionsSpecified nonprofit corporationAsLegal personalityCan now be obtained.In recent years, the concept of social entrepreneurship has become widespread.Community businessIt is also expected to be the subject of.In addition, the so-called collaboration between the government and NPOs is booming nationwide due to the financial tightness of the national and local governments.

In the flow of so-called collaboration between the government and NPOs, new attempts are being made in various places, such as the government and NPOs collaborating to create rules.

NGO (Nongovernmental organization) Is used differently from the viewpoint, and the expression that emphasizes non-profit, such as "a private organization that is engaged in social business rather than for-profit purposes," is an NPO. It can be said that an NGO is an expression that emphasizes non-governmentality, such as "a social non-profit business that is carried out by citizens rather than by the government."Generally, NGOs are active in the international field.However, both are non-profit and NPOs and NGOs are common in the sense that they are non-governmental.

Recently, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)StakeholdersAs a (stakeholder), it has become a presence that cannot be ignored by companies. DruckerStates that the prototype of the NPO is in a Japanese temple.

NPO management

Organizational diversity

The size and nature of NPOs are very diverse.Focusing on the time aspect, while there are temporary ones such as self-help organizations and support organizations in the event of a disaster,Room to read,Peace Winds JapanThere are also persistent ones such as.Focusing on the spatial aspect, there are those that operate only in a specific small area and those that deploy staff to various areas on the earth.In terms of budget scale, there are huge NPOs that operate with an annual budget of several hundred million yen or more, and NPOs that use almost no budget.

Looking at the organizational structure, there are various types, such as a group of volunteers who can enter and leave freely, a secretariat with paid staff to supervise volunteers, and almost all paid staff. is there.Some NPOs with paid staff develop missions (described later) as profitable businesses.These NPOsSocial enterpriseCalled.

Management of human resources

Many NPOsvolunteerVolunteers are a labor force that has completely different characteristics from paid employees, and their management requires a method different from that of employee management in a company organization.Volunteers are characterized by spontaneity, but on the flip side, this can lead to "doing no work that you don't like," so when organizing volunteers, you must ensure organizational cohesion.The following methods are listed as methods for this purpose.

  • Securing opportunities to share time
  • Clarification of individual roles in the organization
  • Clarification of members
  • Close communication
  • Elimination of chaotic expansion of the organization

In addition, when NPOs carry out continuous activities, it is essential to develop human resources who can operate the organization after the founding members have retired.It has been pointed out that when developing such successors, they should be paid employees and at least be treated as small and medium-sized enterprises.

Mission definition

NPOs work not to raise profits, but to achieve the goals of each organization.This goal is called a "mission."The "mission statement" defines the content of the mission. The NPO's mission statement is a verbal expression of either or both of "concrete means" and "concrete social change aimed at by it." According to NPO management theory, when aiming for a continuous NPO, it is preferable to include the latter in the mission statement in order to change the business content in response to changes in social conditions.AlsoDruckerInsists that the mission must include three things: "needs that exist in society," "parts where one's organization is superior to others," and "values ​​that one's organization believes in." ing.

NPO decision-making process

Organizational decision-making is more difficult than for public institutions or for-profit companies, as the motivations of those who participate in NPOs are not economical and are based on empathy for the mission of the organization.Top-down decision making is usually difficult for NPOs.

NPOs with legal personality often set up a board of directors and appoint multiple directors.Among these directors, there are those who are familiar with the internal circumstances of the organization and who actually manage the organization, and those who move mainly on external public relations activities and fund acquisition.Recent research in the United States suggests that the more successful NPOs are, the more functioning the board is, and the more directors are organically involved in organizational management.

The importance of marketing

In recent years, the importance of marketing has begun to be recognized by NPOs.Normally, the missions of NPOs are highly universal (poverty eradication, social education, welfare for persons with disabilities, environmental protection, etc.), but in order to succeed in actual activities, resources are concentrated in specific areas of activity. Is required.Philip KotlerPoints out that the following steps are necessary for marketing.

Market research
Investigate the current state of the field covered by your mission.
Break down the market and understand it.
Decide which segment to target in the fragmented market.
Consider what kind of position your NPO should be in the target segment.
Work design
Design specific activity contents.

NPO trademark issue

Kadokawa ShotenBut,"magazine"Or"News (Chinese)About the words "NPO" and "volunteer" with "" as a designated product商標When I applied for registrationPatent OfficeOnce accepted the registration.After that, when a non-profit organization tried to publish a magazine containing "NPO" in the magazine name, the existence of this registered trademark was discovered, and there was a possibility that it would hinder the publication. An NPO group replied, "The word NPO, which can be said to be a public property of all people, should not be monopolized by a specific commercial corporation."In particular, NPOs often publish various bulletins, magazines, newspapers, etc. to publicize their opinions and make social improvements, and are frequently used for some of the magazine names and newspaper names of such magazines and newspapers. If the core word "NPO" was monopolized, it would be useful for the business development of other publishers.Atrophic effectThis is because it was thought that it would have a great impact on NPO activities.If these trademark registrations are approved, the limitation is to use "NPO" and "volunteer" commercially as magazine names and paper names, and these words are used in the titles and contents of articles. The use of is not limited.

In addition, the words "NPO" and "volunteer" are used by Kadokawa Shoten, which has not made a significant contribution to such activities for the people of NPOs who have nurtured the concept by accumulating these activities. The registration also caused a strong backlash.After that, NPOs with the support of NPO officials nationwidePatent OfficeAs a result of filing an opposition to registration with Kadokawa Shoten, the trademark registration of Kadokawa Shoten was cancelled.

The content of the decision was "The Trademark consists of standard characters, lacks creativity in view of its appearance impression and the meaning of this word, and displays and describes the main content of the designated product. Therefore, the degree to which it is recognized as a self-other product identification mark of "magazines, newspapers" by traders and consumers is extremely low, and there are many periodicals related to the issuance of NPO corporations, etc. with titles containing this word. In addition, it is not appropriate for the public interest to allow a specific person to use this word exclusively, and as a result of the use of the Trademark, it has acquired the ability to distinguish itself and other products. Unless there are special circumstances, even if this is used for the designated product "magazine, newspaper", it is a trademark that the consumer cannot recognize that it is a product related to some business. , Should be said. "

Progress summary

  • 2003June 6-Media reports on this issue
  • June 2003, 6-Kadokawa Holdings publishes company announcement in each newspaper
  • July 2003, 7-Submission of Trademark Registration Opposition (to the JPO)
  • 2004June 6-The JPO notifies the reason for cancellation (Gives Kadokawa an opportunity to submit a written opinion)
  • 2005May 5-Patent Office decides to cancel "NPO" trademark
  • May 2005, 5-The JPO decides to cancel the "volunteer" trademark.

NPO trading / crime issues

Crime use such as buying and selling of NPOs, fraud and account fraud, use of making money, existence of intermediaries, most NPOs are dormant and the actual situation of activities is scarce, which has become a big problem in Japan[2][3][4][5][6].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈



  • Lester M. Salamon (1997). HOLDING THE CENTER: American's Nonprofit Sector at a Crossroads. Nathan Cummings Foundation (Leicester Salomon, "Forefront of NPOs-American Civil Society at the Crossroads," Naoto Yamauchi, Iwanami Shoten, 1999.ISBN 4000222511.).
  • Lester M. Salamon (1999). America's nonprofit sector: a primer (2nd ed.). New York: The Foundation Center. 
  • PF Drucker"Management of a non-profit organization" Diamond, 2007.ISBN 4478307059.
  • Masao Tao, Yuji Kawano, "Organization of Volunteers and NPOs," Gakuyo Shobo, 2004.ISBN 4313815082.
  • Masao Tao, Tadahiko Yoshida, "Non-Profit Organization Theory," Yuhikaku Publishing, 2009.ISBN 978-4-641-12389-2.
  • Dentsu Communication Institute, "What is an NPO-A New Way of Social Services," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 1996.ISBN 4532144590.
  • Hiroaki Niihara, "Study of Excellent Companies in Japan," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 2003.ISBN 978-4-532-31086-8.
  • Tsunami Murakami, "Non-Profit and Commercial Organization Theory," Ayabunsha, 2014, Second Edition.ISBN 978-4-915-41616-3.

Related item

外部 リンク

Ishizuchi Mountains

Ishizuchi Mountains(Mt. Ishizuchi)Shikoku MountainsBelonging to the westMount IshizuchiTo be the highest peakMountains.Ishizuchi MountainsAlso called.Ehime-KochiIt forms a backbone that straddles the prefectural border, and the north isCentral structure lineTouchingNiyodo RiverTributary, westKumagawa, EastYoshinogawaEngraveObokeLeading to[1].


East-northeast-west-southwest direction, that is, with the Median Tectonic LineparallelMountains of 1,800m-2,000m class form a mountain range, and the altitude gradually decreases on the east side.The ridgeline branches off from the parting of Mt. Chichi, and the ridge on the north side goes through the Akaishi mountain range.Pope mountainsWill be.Along the Median Tectonic LineNiihama Plain,Dozen plainIt falls to form a 50km east-west Ishizuchi fault scarp.Geologically, it is the outer zone of southwestern JapanSanbagawa metamorphic beltBelongs toCrystal schistIs the basis.KamegamoriHimi XNUMX IshiharaSaragamineRyujindaira, etc.Uplifted quasi-plainFlat surfaces, presumed to be remnants of, are often found.On the other hand, Mt. Ishizuchi was about 2 years ago.Last glacial periodInPeriglacial actionIt is estimated that the rock was crushed by the rock and became a steep rock ridge.[2].

Chugoku MountainsBecause the altitude is higher thanChugokuCame overSiberian air massby(I.e.Blows,weatherIs a littleSea of ​​Japan sideShow similarity to[1]. for that reasonDozen plainからNiihama PlainEven though it is relatively warm, the mountains of the Ishizuchi MountainssnowIn the morning when it gets coldHoarfrostThe phenomenon is also seen.

Saijo City,NiihamaEtc. for these mountainsgroundwaterBlessed withInside SetouchiButDroughtIs rarely hit.Especially in Saijo City, just below Mt. Ishizuchispring OfUchinuki TheOne hundred famous watersHas been selected for.Of the Yoshino River and its tributariesDozan River,Niyodo RiverSuch asFirst-class river,Kokuryo River,Kamo RiverandNakayama RiverThe second-class rivers inside the Setouchi region originate from the Ishizuchi Mountains.

Western mountains centered on Mt. Ishizuchi andOmogawakei The1955ToIshizuchi Quasi-National ParkSpecified toMt. SasagamineThe area centered on1982Mt. Sasagamine is designated as a natural environment conservation area.From Omogo Gorge to the clay hutIshizuchi SkylineAnd from the clay hutMt. IyofujiThroughMt. Kanpu tunnelLeading toKamegamori forest roadWhile tourist roads have been constructed and mountain climbing has become easier, environmental destruction such as falling rocks in Omogo Gorge due to the construction of Ishizuchi Skyline has also become a problem.[3].

Climatically above 1,700 m above sea levelSubalpine coniferous forestAnd,Ninomori, A narrow area near the summit from Mt. Ishizuchi to Kamegamori,Mt. SasagamineOn the eastern slope, etc.Abies veitchiiCanopy can be seen.furtherBetula birch,RhododendronCommunity, mountaintopIbukizasaCovered with[4]..Such a subalpine zone is the southern limit in Japan.[2]..The lower part of the subalpine zoneBeech,VladimirSuch asDeciduous forestBecomes

Main mountain

     Saragamine       West ┃ ┃
     Graphite Mountain     South ━╋━ North ┃ ┃ Aotakiyama East ┃
            ┃ Godaigamori ━ Kurase Noto ━ Sangamori ┃
        Mount Ishizuchi
            ┃ Tsurunoko no head ┃
Tsunokami━━Mount Iwaguro
 ┃ ┃
Mt.  Mt. Ibukiyama
      ┃Children Mt. Gongenyama ┃
     Nishi Kuromori
      ┃ Jinengonoka ┃ Higashikuromori ┃
     Mt. Iyofuji
     Mt. Sasagamine━ Kuromoriyama ┃
      ┣━━━━┓ Mt. Kanmuriyama   Nishi Akaishi
      ┃ ┃
     Heikedaira  Mt. Higashi Akaishiyama
      ┃ ┃ Mitsumoriyama Futatsudake
Ozareyama━━┫┃ Higashimitsumoriyama Akahoshizan
      ┃ ┃ Mt. Tamatori  Toyoukeyama
      ┃ ┃
    Sazareoyama Suihamine
Mt. Kuishi━━┫
      ┃ Tochioyama ┃
     Mt. Sasagamine
     Mt.━ Kennoyama ┃ ┃
     Nokaikeyama Shiozukamine
      ┃ Kurotakiyama

Here, Mt. Ishizuchi includes Mt. Nishinokanmuridake, Mt. Triangulation, Mt. Misen, Mt. Tengudake, Mt.

KirosanIshizuchi Mountains seen from.


  1. ^ a b "Kadokawa Japan Geographic Names Dictionary』Kadokawa Shoten, 1981
  2. ^ a b Hiroshi Tashiro, Kazumi Fujimoto, Nagamasa Shimizu, Masashi Takada "Maps and Topography of Mountains" Yama-kei Publishers, 1996
  3. ^ "Japanese Mountaineering System Kansai / Chugoku / Shikoku / Kyushu Mountains" Hakusuisha, 1982
  4. ^ Shigeru Yasumori "The Story of Mt. Sasagamine, the Third Generation of Parents and Children" 1996
  5. ^ Actually on the west bank of the bridgeNii Ryokuchi ParkFrom the observatory

Related item


Back to Top