Volunteer keeper who was attacked by a cheetah and had a big bleeding.
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However, hunters, including trophy hunting (hobby hunting), say that they will drop a lot of money, and there are even facilities for breeding lions there.
A volunteer keeper who was taken to the hospital full of wounds.The distrust of the garden caused a great trauma.South Ahu ... → Continue reading
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Trophy hunting(English: Trophy hunting) Is displayed as a proof of the killingStuffedFor the purpose of personal souvenirs (trophy) such asWild animals Ofhunting..This entertainment hunting (game)[Annotation 1]What is required of is exceptionally largeHornsIt is a male with a magnificent and impressive decoration.Generally, only parts of the animal (usually the head, fur, weapons) are stored as souvenirs.For similar entertainment huntingSports hunting, Game hunting.
There are strong supporters and strong opponents of trophy hunting.The debate over trophy hunting is about entertaining hunting.moralSexual or hunting competitionsRanch huntingThere are concerns not only about the conservation activities of the trophy, but also about the decrease in the number of animal species targeted for trophy hunting.
Trophy hunting, which was done in Africa (by the Western powers of the time), is still done in many African countries.International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation)CIC) Is the Food and Agriculture Organization ()FAO) In 2008, according to a survey supported by the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Revenues from seven hunting trips were about US $ 7 million..Although the practice of trophy hunting has shifted to hunting on ranches and farms, its game ranch has encouraged the legalization of trophy hunting as an aspect of the tourism industry in Africa.Africa's first recreational hunting ranch was founded in the 1960s and this concept isMouse arithmeticSoared to the ceremony.. According to 2000 statistics, there are about 7000 recreational hunting animal farms in South Africa. (Game farm) It was shown that the same planned site was created over about 1,600 million hectares...Amusement hunting ranches attract a large number of wealthy tourists and foreign investors interested in hunting.
Economists at Large ReportThe site examined how small the amount of money actually reached the local community.International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW)[Annotation 3]"Although there are bold claims that trophy hunting can generate millions of dollars in revenue for poor local communities, there is no evidence of this. Money entering Africa from hunting is to see wildlife," said Jeff Flocken. It's far inferior to the billions of dollars generated by lone tourists. If lions and other animals continue to disappear from Africa, this is an important source of revenue (a resource-saving tourism industry). ) Will disappear and will have a negative impact on people throughout Africa. ".
But South Africa's Minister of the EnvironmentDisagrees with Vlokken's conclusions, claiming that the hunting industry has contributed millions to the South African economy over the past few years. About 2010 billion in the 11 hunting seasonlandThe total income of the trophy was generated by the local industry and the trophy hunting industry.According to Morewa, "This amount is for accommodation and type.[Annotation 4]It reflects only the revenue generated through.This amount does not include the resulting revenue generated by synergistic effects through related industries, so the real revenue will increase significantly. ".
Cecil shot deadAwareness of the sport has risen worldwide in response to public protests.According to the U.S. government, the country's federal protected speciesFlorida pantherIs considered extinct.
Several states, such as Colorado, Utah, and Washington, have recently proposed increasing puma hunting for a variety of reasons, and California is currently the only western ban on puma hunting..
ブーン＆クロケット・クラブ (Boone and Crockett Club) Claims that they chose to kill old males to help restore many endangered large amusement and hunting animals at the turn of the 20th century.[Annotation 6]..The organization continues to promote this practice and monitors the success of conservation efforts through its own Big Game Records..
North American trophy hunting, vanity hunting[Annotation 7]Some argue that it should not be confused with.In fact, the Bourne & Croquet Club does not recognize this practice and claims to be active in opposition to it...However, even in North America, "Ranch hunting", which pays for the hunting, has become apparent.
Ranch hunting is a large beast hunting where hunted animals are specially bred on the ranch for trophy hunting. (Big-game hunting) It is a form of.
Inhabiting IndiaBlack back,Nilgai,Axis deer,Bala Singh Deer, Inhabiting IranMouflonVarious types of deer, sheep, antelopes, and many huntable animal species such as tigers and lions inhabiting Africa, Asia and the Pacific Islands are used for trophy hunting purposes.Texas,FloridaIt was decided to be introduced to the ranch of.
Generally, these animals are hunted for a fee each time they are killed, allowing hunters who pay more than $ 4,000 to shoot rare hunting animals...Many of these species are in their natural habitatEndangered speciesOr it is an endangered species, and the US government requires that conservation efforts in the living areas of these animals be given 10% of the hunting fee.Endangered species hunting in the United States is usuallyEndangered Species ActAlthough it is illegal in the United States, it is permitted on these farms because it is a rare animal that does not originally inhabit the United States.
(Humane Society of the United States) Are still hunting endangered animals, even if they were specially bred for hunting purposes, and hunters who use these ranches and ranches. Is criticizing.
huntingauction(Game auction) is a hunting animal breeding ground andForbidden areaHelps to provide wildlife to.These facilities are important for tourism in Africa (one of the continent's largest economic sectors), for example.South Africa's GDPOccupies about 5% of..South Africa, in particular, is a major tourist destination on the continent, and as a result operates numerous hunting auctions, farms and wildlife.Hunting auctions serve as a competitive market for farm and refuge owners to bid and buy animals for their facilities.Animals purchased at these auctions are generally carried directly as (targets for) entertainment hunting or bred to increase the number of animals in the future.The animals used for breeding are generally females, which have a higher average price than males due to their potential for breeding..
In addition to gender, other factors that influence animal prices at auction include demand for a particular species (based on its overall rarity) and the cost of maintaining animals (such as food costs)..ivoryAnd Tsuno KibapoachingAnimals such as rhinoceros and elephants, which have become of increasing interest to others, are usually not bought or sold at auction because they pose an additional risk to the operation of hunting animal farms.But other herbivores, among othersUngulateTends to be significantly higher bids than carnivores..Prices for these animals can reach hundreds of thousands of rand in South Africa (equivalent to tens of thousands of dollars in the United States).
Trophy hunting is legal in many countries..However, there are restrictions on the species that can be hunted, when they can be hunted, and the weapons that can be used, and permission and consent from the government are required.[Annotation 8]..The laws specific to trophy hunting have various standards, and some areas uniformly prohibit trophy hunting.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Kenya,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euEtc. are countries that have chosen to ban trophy hunting.The United States in 1973Endangered Species ActPassed a law called.. For thisShinrin Bison,Polar bearThe intention was to stop many hunters from hunting and buying and selling endangered species in the United States, which are considered honorable..
Impact on conservation activities
Trophy huntingBritish colonyIntroduced by the wildlife-rich era, it is by no means part of African culture.Kenya and TanzaniaMasaiIs now worried about the decline in the number of lionsRite of passageTo protect the lion, Decided to reduce the size of the herd of cattle they lead.
Some people claim that "if it pays it stays" that protecting wildlife areas can be achieved by providing economic stimulus, "Conservation Biology". "Journal of Sustainable Tourism""Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use" "Animal Conservation"There are some studies in. There is concern that the same species targeted by trophy hunters (according to the same study) is an important individual in the herd.It is now estimated that there are only about 40 elephants, but there are enough elephants to reach the ground.The tusks of mature male elephants are the tusks (symbols) of sturdiness that breed females, and are currently known to have a stable effect on young females...The lion's target preferred by trophy hunters is impressiveManeA mature male lion with a lion, such a male is a "boss" lion, and losing him is equivalent to the loss of 20 lions (the lion who succeeded the new "boss" after death is the young male. (To kill the lions).
TanzaniaIs estimated to account for 40% of the lion population.Wildlife authorities in the country use trophy hunting as a protective measure[how?]It claims that it was able to maintain that number (compared to countries such as Kenya, where the number of lions plummeted).Trophy hunting generated about $ 2008 million in Tanzania's economy between 2011 and 7500, according to the Director of Wildlife, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Tanzania..
Impact on animal population
When poorly managed, trophy hunting has an ecological adverse effect on target species (changes in age and gender structure, Social turmoil, Harmful genetic effects, And even the population decline due to excessive overcatch)Threatening conservation activitiesAffects trends in non-target species..The role of wildlife conservation in the industry has also been hampered by governments and hunting operators, with insufficient profits in the local community and reduced incentives for wildlife conservationists.It is also undermined by unethical activities such as canned hunting, which gathers negative press...Locals may hunt certain species (especially carnivorous animals such as leopards), but these carnivores by excluding adult males from the population.Child killingIs known to increase..Males are hunted for trophy hunting more often than females.However, the elimination of these males will continue to degrade the herds and populations they create for the purpose of surviving and leaving offspring..ボツワナ,Zambia,ZimbabweHunting regulations and legislation have been proposed in African countries such as, which propose a certain percentage or threshold of community population for these species, but census of carnivorous animals is very difficult to implement due to their mobility..
Smithsonian InstitutionAnd the World Wildlife Fund (now:World Wildlife Fund), The wildlife population has declined at an astonishing rate of 1970% since 52., This is especially concentrated in mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles.The decline is due to several reasons, including overfishing, overexploitation, habitat loss, pollution and climate change..
Impact of habitat loss
A paper by Nigel Leader-Williams et al., Published in the 2005 journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy, was published in South Africa.White rhinoHe asserted that the legalization of hunting motivated private landowners to reintroduce this species into their land.As a result, the number of white rhinos increased from less than 100 to more than 11,000...Leader-Williams' study also showed that trophy hunting in Zimbabwe doubles wildlife areas compared to national protected areas.The introduction of controlled and legislated hunting has led to an increase in the area of suitable land available to elephants and other wildlife, which is "as opposed to the problem of habitat loss, already large elephant populations in Zimbabwe. Helps maintain a sustained increase in the number of elephants. ".
A scientific study by Diogo Andrade, published in the journal Biological Conservation, found that trophy hunting was "really important to Africa's conservation efforts, a vast area (a land of wildlife such as photography ecotourism). Create economic stimulus for conservation activities in areas that may not be suitable for alternative use). "..Economic stimulus from trophy hunting is more than twice as effective in the land area used for wildlife conservation as compared to those that rely solely on national parks to protect them, according to a study published in the same magazine..
Inhabiting the wild, according to American author and journalist Richard ConniffBlack rhinoOf the approximately 5,000, 1,750 live in Namibia.The number of zebras in the mountains of Namibia increased from 1982 in 1,000 to 2014 in 27,000.The number of elephants shot elsewhere for ivory purposes increased from 1995 to 15,000 in 20,000.Endangered lions heading "from Senegal to Kenya" are on the rise in Namibia.
Financial support for conservation activities
International Union for Conservation of NatureRecognizes that well-managed trophy hunting could create meaningful economic stimulus for target species protection and habitat protection outside protected areas..
Published in the academic journal "Animal Conservation"A study by Peter Lindsay et al. Concludes that most trophy hunters are concerned about the protection, ethical, and social issues posed by hunting...The study interviewed 150 Americans who hunted in Africa or 3 Americans who had planned to hunt within the last three years.For example, in the wildAfrican wild dog,CheetahHunters have asserted that hunting motivation is much lower than the perceptions of hunters, saying that the area was shot illegally, and that there are more concerns about social issues than the operators recognize, and the local people live there. It has been shown that there is a great deal of motivation for hunting in areas that are still benefiting from hunting.Eighty-six percent of hunters prefer hunting in areas where they know that some of their revenue will be returned to the local community...thereforeCertificate systemMakes it possible for hunters to choose businesses that benefit the local people and are also willing to engage in conservation efforts..
Puma hunting quotas are negatively impacting the animal's population[Need explanation].Washington State UniversityAccording to Robert Weagles, director of the Institute for Large Carnivore Conservation, if too many pumas are killed, the problem of population movement becomes visible.Male pumas are very territorially conscious and often kill companions and other pup pumas in search of females within the territory and to make room for their pups.Often, these are hormonally active and unpredictable young "adolescent" males.
These "adolescent" lions are primarily responsible for killing livestock and dealing with unwanted humans.In addition, they often force females with pups into hideouts and new territories, forcing females to hunt new prey that is different from what they used to be.
"As a basic minimum, this repeated puma hunting actually caused all the problems we identified," Weagles said in his study..
According to GC Dry, the former president of South Africa's Wildlife Ranch, wildlife ranch is a major contributor to South Africa's economy.He argues that commercial wildlife ranch management is about proper land use and rural development.It's not about animals, it's about the wealthy whites, it's not about the cost of conservation efforts, it's about financial sustainability...Dry asserts that commercial wildlife ranches are ecologically relevant, economically sustainable, politically sensitive and socially fair land use options.[Annotation 9].
International Union for Conservation of NatureIs about hunting and nature maintenanceReportsAmong them, trophy hunting is sustainable when well-managed and can create important economic stimuli for the protection of target species, but the legality and sustainability of some hunting practices. It also reports that there are grounded concerns about ethics.The document concludes that in some contexts there may be effective and feasible alternatives to trophy hunting that can provide the above benefits, but it is influential in identifying, funding and implementing them. Needs sincere consultation and collaboration with certain governments, the welfare sector, and local communities.
Regulations and bans, their impact
The US Fish and Wildlife Service has imposed an import ban (for some trophies).The ban is limited to stuffed elephants from Zimbabwe and Tanzania in 2014-2015 and is likely to be expanded..
In 2001, Botswana banned lion hunting for a year..Previously, they allowed 50 lions to be hunted each year, but hunters preferred the lion with the largest mane, causing a shortage of mature males...After the ban, (former president'sGeorge HW BushThere are also prominent members such as) to the Botswana governmentLobbyingAnd let me revoke this ban.
In 2014, Botswana again banned trophy hunting, and villagers now complain that they are losing income from trophy hunters, suffering crop field damage caused by elephants and buffaloes and lions killing livestock..
In contrast,University of California, BerkeleyAccording to Lawrence Frank, a zoologist and director of the conservation group Living with Lions, Kenya, which banned trophy hunting in 1977, has seen a 70% reduction in wildlife.Effective implementation of animal protection is a disaster, according to Frank, as the government has no stimulus to protect wildlife..
Restrictions on lion hunting may reduce tolerances for the species among communities where locals benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce the amount of money available to prevent poaching..
Opponents have expressed strong opposition to trophy hunting, based on the belief that it is immoral and lacks financial contribution to the communities affected by trophy hunting and conservation efforts.For exampleNational geographicIn 2015, it released a report stating that political corruption was blocking elephant hunting fees (especially in Zimbabwe) from moving towards conservation efforts and that authorities were taking the fees themselves.The government is also surrounding more wildlife areas to benefit from poaching and trophy hunting.Similarly, Australia-based Economists at Large's 2017 report states that trophy hunting accounts for less than 8% of tourism revenue in eight African countries..
2009 yearsInternational Union for Conservation of NatureAccording to the (IUSN) report, the region around West Africa has benefited little from the hunting-safari project.Trophy hunting has received a great deal of international attention as a result of incidents such as the murder of the lion Cecil, and there is widespread negative awareness of this practice in many general public sectors...Both the public and scholars are paying close attention to trophy hunting and the ethics of the facility.Generally speaking, ethical arguments against trophy hunting and sports hunting practices are structured as exploiting and abusive to animals...Wildlife amusement hunting can affect the reproductive and social processes of animal species, as well as increase the aggression between species and ultimately the stability of another wildlife community. Evidence has been found to indicate that.
Opponents also point out that the genetic health and social behavior of the species is adversely affected by hunters killing the largest or most important male of the species. Killing the most important animals (eg from the size of the horns and manes) can have a serious impact on the health of the species population.As Dr. Rob Quenelle states, "Secondary sex characteristicsGood males with large traits tend to be fathers with a high proportion of offspring, and their "great genes" can spread rapidly, so a herd of animals sexually selected by strength is a new environment. Can be quickly adapted to.Killing these males reverses this effect and can have serious and unintended consequences.If the herd needs to adapt to a new environment and kills some of these good-natured males, you (hunters) could drive it to extinction. There is ".
[Annotation 10]Quoted from "A November 2004 study by the University of Port Elizabeth in a private banned areaEco tourismEstimated to generate more than 15 times the income from livestock or hunting animal breeding and travel hunting. (1)Eastern CapeThe ecotourism lodge is about 1 rand (about 2000 yen) per ha.[Annotation 11]Is producing. "The researchers also noted that more jobs were created and staff received "extensive skills training.".
2016 yearsUS House of RepresentativesThe Natural Resources Commission has concluded that trophy hunting may be an extinction factor for certain animals... The 25-page report is "Missing the Mark"It is called.
A Nigerian environmental activist and board member of the Health of Mother Earth Foundation declared in November 2017 that "African wildlife was destroyed by trophy hunters.".
Nature maintenance organizations such as the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) and the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) have trophy hunting.GiraffeConcludes that it is the main cause of "quiet extinction".. IFAWCITESAccording to database analysis, 2004 million animals were killed by trophy hunters between 2014 and 170, of which about 20 were endangered..
Trophy hunting is also opposed by (California Animal Conservation Organization, IDA), which is based on the glory that trophy hunters do not aim to protect, but instead hunt and kill the largest and rarest animals. The purpose is listed.They claim that trophy hunters aren't even interested in saving endangered animals, and on the contrary are willing to accept very high payments for permission to kill endangered species..
PETAAlso opposes trophy hunting on the grounds that it is unnecessary and cruel. The opposition by PETA is based on the moral reason of hunting as a sport.It is argued that the pain that animals struggle with cannot be justified by the pleasures that hunters enjoy.
League Against Cruel Sports also opposes trophy hunting because killing animals that are hunted as trophies is still unjustified, even if they are not endangered.They are working to argue that economic gain is a false justification for the continuation of inhumane sports.
Elephant conservation groups are convinced that elephants will generate significant income from tourists who want to see them alive.Their 2013 report claims that "if they live, they benefit the local community and economy. When they die, they benefit criminals and even terrorist groups.".
National Shooting Sports Foundation (National Shooting Sports Foundation) Other private organizations such as contributed more than $ 2005 in 40Small private organizations are also funding a fair amount (for example, Grand Slam Club Ovis had a base amount of $ 2017 million in 115 to protect sheep)...Proponents of amusement hunting and trophy hunting argue that the economic benefits of this practice are essential for ecotourism-inactive or unpopular countries...In addition, locals in the African countryside have expressed tensions between the human community and certain species that harm themselves and livestock.People in those communities rely heavily on current hunting regulations that allow retaliation or preemption against the threat posed by these species...Programs such as the Zimbabwe's Joint Resource Area Management Plan (CAMPFIRE) capture wildlife in the framework of renewable resources and sell it to individuals such as safari owners and amusement hunting ranch owners so that landowners can do it themselves. Introduced to benefit from wildlife on the land..Apart from the economic benefits provided by the program, CAMPFIRE stops illegal poaching and hunting in certain areas and makes it easier for farmers to access essential resources that occasionally have to compete with animal populations. Also plays a role in supporting.
Organizations that support trophy hunting as a means of conservation include the Boone & Croquet Club, the National Wildlife Federation, The Wilderness Society, the Isaac Walton Federation of the United States, the North American Wildlife Foundation, the American Outdoor Writers Association, Ducks Unlimited, and the World Wild. Biological Fund (currently:World Wildlife Fund), American Forestry Association, American Wildlife Law Development Fund,The Wildlife Society,IUCNand so on[Reliability required verification].
PantheraAnd its ecosystem conservation groups (Panthera Corporation) The chairman of the trophy hunting has given African governments economic stimulus to keep safari areas pristine in nature, and hunting is the most effective way to conserve pristine nature in many parts of Africa. Claims to continue to exist.
- Efforts for their conservation activities.For example, strict adherence to hunting quotas and contributions to poaching prevention activities.
- How profitable they are and how they interact with the locals.
- Whether you are in compliance with the agreed ethical standards.
Certificate system challenges
However, the introduction of the certificate system requires cooperation between hunters, nature maintenance activists and the government, and challenges remain...It also demands difficult-to-answer questions such as "What constitutes ethical hunting? Who is building the local community and what is of sufficient benefit to them?" Be done..Some researchers continue to express concern that allowing trophy hunting of endangered animals could possibly adversely affect conservation efforts and send false messages to influential people around the world. There is.For example, it has been pointed out that hunting permits could suggest that such relief is not needed, and that people will donate a small amount of money to conservation organizations..
The controversy over trophy hunting became even more heated when U.S. dentist Walter Palmer's photo of the lion Cecil (and himself) spread online and was criticized. It was.Palmer is an experienced and greedy large prey hunter who reportedly paid more than $ 5 to hunt and kill the lion.
The lion Cecil was one of the most well-known and studied lions in Zimbabwe.The lion was lured out of the park, injured by an arrow and chased for 40 hours before Cecil was killed.Palmer is reportedly fascinated by Cecil's unusual black mane.It would have been illegal to kill Cecil if he was in the park.The park lure performed by dentist Palmer and his hired hunter was not approved by Zimbabwean trophy hunting officials.Initially, the Zimbabwean court ruled that his killing was illegal, but the charges against the hunters hired by Palmer were eventually withdrawn..
Thousands of people visited sites on social media and blamed Palmer's actions.There was even a Facebook page to blame.
Trophy hunters imported more than 2005 million commemorative stuffed animals (trophy) into the United States in the 2014 years from 10 to 126.Canada was the main source of its imports.
The top 2005 trophies imported into the United States between 2014 and 10 are:
- Snow goose 111,366
- Mallard 104,067
- Canadian cancer 70,585
- American bear 69,072
- Impala 58,423
- Ogronoo 52,473
- Kudu 50,759
- Oryx 40,664
- Spring box 34,023
- Bontebok 32,771
The trophy species "Big 2005" imported into the United States from 2014 to 5 is a general term for the following animals, which total about 32,500 from Africa.
Mexico has a hunting industry worth about $ 2 million and about 4,000 hunting ranches.
- (Big five game) --Amusement hunting for the "Big 5" animals mentioned above
- Fox hunting (blood sports)
- (Green hunting) - Tranquillizer gunNon-killing hunting with
- ""-A short story of the mid-20th century that explored the hunting philosophy of pure entertainment.movies"Most Dangerous Island''Run towards the sun] And other original works.
- ^ In Europe and the United States, the tradition of hunting as a hobby or entertainment is flourishing, and it is not uncommon to call entertainment hunting a "game."However, shooting and killing animals is difficult to gain international understanding in "games", and to change the impression, hunting for these entertainments is "Sports huntingIn other words.
- ^ It is commonly known as the trophy room, but it is also called the game room or gun room.
- ^ In short, the International Fund for Animal Welfare.The literal translation is around the "International Fund for Animal Welfare", but several major Japanese dictionaries use the "International Fund for Animal Welfare" as the standard translation..
- ^ When trophy hunting on a recreational hunting ranch or breeding ground, you pay a set fee for each animal you kill.This is called a species fee.See below# Ranch huntingSee.
- ^ The literal translation is "canned lion."An industry in which wild lions of children are bred in cages or fences and sold as targets for entertainment hunting.Amusement hunting to kill various animals in the area surrounded by fences, not limited to lions (canned hunting) To say.
- ^ This non-profit organization does not exterminate wildlifesustainabilityAdvocates some ethical hunting behavior.English version for detailsen: Fair chaseSee.
- ^ The translation is "hunting for vanity."BraggingegoPay a large amount of money to kill captured animals (large horns, etc.) for the purpose of satisfying.
- ^ For example, in JapanHunting licenseOnly when the person who obtained the certificate is registered with the local government and the "hunter's insignia" is issued.Wildlife protection lawIt is legal to hunt after observing various regulations (designated hunting birds and beasts, hunting period, etc.).
- ^ End with watching animals and taking picturesEco tourismThe premise of a wildlife ranch and the trophy hunting premise of a game ranch are different.The dry story is an advantage of the former, and applying it to trophy hunting is an expanded interpretation.sophistryIt may be.
- ^ The fixed translation is unknown.Translated literally, it means something like "a cruel anti-sports federation."
- ^ Conversion based on the average rate at the time of 2004 (1 land = 16.78 yen).
- ^ Kotobank "What is trophy hunting?'Asahi ShimbunFrom the explanation of the posted "keywords".
- ^ "TROPHY HUNTING (noun) definition and synonyms | Macmillan Dictionary" (English). www.macmillandictionary.com. 2020/12/3Browse.
- ^ Akihito Yasuda "Forefront of Wildlife Conservation in Africa XNUMX Trophy Hunting and Community Now in Africa"Wildlife Forum" 18 (1) 2013. 32 pages.
- ^ BusinessWeek On the hunt for a gun room ?: Business celebrates a love of firearms, hunting big animals, Knight Ridder, 10/11/2009 (retrieved 10/11/2009)
- ^ http://www.cic-wildlife.org/fileadmin/Press/Technical_Series/EN/8_.pdf[Broken link]
- ^ a b Cloete, PC; Taljaard, PR; Grov ?, B. (April 2007). “A comparative economic case study of switching from cattle farming to game ranching in the Northern Cape Province”. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 37 (1): 71-78. two:10.3957 / 0379-4369-37.1.71. ISSN 0379 4369.
- ^ a b c d Van der Merwe, P .; Saayman, M .; Krugell, W. (2004-12-19). “Factors that determine the price of game”. Koedoe 47 (2). two:10.4102 / koedoe.v47i 2.86. ISSN 2071 0771.
- ^ Kotobank "What is IFAW?From the commentary on Digital Daijisen and Daijirin.
- ^ "Opinion: Why Are We Still Hunting Lions?”. News.nationalgeographic.com (August 2013, 8). 2014/2/22Browse.
- ^ "Molewa: Hunting brings much to South Africa's economy". 2021/2/6Browse.
- ^ Gigazine "The reality of the terrifying ranch management that raises even "mutated" animals to kill by hunting is revealedAugust 2015, 05
- ^ "Eastern Puma Declared Extinct, Removed From Endangered Species List”. Center for Biological Diversity (June 2015, 6). 2021/2/6Browse.
- ^ Reuters "Wildcat Eastern Cougar is extinct = US Interior Department Biological Bureau", The original isJiji Press, August 2011, 3
- ^ SABALOW, RYAN AND PHILLIP REESE. "WHY WE STILL KILL COUGARS: California votes banned mountain lion hunting three decades ago, but the shooting never stopped", The Sacramento Bee (November 3, 2017).
- ^ "BIG GAME TROPHIES AND TROPHY HUNTING". Boone and Crockett Club. 2017/2/7Browse.
- ^ Urban dictionary, "Vanity Hunting"by sparky1960, February 09, 2017
- ^ "Hunting Ethics". Boone and Crockett Club. Boone and Crockett Club. 2017/2/7Browse.
- ^ "Exotic Hunting | Texas'Best Exotic Hunting Ranch | V-Bharre Ranch | Texas' Premier Hunting Ranch | V-Bharre Ranch”. Huntingtexastrophies.com. 2014/2/22Browse.
- ^ "Texas Exotic Hunting --Texas trophy exotic hunting in West TX.". 2014/2/22Browse.
- ^ a b c d Dalerum, Fredrik; Miranda, Maria (2016-02-25). “Game auction prices are not related to biodiversity contributions of southern African ungulates and large carnivores”. Scientific Reports 6 (1): 21922. two:10.1038 / srep21922. ISSN 2045 2322. PMC 4766510. PMID 26911226.
- ^ McCarthy, Niall. “The Top Countries For US Trophy Hunters [Infographic]" (English). Forbes. 2020/5/30Browse.
- ^ Program, US Fish and Wildlife Service / Endangered Species. “Endangered Species Program | Laws & Policies | Endangered Species Act | A History of the Endangered Species Act of 1973". www.fws.gov. 2018/5/3Browse.
- ^ Service, US Fish and Wildlife. “Species Search Results". ecos.fws.gov. 2018/5/3Browse.
- ^ "FACING THE LION: By Maasai Warriors". maasai-association.org. 2021/2/3Browse.
- ^ C. PACKER; H. BRINK; BM KISSUI; H. MALITI; H. KUSHNIR; T. CARO (February 2011). “Effects of Trophy Hunting on Lion and Leopard Populations in Tanzania”. Conservation Biology 25 (1): 143-153. two:10.1111 / j.1523-1739.2010.01576.x. PMID 20825444.
- ^ Baker, Joni E. (1997). “Trophy Hunting as a Sustainable Use of Wildlife Resources in Southern and Eastern Africa”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5 (4): 306-321. two:10.1080/09669589708667294.
- ^ Hurt, Robin; Ravn, Pauline (2000). Hunting and Its Benefits: an Overview of Hunting in Africa with Special Reference to Tanzania. 295-313. two:10.1007 / 978-94-011-4012-6_15. ISBN 978-94-010-5773-8
- ^ PA Lindsey; R. Alexander; LG Frank; A. Mathieson; SS Roma? Ach (August 2006). “Potential of trophy hunting to create incentives for wildlife conservation in Africa where alternative wildlife-based land uses may not be viable”. Animal Conservation 9 (3): 283-291. two:10.1111 / j.1469-1795.2006.00034.x.
- ^ Dr Kate Evans, Elephants for Africa, "Bull elephants --the importance as individuals in elephant societies, Africa Geographic, Posted on April 5, 2019
- ^ Songorwa, Alexander N. (March 2013, 3). “The New York Times”. The New York Times (nytimes.com) 2014/2/22Browse.
- ^ Milner, JM; Nilsen, EB; Andreassen, HP (2007). “Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores”. Conservation Biology 21 (1): 36-47. two:10.1111 / j.1523-1739.2006.00591.x. PMID 17298509.
- ^ Rasmussen, HB; Okello, JB; Wittemyer, G; Siegismund, HR; Arctander, P; Vollrath, F (2007). “Age- and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants”. Behavioral Ecology 19 (1): 9-15. two:10.1093 / beheco / arm093.
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- Trophy hunting: Killing or conservation? --Documentary