12 episodes of "Pets" posted by readers [Reader's Voice vol.67]
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■ Our Labrador Retriever often sold fights to stray cats and was defeated every time.
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Labrador retriever(Also known as a Labrador retriever or a Labrador retriever.British: Labrador Retriever) Is classified as a large dogDog breed..Originally called a retriever (a dog that retrieves prey)Hunting dogMany of them are now domestic dogs orGuide dog,police dogSuch asWorking dogIt is bred as.
A feature of the Labrador Retriever is its webbed legs, which are suitable for collecting netted fish, which is the original purpose of use.カナダ,The United KingdomNo. 1 in the number of registered animalsAmericaBut1991Since2020It is still the most popular dog breed with the highest number of registered dogs...Also, it has excellent insight and work ability.Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, USA and other countries around the world,Handicapped dog,police dogIt is used as the best breed for various purposes.The Labrador Retriever is a breed of dog that likes to swim actively and is a good playmate for toddlers to the elderly as well as a guardian..
The origin of the current Labrador Retriever is CanadaNewfoundland(Currently belongs to the same state of Newfoundland and Labrador as the peninsula)..The breed of Labrador Retriever was bred for special purposes by those who settled on Newfoundland in the 16th century.St. John's Water Dogwas..The ancestor dog of St. John's Water Dog is not clear, but it is suspected that it is a mixed dog (mongrel dog) of working dogs bred in England, Ireland, Portugal and so on.Native to NewfoundlandNewfoundlandThe slightly smaller, short-haired St. John's Water Dog, also known as Lesser Newfoundland because it is slightly smaller, is used for fishing, such as towing fishnets and collecting herring and cod spilled from the nets. Was used for.This St. John's Water Dog is the ancestor of the Labrador Retriever.St. John's Water Dog's characteristic, which is also described as a black tie, with a dark base and white coat on the chest, legs, chin, and muzzle (nose tip), is still a mixed dog that draws the blood of a Labrador retriever. May appear in the appearance of.In addition, purebred Labrador retrievers may also have white spots on the chest, commonly referred to as medals, and white hair on the legs and muzzles.
NewfoundlandSt. johnsMost of the settlers in the area were English and Irish.Fishermen in the region used St. John's Water Dog for a variety of purposes, including passing ropes between fishing boats, towing small boats, and collecting underwater fishing nets.And the loyalty and work-loving nature of St. John's Water Dog has become an invaluable asset for fishermen..
In England, where fishery trade with Newfoundland flourished in the early 19th centuryDorsetPort cityPool (English: Poole) Brought many St. John's Water Dogs, The ability as a hunting dog suitable for waterfowl hunting has come to be highly evaluated among the gentlemen's class here...After that, there were a few kennels in England that bred St. John's Water Dog, but the sheep and livestock protection policy of Newfoundland at that time and England'sRabiesSt. John's Water Dog gradually disappeared due to dog import and export restrictions aimed at quarantine.
The first in England in the 19th centuryEarl of MalmesburyJames Harris(1746-1820) and the second Count Malmsbury (2-1778) breed St. John's Water Dog hounds for duck hunting in their territory., 5th generationDuke of BuccleWalter Montague Douglas Scott(1806-1884), 6th Duke of BuccleWilliam Montagu Douglas Scott(1831-1914) and his youngest son, George William Montagu Douglas Scott, also contributed to the creation and pedigree of the current Labrador Retriever... The dogs Avon (Buccle Avon) and Ned, given by the Count Malmsbury in the 1880s and used in the breeding program of the Duke of Buccle, are believed to be the direct ancestors of today's Labrador Retrievers.
It is said that St. John's Water Dog was first brought to England around 1820, but its excellent ability has long been rumored in England.According to legend, Count Malmesbury, who saw the St. John's Water Dog on a fishing boat, immediately arranged to import several of these breeds into England.These earliest Labrador Retriever ancestral dogs impressed Count Malmesbury with their high intelligence and ability to retrieve everything in and out of the water.And Count Malmesbury decided to further improve and establish a pedigree for St. John's Water Dog in all his kennels..
There are a few early records of St. John's Water Dog. Scottish explorer William Cormack (1822)en: William Cormack) Walked through Newfoundland.In his travelogue, he said, "Not only is it brilliantly trained as a bird hunting dog suitable for bird recovery, but it is also suitable for all other purposes .... Hairy dogs are preferred because long-haired dogs freeze on their hair and become difficult to move in this icy weather. ".
Another Colonel Peter Hawker (en: Peter Hawker) Says, "It's by far the best of all hunting dogs. Most of them have black coat.pointerIs smaller thanIt has strong legs and short straight hair, and it is not a curly tail that reaches the back.A brave dog who is very agile, has leg strength, and is good at swimming ... and his sense of smell is amazing ... ".
English geologist Joseph Jukes (en: Joseph Jukes)'S book "Newfoundland Travelogue 1839-1840 Excursions In and About Newfoundland During the Years 1839 and 1840"I saw a slender, black short-haired dog at the beach today. It looked quite different from the Newfoundland dogs known in England. It was slender and pointed." It has a slender nose and a slender tail, and has slender legs and a slender body. The coat was short and straight. "" It is the most common dog in this region ... its face is dignified. It's not like that, but it's an intelligent, labor-motivated face ... As soon as I jumped into the water, I started swimming, and I laid a net and drove the fish there. I totally believe it. I was even more surprised when I heard that the dog was not trained at all. ".
Origin of the name
The breed of dogs now known as Labrador Retrievers came from dogs known as St. John's Retriever, St. John's Dog, and Lesser Newfoundland (small Newfoundland). It is a seed.Later, when these breeds were brought to England, they came to be called "Labradors" after their region of origin to distinguish them from the larger Newfoundland dogs that had already been brought to England. ..However, the actual St. JohnsLabradorNot in the southAvalon PeninsulaIs located in.
The first literature on the Labrador Retriever was published in 1814 by Peter Hawker in The Book of Young Hunters. Instructions to Young Sportsmen", The first painting was in 1823Edwin Landseer"Coke, Labrador Bitch" by, The first photo is the Home Count dog "Nell" taken in 1856...Then, by 1870, the name "Labrador Retriever" became popular in England... BritishKennel clubWas recognized as an official breed in 1903 in the United StatesKennel clubWas officially recognized in 1917..St. John's Dog died of purebred pedigree in the early 1980s, and the last two photos were taken in 2..
Transition of coat color
Labrador retrievers occasionally had puppies with yellow and chocolate coats in addition to black, but these coat colors were not officially recognized until the 20th century, until then. It was sometimes thinned out soon.The first yellow Labrador Retriever to be recorded was the Ben of Hyde, born in 1899 in the kennel of Lieutenant Colonel Redcliffe.The chocolate Labrador Retriever was created in the 1930sThere is also a record that a chocolate speckled puppy was born in the Duke of Buccle's kennel in 1892..
- Yellow (including approximate colors classified as yellow)
The coat color now called yellow is a darker coat color that can be said to be almost butterscotch in the mid-20th century in the early bleeding period, and this coat color is not as gold as the British Kennel Club Was generally called golden until it was designated as yellow. By the end of the 20th century, brighter yellow and cream Labrador retrievers became popular.Most of the yellow coat colors found in current Labrador retrievers are of this type, and fawns (light tan) are also common yellow coat colors..
In the 1980s, British breeders moved to reassess their gold and fock red coat colors, and three Labrador retrievers attempted to restore them.Among them, a dog named Barlion King Frost (black coat color, born around 1976) was used as a breeding male, and puppies born to this dog always had a very dark yellow coat color.For this reason, Vallion King Frost is said to be "the dog that had the greatest influence on the reproduction of Fock Red's coat."..Winfall Tabasco (born 1986), the grandson of Vallion King Frost, also became a famous dog.Called the "father of the current Fockred Labrador Retriever," he is the only Fockred Labrador Retriever to become a British champion dog.Labrador retrievers such as the Red Alert and Screamshaw Placido Flamingo, which have the blood of Winfall Tabasco and have a Fock Red coat color, are highly regarded..
- チ ョ コ レ ー ト
Jack Vanderwick investigated the pedigree of all Labrador retrievers with a chocolate coat color and registered a record in the Labrador Net Database that the pedigree was aggregated into eight strains.However, chocolate is not considered an established coat color before the 8th century, and Vanderwick himself admits that while it may be possible to track Labrador Retrievers before the 20th century, they are not recorded. ing. In the early 20th centuryFlat Coated Retriever,Chesapeake Bay RetrieverThere are records that Labrador Retrievers were bred, and the pedigree of these breeds gave Labrador Retrievers a chocolate coat color.And the chocolate Labrador Retriever was established in the kennel owned by Count Feversham in the early 20th century..
Tracing the pedigree investigated by Vanderwick, we end up with three black Labrador retrievers from the 1880s.Buccle Avon (male) and his descendants, Marmsberg Trump (male) and Marmsbury Jun (female).Later Morningtown Tobra was also an important Labrador retriever who contributed to the development of chocolate coat color, and in the Buccle kennel's pedigree register, 3 Peter of Fascari added chocolate to the kennel. There is a record that the coat color was introduced.
The Labrador Retriever is a relatively large breed of dog, with a typical male weight of around 29-40 kg and a female weighing around 25-32 kg. Labrador retrievers weighing more than 45 kg are considered obese dogs and disqualified by the American Kennel Club standard, but many Labrador retrievers weigh significantly more than this...The coat color is not so important, and as a result of the improvement aimed at improving the ability as a hunting dog, the characteristics and temperament of the current Labrador Retriever are born.
Like other purebreds, Labrador Retriever pedigrees include appearance-oriented pedigrees called "English type" or "exhibition" and ability-oriented pedigrees called "American type" or "working". To do.In general, the English type is smaller, has a shorter torso and a solid overall physique, and is said to be a little quieter in nature.On the other hand, the American type is tall and relatively slender, and has a slender head and nose compared to the English type.However, even if it is an American type, if it has a too long nose, thin head, long legs, and a thin body, it is not recognized as a standard Labrador retriever.Both English type and American type are unofficial names, and although they have different pedigrees, they are not systematized or standardized separately by Kennel clubs in each country.In addition, there is another strain called the Australian type, which is not often seen in Europe and the United States, but this type is the mainstream in Asia.
Labrador retrievers bred in temperate regions usually have a moulting period twice a year., A large amount of hair may be moulted, but there is a great difference depending on the individual..Most of the coat is short straight hair, and the tail is flat and strong.Feet have webs suitable for swimming, in cold climatesSnowshoeAlso plays the role of.The dense coat has a waterproof effect, which also contributes to the Labrador Retriever's ability to work underwater.
There are various types of Labrador Retriever standards depending on the country and organization.The following standards are based on the American Kennel Club standards and are standards for competitions in the United States..
- Physique: The Labrador Retriever is a relatively large breed of dog.The length from the shoulder to the base and the shoulder height are the same.Males should be 57 cm-62 cm and weigh 29 kg-36 kg, and females should be 54 cm-59 cm and weigh 25 kg-32 kg.On the other hand, according to the standard of the Kennel Club in England, the shoulder height of males is 56cm-57cm, and the shoulder height of females is 54cm-55cm..
- Coat: The Labrador Retriever's coat is dense, short hair and must not curl.It is highly waterproof and does not have any adverse effects on the body due to low temperatures even in cold water.This means that the Labrador Retriever's coat is slightly dry and contains a lot of oil and fat.The recognized coat colors are black, yellow (including ivory or cream to fock red) and chocolate.
- head: Flat face with obvious stops (dent between nose and forehead, forehead), calm and expressive eyes.Brown and Hazel are recognized as eye colorsHazel color), And the edging of the eye must be black.The ears are drooping ears that are in close contact with the head and are located slightly higher than the eyes.
- Chin: The chin is sturdy and strong.The muzzle is medium in length and should not be over-tapered.You have to draw a slightly downward and graceful curve.
- Torso: Sturdy, muscular, and horizontal back.
The tail and coat have been described by both the Kennel Club and the American Kennel Club as "unique" to Labrador Retrievers...The American Kennel Club further states that "the Labrador Retriever is characterized by its nature and its otter tail.".
Three types of Labrador Retriever coat colors are officially approved: black (one color with no shade of black), yellow (from cream to fock red), and chocolate (from brown to dark brown)...Other Labrador retrievers are sold as "silver (gray)," but this pedigree is still questioned.Major Kennel clubs around the world have also registered this Silver Labrador Retriever, but it is not the coat color of "Silver".The LRC, an American Labrador Retriever enthusiast, has officially announced that "there are no genes that cause silver to develop in Labrador."..Labrador retrievers with small white spots on the chest, toes, and tail are also found, and rarely brindle or tiger hair.RottweilerSome Labrador retrievers have tan spots like..Although these coats are disqualified at dog shows, they are not inferior in their ability as working dogs or pet dogs, which are characteristic of the Labrador Retriever breed.
Puppies with different coat colors may be born even if they are litters.Coat color is determined by three genes. The B gene determines the eumelamine concentration of the coat, and when the eumelamine concentration is high, the coat color becomes black, and when the concentration is low, the coat color becomes chocolate. The E gene influences the production of eumelamine.The recessive E gene produces fair melanin (brown melanin), and the coat color is yellow regardless of the genotype of the B gene.In addition to these previously known genes, K as an allele of black, which is dominantly inheritedBIt is now known that the gene exists..Black or chocolate Labrador retrievers are always KBHas an allele.The yellow Labrador retriever is determined by the E gene, and the presence or absence of the K gene does not affect coat color.In addition, many genes determine subtle hair color differences. For example, Labrador's hair color, which is classified as yellow, has various shades such as white, gold, and fock red.In addition, the nose of Labrador, which has a dark coat color such as black or chocolate, has the same dark coat color as the coat color.
Nose and skin color
Labrador retriever skin color is determined by the effects of multiple genes.The presence of a recessive gene may be expressed in unexpected shades over several generations.Such changes in color are also seen in individual chocolates, but the proportion is high in yellow Labrador retrievers, and this section also mainly describes yellow Labrador retrievers.Places where the color change greatly depending on the individual include the tip of the nose, lips, gums, legs, tail, and eye margin, and black, brown, phone, and brown color when a gene expressing chocolate is present...Labrador retrievers may carry genes that express different shades, for example, black Labrador retrievers may carry chocolate or yellow genes, and yellow Labrador retrievers may also carry genes for chocolate or black.DNA typingIt is possible to determine whether or not the gene has these genes.Shades other than the three colors are not preferred, but are not considered ineligible as a Labrador retriever...The black coloration found on the yellow Labrador Retriever skin is separate from the genes that determine the color of the coat...The tip of the nose of a Labrador retriever with a yellow coat is often black, and as it ages, it changes to a pinkish hue called "snow nose" or "winter nose".This change has the function of synthesizing dark melanin.Monophenol monooxygenaseThe enzyme is influential.The action of monophenol monooxygenase depends on the temperature, but in the case of Labrador retrievers, the effect of monophenol monooxygenase decreases after the first two years of life.This is why the yellow Labrador Retriever's skin color becomes pinkish with age..
There is also a Labrador retriever with a shade known as "Dudley".Dudley's definition varies from group to group, with the LRC calling it a yellow Labrador retriever with a pink nose, and the American Kennel Club a yellow Labrador retriever with brown or chocolate skin, with black or dark brown eye margins. It is said that it is an individual with the same color as the skin color..For a yellow Labrador retriever with brown or chocolate skin, a brown or chocolate nose is not a prerequisite for Dudley.The American Kennel Club definition requires that the periphery of the eye be chocolate, that is, the genotype is eebb.However, according to the official Labrador Retriever standards, the pink nose, which is characteristic of a real Dudley, will be disqualified at the show.In any case, the real Dudley Labrador Retriever is extremely rare..
Two types of pedigree
There are two types of Labrador retrievers, one is the American type, which emphasizes the ability as a working dog and a hunting dog, and the other is the English type, which emphasizes the appearance for competitions such as dog shows. There are different pedigrees.Although there are individual differences, in general, the English-type Labrador Retriever, which emphasizes appearance, has a more solid body, a short torso, and dense coat.On the other hand, the American type, which emphasizes ability, has long legs and a slender and supple appearance.The English type has a wide head, a clear stop (a depression between the forehead and nose), and a thick and sturdy neck, but the American type has a thinner head and a longer muzzle. Can be said..The American type Labrador Retriever has a more active and nervous side than the English type, and is more qualified as a working dog than a domestic dog...Many breeders who pursue the Labrador Retriever's ability as a working dog say that the appearance-oriented dog show evaluation is not appropriate and that the ability as a working dog should be evaluated separately..
The standards of major American organizations, such as the American Kennel Club and the Labrador Retriever club, are adapted to the Labrador Retriever as a working dog.For example, the American Kennel Club standard shoulder height is set slightly higher than the British Kennel Club standard..
According to the standards set by the American Kennel Club, Labrador Retrievers are mild, sociable, and obedient in nature.Ball throw,Agility,Frisbee catch,FlyballIt is also a breed of dog that likes to play and compete.It has a sharp sense of smell and has excellent patience to follow the odor traces.Due to this ability, it is also used as a military dog and police dog, and it plays a role in detecting smugglers, thieves, terrorists, black traders, and so on.In addition, he instinctively likes to hold things, and sometimes he chews the owner's hand sweetly, but he is careful about the force, and he can carry the egg in his mouth without breaking it...This ability is due to the fact that it has been bred with an emphasis on its ability as a hunting dog that collects prey such as waterfowl without damaging it.The Labrador Retriever's coat has a water-repellent property, which also enhances its ability as a bird hunting dog for use in waterfronts and wetlands.
The Labrador Retriever has a very calm personality and is rated as an excellent domestic dog that is very friendly to children and other animals of all ages...However, Labrador retrievers of pedigree that place the highest priority on their ability as working dogs are not limited to this, and may be required to be agile and active.Due to its playful, lively environment and fearless nature, it requires training and proper discipline, which can be problematic if not done.Female dogs are also a breed with a slightly stronger independence...Labrador retrievers mature about three years after birth.Labrador retrievers are as active as puppies until they reach maturity, which can be misrepresented as an agitated and restless dog...Training to connect with chains or strings from an early stage is considered to be effective in preventing the habit of pulling the owner around when walking after becoming an adult dog..
It may bark in response to external noise, but the Labrador Retriever has less barking and is less wasteful.Territorial awarenessIt is said that this is a dog breed that cannot be seen.Because it is hawkish and friendly to strangerswatchdogNot very suitable for..The Labrador Retriever is also known as a breed of dog with a strong appetite, and sometimes even eats non-food indiscriminately...It is no exaggeration to say that we are always looking for food, and owners need to be careful about binge eating, obesity and illness caused by overeating..
With its wise and benign nature and excellent learning ability, the Labrador Retriever is a search dog.Disaster rescue dog, Detection dog,Therapy dogIt is ideal for causative purposes such as.American psychologist Stanley Coren (in: Stanley Coren) "What is your dog's deviation?" Labrador Retriever is in 7th place.The American Kennel Club claims that the Labrador Retriever is ideal for domestic dogs and is also used as an active hunting dog to collect prey.
Labrador retrievers are a breed of dog that rarely have the habit of jumping over fences or digging up the ground, but there are individual differences and some individuals prefer to climb or jump over fences.It is a very smart dog breed that is highly focused on what interests it.For this reason, a bored Labrador retriever can become a "very good" or "escape master" when given some external stimulus..
The Labrador Retriever is a curious, adventurous and sociable breed with a habit of following people and tracking food and novel odors.For this reason, it may disappear suddenly from the front of the owner, or it may go somewhere due to a slight noise., The nature that rarely warns others may be a disaster and stolen..Many clubs, such as the Kennel Club in the United Kingdom, and search aid organizations for stolen dogs recommend embedding microchips in Labrador retrievers and wearing collars and tags with the breeder's name and address..
Qualities as a working dog
The Labrador Retriever is an intelligent breed with a strong desire to work and is generally of good nature.Statistics show that 92.3% of Labrador retrievers have passed a nature test conducted by the American Temperament Test Society...Taking advantage of this excellent ability and nature, Labrador RetrieverHunting dog,Disaster rescue dog, Detection dog,Handicapped dog,Therapy dogIt is used in roles such as..In canadaGuide dogApproximately 60-70% of the dogs used in the breed are Labrador retrievers, among other breedsGolden retriever,German shepherdCan be given..The fact that the ears are broken does not give a feeling of fear to others compared to other types, so it is definitely adopted as a guide dog, hearing dog, service dog, and therapy dog.
Labrador retrievers are good at swimming and can continue to swim for long periods of time even in freezing water temperatures.This ability is ideal for bird hunting dogs, seeing the shot down birds that are the prey of hunting, scenting with a good sense of smell, reaching the place where the prey fell, even if the prey fell into the water. You can bring it under the hunter.For this reason, the Labrador Retriever is also known as the king of waterfowl...Labrador retrievers as hunting dogs are used for recovery purposes as well as for finding prey (pointing) And expelling prey (Flushing), Which makes it an excellent partner for hunting enthusiasts..
A good example of a Labrador retriever's ability to act intelligently and voluntarily is the 2001 life-saving Enndal (en: Endal) Is mentioned.Enndal to owners who lost consciousness due to a traffic accidentRecovery positionI took it out and carried out my cell phone and blanket from the car.He hung his blanket on his fainted owner, barked at a nearby house for help, and ran to a nearby hotel for help.. Also,TMJMany Labrador retrievers are trained to teach their owners about forgetting to take money or cards in Japan..
Normally, Labrador Retriever puppies less than 8 weeks old are not separated from their parents and welcomed into the home...Lifespan is about 10 to 13 yearsAlthough it is basically a robust breed, there are a few diseases that are susceptible to it.
- Commonly found in large breedsHip dysplasia, Elbow joint dysplasiaMay develop, but the rate is low compared to other breeds.
- Patellar dislocation (en: Luxating patella) May occur.
- Eye diseases, especially progressive retinal atrophy (en: progressive retinal atrophy),白内障, Corneal dystrophy (en: corneal dystrophy), Retinal dysplasia (en: retinal dysplasia) May develop.
- Rarely,Hereditary muscle diseaseByFast muscle fibersDeficiency develops.Early symptoms include awkward gait and, very rarely, neck twist due to kyphosis..
- In addition, as a case with a low incidence rate,Autoimmune disease, Deaf, etc., but often congenital or after becoming an old dog.
- Hereditary exercise-induced collapse (en: Exercise-induced collapse) May develop, and after light exercise, symptoms such as fever, collapse, weakness, and disorientation appear..
Labrador retrievers are a breed of dog with a strong appetite, and lack of exercise and boredom can cause obesity.Obesity is considered the biggest problem with dog health.According to one study, at least 25% of dogs raised in the United States are overweight.The Labrador Retriever is also believed to require proper exercise and stimulation.A Labrador retriever that is physically and mentally healthy has the ability to swim and run for about two hours, but to do so, it is necessary to maintain a slender and supple body shape.Obesity not only exacerbates hip and leg hypoplasiaDiabetes mellitusIt may cause such as.Also, in old dogsOsteoarthritis of the kneeIt is not uncommon, and it is a common case of obese Labrador retrievers who put a strain on their legs.American pet food manufacturer Purina (en: Purina MillsAccording to a 14-year study of 48 Labrador Retrievers, a well-fed, tight-bodied Labrador Retriever was better than an unplanned Labrador Retriever. The results show that he has lived for about two years, and he strongly warns against excessive diet that leads to obesity.The Labrador Retriever's physical activity is said to require at least 30 minutes of walking twice a day..
The Labrador Retriever began to be widely recognized in the United States after the American Kennel Club featured it in its bulletin, The American Kennel Gazette, in 1928.Until then, there were only 23 Labrador retrievers registered with the American Kennel Club.One of the reasons for this is that the abilities required of hunting dogs differed between the United Kingdom and the United States at that time...Later, the Labrador Retriever's ability as a hunting dog became known in the United States, especially.Second World WarLater, it became highly regarded as a hunting dog that fulfilled multiple uses..
The spread of Labrador retrievers to countries other than North America and Western Europe was even slower, for example, the first Labrador retrievers to be brought to Russia (then the Soviet Union) in 1960, brought by diplomats from other countries as pets. Believed to be in the late XNUMXs.. PresentIndependent state communityEven in these countries, the establishment of Labrador Retrievers as purebreds has been slow.This is due to the low population of Labrador retrievers and various topographical and political factors... Even in the early 1980s, it was common practice to rely on imports from other countries across the sea for mating partners...Since it was difficult to mate pure-bred Labrador retrievers with each other, it was implicitly started to breed different breeds between Labrador retrievers and other retrievers.This situation has been improving since the 1990s..
The Labrador Retriever has become one of the most popular breeds in the world. As of 2006
- The most breeding dog breed in the world.
- Australia,Canada,Israel,new Zealand,England,AmericaThe number of breeding animals is the highest.
- The number of Labrador Retrievers in the United Kingdom and the United States is more than double that of the second-largest breed of dogs.Compared to other breeds of similar size, the number of breeding dogs is 2 to 3 times that of the German Shepherd and Golden Retriever, which are in second place..
- VariousHandicapped dogThe number of registrations as is No. 1 in many countries such as the United States and Australia., The number of dogs used for public purposes such as police dogs is also the highest in many countries..
- Approximately 60% to 70% of American guide dogs are Labrador retrievers
- Australian National Kennel Council (en: Australian National Kennel Council) Is registered in the "Hunting Dog Hall of Fame", 13 of the 7 dogs are Labrador Retrievers..
There is no record of the exact number of Labrador retrievers raised around the world. As of 2005, the top countries in which Labrador Retrievers were bred were 1st UK, 2nd France and the United States, 4th Sweden, and 5th Finland...The populations of Sweden and Finland are much smaller than those of the other three countries, so these two countries rank high in terms of the number of animals raised per population.
Country Population as of 2005
Number of registered animals
Per million people
Number of registered animals
フィンランド 5.2 2,236 426.0 France 60.5 9,281 153.4 スウェーデン 9.0 5,158 570.5 The United Kingdom 59.7 18,554 311.0 America 307.0 10,833 36.3
Animal Orthopedic Fund, a voluntary organization in the United States (OFA) According to the statistics released, the number of registered Labrador retrievers is about the same for yellow and black, with a little more yellow and less chocolate..
Vietnam War and military dogs
In American history, "military working dogs (military working dogs ) ”Was used asMilitary dogSo, it is the official record that none of the dogs that survived the battle returned to the United States.Vietnam WarIs only..Approximately 4,000 military dogs classified as military consumables were put into the Vietnam War, and only 200 military dogs that survived the Vietnam War were deployed to military bases in other countries without being repatriated. It is said that it was fixed.
The German Shepherd was the most commonly adopted U.S. military dog during the Vietnam War, and is used for reconnaissance, guarding, and landmine detection. Was also used.The Labrador Retriever has been adopted as a military dog for the Combat Tracking Forces (CTTs).Combat tracking units usually consisted of a commander, a handler (dog training), an observer, an escort, and a Labrador retriever...The Labrador Retriever has been adopted by military dogs for its excellent olfactory tracking ability, and was used to detect enemy scouts, injured American soldiers, and shot down allied pilots.The Labrador Retriever adopted by the U.S. military in this warMalaysiaBritish Army Jungle Warfare Military School (Jungle Warfare School ) Was a dog trained as a military dog..
The then President of the United States in November 2000Bill ClintonHowever, the Vietnam War will continue to be the only war in which military dogs did not return to their home countries, as they signed an amendment bill allowing retired dogs to be taken over for non-military purposes. It is considered.
poodleThe hybrid breed was created by crossbreeding with the Labrador Retriever.LabradoodleIs.Labradoodle is a hybrid breed devised in Australia to create service dogs for people with allergies and disabilities.However, there is no guarantee that dogs born with this crossbreed will inherit the hypoallergenic poodle coat.Besides, it also has excellent propertiesGolden retrieverThere are also long-term care support groups that are trying to create service dogs of better nature by cross-bleeding with Labrador Retrievers...Mira Foundation, an assistance dog support organization for the physically challenged (en: Mira Foundation)Bernese Mountain DogThe hybrid dog "Labernese" with Labrador Retriever has been used as a service dog and has achieved some results..
Famous Labrador Retriever
- BritishService dogEnndal (en: Endal) Is said to be "the most award-winning dog in the world", For its bravery and dedication (for Animal Gallantry and Devotion to Duty ) PDSA Gold MedalWas given..Also the Ferris wheel in LondonLondon EyeIt is also the first dog to ride on. By the time Enndal died in March 2009, Enndal and its breeder Allen Parton had been filmed nearly 3 times by national reporters, and later Enndal's life was filmed..
- Guide dogQuill is a photo book "Quill's life as a guide dog』, And later became a TV drama and a theatrical movie.
- Guide dogaromaIt is,2003Japan's first non-humanSpecial resident cardIssuanceSagaUreshino Town (currentlyUreshino City) From2011Until the time of retirementVisually impairedIsEnka singer OfMiyoshi KishikawaWas lent to.
- Police dogs, military dogs, search and rescue dogs
- The detection dog Zanzia was used to detect weapons and ammunition in the 1993 Mumbai series of bombings, contributing to the discovery of 57 handmade bombs, 175 Molotov cocktails, 11 heavy weapons, 242 grenades, and 600 detonators. did.The greatest achievement is the main raw material of the bomb.RDXWas caught as much as 3,329 kg.18 otherType 56 assault spear, Contributed to the detection of 5 9mm pistols.
- DVD detection dogLucky and Flow uncovered nearly 2007 million pirated DVDs in Malaysia in 6 in six months..In addition to the pirated DVD detection, he was successful in arresting six criminals and received a medal from the Malaysian government (outstanding service award ) Was awarded..And the pirates tried to kill them with a £ 2 bounty..
- Australian Special Forces Explosives Detection Dog Service (en: Sarbi) Was missing during an operation in Afghanistan in September 2008 ()MIA), Found and rescued safely 14 months later.
- FEMA rescue teamUtah Task Force Search and Rescue Dog Jake (en: Jake (rescue dog)) Is 2001American terrorist attacksIn addition to discovering and rescuing survivors for 17 days at the ground zero point in 2005Hurricane Katrina,Hurricane RitaContributed to disaster relief even in the disaster area.
- 42rd President of the United StatesBill ClintonMy dogBuddyAnd Seamus.
- Vladimir PutinMy dogConnie..Since he was free to roam the presidential residence, he occasionally appeared in the news.
- Labrador retrievers come in a variety ofSitcomIt has appeared as a pet and an important character in TV dramas and TV programs such as.A bouncer from the Australian soap opera "Neighbors", "Go through the wilderness], Etc. appearing in.
- John Grogan (also made into a movie)en: John Grogan (journalist))'S best-selling essay "Marley What the stupidest dog in the world taught me』The leading dog Marley.
- British Broadcasting CorporationTV series for children "Big Burn Farm" (en: Big Barn Farm) The yellow puppy Diger.
- American animated cartoon "Family GuyBrian Griffin is a white Labrador retriever.
- American TV drama "LOSTVincent is a white Labrador retriever.
- マ ス コ ッ ト
- Since 1972, the Kleenex toilet paper cotton ale has a Labrador Retriever puppy named Andrex in its advertising.
- Michigan State UniversityIn the American football team's Spartan game, "Zeek the Wonder Dog" (Zeek the Wonder Dog) in half-timeen: Zeke the Wonder Dog), A Frisbee catch show by a dog named Sieg.Among the successive Siegs, Sieg IV is a yellow Labrador retriever, and Sieg III and II are black Labrador retrievers.
- SunriseThe Gonta family who are appearing in the commercial of.
- AGPoster adDetectiveDog Kuro can find people by smell with a black Labrador retriever.
- "A large collection of pets! Pochitama』\ First traveling dogMasao(2006May 12Malignant lymphomaDied in), mother dog Erie, spouse dog Diane, child elf, Tsubasa, Rock, second generation traveling dogDaisuke-kun(2011May 11Died of gastric twist), Erie's grandson's third-generation traveling dogMasao, Father dog John, mother dog Maruko, brother dog Haruko Leo, movie "LOVE Masao you go!Love, the dog who played the role of wife and the dog who played the role of puppy, are also Labrador retrievers.
- Known for the black coat color turning white after the owner's deathSonia.
- Akio Sakurai In "Promise with Noble", Noble is a real Labrador who finished his life in the middle of his life with the aim of becoming the first service dog in Kyushu.
- ^ "Litter Size in Dogs". Crown Partners Scientific Library. Royal Canin. As of October 2012, 10オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2011/4/25Browse.
- ^ a b Fogle, Bruce, DVM (2000). The New Encyclopedia of the Dog. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN-0 7894-6130-7
- ^ Cassidy, Kelly M. (February 2008, 2). “Breed Weight and Lifespan". Dog Longevity. 2011/4/25Browse.
- ^ "The most popular 20 breeds of 2008”. The Canadian Kennel Club (2008). As of June 2011, 6オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2011/2/14Browse.
- ^ 2006 Top 20 Breed Registrations --The Kennel Club
- ^ AKC Dog Registration Statistics
- ^ "Labrador Retriever, a popular US pet dog, tops the list for 29 consecutive years”. CNN (July 2020, 5). 2020/5/14Browse.
- ^ a b Tassieyy, Raye. “A Lab is”. Labrador Retriever Club of South Australia Inc .. 2007/9/12Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Barmore, Laura. “History of the Lab". 2007/9/12Browse.
- ^ Burrows, Richard T. (1997). The Guide to Owning a Labrador Retriever. TFH Publications, Inc.,
- ^ a b c Dollevoet, Lori. “History of the Labrador Retriever”. Lorken Farms. As of August 2007, 8オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/12Browse.
- ^ a b "The Buccleuch Labrador”. The Buccleuch Estates Limited (2003). As of January 2007, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Miller, Liza Lee; Cindy Tittle Moore (January 2004, 1). “FAQ Labrador Retrievers”. Puget Sound Labrador Rescue. As of August 2007, 8オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ Burrows, Richard T. (1997). “The Guide to Owning a Labrador Retriever.”. TFH Publications, Inc. ,. 2011/11/24Browse.
- ^ a b "Labrador Retriever History". grandane.com Guide to Nova Scotia Kennels (2007). 2011/11/24Browse.
- ^ Jukes, Joseph Beete. Excursions In and About Newfoundland During the Years 1839 and 1840. Vol. 1. (London, 1842),
- ^ Labrador Origins and Timeline Archived August 2003, 4, at the Wayback Machine. --Lorken Farms Labradors website
- ^ This photo has descriptions of both "Labrador Retriever" and "St. John's Dog".
- ^ a b c Robbins, Joyce; Pam Naranjo and Gina Gross. “Fox Red Labradors: History of the Shade”. Little River Labradors. As of January 2015, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ "Labrador Genealogy”. UP Labradors. 2007/10/3Browse.
- ^ a b Vanderwyk, Jack. “Origins of Chocolate Labradors". 2011/12/2Browse.
- ^ a b c d e "Labrador Retriever Breed Standard”. American Kennel Club (March 1994, 3). 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ a b "Sporting breeds: Labrador Retriever." animalforum.com. (c) 1998–2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
- ^ a b Retriever (Labrador) Breed Standard Archived August 2011, 10, at the Wayback Machine.. The Kennel Club.
- ^ "Silver Labrador Controversy: Official Statements". 2012/6/13Browse.
- ^ "The Genetics Of Brindle And Tan Point Labrador Retrievers”. Labradornet. As of May 2012, 5オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012/4/9Browse.
- ^ Davol, Pamela A .. “B / b, E / e, and Beyond: A Detailed Examination of Coat color Genetics in the Labrador Retriever". 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ Sophie I. Candille, Christopher B. Kaelin, Bruce M. Cattanach, Bin Yu, Darren A. Thompson, Matthew A. Nix, Julie A. Kerns, Sheila M. Schmutz, Glenn L. Millhauser, Gregory S. Barsh (November 2007) ). “A β-Defensin Mutation Causes Black Coat Color in Domestic Dogs”. Science 318 (5855): 1418–1423. two:10.1126 / science.1147880. PMC 2906624. PMID 17947548.
- ^ a b c d e f Wagner, Sharon; Laura Michaels. “Pigment in Yellow Labradors". 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ "Labrador Retriever Breed Standards Comparison Chart”. Canada's Guide to Dogs Website (March 2006, 3). As of July 14, 2011オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2006/3/14Browse.
- ^ a b Davol, Pamela A .. “History of the Labrador Retriever". 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ a b Michaelsons, Laura. “English or American Labrador?”. Woodhaven Labradors. 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ Wiest, Mary (2002). “Splitting the Breed” (PDF). Labrador Quarterly 2.635 (3) 2007/9/2Browse..
- ^ AKC member club standard: "The height at the withers for a dog is 22½ to 24½ inches; for a bitch is 21½ to 23½ inches." and Kennel Club standard: "Ideal height at withers: dogs: 56–57 cms (22–22½ ins); bitches: 55–56 cms (21½–22 ins).” Archived August 2011, 10, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ a b c "Labrador Retrievers”. BBC News (February 2001, 5). 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ Dougherty, Josephina. “Labrador Retrievers: The Perfect Companion & Family Dogs”. Ecology Photographic. As of January 2007, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ Davis / Diamond, Kathy. “Labrador Retriever Revelations". 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ "Labrador Retriever FAQs”. Labradors4rescue, Inc. 2007/9/14Browse.
- ^ a b "All About ID Tags." all-about-labradors.com. (c) 2006–2007. Retrieved on September 18, 2007.
- ^ "'Lost' Dogs." The Dog Rescue Net. Last updated on April 24, 2006. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
- ^ "Rescue News." The Labrador Rescue Trust Limited. Summer 2006. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
- ^ "ATTS Breed Statistics as of August 2010”. American Temperament Test Society, Inc .. 2010/8/6Browse.
- ^ Moore, Cindy. “Working Dogs". 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ a b Moore, Cindy Tittle. “Service Dogs". 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ "The Hunting Dog --Duck-Hunting Dogs". 2011/3/17Browse.
- ^ "Pointing Labrador". 2011/9/10Browse.
- ^ Blystone, Richard; Mallary Gelb (August 2000, 8). “Assistance dogs are trained as partners for the disabled”. CNN.com. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 5. 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ "thought this was Bark-lays bank”. Metro. 2007/2/28Browse.
- ^ “Bonewatch: The doggy lifeguards that leap from helicopters to save stranded swimmers”. Daily Mail(July 2010, 8) 2011/1/15Browse.
- ^ Kern, Kerry V; Earle-Bridges, Michele (1995). Labrador retrievers: everything about purchase, care, nutrition, diseases, breeding, and behavior. Barron's. P. 9. ISBN 0-8120-9018-7
- ^ Newton, CD; Nunamaker, DM (Eds.) "Textbook of Small Animal Orthopedics"Published by the International Veterinary Information Service (Riser, Rhodes and Newton). P. 2.
- ^ a b "Labrador Retriever”. Canine Inherited Disorders Database. As of September 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/14Browse.
- ^ "Hip dysplasia statistics”. Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (2006). As of August 2007, 8オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ Mitchell, P. “Canada's Guide to Dogs: Health Concerns for the Labrador Retriever". 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ Davol, Pamela A. “Skeletal muscle myopathy". 2007/9/14Browse.
- ^ "Exercise Induced Collapse in Labrador Retrievers | Labrador Retriever Pictures, Articles & Forum”. Just Labradors. 2012/4/9Browse.
- ^ "Lean Labradors Retrievers Live Longer --Obesity, the number one nutritional problem in dogs”. Justlabradors.com. 2012/4/9Browse.
- ^ "Purina Life Span Study”. Purina Pet Institute. As of October 2007, 10オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008/9/4Browse.
- ^ a b Dollevoet, Lori. “Origins of Labrador Retrievers”. Lorken Farms. As of August 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ a b c d e Teslenko, Olga. “History of Retrievers in Russia”. The Russian Retriever Club. 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ "The Right Breed”. Stanley Coren, Puppy and Dog basics (2007). 2007/9/28Browse. – Stanley Coren is a Professor of Psychology and author of many books on dogs and dog cognition.
- ^ "The Ultimate Labrador Retriever”. Howell Book House (April 2003, 4). 2007/9/28Browse.
- ^ "National Registration Statistics”. Australian National Kennel Council (2006). As of September 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ "Labrador Retriever — breed description & information”. Canada's Guide to Dogs / P. Mitchell (September 2007, 9). 2007/9/26Browse.
- ^ "Labrador most popular dog in Israel”. Ynetnews (April 2009, 4). 2009/5/12Browse.
- ^ "Most popular dog breeds in New Zealand”. Dogstuff.co.nz (2007). As of September 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/26Browse. "The Labrador Retriever remains New Zealand's most popular dog ...." --John Perfect, NZ Kennel Club President.
- ^ a b c "Registration statistics for all recognized dog breeds, 2005 and 2006”. UK Kennel Club (2006). As of September 2009, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ a b c "AKC Dog Registration Statistics”. American Kennel Club (2006). 2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ Edwards, Jim (March 2007). “WSAVA Monthly News --March, 2007”. World Veterinary Association. As of May 2008, 5オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ a b Devantier, Alecia T; Turkington, Carol (2007). Extraordinary Jobs with Animals. Ferguson. P. 20. ISBN 978-1-4381-1170-4
- ^ "ANKC Hall of Fame”. Australian National Kennel Council. As of September 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/13Browse.
- ^ a b Lanternier, Thomas; Philippe Canal (2004–2005). “Database Statistics”. As of May 2007, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2007/9/13Browse. (A historic mirror of this page is available at)
- ^ a b Vanderwyk, Jack (2004–2005). “Labrador Statistics". 2007/9/13Browse.[Broken link]
- ^ Burnam p. XI
- ^ a b Burnam p. XIV
- ^ Burnam p. 277-278
- ^ Burnam p. 278
- ^ Burnam p. 270-271
- ^ Saint-Pierre, Ric. "The Labernese: A new breeding serving humans." surprise. Retrieved on February 18, 2007.
- ^ "Hero dog to the rescue". Petersfield Herald (February 2001, 6). As of February 4, 2007オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2001-June-4Browse. “The pair have appeared on television all over the country demonstrating how specially trained dogs can help profoundly disabled people. This week, as they recovered from their ordeal at the Steep home of Canine Partners for Independence, the group who trained Endal, Allen praised his four legged companion: “We've given so many demonstrations on how Endal should go into action if I fall out of my wheelchair but last Thursday Endal did it for real” ... Endal was voted Dog of the Millennium by Dogs Today readers and Beta Pet Foods, Dog of the Year by the charities Pro Dogs and Pets As Therapy, and was the first ever winner of the Golden Bonio Award. ”
- ^ "Endal, December 2006". Illinois Springer Spaniel Rescue.As of August 2007, 10オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/6/20Browse.
- ^ "TV crew making film of partners' year". K9 Perspective Magazine, Issue 27. 2012/10/17Browse.
- ^ "Crufts 2006 eventful for Allen and Endal". K9 Perspective Magazine, Issue 27. 2012/10/17Browse.
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- ^ Blass, Evan. "DVD-sniffing dogs awarded medals, returning to NYC." Engadget. August 20, 2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
- ^ Chan, Sewell. "Fresh Off Malaysian Triumph, DVD-Sniffing Dogs Tackle New York." New York Times. August 28, 2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
- ^ Blass, Evan. "DVD pirates put out hits on Lucky and Flo the crime dogs." Engadget. March 22, 2007. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
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- ^ "Handler never gave up on lost army dog”. ABC News (November 2009, 11). As of November 12, 2009オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2009/11/14Browse.
- ^ Dobnik, Verena (July 2007, 7). “Dog who searched for survivors after 9/11, Katrina, has died”. The Associated Press (Newsday) 2007/8/1Browse.
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- Burnam, John C. MSG Retired. A Soldier's Best Friend; Scout Dogs and their Handlers in the Vietnam War. Sterling Publishing, NY, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4027-5447-0.
- Cunliffe, Juliette (2004). The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds. Parragon Publishing. ISBN 0-7525-8276-3
- Fergus, Charles (2002). Gun Dog Breeds, a Guide to Spaniels, Retrievers, and Pointing Dogs. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-618-5
- Smith, Steve (2002). The Encyclopedia of North American Sporting Dogs: Written by Sportsmen for .... Willow Creek Press. Pp. 107–125. ISBN 1572235012
- List of dog breeds
- Golden retriever
- Curly Coated Retriever
- Flat Coated Retriever
- Wavy Coated Retriever
- Chesapeake Bay Retriever
- Joao Fernandez Labrador