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🎣 | Last year's SUP and fishing accidents in the prefecture, the highest number ever


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Last year's SUP and fishing accidents in the prefecture are the highest ever

 
If you write the contents roughly
It is believed that the cause is that the number of people who enjoy fishing and SUP while avoiding "denseness" has increased in order to prevent infection with the new coronavirus.
 

It turned out that the number of accidents during SUP and fishing that occurred in the prefecture last year was the highest ever.Even if I enter this year, I leave ... → Continue reading

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Infection control

Infection control(Kansenkanri), or medical epidemiology,Medical facilityWithininfectionRefers to efforts aimed at preventing epidemics, with an emphasis on practiceEpidemiologyIs a field.public healthActivities and infection control/medical epidemiology have a lot in common, the former is aimed at society as a whole, while the latter generally deals with problems limited to a specific medical institution (group). Also known as "infection control activities," "infection prevention and management activities," and "infection control activities."Infection control teamIt is counted as one of the basic medical safety management systems of hospitals as an activity that many occupations in the facility work together.

Infection control can be roughly divided into two.

  • Preventive activity
  • Trend measures
    • Investigation activities and countermeasures (eg outbreak countermeasures) that are targeted at outbreaks that have occurred or are suspected to have occurred in a specific medical institution.

Infection control in medical institutions

Occurrence monitoring

Surveillance refers to grasping the occurrence status of infectious diseases on a daily basis. To facilitate comparison between facilities and regions,Bloodstream infection-Urinary-tract infection-Nosocomial pneumoniaThe criteria of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) are used to define the main nosocomial infections such as.

actually,Infection control teamPersonnelPatient chartInvestigate orpatientData is collected by directly observing and determining the presence or absence of symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious diseases. Bacterial laboratory data from the bacteriological laboratory is also an important source of information. In recent years, automation of bacterial laboratory data andElectronic medical recordAutomation is increasing the automation of data extraction, enabling staff to spend more time collecting clinical data. Nosocomial infectionAbout 1/3 of these are preventable[1]Infection surveillance and prevention activities are becoming increasingly important by hospital staff. According to the CDC Nosocomial Infection Control Project (SENIC), by focusing on infection surveillance and prevention activities, the incidence rate of nosocomial infections could be reduced by about 32%.

Preventing the spread of infection

Nosocomial infectionOf each pathogen to prevent transmission and protect health care workers themselves from infectionTransmission routeAccording to(I.e.Stand upprocedureTheWell-knownThere is a need to.

Standard precautions centered on hand washing

Vienna OfSemmelweiss(1847 ) AndDuffel Bag OfOliver W. Holmes(1843 ), the unique research published byNosocomial infectionRelated to[2].Center for Disease Control and PreventionIn response, the (CDC) reported that "the most important way to prevent the spread of pathogens was effective hand washing".[3].

Handwashing is compulsory at most medical institutions, and in the United States it is not simply a matter of common sense, but is also compulsory by various local and local governments. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards in the United States[4]Requires employers to have hand-washing equipment available at all times, and wash their hands and other skin with soap and water or run mucous membranes under running water if they come into contact with blood or other potentially infectious substances. We are asking you to guarantee that you can wash.

In Japan, “National University Hospital Hospital Infection Control Guidelines” by the National University Hospital Infection Control Council[5]And other guidelines were formulated in 2002.

  • It is recommended to wash your hands and wear gloves before and after touching the patient's blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, damaged skin and mucous membranes regardless of known infections. Depending on the procedure, masks, goggles, face shields, and gowns are also used.
  • Calls for the prohibition of recaps to avoid punctures and cuts due to needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments, proper placement of medical waste containers for safe disposal immediately after use, and the adoption of needles with safety devices. ..
  • When environmental surfaces such as floors and walls are contaminated, wear gloves and wipe with a paper towel and disinfectant. Store contaminated linen properly until cleaning to prevent contamination of the environment.
  • Patients who may be contaminated with blood should be kept in a private room.

Isolation precautions

In addition, if the causative pathogen is known, it is unique to each.Transmission routeTake appropriate quarantine precautions accordingly.

Air (spray nucleus) infection isolation

  • Healthcare workersN95 maskWear.
  • In the patient's individual room environment, operating room, bronchoscopy room, and respiratory function testing room, forced more than 1 times per hourventilationKeeps negative pressure.To the outside of the hospitalHEPAExhaust through a filter.If structurally impossible, use a portable air purifier with a built-in HEPA filter and ventilate 12 times.
  • Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients, or wear an exhalation filter during endotracheal intubation.

Isolation of droplet infection

  • A surgical mask is worn for activities within a radius of 1 m from the patient.
  • When separating individual rooms and groups, beds are placed 2m apart.
  • Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients.

Contact infection isolation

  • Wash hands and wear gloves before and after contact with the patient and contaminated surfaces.
  • Wear gowns where there is potential for full body contact with the patient or contaminated surfaces.
  • Medical equipment used in private rooms should be dedicated as much as possible.

Cleaning/disinfection/sterilization

The contact surface of the patient's room and common areas touched by the patient's hands is cleaned by daily wiping. Clean walls and floors that are not touched once a day. In areas where MRSA, VRE, and Clostridium difficile carriers come into contact, daily sterilization is performed by wiping with a quaternary ammonium salt or alcohol. Of reusable medical equipmentdisinfection-SterilizationThe method must be selected according to each possible pathogen.

Personal protective equipment

(Personal protective equipment, PPE) is clothing and equipment worn by medical personnel to protect themselves from danger. What is the danger in the medical field?Viral hepatitis,HIVBlood, saliva, and other body fluids that may contain pathogens such asaerosolExposure to. Personal protective equipment aims to prevent exposure by creating a physical barrier between those infectious agents and health care workers.

In the United States, OSHA standards require health workers to wear protective equipment to protect themselves from bloodborne pathogens when their exposure to blood and other infectious agents is adequately predicted.[6]

Protective equipment: hats, shoe covers, face shields (for mouth-to-mouth breathing)MASKS-goggles・There are types such as. Which combination and how to use is usually determined by the rules set for each medical institution. Most instruments are completelydisinfection-SterilizationConsidering the high cost of doing so, it is designed to be disposable. OSHA standards require that protective equipment be immediately removed and disinfected or disposed of upon leaving a site exposed to infectious agents.[7]

Vaccination of medical staff

Healthcare workers who may be exposed to infectious diseases during work should:vaccineCan be used to protect yourself from infection. Usually usedHepatitis B-influenza-Mixed three(Measles/varicella/rubella)New three kinds of mixture(Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis)Meningococcus-Shingles virusWith vaccines such as these, medical staff and emergency personnel are vaccinated according to facility rules, recommendations, occupations, and individual wishes.In general, the preventive effect of vaccines is not perfect, but side effects are also seen, so vaccination decisions should be made based on sufficient information.[8]

Survey during an epidemic

When infection monitoring finds that the incidence of infections is higher than normal, the infection control team will investigate to determine (1) whether it is a real epidemic or (2) a false epidemic due to contamination of the bacterial testing process. Or (3) determine whether the normal incidence just happened to rise randomly. If it is (1), it will be necessary to investigate the factor that triggered the fashion and eliminate it in order to stop the fashion. It is usually due to lack of correct procedures, but sometimes other factors such as construction work are involved.

Infection control and medical epidemiology training system

There are several educational systems to acquire infection control. The occupational background is often nurses, sometimes clinical laboratory technicians (especially clinical microbiology), and doctors (usually infectious disease physicians). Training courses specialized in infection control and medical epidemiology are offered by the following professional organizations: Those who want to be involved in infection control as a doctor often go through clinical training in the department of infectious diseases.

In the United States,CBIC) Examines the professional background and work experience of health care workers, checks the level of knowledge through standardized departmental examinations, and then licenses infection control personnel. Two years of activity experience is required for application, and renewal of qualification is required every five years.

In the United States, CDC and the American Society for Medical Epidemiology (SHEA) have jointly conducted hospital epidemiology (infection control in hospitals).Our Courses Is held every year, and there is also a course from the Association of Infectious Control Practitioners (APIC).

Infection Control Team and Infection Control Committee

  • The infection control team is the actual work force in a medical institution, and the infection control committee is in charge of managing the infection control team (Fig. 1).

Infection control profession

footnote

  1. ^ Weinstein et al
  2. ^ CDC Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings
  3. ^ CDC General information on Hand Hygiene
  4. ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030
  5. ^ Guidelines for Nosocomial Infection Control at National University Hospitals (pdf 5.2MB)
  6. ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030 (d) (2) (i)
  7. ^ OSHA 1910.1030 (d) (3) (vii)
  8. ^ CDC Vaccine Site
  9. ^ Norihito Sato, Akari Watanabe, Susumu Kokoguchi, Kazuhiro Fukui “Infection Control Professional Qualification and Organizational Awareness Survey on Dental Clinical Trainees” INFECTION CONTROL (Medica publishing), Vol.16 (6), p.97,2007, XNUMX.

Related item

外部 リンク

New coronavirus

New coronavirus(Shingata coronavirus,English: Novel coronavirus, nCoV) IsCoronavirus familyOrthocoronavirus subfamilyBelongs toウ イ ル スOf these, it is a tentative name given to those that are medically and publicly important.[1][2][3][4].

In particularHuman coronavirusIt is often used in. (Human) Coronavirus against humanityEndemic diseaseIs believed to becoldCauses (common cold) -like symptoms,(English editionIs prevalent as a serious infection, often accompanied by pneumonia[1][2][3][4].

Virus type

The following viruses were positioned as new coronaviruses before their official names were given.

Types of new coronaviruses that are pathogenic to humans
Formal nameOther namesSusceptible host[† 1]First discovery location (discovery year)Infection
SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)[† 2][5][6]2019-Ncov

SARS virus 2

Human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19)

Bat,Scale armorChugoku-Wuhan(2019)New Coronavirus Infection (2019) (COVID-19)[† 3][4][7]
MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV)[† 4]Middle east virus

MERS virus

Camel flu virus

camel,BatSaudi Arabia-Jeddah(2012)Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)[8][9].
Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1)New Haven Virus[Annotation 1]A mouseHong Kong (2005)Mild respiratory tract infection, rarely severe pneumonia
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1)[† 2]SARS virusChinese cabbage,BatChugoku-Foshan(2002)Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)[9]
  1. ^ (English editionMay not be succeeded.
  2. ^ a b This virus is not a different speciesSARS-related coronavirusIs considered to be one of the stocks of.
  3. ^ Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia,Wuhan pneumoniaThere is a syndrome.
  4. ^ (English edition,(English editionIncluding stocks of.

All of the above four viruses belong to the genus Betacoronavirus (betacoronavirus) Belongs to.

Etymology

Known for the "new" of the new coronavirusViral family classificationBelongs toIt means a new pathogen.That is, the new coronavirusCoronavirus familyIt means a new pathogen belonging to (or its subclass).There is no intention of a completely unknown new pathogen. The use of the word "new XX" was introduced in 2015WHOConforms to the new infectious disease naming scheme decided by[10][11][12].

Historically, pathogens have often been named after location, individuals, or specific species, but these practices are not currently endorsed by WHO.[10][11][12].

The permanent official names of viruses and diseases are, respectively.ICTVWHO OfInternational Classification of Diseases (ICD)Is determined by.

Detailed explanation

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Human coronavirus NL63 Some strains of (HCoV-NL63)New Haven Coronavirus Be careful not to confuse it because it is called (HCoV-NH).
  2. ^ Example of use of the name "new coronavirus" for SARS coronavirus by the media[15][16][17][18].
  3. ^ Example of use of the name "new coronavirus" for MERS coronavirus by the media[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28].

Source

  1. ^ a b Murray and Nadel (2010). Chapter 31.
  2. ^ a b Cunha (2010). Pp. 6–18.
  3. ^ a b Melmed (2011). P. 636
  4. ^ a b c "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. NovemberBrowse.
  5. ^ "The 2019–2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper". ResearchGate. NovemberBrowse.
  6. ^ “Coronavirus disease named Covid-19”. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51466362 .
  7. ^ According to ICD-10 the disease is referred to as "2019-new coronavirus acute respiratory disease [temporary name]". It is not listed in ICD-11.
  8. ^ a b Synonyms include 2019 coronavirus pneumonia and Wuhan respiratory syndrome
  9. ^ a b "What is the new coronavirus?”. Joetsu Community Medical Center Hospital. NovemberBrowse.
  10. ^ a b Ghosh R, Das S. A Brief Review of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-Ncov) Outbreak. Global Journal for Research Analysis. 2020; 9 (2).
  11. ^ a b World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases. World Health Organization. May 2015.
  12. ^ a b Budhwani, Henna; Sun, Ruoyan (2020). “Creating COVID-19 Stigma by Referencing the Novel Coronavirus as the“ Chinese virus ”on Twitter: Quantitative Analysis of Social Media Data” (English). Journal of Medical Internet Research 22 (5): e19301. two:10.2196/19301. https://www.jmir.org/2020/5/e19301/. 
  13. ^ Host jump capability may not persist
  14. ^ "Eiken News" No.128,YamagataInstitute of Health, published June 2003, 6, page 10.
  15. ^ "SARS virus detected in less than an hour Eiken Chemical Nagasaki University and reagent development" "Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun』June 2003, 6, p. 20. "Causes SARSNew coronavirusWhen a reagent that can identify the gene of the patient is reacted with a sample such as patient's blood (hereinafter omitted) "
  16. ^ "Editorial SARS Eradication of Research" "Nihon Keizai Shimbun』June 2003, 6 morning edition, page 29. "To avoid these secondary SARS epidemics in advance and eradicate SARS itself,New coronavirusIdentification of the source of (Omitted below) "
  17. ^ "Memories of Eighteen 1996-2014 Domestic and Foreign News" "Asahi Shimbun』February 2015, 2 morning edition, page 12 (Nagoya Head OfficeEdition). In the topics of 2003, "This year,New coronavirusSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is prevalent all over the world. "
  18. ^ "Toward the development of a new pneumonia virus treatment method, with the completion of genome decoding" "Yomiuri Shimbun』Osaka morning edition dated June 2003, 6, p. 4. "The new type of pneumonia (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome = SARS), which is rampant mainly in mainland China and Taiwan, is the pathogen SARS virus (SARS).New coronavirus) Genome (all genetic information) has been decoded, (hereinafter omitted) "
  19. ^ a b Tetsuya Mizutani, ``New species of coronavirus"Virus" Vol. 63, No. 1, p.1-6, 2013, Japanese Society of Virology, two:10.2222 / jsv.63.1.
  20. ^ Concerns about the spread of new coronavirus infections in France increase (13/05/11) - YouTube(ANN News
  21. ^ Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Saudi Arabian Healthcare Worker Infection,Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2013, 5.
  22. ^ 31 people infected with new coronavirus in Saudi Arabia 40 people infected worldwide 20 people died,AFPBB News, August 2013, 5.
  23. ^ "New Coronavirus'MERS'WHO Beware of Pandemic Spreading in Europe" Nihon Keizai Shimbun, May 2013, 5, morning edition, page 29. The expression "new coronavirus" is only a heading, and in the text, it is written as "new virus" and "Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus".
  24. ^ "Cold virus companion, MERS, the world is wary ── Prevention is hand washing and mask (Genki Navi)" Nihon Keizai Shimbun, June 2013, 6, evening edition, page 28.In the text "New coronavirusThe expression "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)" can be seen.
  25. ^ "Strengthening vigilance for'new corona', 6 countries infected, 20 dead, 2nd place in Saudi, both onset", Yomiuri Shimbun, May 2013, 5, evening edition, page 16. "The World Health Organization (WHO) announced on the 1thNew coronavirusRegarding (the following is omitted). "
  26. ^ "Caution for the new coronavirus" SARS's return "", Yomiuri Shimbun, morning edition, May 2013, 5, p. 22. "New coronavirusInfection is widespread in the Middle East and Europe. (Omitted below) "
  27. ^ "Strengthening inspection of new corona" Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, "Infection in the world", Yomiuri Shimbun, May 2014, 5, evening edition, page 26. "Infection spreads mainly in the Middle EastNew coronavirusThe number of patients with "MERS coronavirus" is (abbreviated below).
  28. ^ "Coronavirus epidemic in the Middle East, be wary in Japan," Yomiuri Shimbun, June 2014, 6, morning edition, p. 26. "Infection spreads mainly in the Middle EastNew coronavirusReport of patients with "MERS coronavirus" (abbreviated below) "
  29. ^ Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV); Announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group Journal of Virology, Published ahead of print 15 May 2013, doi: 10.1128 / JVI.01244-13
  30. ^ Naming of the Novel Coronavirus WHO, 28 May 2013
  31. ^ Angle: The endless MERS, why no vaccine, Reuters, June 2015, 6.
  32. ^ "Not applicable to emergencies, Korean MERS" Travel restrictions are not required "WHO", Nihon Keizai Shimbun, June 2015, 6, morning edition, page 18. "MERS was confirmed in 6New coronavirusIs a respiratory illness caused by (abbreviated below). "
  33. ^ "I want to know now! Prevention and treatment of infectious diseases Hirosaki University planning series (46) Lessons from the MERS uproar" "Asahi Shimbun』January 2018, 1 morning edition (Aomori prefecture version), page 26.

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