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🚁 | Hi-Tech announces Japan's first landing fixed-wing mapping drone "XENO FX" [Japan Dro…


Hi-Tech announces Japan's first fixed-wing mapping drone "XENO FX" [Japan Dro ...

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From the perspective of "compensating for the disadvantages" of multicopters, there are already many inquiries.

Hitec Multicpex Japan, Inc. (hereafter: Hitec) is a fixed-wing mapping draw ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

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Multicopter(English: multicopter) IshelicopterIt is a kind of and equipped with three or more rotors.RotorcraftThat is. "Multi-rotor helicopter" or simply "Multi rotorAlso called, the one with four rotorsQuad rotorIs called.Also, especially todayUnmanned aerial vehicle(Drone) Often refers to.


Multiple locations located from the center of the aircraftrotorEquipped with (rotor blades), by rotating each rotor at the same time in a well-balanced mannerFlightTo do.Ascending / descending is the rotorRotational speed(Number of rotations) Is increased or decreased, and forward / backward / turning is performed by tilting the aircraft with a difference in the number of rotations of each rotor.The rotor is fixedpitchThe ones are often used, and by arranging the clockwise and counterclockwise ones alternately, the rotationreactionAre canceling each other out.

Mainly wireless remote controlRadio control helicopterAnd autonomous flight is possibleUnmanned aerial vehicle(Drone), BesidesManned drone-Flying carResearch as a manned aircraft such as is also being conducted.


gasoline engineResearch on manned quadcopters withhelicopterIt has been done since its inception, in 1907.France OfBreguet-Richet GyroplaneSucceeded in surfacing 60 centimeters above the ground and is said to be the first rotorcraft to surface. In 1922US ArmyByde Bothezat helicopterExperiment was conducted.In 1958, after the helicopter was put into practical use, the U.S. ArmyTurbine engineDrivenCurtiss-Wright VZ-7I am conducting an experiment.After thatTilt rotorAs an opportunity in 1963X-19, In 1966X-22Experiment was conducted.

Electric small multicopter1980 eraToNagoya UniversityAlthough development has been carried out in detail among research institutes such as[1][2]Lightweight and high capacity at that timebatteryAnd high outputelectric motorIt was difficult for general enthusiasts to fly because it was difficult to obtain the product and it was necessary to control the coordination according to the change in attitude.1989In 7 monthKeyenceGyro saucer was released from, and this was an opportunity so farVertical takeoff and landing aircraftEven those who have no experience of flying can now easily fly.It was installed at that timeGyroscopeIs a motorTopIt was a form of rotating.Then it was improved2000 eraLaterSmartphoneUsed for etc.MEMSGyroscope,AccelerometerHas become mass-produced and inexpensive, and multicopters equipped with these have become widespread.

In the official examination of the Japan Aeronautic Association on March 1994, 3Human power helicopterIsYURI-ISucceeded in flying 20 cm in height and 19.46 seconds in flight time.

2010 years,France OfParrot(English edition)The company said(English edition)Was released.Until then, drones, which were exclusively industrial equipment, had a great impact that even ordinary people could easily obtain and fly them, and this product sparked today's drone boom, especially.2010 eraIs a camera on a droneGimbalIntroducedChugoku OfDJIProducts accounted for more than 7% of the world market share[3][4].

December 2013 RiceAmazon.comIs a multicopter delivery service "Amazon Prime AirAnnounced the concept.[5]

November 2015 Chiba PrefectureKatoriThe first "Drone Impact Challenge 1" at THE FARM inDrone impact challenge2015) ”was held[6] A total of 61 pilots participated[7].Nico Nico Live BroadcastAtLive broadcastWas also done[8].

November 2016 Chiba PrefectureChibaMihamaIt is inMakuhari MesseThe event "Japan Drone 2016" was held in Japan, and one of the events was the indoor race "Japan Drone 1".Drone impact challenge2016 ”was held[9][10][11].. The number of visitors to "Japan Drone 2016" was 8,023.The next event will be held from March 2017 to 03, 23 at Makuhari Messe.[12].

August, 2016 RakutenAnnounced that it will start a drone-based package delivery service "Sora Raku" in May.It will be introduced at golf courses as the first step.The aircraft used is a hexacopter with 05 rotors and a maximum load capacity of about 1 kg.Fully automatic autonomous flight to the destination, release of luggage, and return.[13]

July 2016, 7, the first in Japan in Kato City, Hyogo PrefecturePrize moneyluckA drone (multicopter) race was held.Three laps of a 200m-long dedicated course, the operator wears goggles and operates from the perspective of the drone (camera attached to).Approximately 3 people participated and it was a race that flew over 50 km / h[14].

In August 2016, at a hexacopter drone地雷"Mine Kafon Drone", a service that detects and processesKickstarterWhen recruited above, the target amount of 7EuroMore than double the financial support for[15][16].

March 2016, 11thAll Japan Model Hobby ShowでKyoshoThe more announced model, "DRONE RACER" has been released.For low-altitude flight with altitude maintenance functionQuadcopterAnd,R / C carDesigned to be maneuverable with the wheeler radio used in[17][18].

In 2017,KDDIAs a demonstration experimentLTEA long-distance flight (total distance 6.3 km) was carried out with an octocopter called a "smart drone", and the task was to "spray chemicals on the shelf pond".During the flight, he landed at a place called "drone port" and charged it unmanned, expanding the radius of action of the aircraft.The Japanese government is aimingDepopulated areaAtDrone home deliveryIt is expected to be used in such cases, but ensuring safety was an immediate issue.[19].

Structure and principle


Generally, a multicopter has 3 or more vertically.propellerTo be equipped.When the number of propellers is 2 or less, a mechanism such as a mechanism that continuously changes the angle of the propellers during rotation is required to control the attitude, but as the number of propellers increases, each propeller The posture can be controlled by increasing or decreasing the number of rotations.It has better attitude stability than a single-rotor helicopter.Control of the number of revolutions of each motor is installedGyroscopeChange the rotation speed of the motor in the direction of detecting and correcting the tilt with.On the other hand, if any one of the multiple rotors is stopped, it will crash, so it is essentially inferior to a single-rotor helicopter in terms of safety.In addition, since it generally does not have a mechanism or mechanism in order to take advantage of the simple structure that can be controlled only by the rotation speed of the rotor, energy efficiency is poor, and high-speed horizontal movement is particularly difficult.Therefore, it is good at applications such as precise control of lightweight airframes, and is not good at applications such as transporting heavy objects at high speed.

Flight controller

The unmanned aerial vehicle type capable of autonomous flight is equipped with a flight controller (FC).This part is the "brain" of the drone[20], "Heart"[21],"core"[22] It is an important part that is sometimes calledComputerWhen,Gyro sensor,Accelerometer, Barometric pressure sensor,GPSEtc. are contained in one board.A computer is used to monitor and stabilize the attitude of the aircraft based on the information from each sensor, and to control the tilt and direction of travel of the aircraft according to the maneuver.[23].

Flight controllerhardwareNaze32 and CC3D are often used as[24][25][26]..Control to that hardwarealgorithmImplementedfirmwareTheInstallAnd use it.Basically, firmware dedicated to each hardware is used, but there are also firmware that can be used in common with different hardware.Typical firmware is as follows.

  • BaseFlight
Google Chromeuseadd onFree firmware that can be set from[27].. Naze32Default[28].
  • CleanFlight
Firmware derived from Baseflight.Development speed is faster than Baseflight, popular and informative[28].
  • Betalight
Cleanflight performance enhancement / improved version[29].
CC3DDefaultWasOpen SourceFirmware.Currently development has stopped and is moving to LibrePilot[20][30].
  • LibrePilot
OpenPilot in 2015forkFirmware started as[31].


Classification name by number of rotors

Types by specifications

Camera mounted type

カメラOn-board typeHelicopter shotIt has made it possible to shoot from an unknown point of view that people and conventional aircraft cannot enter through research and research.The video you are shootingFPVOn the ground byreal timeIt is possible to monitor withRadio ActOutput from the constraints ofBandwidthIs greatly restricted.In addition to visible cameras for photographs and videos, there are also types equipped with infrared cameras.For video production, the camera is mounted on a brushless gimbal so that it can shoot video without shaking.

Survey type

There are also aircraft for surveying ships equipped with a photographic survey type using continuous photographs and a laser measuring instrument.

Transport type

Aircraft boasting a high payload and long cruising range specializing in the transportation of goods have also been developed.

On the battlefieldbombingIt is also being researched for use in[32].


previousRadio controlAerial photography is not suitable for movies because the camera shakes a lot.写真Was the main shooting.However, with the new camera gimbal (camera stabilizer / stabilizer) announced by DJI, it has become possible to shoot stable images with almost no shaking.Brushless like this,Direct driveAnother gimbal of the method is MōVI from FREEFLY.2013 OfNABWas announced at.

Volcano observation

VolcanoeruptionUse a multicopter to understand the situation at the time, by automatic navigationcraterObservation andObservationuseRoverIs used for purposes such as transporting to the mountaintop.Tohoku UniversityIn collaboration with enRoute Co., Ltd.Mt. Asamayama,ShinmoedakeField experiments are being conducted in.

Indoor surveillance

laserIt is also possible to use it indoors using sensors, etc.securityIt is also used for exploration of dangerous areas.

Disaster investigation

Taking advantage of autonomous flight, it is expected to be investigated in places where people cannot enter.

Crime prevention

Major security company,SECOMHas developed a quad-type multicopter as a small flight surveillance robot.

Sports race

From above the venue or courseHelicopter shotThen,2015January 1, the first multicopter broadcast of sports broadcasting on the US sports channelESPN X-GamesConducted by relaying[33]..In Japan, September 2015, 9, with the InternetCATVbytriathlonAerial photography by a multicopter was added in the live broadcast of the tournament[34].


Currently, it is sold in large quantities at general stores, etc.play,HobbiesMulticopters for use are more stable and easier to maneuver than conventional single rotors (so-called "helicopter" types).It is smaller and lighter than professional ones, and the total length is often from 10 cm or less to 30-40 cm, but some are about 80 cm.Most of the airframe materials are synthetic resins (so-called "plastic" or "Styrofoam").The share of products made by Chinese manufacturers is increasing worldwide, and products made by Japanese manufacturers are also sold in Japan.For enthusiasts, parts, control units, motors, rotors, batteries,FPV system, Airframe materials (synthetic resin andCarbon fiber) Etc. individuallyself madeSome people enjoy flying experiments and hobby flights[35].

Transportation of goods

Plans for courier services using drones are underway in each country, and some are being operated experimentally.In addition, lightweight luggage is the mainstream, which requires urgency like pharmaceuticals.Automatic external defibrillatorAttempts to urgently transport (AED) are underway[36].


PreviouslyRadio-controlled helicopterI was using, but maneuvering required skill.High precisionSatellite positioningBy an autonomously controlled multi-copter usingseed,fertilizerSpraying,ControlIs being advanced[37].

Manned aircraft

The power-concentrated boarding machine is not practical because the number of parts is large and the mechanism for transmitting power is complicated.helicopterSeveral models were developed in the early days of the flight, and although they succeeded in flight experiments,Quad tilt rotorDevelopment is often discontinued due to the above reasons, and it has not been adopted in practical machines.[38]..Since the commercialization of electric multicopter drones, research on manned electric multicopters has also begun.

Laws and regulations

Laws and regulations in Japan

In Japan, it has become possible to purchase and operate even at the individual level.Prime Minister's residence drone case,Cultural propertyShooting of buildings such as and in the areaFestivalSafety management became a problem, such as using it without permission at events such as, and causing collisions and falls due to careless maneuvering.[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46]..In response to this situation, amendments to apply regulations for unmanned aerial vehicles including multicopters, etc.Aviation law 2015May 9Was passed and came into effect on December 12, the same year.[47][48][49]..Unlike engine-driven helicopters, which have different maneuvering and maintenance qualifications for single-engine and twin-engine or more, the current situation, especially in manned multicopters.electric motorThere is no difference in maneuvering and maintenance qualifications between the number of aircraft and one aircraft (there is no legally electric manned helicopter category).

Regulated unmanned aerial vehicle

In the Aviation Law, the definition of "unmanned aerial vehicle" is "airplanes, rotorcraft, gliders, and airships that cannot be boarded by humans due to their structure, but can be flown by remote control or autopilot (200 g). Weight less than (excluding the total of the weight of the aircraft and the weight of the battery) ".

Even if it does not fall under the category of "unmanned aerial vehicle" because it weighs less than 200 grams, it can be regarded as a "model aircraft".[50], At the airport and its surroundings, etc.Restricted surfaceAnd other regulations under aviation law still apply ("Restricted surface # Prohibition of launch, etc.","Restricted Airspace #Other Controlled AirspaceSee).

No-fly zone regulation

nexteitherFor flights in the airspace corresponding to the above, apply in advance and the permission system by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism shall be applied.

  • Next airspace around airports, heliports, airfields, etc. (Airspace A)
  • Airspace at a height of 150 m or more from the surface of the earth or water (Airspace B)
  • Concentrated area (DID) Airspace that is above and does not correspond to the above-mentioned A airspace and B airspace (C airspace)

Even if it is above private land, if it falls under the above-mentioned regulated airspace (A-C), even if it is your own land or you have obtained permission from the owner of the land, etc., the permission of the country under the Aviation Law is required.However, indoors or in a space surrounded by nets or curtains such as a driving range, permission from the government under the Aviation Law is not required.

Airspaces that do not fall under controlled airspace (A-C) do not require a national permit under the Aviation Law.However,Separate decree (described later)And may be regulated by local ordinances.

In addition, it is stipulated in the Aviation Law, etc.SDF-US Army in JapanAirspace related to the restrictions ofYokota AirspaceOthers) etc. need to be considered (""Restricted Airspace #Other Controlled AirspaceSee).

If it is unavoidable to fly an unmanned aerial vehicle in a regulated airspace (A-C), the person who intends to fly the aircraft shall coordinate with the relevant organizations in advance and obtain its approval in writing, and then the national land. It is necessary to obtain the permission of the Minister of Transport. A Airspace will be coordinated in advance with the airport, heliport manager or airport office, and the approval of the government will be obtained. For airspace B, obtain the national permission after coordinating with the control body of the airspace in advance and obtaining its approval.Generally, the air traffic control organization will be the Air Traffic Control Center if the relevant airspace is a private training test airspace, the jurisdiction airport office if it is an approach control zone, etc., and the other jurisdiction air traffic control departments.[52]

Flight method regulations

Regardless of the type of airspace or permission from the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the following regulations apply to the flight method of unmanned aerial vehicles.However, this does not apply when the flight method is specifically approved by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.

  • Prohibition of night flight (日 没からsunriseTime to)
  • No flight above 150 meters above the ground.
  • Prohibition of non-visual flight (Fly only within the range that the flight person can directly see. Also, constantly monitor. Remote monitor monitoring is prohibited)
  • Properties such as buildings or structures, such as vehicles and ships of others, or others, on the ground or on the water[53] Fly at least 30 meters away from.
  • Festivals, fairs, exhibitions, sports / exercise games / competitions, concerts, festivals,Demonstration activitiesIn addition, it is prohibited to fly over events such as events where many people gather and the venue etc.[54]
  • Prohibition of loading explosives, combustibles, dangerous goods, harmful substances, and weapons (excluding items loaded for use in fuel and power of unmanned aerial vehicles, security devices, and other equipment installed in unmanned aerial vehicles)
  • Prohibition of dropping properties from aircraft (including spraying liquids, except when the property is placed on the ground and dropped)

Reference above:Flight rules for unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, radio-controlled aircraft, etc.)-Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism


As a special case for search, rescue, etc., a person who searches or rescues at the request of the prefectural police, the national or local public bodies, or those persons conducts the search or rescue for the purpose of search or rescue in the event of an aircraft accident or other accident. The above-mentioned "regulation of flight airspace" and "regulation of flight method" do not apply to the flight of unmanned aircraft.In this case as well,Restricted surface # Prohibition of launch, etc.","Restricted Airspace #Other Controlled AirspaceIt is recommended to comply with various regulations (including flight reports), and it is recommended to consult and contact the police, the Self-Defense Forces, the disaster response headquarters, etc. as appropriate.[55][56].

Regulations by separate laws and regulations, etc.

  • Law on Prohibition of Flight for Small Unmanned Aerial VehiclesWhen flight is prohibited byHouses of Parliament, Bicameral chairman's residence,Prime minister's residence,country'sCentral government agencyGovernment building,Supreme Court,Imperial Palace(Akasaka Imperial PalaceIncluding), majorPolitical partyHeadquarters office,Foreign legation(Including places where foreign dignitaries are temporarily located for meetings and other purposes),Nuclear power plant・ Above the site and the area designated by the public notice, which is approximately 300 meters around these sites)
  • For image transmission / controlTransmitter TheRadio ActRegulated by, but previouslyWeak radio station,Low power radio stationEtc.Unlicensed stationMainly for image transmissionfrequencyIs only one waveMobile stationAssign for[57] Was being done. 2016May 8Dedicated for image transmission and control of industrial drones, etc.Frequency bandIs set and is larger than the license-free stationoutputTo use the transmitter ofUnmanned mobile image transmission systemIs institutionalized[58] Was done.Obtained a mobile station license for multicopters[59] And third gradeLand special radio engineerMore thanWireless workersNeeds management by[60].. at the same timeAmateur radioInFPV systemA system for remote control of mobile objects called "XNUMXth grade" has also been established.Amateur radio engineerThe above wireless workersAmateur bureauGet a driver's license[60] However, it cannot be used for business purposes.Radio equipment used for drones, etc.[61][62] See also
  • Local government OfOrdinanceIn some cases, flight, etc. may be prohibited in certain areas or airspaces.[63][64](As of November 2018. * Has penalties, fines, etc.)[65]
    • Shibayama Town, Chiba Prefecture: Hikoki no Oka
    • Yokohama City: Park Ordinance (with flight conditions)
    • Hiratsuka City, Kanagawa Prefecture: City Park Ordinance *, Public Hall Gymnasium
    • Minamiizu Town, Shizuoka Prefecture: Beach Ordinance *
    • Toyama Prefecture: City Park, Okiken Centennial Memorial Park, Riga Art Park, Prefectural Natural Park, Tateyama Foot Family Travel Village, Flower Center, 21st Century Forest, Botanical Park, Arimine Forest Culture Village, Part of Fushiki Toyama Port (Each ordinance *)
    • Aichi Prefecture: During the Ise-Shima Summit, 4km around Chubu Centrair International Airport is regulated * (expired)
    • Kobe City: Port Facility Ordinance * (Port Green Space. Prohibition during events, pre-application permission system for news, etc.), Suma Coast Ordinance * (Principle prohibition, pre-application permission system for news, etc.)
    • Tottori Prefecture: City Park Ordinance * (only when flying around others and making them feel uneasy[66]), Tottori Sand Dunes Ordinance * (Similarly, follow the guidelines)
    • Saga Prefecture: Saga Airport Ordinance[65]
    • In addition, local governments, etc. that regulate flight over the city park site by the city park regulations
      • Sagamihara City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Ninomiya Town, Kanagawa Prefecture, Azumino City, Nagano Prefecture, Gifu Prefecture, Tajimi City, Gifu Prefecture, Kasamatsu Town, Gifu Prefecture, Aichi Prefecture (all *)
      • Local governments, etc. that require advance application permission according to similar regulations
        • Nagano prefecture *, Nara prefecture, Hyogo prefecture *, Saga prefecture[67]
  • Flying over third-party residences, mansions and structures (including building enclosures) that have declared a ban on unmanned aerial vehicles can be a violation of land ownership.

civil liability

If an aircraft, including an unmanned aerial vehicle, is dropped and causes damage to the life, body or property of another person, liability for damages arises.

Laws and regulations in Europe and the United States

The United States of America

In the United States, in February 2015, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) announced the "Draft Regulations for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems" for commercial purposes.[68].

The draft Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System Regulations do not require a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certificate for unmanned aerial vehicles weighing less than 55 pounds (25 kg), while requiring aircraft registration and aircraft labeling.[68].

In addition, about half of the states have legal regulations prior to the regulation by the federal government.[68].

The United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, the Air Navigation Order (2009) defines unmanned aerial vehicles weighing less than 20 kg as "small unmanned aerial vehicles."[68].. Unmanned aerial vehicles weighing less than 20 kg do not require airworthiness certification or registration, but in principle a flight permit and pilot qualification are required.[68].

Reference / Source

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  53. ^ Natural objects (rocks, trees, grass, etc.) on the ground and agricultural and forestry mountains, road surfaces and embankments and natural objects on these (street trees, grass, etc.), railroad tracks, etc. are not applicable.However, the applicability of other people's property (crops, timber, seafood, etc. related to agriculture, forestry and fisheries) among natural objects is unknown.Works in the agricultural and forestry mountains (eg greenhouses, boilers, agricultural and forestry fences, stanchions, nets, etc.) are applicable.As for roads, traffic lights and road accessories (eg signs, lights, curved mirrors, guard fences, stops, etc.) are structures and must be avoided if there are vehicles passing by.As for railways, overhead lines, traffic lights, overhead signal lines, signal pillars, etc. also fall under the category of geographic structures, and because they are dangerous, they must not approach the construction limits of existing lines.XNUMX Survey Implementation Report on Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Logistics --Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
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  61. ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Radio Wave Usage Homepage | Radio Equipment Used for Drones, etc.”(Japanese). www.tele.soumu.go.jp (September 2018, 5). 2018/11/6Browse.
  62. ^ Radio equipment used for drones, etc. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications radio wave usage homepage (National Diet LibraryArchives: Collected February 2017, 4)
  63. ^ "Aviation: Flight rules for unmanned aerial vehicles (drones, radio-controlled aircraft, etc.)-Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism”(Japanese). www.mlit.go.jp. 2018/11/6Browse. "" Ordinances that restrict the flight of unmanned aerial vehicles, etc. ""
  64. ^ http://www.mlit.go.jp/common/001228076.pdf
  65. ^ a b In the first place, when the operator enters the inside of another person's house, mansion or building (including the surrounding area of ​​the building) and then flies the drone etc. inside or above the house etc. (including the surrounding area) , It is legally necessary to submit to the will of the manager of the relevant residence, etc. (New residence right theory, Supreme Court, April 58, 4, Penal Collection Vol. 8, No. 37, p. 3)
  66. ^ Since there is no clear regulation on the distance, refer to the 30-meter separation rule of the Aviation Law.
  67. ^ It is exempted from the case where the aircraft that has received the prior permission of the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism based on the Aviation Law only passes over the city park based on the flight method.
  68. ^ a b c d e Seigo Iwamoto "Law Development for Small Drones in Japan-From the Viewpoint of Comparative Law-" Center for Information on Security Trade Information

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