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💪 | Achieved "-4kg in 12 months" even for active office ladies!What are the tips of "Cheet Day" that are hard to fail?


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Achieved "-4kg in 12 months" even for active office ladies!What are the tips of "Cheet Day" that are hard to fail?

 
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Slimming

Slimming(Soshin) is thin身体[1](Or a tight body), to have such a body.In addition, the word "weight loss" is sometimes used to mean having such a body. Both "slimming" and "weight loss" are easy to use with the same nuance.

Strictly speaking, "slimming and weight loss" are not synonymous. "Weight loss" is a concept that focuses on total body weight.From the bodyfatWhen you lose weight and gain muscle mass, you gain weight but your body tightens.

To slim or lose weightEndocrinology,metabolism,Nutrition,BiochemistryIt is necessary to acquire knowledge about.

Calorie theory

The amount of energy that the body consumes in a day varies from person to person depending on the person's physique and amount of exercise.[2], The amount is <<Basal metabolismCan be estimated using 《Amount》 and 《Physical Activity Level》[2].

Regarding my "basal metabolic rate", "Basal metabolismSee.

For "Physical Activity Level", look at the right side of the following table and find the corresponding value from the left side.

Physical activity level[2]
Activities
Level
身体 活動
Level
Life pattern
Low1.50Sitting for most of life (= lotus coition) (when static activity is central)
ordinary1.75Life is centered on sitting, but sometimes I stand at work, orCommuting,shopping,HouseworkIf it involves playing light sports
high2.00If you often move or stand at work.Or on a daily basisSportsAnd if you have a habit of doing active activities.

The following equation holds.

One-dayBasal metabolismAmount (kcal) x Physical activity level = Calories burned per day

For example, when you are in your 30sBasal metabolismIf you are a woman with an amount of 1,140 kcal and who commute to work and work mainly at desk work (= normal physical activity level, that is, the numerical value is 1.75)

The daily calorie consumption of the body is 1,140 (kcal) x 1.75 = 1995 (kcal).

Calories from the mouth <Calories consumed by the body

The points for establishing this inequality are "dietary restriction" and "exercise execution"."Restrict diet" to make the left side smaller, and "exercise" to make the right side larger.

  • Dietary restrictions: Ingest vitamins and minerals to maintain food balance and take health into consideration, while dieting to reduce total calories and restricting calories that enter the mouth.
  • Exercise: Exercise (walking, housework, physical work, exercise,STRENGTH & CONDITIONING Increase calories burned by doing (and so on).


However, in reality, there is no basis for this calorie theory.As will be described later, "'Reduce the amount of food you eat and increase the amount of exercise' has no effect" in terms of "reducing weight" and "preventing illness" one after another. ing.

German physician Karl von Norden (German physician Karl von Norden) first proposed "calories" in connection with weight gain and loss.Carl von Noorden) And he1907ToEnglishAnnounced atMetabolism and Practical Medicine3" ("Metabolism and Practical Medicine")Obesity("Obesity")

"The ingestion of a quantity of food greater than that required by the body leads to an accumulation of fat, and to obesity should the disproportion continued over a considerable period.("Eating more food than your body needs leads to fat accumulation, and if that imbalance persists for a long time, you should be obese.")

Is described[3]..Since then, Norden's claim has almost always been spoken by anyone who teaches how to control weight and how to diet.This work by Norden can also be read on the Internet.

The originator of the person who spread the idea that "humans get fat because they consume more calories than they consume" as a concept or theory is Norden.

Obesity and diet / exercise

Calorie theory by Karl von Norden

"Slimming and weight loss are dietary restrictions andmotionWill not succeed without[4]Is often said. It says, "Eat less and exercise," but in reality, there is no basis for this statement.As will be described later, the results of "reducing the amount of food and increasing the amount of exercise" are "no effect" in terms of "lossing weight" and "preventing illness" one after another. It's out.

German physician Karl von Norden (German physician Karl von Norden) first proposed "calories" in connection with weight gain and loss.Carl von Noorden) And he1907ToEnglishAnnounced atMetabolism and Practical Medicine("Metabolism and Practical Medicine"), Chapter 3, "Obesity" ("Obesity")

"The ingestion of a quantity of food greater than that required by the body leads to an accumulation of fat, and to obesity should the disproportion continued over a considerable period.("Eating more food than your body needs leads to fat accumulation, and if that imbalance persists for a long time, you should be obese.")

Is described[3]..Since then, Norden's claim has almost always been spoken by anyone who teaches how to control weight and how to diet.

The originator of the person who spread the idea that "humans get fat because they consume more calories than they consume" as a concept or theory is Norden.

Based on the calorie theory advocated by Norden, if you consume only 1% more calories than the proper daily calories and continue for 2 years, you will gain 10 kg of weight.[5]It is said that

Metabolism worsens when you eat less

As a result of faithfully following the calorie theory of "less eating and more exercise," more and more people are suffering from obesity and diabetes.Calorie theory remains unconvincing as obesity remains unsatisfactory in its prevalence.[6].

When you eat less, you feel more hungry, your body tries to reduce your energy expenditure, your metabolism worsens, and you don't lose weight.[6]..When you eat less, animals stop moving in an attempt to reduce wasted energy.This is because the energy required to move the body does not come in.When the body runs out of energy, it either overeats, gets stuck trying to reduce energy expenditure, or both.And he gains much more weight than he did before he was reduced in eating and became obese.[7].

Calorie restriction is destined to fail first.A low-calorie diet or a low-fat diet worsens metabolism, increases hunger, and causes a starvation reaction associated with elevated stress hormones (cortisol).[6].

1941Julius Bauer, a professor at the University of Vienna and an obesity researcherJulius Bauer) Leaves the following description.

"Currently prevailing obesity theory considers only the imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure and is inadequate ... Increased appetite in the imbalance between energy intake and consumption is obesity. It's not the cause, but the result of adipose tissue causing abnormalities. "[8]

The more you exercise, the more you gain weight

Until the 1960s, many clinicians treating obese patients rejected the idea of ​​"you can lose weight by exercising", "get fat if you live a sedentary life", and "get fat because you eat too much" as "childish". Was there.MinnesotaRochester cityIt is inMayo Clinic(Mayo Clinic) Doctor,Russell Wilder(Russell Wilder, 1885-1959) is one of them.1932In his lecture on obesity, Wilder said:

"Obesity patients can lose weight faster by resting on the bed, while strenuous physical activity slows weight loss." "The more you continue to exercise, the more fat you consume. The patient's theory that weight loss should be proportional to that should seem correct at first glance, but the patient is discouraged to see the scales show no progress. "[7]

Russell Wilder's claim completely denies Karl von Norden's theory of calories.

Ketogenic diet

Wilder was primarily in charge of diabetics at the Mayo Clinic, but was also interested in treating obesity as well as diabetes. In the early 1920s, Wilder developed a "ketogenic diet" and prescribed it to obese and diabetic patients.This is a diet that "takes 90% of the energy intake from fat and 6% from protein, and suppresses carbohydrate intake as much as possible" (extremely high-fat, extremely low-carbohydrate diet)[9].. OriginallyepilepsyAlthough it was a diet for treating obesity, Wilder developed it as "it can be an effective diet for obesity and diabetes."By reducing the intake of carbohydrates and protein as much as possible and consuming a large amount of fat, the body breaks down fat to produce "Ketone bodies''(keto) Is used as an energy source to become a viable constitution.This diet is "Ketogenic diet''(The Ketogenic Diet) Became known. "Atkins diet』ProposedRobert AtkinsAlso, the book "Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution』, Mentioning ketone bodies, stating that" by suppressing carbohydrate intake as much as possible and increasing fat intake, the body can survive using fat as an energy source instead of glucose ", and weight For those who want to reduce it, we recommend avoiding or limiting their intake of carbohydrates.

By continuing to eat a ketogenic diet, the body will always use ketone bodies as fuel instead of carbohydrates, and in the case of obesity and overweight, body weight, triglyceride, and blood sugar levels will drop significantly, leading to heart disease. The probability of waking up decreases[10]..Compared to a low-fat diet, a ketogenic diet can significantly reduce the weight of obese and diabetics, improve blood sugar and insulin sensitivity, and reduce mortality associated with metabolic dysfunction.[11].

The ketogenic dietMitochondriaImproves function and blood sugar level,Oxidative stressReduces diabetic cardiomyopathy (Diabetic Cardiomyopathy) Protects the body[12].

The ketogenic diet also improves memory and reduces mortality.[13], Peripheral axons (Peripheral Axons) And sensory dysfunction ()Sensory Dysfunction) May be restored and diabetic complications may be prevented.[14].

Eating and exercising are meaningless

Early 1990s,National Institutes of Health(The National Institutes of Health) Is "The Women's Health Initiative”(“ Women's Health Initiative ”), a $ 10 billion study[15][16]..At the same time, a study was also conducted on "Can a low-fat diet really prevent heart disease and cancer?" Nearly 5 women were enrolled, of which 19541 were randomly selected.Research1993It started in and continued for eight years.Researchers told the participating women about fruits, vegetables,Whole grain・ Foods rich in dietary fiber ・ Foods low in fat ・ ・ ・ Instructed to preferentially eat these.Women received regular counseling to continue this diet[17]..We aim to reduce fat intake from 38% to 20% of calories, and for participating women, weight gain and loss, cholesterol levels, stroke, heart attack, breast cancer, rectal cancer, and more. We also investigated whether to develop cardiovascular disease[17]..I reduced the calorie intake of my daily diet by 360 kcal and continued to eat a small amount.The women who participated were also given instructions to "eat less," "eat less fat," and "exercise," and continued to faithfully reduce their diet and exercise.[7].

After eight years of this life, the women lost an average of about 8 kg per person (compared to before the start of the experiment), but their hips swelled.[7]..What this fact means is "It's muscle, not fat, that's lost from their bodies"That's what it means.In addition, the researchers said,A low-fat diet failed to prevent heart disease, cancer, and other illnessesIt also reports.A low-fat diet had no effect on reducing the risk of developing breast cancer, heart disease, or stroke, or reducing the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women.[18]..The meaning of the counseling and diet they received, whether conscious or unconscious, was "I tried to eat lessIs that[7].. If it is true that "if you burn more calories than you consume, you lose weight", you can't explain why the women who participated in this study got fat.Fat is equivalent to about 1 kcal of energy per kg.If they had reduced their daily dietary calorie intake by 7000 kcal, they would have lost about 360 kg of fat within 3 weeks of starting the experiment, and would have lost about 1 kg of fat for a year. Become.At the start of the study, half of the women who participated were obese and the majority were at least overweight.[7]..Researchers believe that a low-fat diet will reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, and nutritionists say, "If you reduce your fat intake to the target of 20%, the effect of a low-fat diet is clear. May have become. "[17].. The results of this eight-year study were published in the American Medical Association magazine ("Journal of the American Medical Association』) Was published. The results of the Women's Health Initiative show that a low-fat diet has no effect on the purpose of preventing cancer and cardiovascular disease.[17].

Harvard UniversityResearcher Bruce Bistrian (Bruce Bistrian) Says, "Reducing food (reducing the amount of food you eat) is neither a treatment nor a cure for obesity. It is only a way to temporarily relieve the most prominent symptoms. If diet reduction is neither a treatment nor a cure for obesity. If so, this indicates that "overeating is not the cause of obesity."[7].. The most obvious of all the reasons that cast doubt on the idea that "overeating is the cause of obesity" is the fact that "obesity cannot be cured by eating less."

1977The National Institutes of Health hosted a second conference on obesity and weight control during the heightened exercise fever in the United States.Experts gathered at the conference said, "Exercise is less important than you might imagine in controlling weight. As humans increase their physical activity, they tend to eat more at the same time, and exercise It is impossible to predict whether the increase in energy consumption will outweigh the increase in food consumption. "[7].

CaliforniaLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Statistician Paul Williams (Paul Williams) And Stanford University researcher Peter Wood (Peter Wood) Gathered 13000 people who have a habit of running well, and conducted a study comparing the cumulative weekly mileage of these runners with the change in weight from year to year.Peter Wood is also a person who has been studying how exercise affects health since the 1s.In this study of 1970 runners, those who ran the most tended to weigh the least, but all of these runners said, "Get fat with each passing year (fat accumulates in the body)There was a tendency[7].

By the 1970s, there was plenty of evidence that "exercise has no effect on obesity," but it was what drove researchers to the belief that "exercise can maintain or lose weight." There was their desire to believe that it was "truth" and their hesitation in publicly admitting that it was not.Researchers argued that no matter what the actual evidence shows, "only the consequences of boosting the idea that exercise and energy consumption determine the degree of obesity."On the other hand, I ignored the evidence that disproved this view, no matter how many.[7].

2007Jeffrey Freyer, Dean of Harvard Medical SchoolJeffrey Flier) And his wife Terry Maratos Flier (Terry Maratos-Flier) Is the magazine "Scientific AmericanIn the article, "These two are not things that humans can consciously change about human appetite and energy consumption." "Correction of the balance between these two factors and the result are fat. It's not such a simple variable that leads to an increase or decrease in the organization. "[7].

August 2007, American Heart Association (The American Heart Association) And the American College of Sports Medicine (The American College of Sports Medicine) Jointly published guidelines on physical activity and health.Experts from the group said that about 5 minutes of vigorous exercise a day, five days a week, "is necessary to stay healthy and promote."However, when asked, "How does exercise affect becoming obese and staying lean?", They could only answer:

"It makes sense to assume that people who consume more energy per day are less likely to gain weight over time than those who consume less energy. So far, we support this hypothesis. You can't call it "convincing" when it comes to evidence of what you do. "[7]

By the 1970s, there was plenty of evidence that "exercise has no effect on obesity," but it was what drove researchers to the belief that "exercise can maintain or lose weight." There was their desire to believe that it was "truth" and their hesitation in publicly admitting that it was not.Researchers argued that no matter what the actual evidence shows, "only the consequences of boosting the idea that exercise and energy consumption determine the degree of obesity."On the other hand, I ignored the evidence that disproved this view, no matter how many.[7].

2007Jeffrey Freyer, Dean of Harvard Medical SchoolJeffrey Flier) And his wife Terry Maratos Flier (Terry Maratos-Flier) Is the magazine "Scientific AmericanIn the article, "These two are not things that humans can consciously change about human appetite and energy consumption." "Correction of the balance between these two factors and the result are fat. It's not such a simple variable that leads to an increase or decrease in the organization. "[7].

2007 year 8 month,American Heart Association(The American Heart Association) And the American College of Sports Medicine (The American College of Sports Medicine) Jointly published guidelines on physical activity and health.Experts from the group said that about 5 minutes of vigorous exercise a day, five days a week, "is necessary to stay healthy and promote."However,"obesityWhen asked, "How does exercise affect being and staying lean?", They could only answer:

"It makes sense to assume that people who consume more energy per day are less likely to gain weight over time than those who consume less energy. For now, this hypothesis There is no convincing evidence of support. "[7].

1960, Epidemiologist Alvan Feinstein (Alvan feinstein) Is a medical journal "The Journal of Chronic Diseases』Analyzing the effectiveness of various obesity treatments in the criticism published in," Exercise is of no use in increasing energy consumption ", as a means to cure obesity I rejected the "exercise".Feinstein said, "To burn enough calories to lose weight requires physical activity that can be called'overdoing'. In addition, physical exercise provokes a desire for food and then calories. It's possible that your intake will exceed what you lost during exercise. "[19].

1973January,National Institutes of Health(The National Institutes of Health) Hosted a conference on obesity.One of the participants in this conference, a Swedish researcher, Pal Beyontorp (Per Björntorp) Reported the results of his clinical trials on obesity and exercise.Beyondrup conducted an exercise plan three times a week for seven obese subjects and continued for half a year.The result was that after six months of exercise, the subjects' bodies remained heavy and fat.[19].1977, The National Institutes of Health hosted the second Obesity Conference.The experts gathered at this conference finally reached the following conclusions.

"The importance of exercise in weight management is incredibly low. As humans increase their physical activity, they tend to eat more at the same time, and whether the increase in energy consumed by exercise outweighs the increase in food consumption. Is impossible to predict. "[7].

1989, Danish researchers have published their findings on the effects of physical activity on weight loss.Subjects who tend to sit downmarathonTrained to run (26.2 miles). After 18 months of training, the subjects actually participated in the marathon.Eighteen men who participated in the study lost an average of 18 pounds of body fat, but nine female subjects wrote that "no changes in body composition were seen." Are[7].. This yearニ ュ ー ヨ ー クJavier Pisanier (Director of Obesity Research Center, St. Luke V. Roosevelt Hospital)Xavier Pi-Sunyer) Re-examined existing trials analyzing the idea that "more exercise can help you lose weight."His conclusion was as follows. "No changes were seen in weight and body composition loss or increase."[7].

In the mid-1950s, Harvard nutritionist Jean Mayer (Jean Mayer) Conducted an experiment using rats.We studied changes in rat diet and body weight between rats that were forced to exercise for several hours each day and those that were not.Rats exercising according to the exercise program consumed more energy on non-exercise days and by immobilizing themselves when not exercising.On the other hand, the weight of the rat forced to exercise is the same as that of the rat not forced to exercise.Stay exactly the same"Met.And when experimental rats were released from this exercise program, they began to eat more food than ever before and gained more weight with age than rats that were not forced to exercise.In addition, studies using hamsters and gerbils resulted in "increased weight and body fat" when exercising.

Thus, exercise could make animals obese but not lean.[7].

2019Published in, 24 weeks, dailyWalkingAn experiment was conducted to investigate the effect on the body by continuing.The number of steps was 10000, 12500, and 15000, respectively.The result is that lean body mass has increased but fat has also increased.I didn't lose weight at all..Researchers conclude that "walking did not help prevent weight gain or fat gain."[20].

joggingKnown for popularizingJim fixx(Jim Fixx) Is while he is joggingheart attackWoke up and collapsed, and died as it was[21], Exercise puts a strain on the body and organs.

During or immediately after joggingCoronary heart disease(Coronary Heart Disease) Is not uncommon[22][23][24]..There is no evidence that good athletic performance protects the body from fatal accidents during exercise[25].

Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death for people over the age of 40 who died while running. Five white runners aged 10-22 (average age 176) who ran 53-40km in 53 years and an average of 46km a weekSudden deathAnd thatautopsyAccording to, no one had heart disease before he started running as a runner.[26].

At the gymnasiumtreadmillA 57-year-old man who was running with a sudden death died suddenly during that time.The cause of his death was "Ischemic heart disease''(Ischemic Heart Disease)Met.Researchers say, "People who perform physical activity irregularly have a higher risk of sudden death than those who do not." "Extreme physical activity is fatal to the heart, even if it had not previously had symptoms." It may bring about good results. "[27].

University of Cape TownWith a professorExercise physiologySports medicineAn expert inTim Noakes(Tim noakes) Said about sudden death during exercise: "People over the age of 50 need to have a cardiovascular diagnosis before starting any kind of exercise. Even people under the age of 50 who died suddenly You need to have an interview about your family history and be diagnosed with the symptoms of cardiovascular disease and its clinical signs. "" If you have hypertrophic cardiovascular disease, you are at increased risk of dying during exercise. "" Athletes It is not always possible to prevent the onset of heart disease during exercise. "[28].

Even if you are exercisingcarbohydrateAs long as you are eatingHigh blood sugarCannot be prevented (the most common cause of hyperglycemia is carbohydrate intake[29]), Insulin sensitivity declines as soon as you finish exercising (Insulin resistanceWill be higher)[30]..Insulin resistance cannot be prevented by exercise.

"Low insulin sensitivity" means "Insulin resistanceIs high ”(insulin is not effective)[31].

Excessive exerciseMitochondria(Mitochondria) Glucose tolerance ()Glucose Tolerance, Lowering elevated blood sugar levels, ability to keep blood sugar levels normal)[32].

Gary Taubes"The idea of'reducing the amount of food you eat and increasing the amount of exercise to lose weight'seems to make sense, but it's not only wrong, it's useless. "[19],We don't get fat because we overeat; we overeat because we're getting fat."(" Humans do not get fat because they overeat, but because their bodies are just getting fat, they run for overeating. ")[7]..In addition, "obesity has nothing to do with energy balance, calorie theory, overeating, thermodynamics, and physics." "Overnutrition and lack of exercise are not causes of obesity, but only" results. "" "Obesity" is not "overnutrition" but "malnutrition』It is a kind of"[7].."If a sedentary lifestyle makes us obese and exercise prevents it, then'thinness', not obesity, should be prevalent, but in reality, obesity begins at the onset of exercise fever. The epidemic has happened. "[7].."Even if your goal is to lose weight and your health and life depend on it," If you work hard every day for a year and a half, you can lose 1 pounds of fat.MaybeWill you train to be able to run 26 miles (42 km)? Is asking[7].

Carbohydrate-restricted diet

United States doctor,Robert Atkins(Robert Atkins) Is,1959In New Yorkマ ン ハ ッ タ ンIt is inUpper East SideOpened as a specialist in heart disease and complementary and alternative medicine[33].

Atkins was depressed when his work wasn't working very well when he first opened, and his body began to gain weight.At one point, AtkinsDelawareCompany,DuPontAlfred W. Pennington, who belonged to (DuPont)Alfred W. Pennington) Researched and discovered a diet that was being offered to employees[34].

In the 1940s, Pennington prescribed "a diet consisting mostly of meat" to 20 overweight or overweight employees.Their daily calorie intake averaged 1 kcal.As a result of continuing this diet, they lost an average of 3000 pounds a week.Overweight employees who were prescribed this diet were not allowed to consume more carbohydrates than this, with a stipulation that "the intake of carbohydrates per serving should be no more than 2g."George Gairman, Director of Industrial Medicine, DuPont (George Gehrman) Said, "I told you to eat less, calculate calories, and exercise more, but it didn't work at all."Gairman turned to his colleague Pennington for help, who prescribed this meal.[7].

Inspired by Pennington's practice of this diet, Atkins said when treating patients, "avoid high-carbohydrates or minimize their intake of meat, fish, and eggs. ,Dietary fiberI encouraged the diet of "actively eating abundant green vegetables" and started writing books in parallel with it.1972,Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution(Japanese title: "Dr. Atkins' Low-Carb Diet"), and a few years later, a complementary and alternative medicine center was opened.[35].

2002, Atkinsheart attackWoke up and collapsed.This has received a lot of criticism that "it has been proven how dangerous a high-fat diet is potentially."However, in multiple interviews, Atkins said, "I have been in cardiac arrest for some time.InfectionBecause I was suffering fromfatIt has nothing to do with the increase in intake of[36][37][38]..It should be noted that "the intake of fat contained in the diet has nothing to do with obesity and various heart diseases" is a common wisdom of those who recommend a diet that limits carbohydrates.

20034, It snowed heavily in New York and the ground froze.May 4Atkins was commuting to work, and while walking on a frozen street, he slipped and fell and smashed his head (which was a direct fatal injury), resulting in unconsciousness and surgery in the intensive care unit. Despite receiving, he died without returning to consciousness[39][40][41].

Pre-Atkins diet

Jean Anthelme Briar-Savaran

French lawyer and gourmetJean Anthelme Briar-Savaran(Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin) Is,1825Published book "Physiology of taste("Physiology of Taste"), "As I expectedCarnivoreNever get fat (オ オ カ ミ,jackal,Bird of prey,Crow).In herbivores, fat does not increase until they reach the age of immobility.Butpotato,穀物,Wheat flourAs soon as I started eating, I became fat and fat in a blink of an eye.... The second major cause of obesity is the abundance of flour and starch that humans consume as their main daily food.As mentioned above, all animals that regularly eat starch-rich animals are forced to accumulate fat.Humans also cannot escape from this universal law. "[42]"It has been proven that fat accumulation occurs only in starches and grains, both in humans and in animals."[42]"Strict control of everything derived from starch and flour will prevent obesity."[42]"The accumulation of fat in the bodyStarch,sugarBecause I eat. "Bria-SavaranproteinEncourages you to eat rich foods and emphasizes avoiding starch, grains, flour and sugar[43][44].

William Banting

Avoid carbohydrates or limit their intake as much as possible,proteinfatRobert Atkins is not the originator of the diet that focuses on.Before Alfred Pennington of DuPont mentioned above,Jean Anthelme Briar-Savaran(Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, 1755-1826), Jean-Francois Dansel (Jean-François Dancel),Justus Flyhair von Liebig(Justus Freiherr von Liebig ), William Harvey (William harvey, 1807 ~ 1876),William Banting(William Banting, 1796 ~ 1878),John Yudkin(John Yudkin, 1910-1995), a method practiced by various historical figures.[7]..They all said, "Nutritional foods like meat do not fatten humans." "Fat humansWheat flourRefined carbohydrates like, especiallysugarI was convinced that "the fat content in the diet has nothing to do with obesity and various heart diseases."[7]..Atkins also wrote the book "Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution』," Sugar is a troublesome object that can not be dealt with. "

William Banting was a London-born funeral director.Banting was worried that he was overweight.It was William Harvey, a doctor and friend, who recommended him a diet that restricted carbohydrate intake.Harvey learned this dietFranceDoctor,Claude Bernard(Claude Bernard, 1813 ~ 1878)ParisWent inDiabetes mellitusWas the trigger for listening to the lecture about[45][46].

Before listening to Claude Bernard's talk, Harvey thought, "To lose weight, you need to work hard," and told Banting to do so.Banting decided to "row a boat for two hours early in the morning"River ThamesI kept rowing the boat.His arms were strengthened, but with it a ferocious appetite, he had to satisfy his appetite, and he gained more and more weight instead of losing weight.Harvey told a friend, "Stop exercising."[7]. "Exercise has no effect on weight lossThis is because I realized.After being taught and practiced a diet that limits carbohydrate intake from Harvey, Banting eventually succeeded in losing 50 pounds (about 23 kg).

1863Banting has summarized the diets that have been successful in weight loss and the methods that have been tried and failed in weight loss.Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public("A letter to the public about obesity") was published.The content of this booklet, published by Banting, has since been accepted for many years and has become a model for new meals.[46]..Initially announced by self-publishing, it became so popular that it decided to sell it to the general public.The third edition is2007What is printed on can be read online[47].

Banting himself, "Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public], "Reduce the amount of food you eat and increase the amount of exercise" is mentioned as one of the "methods that have no effect on weight loss".EnglandDoctor,Thomas Hawkes Tanner(Thomas Hawkes Tanner, 1824-1871) also wrote the book "The Practice of MedicineAs one of the "stupid" treatments for obesity, "reduce the amount of food you eat" and "spend a lot of time on walks and horseback riding every day."[7].

"Letter on CorpulenceSoon became a bestseller and was translated into multiple languages.afterwards,"Do you bant?("Are you on a diet?"), "Are you banting?"(" Are you on a diet now? ") Has become widespread.This phrase refers to the diet practiced by Banting and sometimes refers to the diet itself.[45]..Later, from the name of Banting, "BandMeans "work hard on the diet"verbIt came to be used as "BantingThe word came to be used after this William Bunting.[48]. "BandIsSwedishAlso imported into "Att banta"Is"to bant("Work on a diet, diet"), "Nej, tack, jag bantar"Is"No thank you, I am banting."(" No, it's fine. I'm on a diet right now. ")[45]..English dictionary Merriam-Webster (Merriam webster)BantingIs defined as "Avoid carbohydrates and sweet-flavored foods in a diet as an obesity measure."[49].

Southern Rhodesia(CurrentZimbabwe) Scientist fromTim Noakes(Tim noakes) Named "low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet" and popularized this diet.[50]..Knox recommends "reduce fat intake and eat more carbohydrates."Genocide"(" Massacre ")[51].

Science journalist,Gary Taubes(Gary Taubes)'S book "Good Calories, Bad Calories』(2007), then,A brief history of Banting”(“ A brief story about Banting ”), and discusses Banting.[19].. ..Bunting is often mentioned when discussing diets that limit carbohydrate intake.[52][53][54][55][56].

Banting argued that the spread of this diet was not due to himself, but to Harvey (who taught him this diet).William Banting succeeded in losing weight not because he ate less or because he worked hard, but because he "restricted carbohydrates."1886ToBerlinAt the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine held in Japan, when a debate on diet was held, three diets that could surely reduce obese patients were introduced, and one of them was Banting's practice. I was introduced.The other two are both methods developed by German doctors, but they both have in common.

  • "You can eat unlimited meat"
  • "Starch and sugar are completely prohibited"

It was that.1957Was a psychiatrist and researcher of childhood obesityHilde Bruch(Hilde Bruch) Introduced this, saying, "What can be called a major advance in controlling obesity through dietary management is that it is not meat that produces fat in the body, but bread and sweetly seasoned foods. It is the point that what was thought to be "harmless" is recognized as causing obesity. "[57].1973"Causes dysregulation in adipose tissue" about obesity.[58].1934Bruch, who emigrated to the United States in Japan, recorded that New York at that time was "overflowing with obese children," and fat children did not lose weight no matter how much they ate, and their bodies became fat. It remained.When I tried to "reduce the amount of food I eat" for the purpose of losing weight, all of them failed without exception.

Obesity Treatment with Blake F. Donaldson

Blake F. Donaldson, a cardiologist in New YorkBlake F. Donaldson) Is for "obese heart disease patients"1919Around that time, I prescribed a "meal consisting almost entirely of meat"[59].. With three meals a day, the daily calorie intake was at least 1 kcal.Donaldson also noticed that "less eating and more exercise" did not cause any weight loss.[59]..Total fat intake was 1-75% of the daily calorie intake, and patients were instructed to eat beef with 80 pounds (2 g) of fat.Patients' weight loss rate slowed when they consumed less fat or skipped meals.[59]..By the time he retired 40 years later, Donaldson said he had prescribed the diet to 17,000 obese patients.When Donaldson visited the Natural History Museum and asked the anthropologist who was resident there, "What did our prehistoric ancestors eat?", The anthropologist asked, "Our ancestors are fat. Was eating a lot of meat. "Donaldson decided that "meat with a lot of fat is essential for any weight loss diet," and prescribed this diet to obese patients.Donaldson's patients were able to lose 2-3 pounds a week without suffering from hunger.It was the "bread addict" who couldn't lose weight.Donaldson1961Published in the book "Strong Medicine("A powerful drug"), "I don't care how much a doctor knows about diabetes. I know how to lose weight and maintain that weight loss." If not, the person is disqualified as a doctor. A doctor who is prone to gain weight and has learned how to control weight gain seems to understand the seriousness of the problem better. "[59]..Donaldson lives in the ArcticEskimoAn explorer who has lived with us,Wilhamur Stephanson (Vilhjál mur Ste fánsson)'S friend and also referred to the meal by Stephenson[60].

Complete carnivorous habit

Stephenson is a diet, especiallyLow carb dietI was very interested in.Stephenson records the Inuit diet as "90% of the total is made up of meat and fish."Their diet is "Zero Carb""No Carb("A diet low in carbohydrates") may be considered (a small amount for the fish they were eating)glycogen(Glycogen) Was included, but the overall carbohydrate intake was negligible).Stephenson's fellow explorers were also perfectly healthy with this diet.A few years after living with the Inuit (known as "Eskimos" in Stephenson's day), Stephenson was asked by his colleague Carsten Anderson (at the request of the American Museum of Natural History).Karsten Anderson) And visited the North Pole again. The two were supposed to be replenished with "civilized" food for a year, but they softly declined.The original plan was one year, but it was eventually extended to four years.The two people in the Arctic had eaten only the meat and fish of the animals they had caught and killed during the four years. In the process of eating carnivorous food for four years, no abnormalities or adverse effects were observed on their bodies.As with William Banting, it has become clear that if you limit only carbohydrates and continue to eat the foods your body really needs, your body will be fully functional and able to maintain its health and slenderness. "Calorie" was completely ignored[45].

There was a lot of skepticism when Stephenson reported his views on whether a meat-only diet could continue, but later research and analysis confirmed that it was possible. Ta[61]..According to the results of multiple studies, the Inuit diet is "Ketogenic dietWas shown to be.They mainly simmered fish and meat, and sometimes ate fish raw.[62][63][64].

1928, Stephenson and Anderson are at Bellevue Hospital in New York (en: Bellevue Hospital), And became a test bench for the effects of a complete carnivorous habit on the body.The duration of the experiment is one yearCornell UniversityEugene Floyd Dubois (en: Eugene Floyd DuBois) Conducted the experiment.Stephenson and Anderson agreed to undertake a study that proved safe to eat only meat for the first few weeks in a carefully observed laboratory setting, "a dietary rule." An observer was attached to ensure that.Scott Katrip (en: Scott Cutlip)'S book "The Unseen Power: Public RelationsAccording to Pendleton Dudley (en: Pendleton Dudley) Is the American Meat Association (en: American Meat Institute) Was persuaded to fund this research.[65]..During this time, Anderson developed diabetic symptoms.Unlike pathology in diabetes, the duration of the diabetic condition seen in Anderson's body during the course of this study was four days.The administration of 4 g of glucose to examine the tolerance and the onset of pneumonia were both at the same time.Anderson at this time was eating a diet high in water and carbohydrates, and when this was eliminated, the symptoms of diabetes disappeared.[66]..Stephenson said from researchersfatI was asked to eat only lean meat.He pointed out that if he continued to eat lean meat, he would lose his health after a few weeks, and that "fat-free meat" could cause "indigestion."On the third day of eating this meat, Stephenson suffered from nausea and diarrhea, followed by constipation for 2 days.[67]..The one who got sick at an early stage was the caribou that he had eaten before (reindeerStephenson thought that the cause was that he continued to eat meat that was less fat than the meat in).[68]..After eating fatty meat, my body recovered completely within two days.For the first two days, Stephenson's diet was similar to that of Eskimos, except that his fat intake was reduced by a third.proteinCalories ingested accounted for 45% of the total, and on the third day, abnormalities began to appear in the intestines.Over the next two days, Stephenson reduced his protein intake and increased his fat intake.About 3% of calories ingested were protein, and the remaining 2% was fat.With a high-fat diet over the last two days, Stephenson's intestinal condition returned to normal without medication.Since then, Stephenson has ensured that the daily calorie intake of protein does not exceed 20%.[67].. Their bodies remained healthy and their intestines remained normal.Their stools were small and had no odor.Stephenson had periodontitis, which increased tartar deposition but disappeared by the end of the experiment.The calorie intake of Stephanson during the experiment was 2-2000 kcal, of which 3100% was protein and the remaining 20%.Animal fatWas getting from[45]..Regarding the daily intake of nutrients, protein was 1-100 g, fat was 140-200 g, and carbohydrate was 300-7 g.[67].1929The paper published in the article details the clinical research at this time.[69]..According to Stephenson, Eskimos restricted their intake of lean meat (protein) and fed the excess lean meat to their dogs to secure fat and eat it.[70].

1946, Stephenson wrote a book about eating habits with Eskimos.Not by Bread Alone("Not only bread"),1956The book "The Fat of the Land("Fat of the Earth") was published.[71].

Obesity treatment with Alfred W. Pennington

Alfred W. Pennington of DuPont, mentioned earlier, listened to Donaldson's talk, tried this diet himself, and then began prescribing it to obese employees of DuPont.[60].."Obesity is a condition in which the ability to generate energy from fat is impaired, and obese patients are constantly hungry," Pennington said.Increased appetite after becoming obeseIt's not the result, "(it doesn't mean that you get obese because you eat a lot).[60]..Pennington said, "A diet that limits only carbohydrates, is composed of protein and fat, and does not limit any calories seems to be able to treat obesity." "Ketone body production (en: Ketogenesis) Seems to be an important factor in increasing the body's chances of using fat. "" This diet avoids the decline in metabolism that you might encounter if you are eating a calorie-restricted diet. "It seems that there is no need to limit fat intake." "Protein is often the focus when preparing a diet to treat obesity, but fat is an important source of energy. It looks like we need to put it down. "[60].

1950June, magazine "Holiday" (Holiday) Says about the diet announced by Pennington.Believe it or not diet development("Development of an incredible diet"), "An eat-all-you-want reducing diet("Eat as much as you want to lose weight")[19].1952Pennington attended a debate on obesity hosted by the Faculty of Nutrition at Harvard University and presented his diet.Mark Hegsted, who chaired the debateMark Hegsted) Said, "Many of the people here feel that the diet announced by Dr. Pennington is definitely the right way to treat obesity," he added. It's impressive that the odds are good. We need a larger, more equitable comparative study. "" There is a need to study all possible treatments for obesity other than limiting calories. I concluded[19]..British endocrinologist Raymond Green (Raymond Greene) Said, "The Pennington diet, which consumes plenty of protein and fat instead of eliminating carbohydrates, works great and eats more than a diet that reduces overall carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake ... The content no longer has to be monotonous, and many patients will love this diet. "[19].KansasDoctor, George L. Taupe (George L. Thorpe) Is,1957Attending the American Medical Association's annual meeting in Tokyo, "Semi-starvation diets cause chronic malnutrition, rather than loss of fat, resulting in exhaustion and weakness throughout the body. Will continue and will inevitably fail. "After trying Pennington's diet, Taupe began prescribing it to his patients."Even with a small amount of vegetables, we lost 6-8 pounds a month," according to Tope."Based on evidence from multiple sources, it's a good reason to adopt a high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet for successful weight loss," Tope concluded.[19].. In a 1957 paper published by Taupe, he described how to treat obese patients: "A high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that is extremely easy to prepare and usually easily achievable. Feeling hungry, weak, and weak. It's a diet that allows you to lose weight faster than anything else, without fatigue or constipation, and it's composed of meat, fat, and water. You don't need to record how much you ate. Maintaining a ratio of "fat: 1" to "lean: 3", patients consume approximately 170 g of lean meat and 57 g of fat three times daily. Unlimited black coffee, tea and water It's okay to drink. It doesn't reduce salt intake. If the patient complains of dullness, add certain fruits and vegetables to change the diet. Obese patients should not be treated with disdain. It must not be "[72].

Raymond Green mentioned above1951Published in "The Practice of Endocrinology("Practice of Endocrinology"), it is described as follows.[73].

Things to avoid
  1. Everything made from bread and flour
  2. Cereal (including breakfast and milk pudding)
  3. Potatoes and white root vegetables
  4. High in sugar
  5. All sweets
You can eat as much of the following foods as you want
  1. Meat / fish / bird
  2. All green vegetables
  3. Eggs (dried, raw)
  4. cheese
  5. Unsweetened or saccharin-sweetened fruits, excluding bananas and grapes

1958At that time, many diets for slimming were prevalent, but many of them had no scientific basis.Professor of Nutrition, Queen Elizabeth University,John Yudkin(John Yudkin) Taught many obese patients that "restricting carbohydrates can control body weight"[74].. In 1958, Yudkin wrote a book about a carbohydrate-restricting diet.This Slimming BusinessWas published.1962Published as a paper cover book,1974The 4th edition was reprinted on.This book isThe United States of AmericaThen,Lose Weight, Feel GreatWas published under the title and translated into Dutch and Hungarian.1961IsThe Slimmer's Cook Book],1964IsThe Complete SlimmerWas published.

Richard McCarness

Richard McCarness(Richard Mackarness) Is a book published in 1958, "Eat Fat and Grow Slim("Let's eat fat and become slender"), he stated that "the cause of weight gain is the intake of carbohydrates" and "you can eat as much meat, fish and fat as you want" with grains. Insisted on avoiding sugar[75]..McCarness wrote this book, inspired by William Banting's Letter to the Citizens about Obesity.[76][77].

Hermann Thaler

Hermann Thaler (Herman Taller) Is,1961Published in the book "Calories Don't Count"(" Don't worry about calories ")" If the calories are the same, it is impossible that all nutrients have the same effect in the body. "" A diet low in carbohydrates and high in fat loses weight. " "Carbohydrates cause problems in the body" "In the body of people who are sensitive to carbohydrate intakeInsulinIs secreted and fat is produced, "he said, insisting on avoiding carbohydrates to prevent obesity.[78]..Thaler was inspired to write this book when he learned of the diet Alfred W. Pennington prescribed to DuPont employees.[7].

Wolfgang Lutz

オーストリアDoctor, Wolfgang Lutz (Wolfgang Lutz, 1913-2010)1967ToLeben ohne Brot("Living Without Bread"), "Reducing carbohydrate intake is the only way to burn fat." "This diet can prevent obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer." "Human beings who have lived as hunters and collectors have eaten animal meat for a long time." "Fat in food has nothing to do with most chronic diseases." Lutz has set a daily upper limit on carbohydrate intake of "up to 1g").According to Lutz, more than 72 patients have been examined in 40 years, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, stomach disease, gout, metabolic syndrome, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis ... by prescribing this diet. He said he had treated these chronic diseases.Some obese patients that Lutz has seen do not lose weight despite limiting carbohydrates, but according to Lutz, "the longer you are fat, the more likely you are to remain obese." "Carbohydrates are obese." I'm saying it's not the cause ofis not..This simply has come to an irreparable point. "[79].

Carbohydrate-restricted diet in fiction

Lev TolstoyBy the novel "Anna Karenina"I ate beef steaks and avoided flour and starchy foods and sweetly seasoned dishes to prevent fat buildup on my body," said Anna's mistress, Count Uronsky. There is a description of.Tolstoy1875About the point that this diet was described plainly around, Emory University of Science (Emory College of Arts and Sciences) Dean Robin Forman ()Robin Forman) Said, "Uronski practiced a diet similar to the Atkins diet." "It suggests that a carbohydrate-avoidance diet was well known in Russia in the late 19th century." Is[80].

Benefits of limiting carbs

Carbohydrates are compared to fats and proteinsInsulinHas a much greater effect on the secretion of.Insulin reduces the feeling of satiety in the diet and also affects feeding behavior.If you reduce your carbohydrate intake,Insulin resistanceIs relaxed.Evidence that a carbohydrate-restricted diet is beneficial to patients with high insulin levels[81].

A low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet has a significant effect on hunger and satiety.Compared to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet (calorie-restricted diet), a high-fat diet reduces body fat and promotes an increase in the body's energy expenditure.[81].

Carbohydrate-restricted diets also show evidence of superiority over low-fat diets for the purpose of losing weight[82].

A carbohydrate-restricted diet also loses significantly more weight and reduces risk factors for cardiovascular disease than a low-fat diet.[83].

A low-carbohydrate diet can lead to a significant improvement in blood sugar levels and their control, which not only reduces the number of times you take the drug, but may also eliminate the need for it, and this diet improves and recovers from type 2 diabetes. Evidence was also shown to be effective[84].

Carbohydrate-restricted diets, including the ketogenic diet, are safe, have the ability to maintain long-term health and prevent or reverse various pathological conditions.[85]..Migraine and epileptic seizures recur when the ketogenic diet is stopped (increasing carbohydrate intake and decreasing fat intake)[85].

Ketogenic diet has shown potential effectiveness in treating and preventing cancer[86][87][88][89]..Some researchers think that the ketogenic diet should be "adopted as a treatment for cancer" because cancer cells cannot use ketone bodies as an energy source.[90][91].

"Carbohydrates are a major driver of obesity and its associated illnesses, and overdose of refined carbohydrates and sugars should be reduced," concluding that carbohydratesCarbotoxicitySome researchers use the coined word "carbohydrates are toxic").[85].

Carbohydrate addiction

Yale UniversityBiochemist Robert Kemp (Robert Kemp) Stated that obesity patients were treated by prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet.1963, Kemp is a medical journal "PractitionerPublished a treatise at ""Carbohydrate Addiction] ("Carbohydrate addiction,Carbohydrate addiction”) Proposed the term[92][93][94][95].

History of low-carb diets

The diet that teaches "If you don't want to gain weight, avoid carbohydrates" is neither eccentric nor novel, and has appeared many times in history.Regardless of the methodology, in terms of "avoiding carbohydrates as much as possible", it is the same as the diet practiced by various people in the past, including Banting.

  • Jean Anthelme Briar-Savaran(Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin) Is a book "Physiology of Taste" published in the first half of the 19th century ("Physiologie du Goût" )among,

"Carnivores never get fat"

"It is the starch and flour that make up our daily diet that makes humans obese.sugarWill definitely bring about obesity if combined with

"It has been proven that fat accumulation occurs only in starches and grains, both in humans and in animals."

"As soon as I start eating potatoes, grains, and flour-derived products, I quickly get fat and fat."

"Fat is forced to accumulate in the bodies of animals that regularly eat starchy foods. Humans also cannot escape this universal law."

"Strict control of everything derived from starch and flour will prevent obesity," he said.[42].

  • 1844, French surgeon and retired surgeon, Jean-Francois Dansel (Jean-François Dancel) Presented his thoughts on obesity at the French Academy of Sciences.The book "Obesity, or Excessive CorpulenceIs1864ToEnglishTranslated and published in.Dansel

"Patients can cure obesity without exception if they mainly eat'meat'and eat only small amounts of other foods."

It has said[7].. Dansel's claim that "avoid carbohydrates and eat only meat can cure obesity" is the German chemist Justus von Liebig (Justus von Liebig), And both Liebig and Dansel believed in a meat-based diet.Dansel

"All non-meat foods (carbon and hydrogen-rich foods, or carbohydrates) must accumulate fat in the body. Any cure for obesity is based on this principle."

"While carnivores are never fat, herbivores are fat. Hippos look clunky because of the significant amount of fat. They are plant substances (rice, millet, sugar cane ... grains in general). I only feed on it. "

Said[7].

  • English doctor,Thomas Hawkes Tanner(Thomas Hawkes Tanner, 1824-1871) was convinced that "cutting off carbohydrates" is the only way to succeed in weight loss.About obesity treatment, "reduced diet" and "physical activity" ("exercise"), "ridiculous"(" It's not worth anything ").
  • 1866,BerlinA debate on the "popular diet" was held at the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine held in.At that time, the method practiced by William Banting was taken up as one of three dietary methods that can surely reduce obese patients.The other two were developed by a German doctor, and although the methods are slightly different, the following two are common to both diets.

"You can eat unlimited meat"[7]

"Things rich in starch are completely banned."[7]

  • 1950s,Michigan State UniversityMargaret Allson, Chief of the Faculty of NutritionMargaret Ohlson) Gave overweight students a traditional hunger diet (* an extremely calorie-restricted diet).Not only do they lose little weight

"I'm completely dead, I'm always aware that I'm hungry, and I'm not motivated."

Reported.On the other hand, eating a diet high in protein and fat results in an average weight loss of 3 pounds per week.

"I didn't have to worry about hunger between meals, and I felt good and satisfied."

Reported.None of those who practiced this diet lost weight without any special effort and did not suffer from hunger.[7].

  • Allson's studentCornell UniversityProfessor of Clinical Studies Charlotte Young (Charlotte Young) Is,197310ToNational Institutes of HealthAt the conference held in, he gave a lecture on diet.By the mid-1960s, when doctors began to hold regular meetings to discuss obesity, there were always lectures on diet, all of which included "restricting carbohydrates." About the diet. "Five of these meetings1967~1974It was held in the United States and European countries.Young studied the carbohydrate-restricting diet Alfred Pennington practiced at DuPont and presented at the conference the work of his mentor, Allson.Young said, "Weight and body fat loss, the proportions of which appear to be inversely correlated with the amount of carbohydrates in the diet." I've also lost a lot of fat. "Young talks about a carbohydrate-restricting diet

"Relief from hunger, relief from abnormal fatigue, satisfactory weight loss, long-term weight loss and subsequent assessment of fitness for weight control all showed excellent clinical outcomes."

Said[7].

  • "The Principles and Practice of MedicineIn the 1901 edition of William Osler (William Osler) Says to obese women, "Don't eat too much food, especially with starch-rich foods.sugarTo reduce. "[7].
  • 1907,A Textbook of the Practice of Medicine』, James French (James French) States, "For excess fat in obese people, some of it is made up of the fat that was in the food, but most of it accumulates because of eating carbohydrates."[7].
  • 1925,UKIt is in(English editionH. Gardiner Hill (H. Gardiner-Hill) Recommends a carbohydrate-restricted diet, the medical journal "Lancet"("The Lancet"Any bread contains 45-65% carbohydrates, which can reach up to 60% in bread, and these must be discarded."[7].
  • 1936,デンマークDoctor Pale Hansen (Per Hansenn) Said, "The only advantage of this diet is that you can eat protein and fat, which should be restricted only by carbohydrates and do not have the effect of accumulating fat in the body, whenever you feel hungry." There is. "[7].
  • At the end of World War II, when the US Navy was heading west in the Pacific Ocean,US Force's Guide"among,

"The archipelago northeast of New Guinea,Caroline IslandsThen you may have a hard time managing the waistline. "

"The basic foods that locals eat are breadfruit, taro, yam, sweet potato, arrowroot ... because they are rich in starch."

Warns the soldiers[7].

  • 1946Benjamin M. Spock, whose first edition was published inBenjamin M. Spock), A book about child-rearingBaby and Child Care"How much weight you gain or lose depends on how much starchy food you eat."This text continued to be used in all editions for the next 50 years[7].
  • 1963, Sir Stanley Davidson (Sir Stanley Davidson) And Reginald Pasmore (Reginald Passmore), "Human Nutrition and DiabetesWas published.In this book

"All of the popular'how to lose weight'are to limit carbohydrate intake."

"Eating too much carbohydrate is the number one cause of obesity, and its intake should be drastically reduced."

It is described as.In the same year, Pasmore published a nutrition magazine in the United Kingdom, "British Journal of Nutrition], He is also a co-author of a paper that begins with the following declaration.

"Every woman knows that carbohydrate intake causes the body to accumulate fat. This is one common sense, and no nutritionist would disagree with this."[7]

  • 1958ToRichard McCarness(Richard Mackarness, 1916-1996)Eat Fat and Grow Slim("Let's eat fat and become slender"),1960To(English edition(Herman Taller, 1906-1984)Calories Don't Count("Don't worry about calories") has been published, and all of them recommend restricting carbohydrate intake.
  • The United Kingdom OfPhysiologist-Nutritionist,John Yudkin(John Yudkin) Is a book published in 1972, "Pure, White and Deadly』," The criminal who causes obesity and heart diseasesugarAnd the fat content of food has nothing to do with these illnesses. "Yudkin also argues that "instead of banning sugar, flour and other high-carbohydrate foods in general, you are free to eat meat, fish, eggs and green vegetables."

"If you want to lose weight, you can get rid of carbohydrates in your diet. If you don't, weight loss will always fail."

"If you reduce your intake of protein and fat instead of carbohydrates, you will always feel hungry, and that hunger will lead to weight loss failure."

"Carbohydrates are not needed in the human diet. There is no'essential carbohydrate'."

Clearly stated[7].

"What makes humans sickAnimal fatIt's not a carbohydrate. "" The traditional diet that has been said to "reduce fat intake and eat a low-fat diet."[96]Doesn't help, but a low-carb diet could improve the health of obese and diabetics. "[97]I am convinced that "a low-fat diet has not been proven to be effective in weight loss in the long run, and the diet should be changed." Clarify[98].2008With the Swedish Insurance and Welfare AgencyAmerican Diabetes Association"A carbohydrate-restricted diet may help treat obesity and diabetes," but five diet experts didn't admit it.Eenfeld questioned this a lot[99].2009Eenfeldt said in the Swedish medical magazine Dagens Medicin that the Swedish Food Agency's warning to "avoid animal fats" has no basis, and the state recommends the current diet. Co-contributed an article with 12 authors stating that content should be changed immediately[100].

2011, Eenfeld wrote the book "Low Carb, High Fat Food Revolution: Advice and Recipes to Improve Your Health and Reduce Your Weight』Published and recommends a diet that limits carbohydrates[101]..This book isEnglishWritten in, became a bestseller in Sweden and translated into eight languages[102].

  • English doctor John Briffer (John Briffa) Is the book "Escape the Diet Trap"among,

"A high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet has no effect on weight loss."

"A calorie-restricted diet not only prevents you from losing weight, but also makes you more susceptible to serious illness."

"The main factor that strongly promotes the accumulation of body fat isInsulinIs "

"Insulin resistanceIs closely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. "

"Insulin resistance isBlood glucose levelTriglyceride (triglyceride, Neutral fat level) is caused by an increase in the inflammatory action that occurs in the body, and these are caused by the intake of food that promotes a large amount of insulin secretion.The food that causes the massive secretion of insulin is carbohydrates. "

"There is no causal relationship between dietary fat intake and weight gain, and there is no evidence that'reducing fat intake can help you lose weight.'"

"The blood status of the subjects who continued to receive saline-only infusions for 84 hours and were fasting and those who were fed 1 kcal of fat per day was exactly the same."

"The more you reduce your carbohydrate intake and the more fat you consume, the more you lose weight and body fat."

"Fat in food can't cause you to gain weight unless it stimulates insulin secretion at all."

"There is no causal link between animal fat intake and obesity and heart disease."

"margarinelikeTrans fatty acidsTo avoid "

"Cereals are extremely nutritious. When you feed them to animals, they accumulate fat at a rate that wouldn't be possible. For this reason, grains should be called" feed "rather than" food. " is there"

"There is no basis for the theory that'protein intake puts a strain on the kidneys'. There is no evidence that 1 g of protein per kg of body weight has a negative effect on kidney function. "

"Protein is also a source of bone, and increasing protein intake reduces the risk of fractures."

"Protein intake also stimulates insulin secretion, but at the same timeGlucagonAlso induces the secretion of insulin and alleviates the fat accumulation effect of insulin. "

"The most effective diet to satisfy your appetite is one that is high in protein and fat and extremely low in carbohydrates."

"Aerobic exercise has no effect on weight loss"

It has said[103].

Meal comparison

1956, Alan Kekwick (Alan Kekwick) And Gaston Pawang ()Gaston Pawan) Two peopleUKMiddlesex Hospital inthe Middlesex Hospital), Overweight patients were assigned to each of the following three dietary groups, and an experiment was conducted to confirm how the body changed.

  1. Eat 90% of calories from carbohydrates
  2. Eat 90% of calories from protein
  3. Eat 90% of calories from fat

The daily calorie intake was set to "1 kcal" for all three.The body weights of the subjects assigned to each meal fluctuated as follows.

  1. Group who ate the diet ... Weight gained 1 pounds (about 0.24 kg) a day
  2. Group who ate the diet ... Weight lost 1 pounds (about 0.6 kg) a day
  3. Group who ate the diet ... Weight lost 1 pounds (about 0.9 kg) a day

The group that ate a diet low in carbohydrates and high in fat resulted in the greatest weight loss.[104]..Furthermore, when a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a daily calorie intake adjusted to "1 kcal" was eaten, the body weight was significantly reduced.[105].

A TO Z Weight Loss Study

2003From October2005Through October, "The A TO Z Weight Loss Study("A TO Z Weight Loss Study")[106][107][108]..The subjects were obese women who were randomly assigned to the following four diets to investigate the effects of a low-cholesterol, high-fat diet on risk factors associated with heart disease and diabetes. , Body weight, blood pressure, and changes in cholesterol levels were also compared.

  1. The Atkins Diet (Atkins diet) ・ ・ ・ Keep the daily intake of carbohydrates within 1g and then within 20g.Eat as much as you want without limiting calorie, protein, or fat intake
  2. LEARN Diet ・ ・ ・ So-called calorie restricted diet.Eat 55-60% of total energy intake from carbohydrates, fat intake to 30% or less, and saturated fatty acid intake to 10% or less.Exercise regularly
  3. Ornish Diet ・ ・ ・ Reduce the fat intake rate to 10% or less.Do meditation and exercise
  4. Zone Diet ・ ・ ・ 40% of calories ingested from carbohydrates, 30% from protein, and 30% from fat

Subjects assigned to the Atkins diet in 1. were instructed to eat as much meat and fish as they wanted and to eat more of the animal fat that accompanies them, and were assigned to a diet that reduced calorie and fat intake. It was compared with the subject.After that, the following phenomena occurred in the bodies of the subjects assigned to the Atkins diet.[7].

  • I lost a lot of weight
  • Significant reduction in triglycerides
  • Blood pressure dropped
  • Increased HDL cholesterol
  • LDL cholesterol increased slightly
  • Total cholesterol level is almost unchanged
  • The risk of having a heart attack is greatly reduced

Of these four diets, the Atkins diet was the one that lost the most weight and also reduced blood pressure and triglycerides.

Led this researchStanford UniversityChristopher D. Gardner (Christopher D. Gardner)[109]Thought that a diet rich in meat and fat could be dangerous, but following the results of this study,A bitter pill to swallow("Unacceptable reality")[7].

Binge eating experiment and changes in physique

2013, Englishman Sam Feltham (Sam Feltham) Conducted a binge eating experiment with its own body, which consumes more than 1 kcal of energy per day.He said, "Calories are calories."A calorie is a calorie』) I was skeptical of the theory that" humans get fat because they consume more energy than they consume. "[110].

最初の21日間で栄養素の構成比を「脂肪53%(461.42g)、タンパク質37%(333.2g)、炭水化物10%(85.2g)」(「低糖質・高脂肪な食事」)に設定し、1日に「5794kcal」のエネルギーを摂取する生活を21日間続けた。21日後、フェルサムの体重は1.3kg増加したが、腰回りは3cm縮んだ。フェルサムの身体からは脂肪が減り、除脂肪体重が増加し、身体は引き締まった[111][112].. With this high-fat diet, Feltham had 56645 kcal of extra calories, but never gained weight.[110].

次に、フェルサムは摂取エネルギーの構成比を「炭水化物64%(892.7g)、タンパク質22%(188.65g)、脂肪14%(140.8g)」(「高糖質・低脂肪な食事」)に変え、1日の摂取エネルギーを「5793kcal」に調節し、再び21日間過ごした。21日後、フェルサムの体重は7.1kg増加し、腰回りは9.25cm膨らみ、顎の脂肪も膨らんでいた[113][114][115][116][117]..This "diet that increases carbohydrate intake and reduces fat intake" is based on the American Diabetes Association (The American Diabetes Association) AndAmerican Heart Association(The American Heart Association) Recommended "nutrition-balanced diet", which is almost the same as the diet recommended by the "authority" of nutrition.[114]..Canadian nephrologist Jason Statham (Canada Nephrologist Jason Statham) said he gained a lot of weight on a high-carbohydrate, low-fat dietJason Fung) States that "another factor other than calories is working" and "it is clear that a phenomenon far more complicated than calories is occurring".[114]..About this binge eating experiment, nutritional biochemistry and physiology researcher Bill Ragacos (Bill Lagakos)[118]"Great" "calories are just a tool"[119].

Another experiment was Feltham's "vegan diet" (Vegan Diet, A complete vegetarian diet) was also conducted.A vegan diet is basically a "high sugar, low protein, low fat" diet. I spent 1 days again on a vegan diet with a daily energy intake adjusted to "5794 kcal". Twenty-one days later, Felsom gained 21 kg, his hips swelled 21 cm, his chin fat swelled, and his body fat percentage increased from 4.7% to 7.75%.[120][121].

Through these overeating experiments, Feltham

  • "In a nutshell (about not having gained weight by eating a diet rich in fat and low in carbohydrates) is that the fat content of food doesn't have a fatening effect on humans."
  • "When you increase your carbohydrate intake and your fat intake, the carbohydrates you eat turn into fat in your body."
  • "If you continue to eat refined carbohydrates, your body will suffer biochemical damage,Insulin resistanceWill cause diseases such as
  • "It's often said that you should eat less and gain more exercise" on how to manage your weight, but it's a dull, vague "advice" that doesn't help anyone."
  • "Let's eat "real food" like meat and eggs, not "fake food" like refined carbohydrates"
  • "You can eat as much meat, fish, eggs, nuts, and green vegetables that are rich in fat as you want."
  • "You don't lose fat in your body as long as you keep eating carbs"
  • "Obeseness and illness are widespread, not because people eat too much, but because they eat fake food."
  • "What I would like to say to healthcare professionals is to encourage patients to eat less "fake food" and eat "real food."
  • "National governments should revise their dietary policies to eliminate'fake food' and stop subsidies to sugar companies."

It has said[110].

Carbohydrate and fat intake and effects of each

The results of a large epidemiological cohort study of 5 people living in 18 countries on five continents show thatThe LancetWas announced (2017).This was a study of the relationship between carbohydrate and fat intake and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and its mortality.The results show that the higher the carbohydrate intake, the higher the mortality rate, and the higher the fat intake, the lower the mortality rate.In particular, the higher the intake of saturated fatty acids, the lower the risk of stroke.In addition, fat intake, whether saturated or unsaturated, reduced mortality and had nothing to do with the development of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease.[122][123].

Saturated fatty acid intake has nothing to do with the development of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease, and there is no evidence that saturated fatty acids are clearly associated with these diseases.[124].

Also, increasing the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids does not reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.[125].

Since the 1960s, when it has been said that "animal foods rich in animal fats can have adverse health effects," nutritionists say, "animal meat is essential for life support." It contains a lot of all the essential amino acids, all the essential fatty acids, and 13 of the 12 essential vitamins that you can't do. "[7].Vitamin DVitamin B12Foods that contain bothOnly animal foods "Is[7][126].

Sugar and disease

Ingestion of sugar has a high probability of becoming obese.When sugar enters the body,Blood glucose levelSoaring andHigh blood sugarFor a long time,InsulinMass secretion,Insulin resistance, Attract these at the same time.fructoseAnimal studies have shown that animals treated with the drug not only lose control of their weight, but also become unable to stop eating, gain weight and become immobile.[127]..The main component of sugar is "sucrose" (Sucrose), Which is composed of glucose and fructose.Fructose destroys receptors for hormones such as insulin and leptin, causes hormone resistance, and is a direct cause of diabetic complications, visceral fat accumulation, and fatty liver.[128].

Wild carnivores and hunter-gatherer populations are extremely unlikely to become obese because "there are almost no opportunities to consume high-carbohydrates, sugars, or sugar." ..

In the English-speaking world, "Sugar Addiction"("Sugar addiction''Sugar addiction”) Is widespread, and“ the desire for sugar and the craving for sugar that sugar-rich foods cannot be stopped are a type of addiction symptom, and it is sugar that causes the addiction symptom. The view is widespread.United States dentistWeston Price(Weston Price) Is a report summarizing research on the dietary habits of hunter-gatherer groups, "Dietary habits and physical degeneration-indigenous traditional and modern diets, their amazing effects on the body" (1939). Inside, "Since I started eating sugar,Tooth decayThe number of illnesses associated with illness and undernourishment has increased. "Professor of Nutrition, Queen Elizabeth University,John Yudkin(John Yudkin) Is the book "Pure, White and Deadly"The culprit that causes obesity and heart disease is sugar, and the fat content of food has nothing to do with these diseases," he concludes. In the 1972s, YudkinUniversity of MinnesotaPhysiologistAnsel Keith(Ancel Keys) And the "sugar / fat controversy".In this controversy, "Heart diseaseKeith's claim that "the cause of this is fat (contained in food)" was passed, and Yudkin's claim that "sugar was the cause" did not pass. In the late 1970s, the United States government called on the public to "reduce fat intake and increase carbohydrate intake," but the number of people suffering from obesity, diabetes and heart disease has continued to increase.

As one of the supporters of Yudkin's claimUniversity of California OfNeuroendocrinologist,Robert Lustig(Robert Lustig), And a lecture by Lustig produced and published by the University of California "Sugar: The Bitter Truth"Sugar is a poison that makes humans obese and sick," and "those with a high sugar content should be taxed."[129],book"Fat Chance』Insists that way.Also, "sugar has only calories and no nutritional value, which not only causes obesity, but alsotobacco,alcoholLike, it is highly addictive, and the fructose contained in it adversely affects the endocrine system, increasing the risk of developing heart disease, heart attack, and type 2 diabetes. " "It should be taxed" in scientific journalsNature magazine('Nature』) Announced[130].

Gary Taubes2016Published in the book "The Case Against Sugar("Conviction for sugar"), "Sugar is a" kind of highly addictive drug "and not only makes humans obese, but also causes heart disease and threatens health." "Obesity Is the result of the body causing hormonal disorders, and it is sugar that switches it on. "[131]..In addition, "sugar is a cause of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance is involved." "Sugar is a direct cause of insulin resistance." "Insulin resistance is cancer. Will cause[132].

Jason Statham also said, "Sugar intake isBlood glucose levelAnd the insulin concentration in the blood rises rapidly, the condition lasts for a long time, and evenInsulin resistanceAt the same time, "" sugar andArtificial sweetenerIs a direct cause of insulin resistance. "" How much sugar can I take? "Is the same as" How much can I smoke? " "Eating sugar makes you fat. No one would disagree with this fact." "If you don't want to gain weight and want to lose weight, the first thing you should do is to strictly limit sugar." I'm declining[133].

Toxicity of sugar

  • The rise in blood sugar level when fructose is ingested is slower than when glucose is ingested, but the liver converts all fructose into fat.Visceral fatAccumulate as. Because "only the liver can metabolize fructose in the human body"[134]..The process by which the liver synthesizes fat from carbohydrates is "lipogenesis" (De Novo Lipogenesis, "De Novo"LatinIt is called "again" or "again")[135]..By continuing to take fructose, fat accumulates in hepatocytes, even for people who do not have a drinking habit.Fatty liverSuffering from.There is still room for healing shortly after suffering from fatty liver, but as it progresses, it becomes inflamed.hepatitisOccurs and eventuallyCirrhosisInspire[134]..Robert Lustig of the University of California also claims that "sugar causes fatty liver"[136]..In addition, Lustig called fructose "Alcohol Without the Buzz"(" Alcohol that does not have a drunken effect ")[137].
  • Sugar and fructose significantly accumulate fat in the liver in a very short period of time[138].
  • Sugar and fructoseNeutral fat(Triglyceride) Significantly increased[139][140][141], Reduces the oxidation of fatty acids on an empty stomach (suppresses / interferes with fat burning and does not reduce fat from the body)[142].
  • Sugar intake increases triglyceride levels andHigh blood pressureAroused,Visceral fatPromotes the accumulation ofInsulin resistance,Diabetes mellitus,Metabolic syndromeTo provoke.If you suffer from fatty liver due to continued sugar intake, you are more likely to cause cardiovascular disease and die.[134].
  • By ingesting sugar, in the bodyAGEs(Advanced Glycation End Products, "Advanced glycation end productIs called) is easier to make.This is an object that strongly accelerates the aging of the body, and the protein is denatured by the binding of sugar to the protein. The probability of developing AGEs is up to 10 times higher than when glucose is ingested.[143].
  • Sugar and fructose reduce, promote the accumulation of visceral fat, on an empty stomachBlood glucose levelInsulinIncrease the concentration of[144], Accumulate fat in the liver,MitochondriaInterferes with the function of and stimulates the induction of inflammation[145],Dyslipidemia,Insulin resistanceAroused,Diabetes mellitusPromote the onset[146].
  • Ingestion of sugar and fructosegoutInspire[147][148]..It has long been known that sugar is involved in heart disease, gout, and metabolic syndrome.[149].
  • Sugar and fructose increase impulsivity and aggression, hyperactive foraging reaction,Bipolar disorder,Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorderAnd evendepressionMay also cause[150].
  • Sugar is pancreatic cancer[151] Increases the likelihood of suffering from various types of cancer, including.It suggests that cutting off this intake could be an effort to prevent or treat cancer.[152].
  • Sugar and fructose also cause insulin resistance in the brain, destroying nerve tissue in the brain andAlzheimer's diseaseInspire[153][154].
  • Sugar and fructose are "Tooth decayIs a great cause of[155][156]..Banning the sale of sugar-containing drinks, attaching warning labels to sugar intake products, and introducing sugar tax can be efforts to reduce sugar intake.[156].
  • By reducing sugar intake, fatty liver,obesity, May prevent various diseases[157].
  • Ingestion of sugar and fructose promotes the accumulation of fat in the liver,carbohydrateAnd it was confirmed that the accumulated fat decreased rapidly when eating a diet low in sugar.The authors of a research paper written without external funding conclude that "sugar intake should be restricted to protect physical health."[158].

1775,EnglandMathieu Dobson, a doctor and physiologistMatthew Dobson) Found that the urine of diabetics was sweet, and that the substance of the sweetness was sugar.1776, Dobusun announced his clinical experience[159][160].Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSurgeon from home, John Lolo (John Rollo) Devised a diet for diabetics, referring to Dobusun's research, and prescribed two army officers with diabetes a diet high in meat and fat and low in carbohydrates.[161]..Lolo is described as "the first person to encourage a low-carb diet to treat diabetes."[162].1797, Lolo saidAn Account of Two Cases of the Diabetes Mellitus("Explanation of two cases in diabetes")[163].. In one of the two cases, prescribing this diet resulted in a weight loss of 2 pounds (about 1 kg), symptoms disappeared, and blood sugar and urine sugar levels decreased.[161].

Carbohydrates and hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia that persists even on an empty stomach is called chronic hyperglycemia.The most common cause of hyperglycemia iscarbohydrateIs in consumption[29].

Repeatedly eating carbohydrates and getting hyperglycemic and injecting insulin each time increases the risk of suffering from various complications and cancer, such as forced injection of insulin and forced secretion of insulin. Taking drugs that promote insulin causes serious physical disadvantages[164]..Patients receiving insulin therapy compared to patients not receiving insulin therapyCardiovascular disease(Cardiovascular disease) Increases the risk of death[165]..Furthermore, attempts to suppress hyperglycemia with insulin do not reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and increase mortality.As for body weight, I gained more than 10 kg just by injecting insulin.[166].

Even when blood glucose levels are within the normal range (90-99), the cumulative incidence of pancreatic cancer is significantly increased compared to humans with blood glucose levels below 90.[167], Fasting blood sugar levels above 110 significantly increase the chances of dying from any cancer[168]. "GLUT5Fructose transporter called "is involved in the development of breast cancer[169].

Even if you are exercising, you cannot prevent hyperglycemia as long as you eat carbohydrates, and insulin sensitivity decreases as soon as you finish exercising (Insulin resistanceWill be higher)[170]..Insulin resistance cannot be prevented by exercise.

"Low insulin sensitivity" means "Insulin resistanceIs high ”(insulin is not effective)[171].

Insulin and obesity

"Insulin makes humans fat"

Although I lost weight to the target or less, I gained weight again and returned to the same weight as before the start of the diet, and my body fat percentage increased more than before.This is popularreboundIt is called.By repeating weight loss and rebound, it becomes difficult to lose weight and easily gain weight.

For the weight rebound phenomenon,InsulinandInsulin resistanceIs believed to be the cause."Rebound is trying to return to the weight set by insulin," said Jason Statham. "It is this insulin that determines the'set value'of body weight, and if insulin is over-secreted and insulin resistance continues, insulin'turns the weight set value knob'. No matter what, the body tries to return to the weight set by insulin. "" Weight rebound does not mean that you are weak or lacking in effort. Insulin determines a person's weight. " That[133]..Also, regarding the effects of physical activity and exercise, "Every experiment to get into the habit of exercising by eating less for the purpose of losing weight has failed without exception." "How much exercise It has been proven that reducing the amount of food you eat does not have the effect of losing weight. ”“ Compared to people who exercise,People who do not exercise are thinner'[133]I conclude. "Anyone can get fat if they want to. All you have to do is inject insulin. As long as your insulin levels remain high, you will continue to gain weight. No matter what you do, it's useless." Insulin, the hormone, makes humans fat. "[133]..All of the people who recommend restricting carbohydrate intake agree that they get fat because they get insulin, and that "overeating and lack of exercise are not the cause of obesity, but only the" results "(" the body is After getting fat and accumulating fat, you overeat or get stuck. ")"

Insulinoma(Insulinoma), Which has the effect of promoting a large amount of insulin secretion.In insulinoma, weight continues to gain unilaterally[172][173][174][175][176][177][178][179][180].. There is a case where the weight has increased by 2 kg in 37 years[181]..One-sided weight gain is due to hypersecretion of insulin[182].

Insulinoma also causes hypoglycemia and its associated forms of neurological symptoms such as hyperinsulinemia, depression, dizziness, loss of consciousness, seizures, impaired consciousness, stroke-like symptoms, and neuropathy.In insulinoma, headache, diplopia, blurred vision, confusion, abnormal behavior, drowsiness, forgetfulness, seizures, coma, sweating, weakness, hunger, tremor, nausea, fever, Anxiety and palpitations are seen[182].

Pancreatic endocrine tumor (Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors) Is the largest insulinoma, 10% of which is multiple[174], Malignant[175][183].

The best treatment for insulinoma is surgical excision[172][173][177][184][185]Relieve by removing[172][173][184]..Patients after resection of insulinoma lose hypoglycemia and lose significant weight[172][179][184]However, there is a risk of recurrence even after excision[177]..The first case of successful resection of insulinoma was reported1929Is that[177].

Insulinoma is the most common cause of hypoglycemia associated with endogenous hyperinsulinosis[185]..Fasting for an extended period of time provides a means to detect endogenous hyperinsulinosis and detect inappropriately elevated insulin secretion as a cause of recurrent hypoglycemia.[185].

When insulin levels are high, the body continues to gain weight unilaterally.It has nothing to do with how much the person ate or whether he was exercising.

Fat dystrophy

"Fat dystrophy"(Lipodystrophy), Which rarely occurs in "progressive lipotrophic disease" (Progressive Lipodystrophy) There is a symptom called.About 1950 cases have been reported by the mid-200s, most of them female.This is because the subcutaneous fat in the upper body almost disappears, but fat accumulates abnormally in the area below the waist.[7].1931In the body of a woman in whom this case was reported, facial fat began to decrease at age 10 and fat loss stopped at the waist at age 13.Two years later, fat accumulation began downwards from there.Her body fat was effectively concentrated from the waist down, and her upper body was unusually fat from the waist down instead of being thin.Gary Taubes took up this fat dystrophy and said, "According to calorie theory,'because you eat too much. You lose weight if you eat less.'" The woman's upper body lost fat. Is it because he eats less, and the fat builds up from his waist down because he eats too much? It's obviously a silly story, "he criticized the calorie theory openly.[7]..This symptom of dysregulation in adipose tissue and hypertrophy of some parts of the body is the most common symptom of injecting insulin as part of insulin therapy.complicationsIs one of[186], A harmful immunological side effect and a serious problem[187].

Insulin suppresses / interferes with lipolysis

Insulin is the largest hormone that promotes fat synthesis and storage and thoroughly suppresses and inhibits lipolysis in the body.[188][189][190][191].

Insulin strongly promotes fat accumulation, increases hunger and causes weight gain.Excessive amounts of body fat accumulate in insulin-injected animals, even when calories are restricted[6].

A diet that increases insulin secretion has the same effect as when insulin is injected.[6].

Insulin promotes the uptake of glucose into cells, suppresses and interferes with the release of fatty acids from fat cells, and in the liver.Ketone bodiesSuppresses the production of, promotes fat deposition, and even reduces the circulating concentration of major metabolic fuels[6].

Risk factors for obesity includeHyperinsulinemia(Hyperinsulinemia) Is involved.Obesity can be caused when insulin levels are higher than normal or when insulin levels rise only slightly.Weight is lost when a drug that inhibits insulin secretion is given or insulin levels decrease[6][192]..The action of suppressing or interfering with lipolysis is the most sensitive metabolic action of insulin.Slight increases in insulin levels, even on an empty stomach, inhibit lipolysis in adipocytes[192]..Stimulating glucose uptake into cells requires six times the normal insulin concentration in the liverGluconeogenesis(Gluconeogenesis) Suppresses, it is enough to double the insulin concentration[192].

Insulin signals the creation of new fat cells to make room for new fat in case the fat cells become full.[7].

A woman who developed type 17 diabetes at the age of 1 continued to inject daily insulin into two parts of her thighs for the next 47 years.A melon-sized mass of fat was formed on her thigh.This has nothing to do with "what and how much she ate" and is nothing but "lipogenic action by insulin".The same phenomenon occurs when systemic insulin levels are elevated.This is why diabetics often become obese when they receive insulin therapy. "Joslyn Diabetes" ("Joslin's Diabetes Mellitus]), "It results from the direct lipogenic effect of insulin on adipose tissue, independent of food intake("It is the result of insulin's direct lipogenic effect on adipose tissue, which has nothing to do with food intake.")[7].

Carbohydrates are the strongest promoters of postprandial blood glucose elevation and insulin secretion.[84]..Proteins also stimulate insulin secretion, but catabolic hormones that antagonize insulin,Glucagon(Glucagon) Is also induced.On the other hand, the fat content in food has almost no effect on insulin secretion.This physiological fact provides the rationale for showing that a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet is beneficial to the human body.[6].

Former Dean of Medicine, Harvard University George F. Cahill Jr. (en: George F. Cahill Jr.) Is,

"Carbohydrates is driving insulin is driving fat.("Carbohydrates control insulin, which controls fat")[7]I have left the words.

Patients with obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes may be most effective if they limit their carbohydrate intake and replace it with fat.[193]..In addition, the blood status of subjects who were fasting for 84 hours was "exactly the same" as that of subjects who continued to consume "only" fat for 84 hours.In both cases, blood glucose and insulin levels decreased, free fatty acid and ketone body levels increased, and the rate of lipolysis increased.[194].

Low in carbohydrates and fat (for those who want to lose weight and reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseaseTrans fatty acidsAll fat except.saturated fatty acid,Monounsaturated fatty acid,Polyunsaturated fatty acid) May be an option[83].

Avoiding high levels of insulin throughout the day is also very effective in preventing fat buildup.Fasting can also be an effective means[192].

Lipase, insulin, lipolysis and fat accumulation

Early 1970s,University of MassachusettsGeorge Wade (George Wade) Removed ovaries from female rats, observed their behavior, and began studying the relationship between sex hormones, body weight, and appetite.Rats with their ovaries removed began to eat food and became obese in a blink of an eye.Rats binge eaten and their bodies accumulated excess fat (first experiment).Wade then imposed strict dietary restrictions on the ovarian removed rats.Even if the rat became so hungry that he was dying to eat something, he implemented a dietary restriction that could not satisfy his urge (second experiment).As a result, the rats only became obese as quickly as they were fed as much as they wanted.The rat was completely immobile and only moved when it was necessary to get food.By removing the rat's ovaries, the rat's adipose tissue stored fat from the circulating blood.On the other hand, when they were not allowed to eat freely, the rats remained still on the spot in an attempt to reduce their energy consumption because they had less energy available (second experiment).Wade explained that "rats were not fat because they were overeating, but because they were getting fat."[7].

Removing the rat ovaries is secreted by the ovariesfemale hormone,estrogen(Estrogen) Is synonymous with removing.When estrogen was injected into a rat whose ovaries had been removed, the rat did not eat stubbornly and did not become obese.Rats with ovaries were urged to overeat because fat cells took in the calories needed to move the body one after another, causing the body to run out of energy.The more fat cells take up and isolate calories, the more rats eat in an attempt to replenish their energy.But as long as fat cells continue to take up calories, they don't have enough calories to spread to other cells, and if rats can't get fat, hungry, or hungry, they can solve it by reducing energy consumption (stuck). try to.

Estrogen is LPL (Lipoprotein Lipase, Lipoprotein lipase)酵素To some kind of action. LPL is expressed on the surface of many peripheral tissues including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, myocardium, and mammary gland, and has a role of sending fat flowing in the blood into cells.[195].. When LPL is expressed on the surface of adipocytes, adipocytes take up fat in the blood.On the other hand, when LPL is expressed in muscle cells, fat is taken up by muscle cells and the muscle consumes it as fuel.Estrogen has the effect of suppressing or inhibiting the activity of LPL in adipocytes.When estrogen increases around the cells, the activity of LPL decreases and fat is less likely to accumulate.On the contrary, when estrogen is not secreted by removing the ovaries as in this rat experiment, LPL in adipocytes is activated. LPL does its usual job there (uptakes fat into fat cells), but because there is no estrogen that interferes with LPL, which is responsible for accumulating fat, fat cells express large amounts of LPL, which is why. Fat was taken up by adipocytes one after another, and the rat became obese.By removing the ovaries from the rat, estrogen was no longer secreted and the rat became fatter than normal.Even in humans, many women after ovarian removal and after menopause become obese because their bodies produce less estrogen and their fat cells express large amounts of LPL. is there[7].

The only way to free a rat from obesity is to return estrogen to the rat.By doing so, the rat loses weight again, and its appetite and amount of food return to normal.It is useless to force animals to diet and exercise, and they cannot be prevented from becoming obese.[7].

In addition to insulin, multiple fat accumulation and loss in adipose tissue酵素And multiplehormoneIs involved[195][196][197][198][199][200][201][202][203].

All living organisms, including humans, act as energy substrates and precursors of signal transduction.fatty acid(Fatty Acids) Is used as fuel.When transporting and storing fatty acidsNeutral fat(Triglyceride)分子It is done in the form of.However, triglycerides are the same sizeCell membraneWhen you cannot pass through the cell and enter or leave the cellLipase(Lipase) Must be decomposed.This biochemical process is called "lipolysis" (Lipolysis)[204].pancreasSecreted byPancreatic juiceHas a lipolytic effect, which removes the fat content of foodIntestinesIs indispensable when capturing[204].

LPL is a type of important enzyme that controls fat accumulation and lipolysis in the body.It is expressed on the surface of many peripheral tissues including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, myocardium, and mammary gland, has a role of sending fat from the blood into cells, and it is insulin that regulates this enzyme.[195]..Insulin is a "major regulator of fat metabolism" and at the same time a regulator of LPL activation, promoting LPL activation in adipocytes.The more insulin is secreted, the stronger the activation of LPL in adipocytes, and more fat flows from the blood into adipocytes.In addition, insulin suppresses LPL in muscle cells, which also prevents muscle from using fatty acids as fuel.If the concentration of insulin is high when the fatty acids are about to be released from the fat cells, these fatty acids are not taken up by the muscle cells, are not consumed as fuel, and are pushed back into the fat cells by insulin.[7].

LPL is involved in the accumulation of fat in adipocytes.In obese bodies, activation of this enzyme is associated with increased lipogenesis and hyperinsulinemia in the liver.Chronic consumption of carbohydrates has been shown to promote a gradual increase in activation of this enzyme and adipocyte hypertrophy.[198].

Loss of activation of LPL on the surface of adipocytes and activation of LPL on the surface of muscle cells reduces accumulated fat[196].

While humans are exercising, LPL activation is reduced in adipocytes and increased in muscle cells.It promotes the release of fat from fat cells and is consumed by muscle cells that require fuel.However, as soon as the exercise is over, this situation reverses.LPL activation in muscle cells is lost, LPL activation in fat cells soars, and fat cells try to replace the fat lost during exercise and gain weight again.This is also the reason why exercise makes humans hungry.At the end of exercise, muscles need protein to replenish and repair it, as well as actively replenish fat.Other parts of the body try to replenish the energy that is released from the body by exercise, which increases appetite.[7].

In other words, when you exercise, you lose a little fat during the exercise and lose weight by that amount, but as soon as you finish exercising (the amount of fat lost during the exercise) can be restored to your body again. Are[7].. "Why can't I lose weight and prevent obesity by exercising?" Can be explained by this.

The difference in fatness between men and women is due to the different distribution of LPL and the different effects of hormones secreted along with it.[7].

ATGL (Adipose Triglyceride Lipase, Adipose tissue triglyceride lipase) is a lipolytic (of lipolysis in adipocytes)Rate-Limiting Enzyme).HSL (HSL) as another enzyme that catalyzes the lipolysis processHormone Sensitive Lipase, Hormone-sensitive lipase) is present, and insulin also regulates these enzymes. ATGL isFree fatty acids(Free Fatty Acids) Is removedDiacylglycerol(Diacylglycerol) To initiate lipolysis, which HSL doesHydrolysisDo (GlycerolAnd decomposes into fatty acids)[205].

Insulin affects HSL as well as LPL. HSL breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids in adipocytes, which encourages them to flow into the blood circulation.At this time, the fat in the adipocytes decreases. The higher the activation of HSL, the more fatty acids are released from fat cells, which the body consumes as fuel and reduces the amount of stored fat.Insulin suppresses the action of this HSL, interferes with the breakdown of triglycerides in adipocytes, and minimizes the outflow of fatty acids from adipocytes.Insulin suppresses the action of HSL in a very small amount, and even a slight increase in insulin concentration causes fat to accumulate in adipocytes.[7].

HSL is not only lipolytic in adipocytessteroidProduction andspermIs an important enzyme involved in the formation of[206].. HSL deficiency causes atrophy and inflammation of adipose tissue, induces insulin resistance throughout the body, and promotes the development of fatty liver.[197].

Activation of ATGL and HSL is WAT (WAT) when fastingWhite Adipose Tissue, White adipose tissue) was strongly upregulated (significantly increased).At the same time, the ratio of plasma free fatty acids also increased, and it was confirmed that the lipolysis rate increased during fasting and fasting.[207].

Growth hormone(Growth Hormone) Has the effect of promoting the reduction of accumulated fat.Growth hormone stimulates the breakdown of triglycerides and inhibits LPL, thereby promoting weight and body fat loss. HSL activation is significantly enhanced with weight loss[199]..Insulin activates LPL and suppresses the action of HSL, while growth hormone reduces the lipogenic action of insulin and suppresses / inhibits the storage and accumulation of fat in adipose tissue.Combining a high-fat diet also improves triglyceride levels[200].

All hormones except insulin promote the breakdown of triglycerides by stimulating HSL, but HSL is very sensitive to insulin, and all hormones except insulin have more power than insulin's fat accumulation effect. There is no.The release of fatty acids from fat cells by hormones other than insulin is possible only when insulin levels are low.[7].

1965, Medical physicistRosalin Sasman Yarrow(Rosalyn Sussman Yalow) And the doctor and chemist Solomon Aaron Burson (en: Solomon Aaron Berson), "FatFat cellsIn order to "release from and consume it as energy", "Requires only the negative stimulus of insulin deficiency.("I don't need anything other than the negative stimulus of'insulin deficiency'")[7].

Fasting and obesity treatment

Jason Statham says "intermittently" means to "treat insulin resistance and obesity and lose weight steadily by maintaining low blood insulin levels."fasting''(Intermittent fasting) Is recommended[133][208][209].

A Scottish man who continued to fast for 382 days, reduced his weight from 456 pounds to 207 pounds, and finally lost 180 pounds.Angus Barbieri(Angus Barbieri) Is there.Barbieri treated obesity herself by living solely on water, tea, black coffee, vitamins and minerals, without ingesting any solids.Barbieri's fasting was in the 1971 edition.Guinness BookIs also registered[210][211].

BMI

You may or may not lose weight.

It's just a guide,BMI(Body Mass Index, Body mass indexJudgment is made by looking at the numerical value of). If you are in the range judged as "normal weight" by BMI (18.5 or more and less than 25), you do not have to worry about getting caught up in weight gain or loss. When the BMI determines "obesity", the higher the number ("obesity 2" compared to "obesity 3", "obesity 3" compared to "4"), It is easy to think that "weight loss should be promoted".

A person with a BMI of "less than 18.5" is judged to be "too thin", in which case he should not lose any more weight.In some cases, despite being unusually thin, he still suffered from illness or lost his life trying to continue weight loss (see below).

手術

Surgery aimed at slimming includes the following.

  • As one of cosmetic surgery, subcutaneous fat is removed or aspirated (Liposuction).
  • Melt fat with a laser or injection and expel it out of the body along with waste products (Fat melting laser).
  • With the expectation that "you will lose weight by reducing the amount of food you eat," tying or removing a part of the stomach is sometimes done for morbidly obese patients.
    • (Sleeve gastrectomy: SG)

As mentioned above, it is a very dangerous means because it "does not lose weight even if you eat less" and may even kill you depending on the result of surgery.

Skinny medicine

There are also vendors who sell products and services that are of no use to slimming or weight loss by taking advantage of people who do not know how to lose weight and gain weight.[4].The United States of AmericaFor example, the market size is about $ 330 billion.[212]..Moreover, for the purpose of weight loss by girlssteroidThe use of agents has become a social problem.2005According to a report made in, about 5% of high school girls and about 7% of junior high school girls have used steroids at least once.[213].

Types

There are the following types of what is called a "thinning drug".

Case study

As used in various European countriesNorfenfluramineThere is.In the brainSerotoninIt acts directly on the receptor to increase the concentration of serotonin, thereby suppressing appetite.The United States of AmericaThen.1996Permission was given to the market.But the following yearValvular heart diseasePulmonary hypertensionBy being pointed out the danger of inducingFDAWas withdrawn from the market at the request of.JapanHowever, there are many cases where this health food containing fenfluramine and thyroid hormone is distributed through the Internet and word of mouth and causes serious health damage.社会 問題Became(2002).

EMEAAnd FDA,Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareMany of the slimming medicines approved byCentral nervous systemIt is a drug that acts on the drug and is originally prescribed by doctors in Japan.Approved in JapanMazindol ThePrescription medicinesHowever, no other drugs have been approved, and the indication criteria are strictly set.

EMEA or FDA approved slimming drugsBMISevere obesity with ≥30 or BMI ≥27Type 2 diabetesAnd people with diseases such as dyslipidemia[214][215][216][217]..Regarding administration in Japan, it is premised that BMI ≥ 35 or severe obesity with a classification of obesity of 70% or more (mazindol application standard), and stricter standards are imposed.[218].

Promoter

None of them have been medically proven to have a slimming effect.TV,インターネットNone of the weight loss methods often introduced in are groundless orExperimentDataFabricationThere have been reports of health hazards caused by illness or inadequacy.[219]).

1. SupplementAs a result, it is expected to have the same effect as changing the content, amount, and balance of meals.For that kind of supplement,

  • What advertises as "taken instead of a regular diet to stimulate the satiety center (resulting in a reduction in food intake)"
  • Advertisement that "inhibits the absorption of some of the heat-generating nutrients contained in the diet"

There are many.

2. "Thinning a part of the body by applying physical stimulation to fat (→" partial thinning ")"

  • The method used isheat("Sauna suit". sweatingBy action, you lose weight temporarily), high frequency vibration (electric slimming roller / belt), low frequency vibration (massage device),Magnetic force etc.
  • Esthetic salon"Fat squeeze out" by massage, etc. This is to increase the fluidity of fat, or to destroy fat cells and elute them into the blood to reduce the amount of fat.However, even fat cells are living tissues that are closely related to other tissues, and when they receive a massage, the temperature rises, and even if they temporarily soften, they become more fluid and move. Not (so almost all of the fat cells get together in the legs when they are moving).Also, if you apply a force that actually destroys fat cells with a massage, you will be seriously injured with the destruction of surrounding tissues.
  • Underwear(girdle,Body suit) ・ ・ ・ It is possible to make it look slender.However, the slimming effect and body shape correction effect have never been medically shown.MLM,Network businessOften sold at

None of these have any effect on weight loss.

Equipment

There is a method of wrapping or attaching a device that emits electrical stimulation to the abdomen to strengthen the muscles of the abdomen and advertise that it has a slimming effect.Consumer Affairs AgencyInvestigated the effect by asking each company selling these devices to submit materials.2020May 3, There is no rational basis for the slimming effect for the four distributors. "Freebie display methodIssued a measure order to prevent recurrence in the name of violation (good misidentification)[220].

scam

By taking advantage of people who do not know how to gain weight or lose weight, health hazards andscamCases often occur.Examples include the following.

  • Side effectsStrong medicines and foods containing harmful ingredients
  • Those that are extremely expensive for the expected effects and service content
  • Things that cannot be expected to be scientifically effective in the first place
    • Wave-Alkaline food,occult,Pseudo scienceIs at the center of the theory
    • Data from the TV program "Excavation! A Certain Encyclopedia II"Fabrication... It was based on experimental data with low reliability in the first place, and even experiments were not conducted in the first place.
    • Questionnaire results that cannot be scientifically verified and those based on "individual experiences" (Bible business method
  • Those with problems in the method of promotion / solicitation
    • Those that solicit while inciting anxiety and fear
    • The background of the "expert" appearing in the promotionDiploma millThings that are not credible like
    • cooling offDo not respond to
    • Fitness clubSo, at first, enroll in a low-priced course, and later change to a high-priced course or add options that require an extra fee
    • Cult religionGroups use books and circles proclaiming beauty and slimming as a means of solicitation (Ho No Hana Ho No Hana

These also have no effect on weight loss.

Mental illness

At first, he lost weight as a means for the purpose of cosmetology, but gradually "the purpose of the means" occurred, and he could not objectively grasp his body shape and simply became obsessed with the numerical value of his weight.If this goes too far, a strong craving for one's ideal body shape will change.Anorexia nervosa"(Anorexia, May suffer from a mental illness called "anorexia nervosa").I was a fashion modelAna Carolina RestonAndLuisel/Eliana RamosThe sisters were obsessed with gaining and losing weight,malnutritionHas died due to.

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