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Local community(Chiiki community) is the place where local residents live, that is,消费,生産.The labor,Education,health-Medical,play,Sports,Entertainment,FestivalResidents are interacting with each other while being involvedCommunityOr of such inhabitantsGroupRefers to.BoardThe generic name is municipalities, etc.Municipalities, Cooperated across regionsNon profit organizationSuch as a group,インターネットIt also includes groups that keep in touch with each other. Therefore, the local communityresidentsThe community, which is a component of the group, is defined as a local community in particular, and is distinguished from other communities based on administrative and cross-regional cooperation and communication.
The Japanese communityVillageIt is a group of residents living in Japan, and can be said to be a traditional and historic local community. However, the community binds its membersspecificationIs said to be strong and agreed,AgreementThere is also a view that it is different from the community based on.
Local communities are mutual residents living in the area情报Characterized by sharing or symmetry of information, mutual trust between residents is built. A relationship of trust creates a cooperative relationship, but it also involves competition and conflict. However, it does not excessively infringe the individual interests and common interests of the members. In this regardMoral HazardIs considered to be suppressed. In other words, it can be said that there are norms in the local community that maintain the mutual benefits of the members' residents.
In JapanLow birthrate and aging populationAccompanyingChild-rearingSupport, old manNursing care,handicapped OfIndependence supportな ど社会 保障Problem, orCorporate social responsibilityWith the local communityCompany OfSymbiosisThe formation of local communities and their importance are being discussed as a matter of concern. The local community is the foundation for restoring humanity and creating an autonomous community, and by making people's needs into local information, it is participatory.Sustainable developmentIt is also said to lead to.
In this way, the residents of the local community are actively involved in regional revitalization while giving consideration to mutual livelihood security, and the local community is responsible for sustainable development.Grassroots livelihoodIt is also possible to position it as.
Local communities benefit residentsPublic finance,resourceThere are many resources shared by the residents. In particular,Admission place,Satoyama, Forest,Common land,spring,River, Aqueducts for agriculture, coastal resources, etc. are shared resources of the residents.Local commonsIt is used and managed as. In the local economyfirewoodcarbonproduction,Livestock, LivelihoodFishery:However, there are many places that depend on the use and management of such local commons..
Asian local communities
Rice cultivationIn the Asian local community where agriculture is the main livelihood,rice planting, Weeding, harvesting and other farming seasons, labor exchange and agricultural workers as members of the local communityemploymentTo do. In the latter, paddy field owners pay daily allowances and commission salaries to hire agricultural workers, and even small farmers of less than one hectare hire members of the local community to farm. In other words, in the local community, the members share few employment opportunities with each other.WorksharingIs carried out and plays a role of guaranteeing the livelihood of the residents.
Stall sales for big cities in AsiaWaste collectionAnd so onpovertyThere is also a view that it is evaluated as a self-help effort of the layer and asks the local community of the city for the function of living security of the residents.
Japanese local community
Local communities in Japan are organized in units of municipalities and exist as neighborhood associations or residents' associations. However, as the number of condominiums increases and the number of transferees increases, the number of people who join or participate in these existing communities is decreasing. On the other hand, themes and communities such as NPOs and civic groups aiming to contribute to society on specific regional issues are active, and the community is becoming more and more popular as an anonymous and casual exchange space where responsibility, danger and cost do not occur. The way it should be is also diversifying. In today's discussion of regional revitalization, building mutual relationships between old and new residents or communities in these local communities is one of the challenges.
The communityGround edgeThere are usage as a group and usage as a community. When used as a community, there is an approach as an area problem and an approach as a neighborhood problem. In this sense, neighborhood associations and residents' associations are typical examples of communities in Japan. These are based on the agricultural community and the central shopping district community, and the local activities themselves are also declining due to the decline of agriculture and the central shopping district. In addition, the number of cases of not joining the residents' association is increasing due to the increasing number of condominiums. Management associations that only manage facilities do not function as a community, and in many cases they bring about a structure of conflict of interest with residents who are members of the neighborhood association residents' association.
The number of "interested individuals" after retirement has increased. An increasing number of individuals are actively involved in society after retirement, such as NPO participation and volunteer activities. Citizens' activities by issue, in which local groups work on solving issues themselves rather than campaigning against them or submitting complaints, are spreading. In particular, there are cases where problem-solving territorial groups such as crime prevention activities and park management expand the scope of their activities.
- ^ Ostrom, Walker "Neither Market nor State: Connecting Transformation Processes in the Area of Collective Action"
- Yukihiro Torikai "Social Development and Environmental Conservation-Human Environment Theory for Local Communities in Developing Countries," Tokai University Press, 2002. ISBN 4486015851
- Ibid., "Environmental Economics of Local Communities: Grassroots People's Livelihood Theory and Sustainable Development in Developing Countries," Taga Publishing, 2007. ISBN 9784811571317
- Eleanor Ostrom・ "Neither a market nor a nation: connecting transformation processes in the area of collective action", "Prospects for Public Choice," Volume 1 Noboru Sekiya・ Translation, Taga Publishing, 2000.
- Noriko Miura "Corporate Social Contribution and Community-Urban Sociology Research Series 10" Minerva Shobo, 2004. ISBN 4623040283
- Naoki Yoshihara "Dynamics of Asia Megacity and Local Communities-Focusing on RT / RW in Jakarta" Ochanomizu Shobo, 2005. ISBN 9784275004024