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👆 | Go / Rina Fujisawa defeated, Japanese defeated Women's World War, online match


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Go, Rina Fujisawa defeated, Japanese defeated Women's World War, online match

 
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Affected by the spread of the new coronavirus infection, the game was played on the Internet.
 

On the 4th of the 20th Wu Qingyuan Cup World Women's Go Championship, the quarterfinals were hit on the Internet, and Rina Fujisawa's book ... → Continue reading

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Pandemic of New Coronavirus Infection (2019-)

Global pandemic of new coronavirus infections(Shingata coronavirus infectious disease,English: COVID-19 pandemic) IsNew coronavirus (COVID-2) OfinfectionCaused byAcute respiratory illness (COVID-19) OfPandemic(Pandemic).2019The epidemic started from the end, thisSpread of COVID-XNUMX infectionIn the process of stopping (Shingata coronavirus), the world system was reorganized.[2].

The whole worldInfectionBeing exposed to the danger ofLockdownAnd immigration restrictions,OlympicWe have fallen into a situation that humankind has not experienced in the past, such as postponement and reduction.PandemicIn various policies such as lockdown implemented to convergeAnti-globalism, AntiDemocracySome of the measures were required, which made a big difference in the world system.In the world after Corona, of social lifeOnlineOn the other hand, the freedom of action has retreated significantly compared to the past, and economic activity has shrunk significantly.Eating out,Tourism,leisure,Entertainment,Public transportationAnd so onOnlineThere are some commercial activities that cannot be transformed, and the situation of nesting steadily undermines the real economy.COVID-19 vaccineThere is an urgent need to restore freedom of action by inoculation ofNew normal(Human activityAdaptation to the new normal state of[3].

Since SARS-CoV-2 is a virus under research, the situation remains uncertain. As of October 2020, 10, infections have occurred in 2 countries and territories, with 215 infected, 34,205,773 dead and 1,021,576 recovered.[1]..In addition, the number of infected people in the world continues to grow exponentially. According to an analysis that in May 2021, about 5 million people died worldwide.Washington State UniversityAnnounced[4][5][6].WHOBut,1918Occurred inSpanish coldAs you can see from the comparison with the pandemic of[7],Human historyIt can be said that it is the worst class pandemic.

disease

2019March 11Wuhan City, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China"Unknown causeウ イ ル スsexpneumoniaWas confirmed for the first time, and then from Wuhan cityMainland ChinaInfection spread to other than ChinaCountryAnd expanded to the area[8].. The characteristics of the new coronavirus are so farSevere acute respiratory syndrome(SARS)Middle East respiratory syndromeIt was thought to be similar to (MERS), but due to its unprecedented high latency, it rapidly spread the infection by utilizing the economic activities of humankind.2020March 1who (WHO) is the 6th "Public health emergencies of international concern (PHEIC) ”declared[9] did. On February 2, the disease was rated "very high" at the highest level of risk for a global epidemic.[10], March 3,Tedros AdanomWHO Executive Secretary deviates from WHO standardsPandemicEquivalent to (pandemic)Expressed the recognition[11][12].

PandemicSince the outbreak, information has been confused with unprecedented situations, and in various parts of the world.Racism,ideologyProblems such as conflicts have become apparent.Although countries around the world have imposed immigration restrictions to prevent the influx of the new coronavirus, the new coronavirus, which has high latency such as poor subjective symptoms, has survived the border measures of each country and is prevalent in more than 180 countries and regions. Affect,Chugoku, South Korea,イタリア,スペインStartedJapanAnd Asian countries,Europe,AmericaA large-scale epidemic occurred[13].. As a result, one after another in major cities around the worldLockdown(City blockade・ Movement restrictions) were implemented, which hindered demand and the supply chain.Corona shockCaused a socio-economic impact called.In particular, a significant decrease in demand for businesses that cannot be digitized (especially sales in the travel, traditional culture, and event industries decreased by 2020% in May 5 compared to the same month of the previous year.[14]) And the turmoil in the supply chain caused serious damage to the real economy.After that, although attempts were made to balance economic activity and prevention of the spread of infection, the response of each country in the world was difficult, and as a result of the resumption of economic activity in many countries, the number of infected people in the world increased exponentially again. I started.In order to distinguish the society before and after the corona shock, terms such as "before corona", "under corona", "with corona", "after corona", and "post corona" are also proposed.[15]..Even now, there is no prospect of an end to the infectious disease epidemic.

Characteristics of new coronavirus infection

COVID-2と 呼 ば れ るCoronavirusIt is,Chugoku OfWuhan City, Hubei Province OfWuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale MarketFirst identified in[16].. SARS-CoV-2 is mainlycough,sneezeCame out withRespiratory dropletsOr through something that touches your hand, such as a doorknobInfluenza virusBy the same route asInfection between humansTo[17][18].Time from infection to onsetIs usually 5 days, but varies from 2 to 14 days depending on the person[18][19].

It is said to be a "warm virus"[20]As such, it exhibits characteristics that make it difficult for the host to detect the infection, and the virus is very easy to spread and also leads to sudden death.In many cases, even if infected, the condition remains asymptomatic, and there is little awareness of infection (becoming a carrier of the virus), but the symptoms areFever,cough,shortness of breath,tasteorSense of smellMay be accompanied by abnormalities, chills or chills, headache, sore throat, muscle pain, etc.[18][19][21].. As a complicationpneumonia,Acute respiratory distress syndromeMay be accompanied by.In the case of death, the patient's blood oxygen level dropped to a dangerous level without being aware of it (unawareness of severity), and even if he rushed to the hospital after the onset of suffocation, he could not wear the oxygen mask in time.Respiratory failureThere are many cases of death in[22]..Since it takes several hours to wear an oxygen mask, it is necessary for the infected person to go to a medical institution when there are no subjective symptoms, but even medical personnel can judge whether or not the condition has become severe if there are no subjective symptoms. It's hard to do.

Has a special effect on SARS-CoV-2Antiviral drugDoes not exist and research is underway. In clinical practice, symptom management andSupportive therapyEfforts are being made with a focus on. The recommended precautions areHand washingKeep a distance from the sick, and 14 days if you suspect an infectionSelf-isolationAnd taking follow-up, etc.[18].

On the other hand,PCR testI was hospitalized with a positive reaction, and after that, I was discharged because my symptoms had subsided. Possible reactivation of CoV-2 or another type of reinfection has been pointed out[23][24].

2020From the end2021Mutants have been reported all over the world, and it has been confirmed that the infectivity has become stronger than that of the previous SARS-CoV-2.[25][26].

Vaccine development and inoculation

In COVID-19vaccineSome development methods are notable in terms of technical breakthroughs.Originally, in order to ensure safety in the human body, vaccines are developed in a development period of several decades or more (100 years or more at the longest), but vaccine development has not been successful yet.HIV,malariaThere are many infectious diseases such as, and vaccine development was abandoned.SARSInfectious diseases such as[27]..Despite such high technical difficulties, it was necessary to develop in a very short period of less than one year in order to avoid the economic collapse and converge the pandemic.

2020,America OfPharmaceuticalCorporatePfizerとModernaIt is,mRNA vaccineHe argued that the new technology could overturn the conventional wisdom and significantly shorten the period of vaccine development, but the COVID-19 vaccine was the first to be put into practical use, and there are many unknowns about its safety.However, as of November of the same year, the COVID-11 vaccines of both companies are expected to be put into practical use at the fastest speed, and together with good clinical trial results, they are considered to be the most promising vaccines in the world. On November 19, Moderna announced tentative results that it was 11% effective for the vaccine under development.[28].. On November 11, Pfizer released its final analysis that it is 18% effective for the vaccine under development.[29].. On December 12, public COVID-8 vaccination began in the United Kingdom.At the earliest in Japan2021At the prospect of conclusion whether also approved during the month of February comes out, health care workers the government to prospect the late February anticipation of this, the elderly in the prospect of the end of March, with priority such as the subsequent people with underlying disease We are in a hurry to improve the system so that we can start inoculation.[30].. RNA, which is the main component of the mRNA vaccine, is easily destroyed when it is considered to be preserved, so it is used at ultra-low temperatures.Cold chainTechnology development is also urgent.

Also, of Japanese companiesAngesAlso announced that the second stage clinical trial of the COVID-19 vaccine has started, and the second stage clinical trial is expected to be completed around March 2.[31]..After that, after the final stage of clinical trials, it is expected that the AnGes vaccine will finally be put into practical use around the middle of the same year, so when compared with other countries, Japan will be far behind in the development of the COVID-19 vaccine.

However, it is difficult to identify infected persons with COVID-19, and it has been observed that even the above-mentioned Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines, which are considered to be the most promising, cannot be immunized for life, and from around the end of 2020, all over the world. Since mutant types are also appearing, we will continueSocial regulationIt is said that it will be necessary to carry out vaccination and regular vaccination every few months.[32]..Furthermore, medium- to long-term COVID-19 vaccineSide reaction(Side effects) Has not been fully verified and is still in a situation where it cannot be optimistic.

Epidemiology

back ground

Late June 2019,People's Republic of China OfWuhan City, Hubei ProvinceOf unexplained pneumoniaclusterA (small outbreak) outbreak was reported by health authorities. The first group of patients is mainlyWuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale MarketThe virus was found to be related toAnimal-induced infectionIs believed to have been[16].. The virus that caused this infection is the bat coronavirus[33],PangolinCoronavirus[34],andSARS coronavirus(SARS-CoV)[35] As a new virus closely related toCOVID-2Was named[36].. The virus is believed to be derived from the Greater Horseshoe Bat[37]..Prior to that, on December 12, the first symptoms occurred in a person who had no history of exposure to the Wuhan South China Seafood Wholesale Market or contact with the remaining 1 people in the first cluster where the new virus was detected. Was later found to have been reported[38].. Two-thirds of this first cluster(English edition)It was also found that they were selling live animals.[38].

Meanwhile, in November 2020Academic journalPublished in "Tumori Journal"イタリアCollected from September 2019 to March 9, according to a study by the National Cancer Institutelung cancerWhen the blood samples of the test examinees (959 people) were examined, 11.6% (111 people) of the samples were specific to the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).antibodyWas detected, and it was also detected in 2019% (9 persons) of the sample collected in September 14.From this, it is also pointed out that the virus may have spread to the world before the above-mentioned cases reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province.[39][40][41][42].

August 2020, 1,who(WHO) received an outbreak of infectious diseasePublic health emergencies of international concern Declared (PHEIC)[43].. WHOTedros Adanom[Question]As of February 2, the Executive Secretary said, "to avoid a significant number of cases," despite the possibility of persistent community transmission of the disease in other parts of the world. Maintained praise for China's response to the virus[44].

On March 3, in a discourse by the WHO Executive Secretary, "SmokingCOVID-19Increases the risk of aggravation of the disease. "[45].

Number of infected people

As of September 2020, 9, COVID-30 has killed more than 19 million people.[1].. According to the National Health Commission of China, the majority of people who died were elderly. About 80% of the deaths are older than 60 years and 75%Cardiovascular disease,Diabetes mellitusI had a chronic disease such as[46].

Death toll

For those who died of COVID-19, the number of days between onset of symptoms and death ranged from 6 to 41 days.MedianIs shown to be 14 days[19].


Secondary disability

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly deteriorated people's mental health[50]..Prevalence of depression doubled in OECD countries[50]..People suffered the most mental distress during March-April 2020.[50].

Before and after COVIDDepressionPrevalence of [50]
CountryBefore COVID2020
Australia10.427.6
Austrey7.721.0
ベルギー9.520.0
カナダ4.010.0
チ ェ コ10.011.8
France4.019.9
Greece4.722.8
イタリア5.517.3
Japan7.917.3
South KoreaN/A36.6
メキシコ3.027.6
スペインN/A18.7
スウェーデン10.830.0
英国9.719.2
米 国6.623.5

Spread of infection

2019

August, 2019

Information based on "Digital Infectious Diseases" as of June 2020Boston UniversityNora's research team was filmed from January 2018 to April 1WuhanAnalysis results of 111 satellite photos and internet search engineBaiduBased on the frequency with which specific symptoms were searched for, it is considered to be a symptom peculiar to COVID-19.diarrheaThe number of searches for "" surged in August, and the epidemic of the new coronavirus may have started in August, and diarrhea "may have played an important role in community-acquired infections."[51]Pointed out.However, the study does not reveal any objective facts as to whether it is due to COVID-19.[52].

August, 2019

2020年11月現在、イタリア国立がん研究所の研究によると、2019年9月から2020年3月までに肺がん検査を受診した受診者から採取した血液を調べたところ、11.6%の受診者から新型コロナウイルス(SARS-CoV-2)に特異的な抗体を検出。このうち、14%は2019年9月、30%は2020年2月に採取された検体から新型ウイルスの抗体が出来ていたことが検出され、後にPeople's Republic of China OfWuhan City, Hubei ProvinceIt was later announced that the virus may have spread worldwide before the cases reported in.[53][54]..However, the research of the Italian National Cancer Institute has been criticized, saying, "Even if a new coronavirus existed in Italy in September last year (2019), it does not necessarily have its origin. There is also an indication that "it will not be"[55].

August, 2019

August, 2019

  • December 12-The first case of unexplained pneumonia was reported by a health agency in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
  • August 12- CDCIn a later survey, from December 12th to 13th on the west coast of the United StatesAmerican Red CrossAntibodies to the new coronavirus were found in 39 blood samples donated to[57][58][59].
  • August 12- (English edition)According to an analysis of 40 sewage samples taken from a sewage treatment facility in northern Italy, which was later conducted by the company, new species from sewage samples in Milan and Turin as of December 12CoronavirusTraces of the (SARS-Cov-2) gene were confirmed, confirming that the virus may have started in northern Italy before China reported its first new corona infection on December 12.[60][61].
  • December 12-in FranceinfluenzaWhen a sample taken on December 12 was examined at a later date from a patient with such symptoms, it became clear that there was a positive reaction for the new coronavirus.[62][63].
  • December 12-Pneumonia of unknown cause was described公 文書Was found at the hospital where I workLi Wenliang WeChatPosted as an image to[64].. January 2020, 1, the cause is a new speciesCoronavirusWas identified as[65].
  • August 12- whoThe first report to (WHO) was made.

2020

August, 2020

World wideEpidemic preventionA system is set up, charter flights are sent to Wuhan City to return each citizen, and in countries other than China, it goes through China.Cruise linerSome passengers could not disembark from (see below).SARS-CoVThan in 2003 when the epidemicGlobalizationProgresses,COVID-2It is also characterized by the fact that infected people are often asymptomatic.Epidemic preventionSARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly all over the world. In addition, both the net and the mass media are filled with the topic of "Corona", and a large amount of inaccurate information flies around.InfodemicI fell into a state[68].. There were also high-priced resales of daily necessities that took advantage of the psychology of consumers in distress.[69].

August, 2020

August, 2020

August, 2020

August, 2020

  • April 5-Worldwide infections exceed 10 million[104].
  • August 5- Lesotho flagLesothoConfirmed the infected person in.
  • April 5-Worldwide infections exceed 21 million[105].
  • August 5- AmericaThe death toll has exceeded 10[106].

August, 2020

  • August 6- AmericaThe number of infected people exceeded 200 million[107].
  • August 6- BrazilThe number of infected people exceeded 100 million[108].
  • June 6-The number of infected people in the world exceeds 23 million[109].
  • June 6-Before 28:7 pm, the number of infected people in the world exceeded 1000 million[110].

August, 2020

  • August 7- AmericaThe number of infected people exceeded 300 million[111].
  • September 7-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 17 million[112].
  • July 7-India's number of infected people exceeds 17 million[113].
  • April 7-Worldwide infections exceed 23 million[114].. The number of infected people in the United States has exceeded 400 million[115].
  • July 7-American deaths exceed 30[116].

August, 2020

  • July 8-India's number of infected people exceeds 7 million[117].
  • August 8-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 8 million[118].. The number of infected people in Brazil has exceeded 300 million. The death toll also exceeded 10[119].
  • April 8-Worldwide infections exceed 10 million[120].
  • July 8-India's number of infected people exceeds 23 million[121].
  • August 8-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 31 million[122].

August, 2020

  • September 9-Russia's number of infected people exceeds 1 million[123].
  • September 9-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 3 million[124].
  • July 9-India's number of infected people exceeds 5 million[125].
  • September 9-India's number of infected people surpasses Brazil to become the second largest in the world[126].
  • July 9-India's number of infected people exceeds 16 million[127].
  • April 9-Worldwide infections exceed 17 million[128].
  • July 9-American deaths exceed 22[129].
  • August 9-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 26 million[130].
  • July 9-India's number of infected people exceeds 28 million[131].. In addition, the death toll in the world has exceeded 100 million.[132].

August, 2020

  • February 10-United StatesDonald TrumpA few people, including the presidentRepublican PartyInfection of the person concerned was discovered.White HouseでclusterSeems to have occurred[133].
  • August 10- Confirmed infected people in Solomon Islands[134]..India's death toll exceeds 10[135].
  • September 10-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 7 million[136].
  • October 10-Brazil's death toll exceeds 10[137].
  • July 10-India's number of infected people exceeds 11 million[138].
  • August 10-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 16 million[139].
  • August 10- アルゼンチンThe number of infected people exceeded 100 million[140]..The number of infected people worldwide has also exceeded 4000 million.[141].
  • October 10-Spain's number of infected exceeds 21 million[142].
  • October 10-The number of infected people in France exceeds 22 million[143].
  • October 10-Colombia's number of infected surpasses 24 million[144].
  • August 10- Marshall Islands FlagConfirmed infected people in the Marshall Islands[145].
  • July 10-India's number of infected people exceeds 29 million[146].
  • August 10-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 30 million[147].
  • August 10- The United KingdomThe number of infected people exceeded 100 million[148].

August, 2020

  • August 11-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 7 million[149]..France's death toll exceeds 4[150].
  • April 11-Worldwide infections exceed 8 million[151].
  • August 11- Vanuatu flag バヌアツConfirm infected person in[152].
  • November 11-The number of infected people in Italy exceeds 11 million[153]..Britain's death toll exceeds 5[154].
  • November 11-Mexico's number of infected people exceeds 14 million[155].
  • August 11- Samoan flag サモアConfirm infected person in[156].
  • November 11-India has 20 million infected[157], Brazil has 600 million infected[158], Each exceeded.Mexico's death toll exceeds 10[159].
  • November 11-Italy's death toll exceeds 24[160].
  • April 11-Worldwide infections exceed 26 million[161].
  • November 11-Germany has exceeded 27 million infected[162].

August, 2020

  • December 12-Worldwide death toll exceeds 4 million[163]..Iran's number of infected people exceeds 100 million[164].
  • August 12-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 8 million[165].
  • December 12-Turkish number of infected people exceeds 10 million due to statistical correction[166].
  • April 12-Worldwide infections exceed 11 million[167].
  • July 12-American deaths exceed 15[168].
  • July 12-India's number of infected people exceeds 19 million[169].
  • December 12-British infections exceed 20 million[170].
  • December 12-The number of infected people in Japan exceeds 21[171].
  • August 12- Antarctic flagChilean military announces 36 infections at Chile's Ohigins base in Antarctica[172].. Infection is confirmed on all 6 continents.On the same day, the number of infected people in Peru exceeded 100 million.[173].
  • November 12-The number of infected people in Italy exceeds 24 million[174].
  • April 12-Worldwide infections exceed 26 million[175].
  • December 12-South Africa's number of infected people exceeds 27 million[176].
  • December 12-Russia's death toll exceeds 28 due to statistical corrections[177][Note 1].

2021

August, 2021

  • August 1-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 1 million[178].
  • October 1-Brazil's death toll exceeds 7[179].
  • April 1-Worldwide infections exceed 10 million[180].
  • August 1- Federated States of MicronesiaConfirmed infected persons in Federated States of Micronesia[181].
  • November 1-Germany has exceeded 15 million infected[182]..The death toll worldwide has exceeded 200 million[183].
  • July 1-American deaths exceed 20[184].
  • August 1-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 24 million[185].
  • January 1-Indonesia's number of infected people exceeds 26 million[186]..Britain's death toll exceeds 10[187].
  • January 1-Worldwide infections exceed 27 million[188].
  • September 1-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 28 million[189].

August, 2021

  • October 2-Spain's number of infected exceeds 9 million[190].
  • September 2-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 19 million[191]..The death toll in Africa has exceeded 10[192].
  • July 2-American deaths exceed 22[193].
  • December 2-Worldwide death toll exceeds 26 million[194].

August, 2021

  • November 3-Italy's death toll exceeds 8[195].
  • March 3-Turkey's infections exceed 21 million and deaths exceed 300[196].
  • August 3-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 24 million[197]..Brazil's death toll exceeds 30[198].

August, 2021

  • April 4-France's death toll exceeds 15[199].
  • December 4-Worldwide death toll exceeds 17 million[200].
  • July 4-India's number of infected people exceeds 19 million[201].
  • April 4-India's death toll exceeds 28[202]
  • October 4-Brazil's death toll exceeds 29[203].
  • April 4-Worldwide infections exceed 30 million[203].

August, 2021

  • July 5-India's number of infected people exceeds 4 million[204].
  • April 5-India's death toll exceeds 12[205].
  • July 5-India's number of infected people exceeds 18 million[206].
  • April 5-India's death toll exceeds 24[207].
  • August 5- Palau flag ãƒ‘ラオConfirm infected person in[208].

August, 2021

  • July 6-American deaths exceed 15[209]..The number of infected people in Africa has exceeded 500 million[210].
  • October 6-Brazil's death toll exceeds 19[211].
  • January 6-Indonesia's number of infected people exceeds 21 million[212]..Colombia's death toll exceeds 10[213].
  • July 6-India's number of infected people exceeds 23 million[214].

August, 2021

  • April 7-India's death toll exceeds 2[215].
  • December 7-Worldwide death toll exceeds 8 million[216].
  • July 7-Argentina's death toll exceeds 14[217].

August, 2021

  • September 8-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 4 million[218].
  • January 8-Worldwide infections exceed 5 million[219].
  • December 8-The number of infected people in Japan exceeds 6[220].
  • August 8-The number of infected people on the African continent exceeds 8 million[221].

August, 2021

  • December 9-The number of infected people in Japan exceeds 1[222].
  • August 9-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 7 million[223].

Celebrity infection

Honorific titles shall be omitted for both infected and dead.

Celebrity dead

(Alphanumeric / alphabetical order)

Celebrity infection / disease

(Alphanumeric / alphabetical order)

Animal infection

Transmission route

Recognized as the center of early infectionWuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale MarketIs nominallySeafoodAlthough it is a specialized market,記者According to a survey of variousWild animalsWas also traded and processed in the same area[388].Zhong Nanshan,Chinese Academy of SciencesAccording to the research group ofSARSSame asSource of infectionIs a bat,Bamboo rat-Badger-ヘ ビ-PangolinIt is said that it was transmitted to humans through wild animals such as[389][390][391].Transmission routeIs like any other coronavirusSplash infection(conjunctivaIn some cases infected through[392])WhenContact infectionIn Although,aerosolThere seems to be a possibility of infection[393].

But on February 2020, 2Chinese Academy of Sciencesなど中国政府系の研究機関が、発生源が武漢市の海鮮市場ではない可能性を示す研究結果を公表した。12カ国から集められたウイルスの遺伝子データの解析の結果、複数のタイプが見つかり、それぞれの拡散状況などから、ウイルスは他の地域で発生し、その後、武漢市の海鮮市場で拡散した可能性があるとし、2019年12月8日と2020年1月6日の2回、大きな拡散があり、2019年11月下旬か12月の初めには、すでにヒトからヒトへの感染が起きていた可能性を指摘した[394].. In addition, Hubei Wuhan officials said that the patient who had the earliest onset (December 2019, 12) wasWuchang DistrictIt was revealed that he lived in and did not go to the seafood market, which was pointed out as the source of infection.[395].

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,EpidemicWuhan Jinyintan Clinic, which accommodates patients in China, and a research group centered on clinical medical research on respiratory diseases in ChinaLancetPublished a paper studying the first 41 infected individuals. According to the paper, the pathogen virusHuman capitalInfection from human to human (human-human infection) is obvious, and there are cases where there are no symptoms of fever in the early stage of onset.[396].. In addition, 27 of them had been to the South China Seafood Wholesale Market, but the first patient who developed the disease on December 12 had never been to the South China Seafood Wholesale Market.[397].. The mortality rate of the first 41 infected people was 15%.SARSIs at the same level as[398].

According to a paper by Professor Yuen Kwok-Hwan of the University of Hong Kong on the same dateShenzhen City, Guangdong ProvinceAfter going to Wuhan City with 6 people living in the city, 5 people were confirmed to be infected. One of them further infected one of the locals in Shenzhen. In addition, one of these five infected children did not develop the disease while being infected, so it is highly possible that they unknowingly infected the people around them.[399].

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Wuhan University Hospital4% of the infected people detected in the university hospitalNosocomial infectionA paper was published that said it was done[400].

Outbreak/Super Spreader

Examples of outbreaks includeSapporo Snow FestivalAtA stall[401], Housing equipment exhibition (Hokkaido)Kitami)[402], Hospital (Tokyo[403],Sagamihara City[404][405]In Yuasa Town, Wakayama PrefectureNosocomial infection[406], Of Osakalive house[407][408][409], Live Bar (Hokkaido)[410], Nagoya has clusters in sports clubs (36 infected) and welfare facilities (45 infected)[411].

On March 3, 3 outbreaks in Japan were found to result in more than 9 infected individuals.[402]. This accounts for about 260% of the 30 infected people surveyed[402].

In the case of the behavior history of infected people in Korea,Christian churchA mass infection occurred in one of the five people, one of whom had a meal at the cafeteria of a welfare facility for the elderly and five were infected. Furthermore, the infection of the welfare facility member was confirmed at the hospital, and nosocomial infection occurred at that hospital.[412].

Patients who became the source of the spread of infection to more than 10 peopleSuper spreaderTo say[413]. KoreanMERSSome people in the epidemic were superspreaders, with 1 to 86 infected in some cases.[414].

Although 8% of people infected with the new coronavirus in Japan have not infected other people, the remaining 2% ​​have infected more than one person, and cases of infecting 1 to 1 people (houseboat) and , There is also a case (sports gym) of infecting 9 to 1 people[415].InfectionSpecialistKenshi KennaSaid they should avoid crowded spaces to avoid becoming a super spreader[414].

Nosocomial infection and others

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Wuhan University Hospital4% of the infected people detected inNosocomial infectionIt was announced that[416].. Of the 138 patients, 41% (57) were hospital-acquired, 17 were hospitalized, and 40 were medical staff.[417].

South KoreaButGyeongsangbuk-doNosocomial infection occurred in a hospital[417][418].

Makita General Hospital (Ota-ku, Tokyo)[403],[404],Sagamihara Kyodo Hospital[405],Saiseikai Arita Hospital(Wakayama PrefectureYuasa Town)[406],National Cardiovascular Research Center(Osaka PrefectureSuita City[419])EtcNosocomial infectionThere was an emergency and she was temporarily closed.

Chinese government response

In the followingChinese governmentIt also deals with the correspondence and related events of.

Discovery and information regulation

August, 2019

  • December 12-26, Dr. Zhang Jixian, chief of the Department of Respiratory and Severe Medicine, Hubei Hospital of Integrated Traditional Medicine, discovered and reported pneumonia of unknown cause.[420].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Wuhan City Central HospitalDr. Ai Fen, the chief of the emergency department, reports the virus test of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause.Social MediaPosted to chat group[421].. Of the hospital's ophthalmologyLi WenliangThe doctorpatientからSARS coronavirusI happened to see the test result that was detected, and at 5:43 pm on the same day, my classmateWeChat(WaverBoth[422]) In the groupSouth China Seafood MarketOf 7 peopleSARSAn infected person has been confirmed. "lung OfCT examinationI also sent a photo of[422].. At 6:42 pm on the same day, "CoronavirusInfection has been confirmed and we are still investigating what type it is. "[423].
  • On December 12, the Chinese side reported to the WHO China office for the first time about the outbreak of new pneumonia.[424].

August, 2020

  • On January 2020, 1, the Wuhan Police Association saidインターネットI posted false information above, "said eight doctors.[425][426].. Dr. Lee was also called by the authorities before dawn on the 31st.False rumorWas forced to sign a "self-criticism"[422].. Dr. Ai Fen said from the Wuhan government via the hospital where he works.パ ニ ッ クInformation should not be disclosed to the outside to avoid the problem, "and then hospital executives were informed that"False rumorI was accused of "shedding" and was strictly ordered not to say anything in the future[421][427].. After that, Moxa was convinced of "human-to-human transmission" in early January, but could not speak.[421][427].. It wasn't until January 1th that the Chinese government recognized human-to-human transmission.[421].. Dr. Ai Fen later regrettably said, "If everyone was on the alert on January 1st (if the information was publicly available), there wouldn't have been many such tragedy."[428].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,WuhanThe Public Security Bureau "disrupted social order" "False rumorAs one of the "propagators"Li WenliangToAdmonitionDefeated[422][429].. According to some media, Chinese authorities first notified the United States of the new virus on the same day, and then provided information a total of 2 times by February.[430].
  • January 1-January 6, Wuhan CityBoth sessions("People's Congress", "Political Consultative Assembly"). There is also a view that the Wuhan government did not disclose infected persons during the two sessions from January 1th to 6th, because "successful peace" is the highest proposition during the two sessions and no negative information is reported.[422][431].. In addition, on January 1, Hubei Xinhua Clinic in Wuhan instructed the hospital not to leak information on the new pneumonia to the outside.[422][Reliability required verification].
  • On January 1, Chinese researchers reported that the pathogen of this infection was a new type of coronavirus, five days later.May 1The entire gene sequence of the virus was released worldwide[424][432].
  • From around January 1th to January 10thChinese New YearGolden Week holidays (Spring luck) Has begun, and a total of 14.76 billion people have begun to move.[433].
  • January 1-11, Hubei Provincial Two Sessions. No infected persons were announced during the two sessions in Hubei Province from January 17th to 1th.[431].
  • On January 1, 18 people live in Wuhan's residential area "Hyakka-tei," where more than 18 households brought food to the party.[434].. Wuhan government left[422].. This event seems to have spurred the spread of the infection[434].

Official Announcement and City Blockade: January-February

As of January 2020, China's measures are 1SARSAcclaimed by some foreign leaders compared to the epidemic[443].Playing cardsUS President[444] And in Germany(English edition)The Minister of Health praised China's hard work and its transparency as making a big difference from the time of SARS.[445][446].. SingaporeHarima JacobPresident,Lee Shen LongPrime Minister of RussiaPutinPresidents praised "quick and decisive response"[447][448].

April 2020-

  • February 2th, the Chinese governmentWeibo(Weibo)WeChat(WeChat),ByteDance(Byte jump)Vibrato(Doh-in) etc.Social mediaAnnounced enhanced censorship[449].
  • February 2th night, ChinaMediaReported the death of Dr. Li Wenliang (34 years old)[450][451][452][453].
    • On the same day, the current situation of WuhanSmartphoneUsingTwitter,UAF YouTubeBeijing Qiushi, a Beijing lawyer who posted on the website, goes missing. Relatives are contacted by police as "isolated"[454].
  • February 2th, Fang Bin for Wuhan citizensForced deportationHas stopped since posting a video of a group rushing into the room[449].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,WHO TheNew coronavirus The official name of the disease caused by (SARS-CoV-2) is "COVID-19Has been decided[455].. WHO is a new human in 2015Infection-ウ イ ル スThe policy stipulates that the name should not include geographical location, personal name, animal or food name, or name for a particular culture or industry.[456][457][458].. In deciding the name, a WHO official said, "Media reports use Wuhan and China, but we want to keep them from being stigmatized."[458].. Associate Professor Crystal Watson of the Johns Hopkins Health Crisis Management Center also said, "People are'China virusIf you start using names such as ”, there is a risk of causing dissatisfaction with certain people.”[457].. However, after that, there was an opinion that the name "Wuhan" should be included in the virus name in order to clarify the origin of the outbreak in the United States and Japan.[459].. The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the state media are running to extinguish the fire every time a word like "Wuhan virus" appears.[460].
  • On June 2,Association to protect Japan's dignity and national interestsIs the representative secretaryAoyama ShigeharuA member of the House of Councilors said, "It is difficult to remember the" COVID-19 "decided by WHO, and it is difficult to understand the essence of the disease."Wuhan feverShould be called. "[461].. On February 2th, House of Councilors Aoyama said in a blog that there was a decisive problem that a reliable international research team could not enter the source Wuhan.CDCSaid that he tried to enter many times but was blocked by the Chinese government, and it was also China that WHO announced a policy of "not including place names in infectious diseases"Chen Feng Fu Chin Argued that it was after sending (Margaret Chan) to the Executive Secretary[462].
  • On the 14th, Somasu ShinNational Health CommissionIt is,Asymptomatic pathogen carrierabout,Information disclosureAnnounced that it will not be covered by.If the PCR test is positive and there are no symptoms such as fever or cough, isolation is performed for 14 days, and if no infectious symptoms appear during that period, the person will not be announced as an infected person.Change to the standard[463].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Hubei ProvinceBlocked the entire ministry, banned vehicles other than emergency vehicles, and took compulsory measures against unnecessary outings and gatherings.[464].. Collectively purchase and deliver daily necessitiesDistribution systemBecame[464].. Of the ministryXiaogan CityProhibits going out and notifies that violations will be detained for up to XNUMX days,MachengSaid to pay a subsidy of 7,800 yuan (about XNUMX yen) to the person who reported the symptoms of others[464].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,People's networkBut in JapanTV AsahiBut,CDCBelieves that out of 1 US patients who died of influenza in the past few months, it may have included pneumonia due to coronavirus infection, which is already significant in big cities such as New York and Los Angeles. Reported that the review of the inspection system has begun[465].. This news isSina WeiboPublished in, among Chinese net users, the military athlete competition held in Wuhan in October 2019 ``Military world gamesIt was also pointed out that U.S. military personnel who participated in the event may have brought it to China.[465].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,China Central TelevisionFormer newscaster Li Zehua arrested live on Youtube[466].. I was released the next day,Red zoneHe explained that he was quarantined because he entered the area.[467].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Central Communist Party of the Chinese Communist PartyPublished the editorial "Great Power War" Epidemic "" and praised the "decision of the territory"Supreme leaderEmphasized the role of[468][469][470]..Although state media praised the book as demonstrating the outstanding advantages of the Chinese Communist Party leaders and the socialist system.[470]..However, there was widespread opposition on the Internet, such as "Children can't go to school and Wuhan can't go out, but they say victory (against infectious diseases)", and they couldn't buy it on March 3st.[468][471].
  • On the 27th, the National Health Commission of Zhong Nanshan said, "The source of the virus is not necessarily China."[468].. Also in China, "Infection is almost suppressed by the end of April"The forecast was stated.[472].

April 2020-

  • March 3, 習近 TairaSo secretary said, "should make clear whether the virus came from somewhere."[468].
  • March 3, state-ownedXinhua News AgencyInsisted that "the world should thank China"[468][473][474].. In this article, when the pneumonia epidemic in Wuhan, the United States treated China negatively, banned Chinese from entering the country, and isolated China from the world.[473].. The United States would be in trouble if China banned the export of masks and medicines to the United States, but China did not ban it due to human love.[473].. The epidemic of new pneumonia occurred in China, but the source may be outside of China[473].. China has no reason to apologize for the infection, even in countries that have no contact with China. China has succeeded in suppressing the virus. The world is grateful to China. The United States insisted that it should apologize to China but did not apologize[473].. In addition, Chinese media emphasized "the superiority of the Chinese system" by making the measures of the United States, Japan, South Korea, etc. incomplete.[468].
  • March 3, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of ChinaMa Zhaoxu"China's contribution to global public health has been recognized worldwide," he said.[468].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Wang ZhonglinWuhan Municipal Party Committee secretary is "Wuhan citizens should be grateful to 習近 TairaSo secretary and the Chinese Communist Party," "Thanksgiving educationWas expanded[471][476].. However, this "gratitude education" caused dissatisfaction among the Chinese people, was criticized on the Internet, and changed its policy to "thank the citizens of Wuhan."[471][476].
  • On March 3, "Nagae Daily" reported on gratitude education, but it was deleted due to public criticism.[476].
  • March 3, Hubei Provincial Party Committee SecretaryCouragePraised the Wuhan people for "actively supporting and cooperating with the party's control measures."[476].. Authorities issued a gag order banning the media from mentioning the "gratitude education" case[476].. On the same day, "Nagae Daily" reported that the Wuhan government is sincerely grateful to the citizens of Wuhan.[476].. Journalist Sochoshin said the authorities are public servants of the people, but the people they serve are dead and sick.conscienceHe criticized that he would not force gratitude to Wuhan people if there was[476].. Died after whistle-blowing information hiding at Wuhan HospitalLi WenliangIn the case of doctors, Chinese social media also showed anger at the authorities[476].
    • 6th,Mike PompeoThe US Secretary of State said, "It was the reason why this happened.Wuhan coronavirusDon't forget that. "[477].. In response, Spokesperson Zhao is trying to impose responsibility on China by calling it the "Chinese virus" without evidence, "he said.[460][477]
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,習近 TairaSo secretary (Jintao) visited for the first time in Wuhan City official[471].. General Secretary Xi said, "Wuhan citizens are heroes," and said, "I understand that waiting at home is long and I want to complain about it."[474].Ring and ball newsReported on his visit to Wuhan, "I felt optimistic and the spring atmosphere was lively."[471].
  • March 3, party newspaper "People's Daily"The name of Wuhan will be re-recorded in history as a hero," said General Secretary Xi in the headline on the first page.[469].
    • On the same day, WHO Executive Secretary Tedros announced that "it can be said to be a pandemic." "In the past two weeks, the number of infected people outside China has increased 13 times, and the number of countries has tripled."[479].
    • 11th,Robert O'BrienThe White House Chief of Staff argues that the Chinese government hid information during the initial infection stage and refused to send WHO or CDCs, delaying global response.[475][480][481].
  • On March 3, Chinese health officials said, "China has crossed the peak of infectionDeclared[474].
  • March 3, 13, November 2019, 11Hubei ProvinceChinese data suggest that a 55-year-old man from China may have been the first case of the new coronavirus, but Chinese officials did not release the data.South China Morning PostReports[487][Reliability required verification].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,WHO OfTedrosThe secretary said, "Europe is now the center of the pandemicThe main battlefield for infection control has moved from China to Europe.[488].
    • On the 13th, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of ChinaGeng ShuangDeputy press director accused senior U.S. government officials of linking China to the virus as an attack on China[484].
    • 13th,Zhao LijianA spokesman said, "Japan's conspiracy theory is based on the US military conspiracy theory.TV AsahiIntroduced an article by Larry Romanov, who reported that "the outbreak of the new coronavirus is in the United States, not China."[465][489][490].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Nobel Prize for LiteratureOf the award-winning authorMario Vargas RyosaSaid that China was a free and democratic country, not a dictatorship, and that the world would not have faced such an outbreak without hiding information at the beginning of the outbreak.[491].. Chinese officials replied that it was "malicious"[492].. Aug. 3,Deputy Press Director OfGeng ShuangRebelled as "irresponsible speech"[493].
  • On the morning of March 3, the number of infected people in various parts of Europe and other regions exceeded mainland China for the first time.[488].
  • On the 16th, China's diplomatic directorYang KiyoshiChichiTalked to US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on the phone and protested each other[494].. Yang warned, "The scheme to smear China is not what you want, and any act that undermines China's interests will inevitably result in a resolute counterattack," said US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.False rumorIt's not the time to disseminate strange rumors, but the time when all nations unite to fight common threats. "[494][495].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,US President Donald TrumpOn TwitterChinese VirusPosted[495][496][497].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,South China Morning PostReported that as of the end of February, more than 2 infected people in China had been excluded from statistics because they were "asymptomatic."[498].. Asymptomatic people are estimated to be one-third of all infected people, and more than 3 people including symptomatic people are included in the official announcement in China at the end of February.[498].. Asymptomatic patients are said to have been placed under medical surveillance[498].
  • 3 month 25 dayG7At the Foreign Ministers' meeting, the US State Department insisted that it should be labeled as "Wuhan virus," but countries did not accept it and the adoption of the joint statement was postponed.[499][500].. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo criticized China for failing to share information early, even though China was aware of the risks the virus poses to the world.[500].
  • March 3, is Xi Jinping JintaoG20"The virus has no borders and the spread of infection is a common enemy," he said at an emergency video summit.[501]The G20 issued a joint statement stating, "The virus is borderless. We are strongly committed to establishing a joint front against this common threat."[502].. The South China Morning Post reported that the United States and China agreed to shelve the conflict and prioritize the establishment of infection control mechanisms.[503].
  • March 3, Trump president who finished the telephone talks with Xi Jinping Jintao "has deepened a thorough understanding about China is the virus. We are working closely" on Twitter and posted, conventional "China Called "corona virus" instead of "virus"[504].

Correspondence of each country

Travel restrictions around the world as the infection spreads,quarantine,CurfewPublic health measures such as were taken. Areas such as Wuhan, which became the source of infectionLockdown(City blockade), various outing bans have been taken in various places, and a British-flagged cruise liner carrying passengers including infected peopleDiamond Princess"ButQuarantine in the waters near JapanReceived or even in ItalyMovement restrictions throughout the countryWas taken[505][506].. At some airports and train stations, screening methods such as checking body temperature and requiring the submission of a health report are beginning to be implemented.[507].. In addition, the issuance of cautionary / warning information (including self-restraint requests / cancellation recommendations) regarding travel to areas where community infection is ongoing, and the actual restriction / suspension of travel from infected areas, etc.Tightening travel regulations,furtherEUEtc国境TheBlockadeSome countries are doing[508][509].

Social distance expansion strategy

Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs), also called Community Mitigation, include the following measures and prevention:[516].

Spaces such as schools, workplaces, events, meetings, etc., where groups are close together on a daily basis, are spaced from each other.
  • Closures
Closure of places where people gather, such as schools, workplaces, events, sports, religious gatherings, festivals and conferences.

Infection spreads because humans do not have immunity to the new virus, but when vaccines cannot be used, NPIs are an effective method to control infection[516]. According to the epidemiological analysis so far, the damage can be suppressed to a considerable extent by implementing the most effective combination of measures at the optimum timing.[517].

Guidelines for infection prevention in Japan

Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareMarch 2020, 3, Japan's past outbreak (cluster) In caseス ポ ー ツ ジ ム,Houseboat,buffetstyle'sDinner,Sparrow,Ski Ofguest house, There was a sealed temporary tent,ventilationIs bad, avoids going to a place where many people are in contact with each other or where a large number of unspecified people come into contact.Advised to[518].

New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Experts Meeting TheMay 3The places where outbreaks have been confirmed so far are 1.Closed space with poor ventilation[Note 2]、 2.Many people are crowded、 3.Conversations at short distances (the distance you can reach if you reach out to each other)VocalizationIt is a place where the three overlap, and I recommended avoiding such a place[519]. The council strongly recommended the following to prevent outbreaks:[519].

  1. Open windows for ventilation
  2. Widen the venue and keep a distance of 1-2m from each other
  3. Avoid close conversations, vocalizations, and vocals
Diligent hand hygiene, thorough coughing etiquette, do not use shared items, be careful when usingdisinfection[519]

May 3,First-class infectious disease designated medical institutionIsMetropolitan Komagome HospitalDr. Kenji Imamura, Director of Infectious Diseases, said that the most important measure to control the epidemic in the current situation in Japan is cluster (infectious population) measures.[520]. If you find someone in a cluster that has spread to more than one person, you should thoroughly investigate the contact person (dense contact person).[520]. There were cases where the number of positive contacts who went to the gym increased to about 1400 people.[520].

May 3The expert council is holding up at the moment, but at one time there is a sudden explosion of patients (“Overshoot)) Then, if medical care can no longer be provided,Lockdown measures (city blockade, store closures, refraining from going out, etc.)I was worried that I would have to take it[521]. On top of that, we will continue to detect cluster infections (clusters) at an early stage, enhance intensive care for severely ill persons, and maintain a medical supply system.In addition, each region will have events and meetings ( While thoroughly avoiding those with a high infection risk such as places where the three conditions overlap), in areas where the infection has not spread, it is possible to gradually release from activities with a low infection risk.[521].

Based on the above views, the New Coronavirus Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Countermeasures Headquarters, in order to improve "a poorly-ventilated enclosed space" that is one of the risk factors, what kind of ventilation should be used in commercial facilities that are used by many people. While listening to the opinions of experts about what to do, consider literature, standards of international organizations, standards of domestic laws, etc., and as a recommended ventilation method,Ventilation method to improve "closed space with poor ventilation"Was compiled.

May 3, The New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Headquarters announced the "Basic Policy for Countermeasures against New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases", in which it is important to control the number of infected persons and to maintain the medical provision system and social function. ,Avoid "three dense" (closed space, dense place, close scene), Containment of cluster outbreak promoted by epidemiological survey[522]..In addition, these three dense spaces are expressed as "three dense".[523]Has been publicized[524].

Collective immunity

Discussion on herd immunity

JapaneseNew Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Experts MeetingOn March 3, "Infectious diseases, when the majority of people are infected, break the chain of infection, and a mechanism to protect uninfected people can function"Collective immunityMentioned the idea of[525].

Collective immunity is seen as a sequestration policy before the spread of community-acquired infections and as a countermeasure in the absence of vaccines[525].

It is the same coronavirus as the new coronavirus,Human coronavirus OC43There is a theory that collective immunity may be established[526]. The virus could be the source of a pandemic that killed 19 million people at the end of the 100th century[527], Now it's just a seasonal cold.

A discussion about population immunity in the UK

On March 3, the British government announced that it would counteract with collective immunity[525].

On March 3, British scientists announced the "Immediate Implementation Recommendations for Social Distance Strategy", and the government's response was inadequate. Dramatically delayed and claimed to save tens of thousands of lives (14 signed by 3 March)[528][529]. Also at the momentCollective immunityIt was not effective to pursue[529].University of BirminghamProfessor Willem van Schaik (microbiology) says that in order to achieve the effect of collective immunity, 3600 million people must be infected and recover in Japan alone, but the human cost is unpredictable, He said that tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands will die, saying, "To prevent the NHS from puncturing, we have to extend the epidemic period so that millions of infections are sporadic over a long period of time."[529].

UK Department of Health“Outbreaks are not part of our action plan, they are a natural by-product of an epidemic. We can save lives, protect the most vulnerable and reduce the burden on the NHS. ``It's a goal,'' he said, "the infection countermeasures have already passed the containment phase, and it is at the stage of delaying the spread of infection." did[529].

Travel restrictions

In response to the outbreakSchengen areaMost countries and regions within[530],andアルメニア[531],Australia[532],India[533],(I.e.[534],Indonesia[535],Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[536],クウェート[537],Malaysia,Maldives,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,New Zealand,フィリピン,Singapore,Sri Lanka,Taiwan[538],Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[539],andThe United States of America[540] Is temporarily banning Chinese citizens and those who have recently visited China, suspending the issuance of visas for Chinese citizens, and strengthening the requirements for issuing visas.[541].

Samoa has begun to refuse even the entry of its own citizens who have stayed in China, and has been widely criticized for the legality of its decision.[542].

European Union (EU)Schengen AgreementTemporarily suspendイタリアRefused the idea of ​​introducing border control with[543][544].

As of March 2020, 3, the number of countries that have immigration restrictions on travelers from Japan is 27 countries / regions, which is equivalent to about 176% of the world, which is 9 times the number of 2 countries as of February 25. Ta[545].. In addition, as of March 3, Japan has decided to designate the United States, Europe, China, and South Korea as countries subject to travel suspension recommendations and entry denials.[546].

On March 3, the Japanese government issued a two-week quarantine and visa exemption for travelers from South Korea, including nationals of third countries, due to a large-scale infection in Daegu, South Korea. Announced suspension. The next day, the South Korean government took diplomatic retaliation against the Japanese government's decision.[547] In addition to suspending the visa exemption for Japanese only, the visa already issued has been invalidated.[548].

The United States enforced a 3-day immigration ban on 13 Schengen countries on March 26, and extended the restrictions to Ireland and the United Kingdom on March 30.[549][550].. On the 19th, it issued a recommendation to all Americans to stop traveling abroad.[551].

North Korea stopped accepting tourists from China on January 1 (Wuhan's city closure was on the 21rd) and virtually closed the border.[552].

Evacuation of foreigners

Due to the blockade of public transport in Wuhan and Hubei, some countries have obtained takeoff and landing permits from Chinese authorities.Charter flightsIt was planned to evacuate its own citizens and diplomatic staff from the area to their home countries. Canada, the United States, Japan, India, France, Australia, Sri Lanka, Germany, and Thailand had early plans to evacuate their citizens.[553].. Meanwhile, Pakistan has stated that it will not evacuate its citizens from China.[554].. On February 2020, 2, Brazil evacuated 7 Brazilians and their families, as well as four Poles, one Chinese and one Indian. The Poles, Chinese, and Indians disembarked in Poland, where the Brazilian plane landed on its way home. Brazilians who have returned to their home countriesBrasiliaQuarantine at a nearby military base[555][556].. On the same day, 215 Canadians from Wuhan, China(English edition)へEvacuation(176名は第1便、39名は米国政府がチャーターした第2便)し、2週間検疫された。2月11日、別の便で185名のカナダ人が武漢からカナダ軍基地トレントンに到着した。オーストラリア当局は2月3日と4日に277名の国民を検疫施設に転用したCamp on Christmas IslandEvacuated to and waited there for 14 days[557][558][559].. A flight carrying New Zealand evacuees (including citizens of Australia and the Pacific) arrived in Auckland on February 2 and was quarantined at a naval base in Whangaparaoa, north of Auckland.[560].. The United States announced that it will evacuate Americans aboard the cruise ship "Diamond Princess"[561].. On February 2, an aircraft carrying 21 Canadians evacuated from the "Diamond Princess" arrived in Trenton, Ontario.[562].. The Indian government has announced that it will send the Air Force to evacuate its people from Iran.[563].

International aid

  • August 2020, 1,Gates FoundationAnnounced a $ 500 Million Donation[564], Announced on February 2th that it will donate an additional $ 5 million to WHO. Donations will be used to fund vaccine research and treatment efforts, as well as to protect "people in endangered Africa and South Asia."[565].
  • In the process of coordinating charter flights to rescue the Japanese people in Wuhan, Japan will first be unmanned outbound flights, with a large number of masks and for the Chinese people as well as the Japanese people. Promising to transport relief supplies consisting of protective clothing to WuhanToshimitsu MogiForeign Minister announced[566].. On January 1, a charter flight arrived in Wuhan and donated 26 million face masks to Wuhan.[567].. The relief supplies included 2 medical protective clothing donated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government.[568].. Aug. 1,MitoIs a friendly exchange city with 5 masksChongqingDonated to. February 2thOkayama CityHas 22,000 masks in sister citiesLuoyangSent to. Of the ruling partyLDPIs February 2th, for March of all members of parliament belonging to the partyAnnual feeThe party showed a symbolic action of deducting 5,000 yen from (salary) and donating the collected 200 million yen to China.Toshihiro NikaiThe secretary-general said, "For our country, when we see a virus pandemic in China, it seems that we are seeing our relatives and neighbors suffering. Japanese people are willing to help China, and this pandemic I hope it will end as soon as possible. "[569].Peace Winds JapanAnnounced that it will send staff to China to help distribute face masks and other supplies to the country.[568].
  • Humanitarian organization "Direct Relief"FedexWhile receiving transportation and logistics support in cooperation with, along with other personal protective equipment including gloves and patient gowns, 1 face masks requested for support by January 30 were urgently airlifted.(Chinese version)Delivered to[570].
  • On January 1, some Chinese students studying at an American university joined a joint group in the Greater Chicago area for 30 copies.N95 maskAnd sent 1,500 protective suits to a hospital in Hubei province[571].
  • On February 2, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that 5 countries, including Belarus, Pakistan, Trinidad and Tobago, Egypt, and Iran, had sent relief supplies to China.[572].
  • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,United States Department of StateIn China, about 18 tons of masks and protective clothing, etc.Infection controlAirlifted relief supplies and announced that it would also provide up to $ 1 million in financial assistance[573].Pittsburgh CityAnnounces that it will send medical supplies to its sister city, Wuhan[574], University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) also announced support plan[575].
  • Malaysia announced that it will donate medical gloves for 1800 million people to China[576].
  • (English edition)Also donated a face mask made in the Philippines worth $ 140 million and shipped it to Wuhan.[577].. Turkey ships medical equipment[578], Germany has 10,000Chemical protective clothingDelivered various medical supplies including[579].
  • On February 2, the Singapore Red Cross announced that it would send $ 19 million worth of relief supplies to China.[580].

School closure (closed all at once)

Schools and universities closed to prevent outbreaks around the world, affecting at least 15 billion children, students and students[581][582].

In addition,United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) fears that education will be interrupted due to school closures around the worldDistance learning programIs recommended[583].

City blockade (lockdown)

  • Japanese flag Japan: Requested event organizer to consider necessity on February 2020, 2[588].. On February 2, we requested the cancellation, postponement, and reduction of the scale of meetings such as sports and events for two weeks.[588]Requested a simultaneous closure from March 3nd[589].. On March 3th, an expert meeting said that the number of infections exploded ("Overshoot”) If so, it was suggested that strong lockdown measures (city blockade, store closure, refraining from going out, etc.) should be taken.[521]..However, the amendment passed on March 3New influenza measures special measures lawBecause there are no penalties forPenaltiesTo specifylegislationOrExtra-legal measuresUnless you do政府And eachPrefectural governmentbyLockdownIs impossible, and a request to refrain from going out (the final decision isPeopleLeave it to) is the limit[590].
    • Hokkaido: February 2,EmergencyDeclared, requesting refrain from going out on weekends[591], Requested not to go to "a place where many people gather and poor ventilation" on March 3, the state of emergency ends on the 1th, and refraining from going out calls for 19 consecutive weeks[592].
    • Nagoya City: On March 3, the ordinance required citizens suspected of being infected to ban unnecessary going out.[593].
  • Italian flag イタリア: November 2020, 2,Province of Lodi, Lombardy10 local governmentsVeneto OfVauxTheBlockade[594].. March 3, Jeonju, Lombardy,Emilia-Romagna,Marche,PiedmontExpanded to Veneto,Milan,ヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ アAlso included, school until April 4Ski resortClosure,Sports-Ceremonial occasionな どEventsCancellation,bar-RestaurantsBusiness restrictions were ordered[595][596].. March 3th, limited to the northMovement restrictionsClosed, restaurants and coffee shops closed at night apply to all over Japan[597][598].. Also, from March 3th to 12th, all commercial activities will be suspended except for daily necessities stores and pharmacies.[598][599].. However, residents did not stop going out, and 8 violators came out in eight days, so on March 5, the government made a false declaration if it went out to hide the infection.publicTheDangerAs exposed toImprisonmentSevere punishment for up to 12 years[600].. Also in LombardyMobile phone OfGPSRevealed that it is monitoring the behavior of citizens[600].. March 3 Lombardy Governor saidjoggingAlsoBicycleI want you to stop riding. "" If you don't hear the complaint軍隊Will be dispatched. "[601].
  • Republic of Korea flag South Korea : OisoOn March 2020, 3, a new religious movement "Shincheonji Jesus ChurchTwo buildings were closed because an outbreak of 46 people was confirmed in the building where the people concerned said.[602].
  • Spanish flag スペイン: Declared a state of emergency on March 2020, 3.Restrict going out other than shopping and going to work.Borders are also virtually closed[603].
  • Philippines flag フィリピン: Blockade of Metro Manila from March 2020th to April 3th, 15[604], Blockade of Luzon Island on March 3[605].
  • Lebanese flag Lebanon: Implemented a stay-at-home ban on March 2020, 3[606].
  • Czech flag チ ェ コ: City blockade implemented on March 2020, 3[606].
  • European Union flag EU: November 2020, 3,EUProposed a 30-day ban on unnecessary travel to the region. Restricted entry areas are 26 EU member states excluding Ireland,Schengen AgreementAssuming a total of 4 non-EU countries participating in the event, we will consider extending it depending on the situation.[607].European Commission President OfVon de Araien"The less movement you have, the more virus you can contain."[607].
  • German flag Germany: The school will be closed from March 2020, 3, museums, movie theaters, sports facilities, concert halls, bars, zoos, etc. will be closed from 16th, performances and various events will be prohibited, and the city will be virtually closed (lock). down)[608].. From the 18th, the restaurant will be open from 6 am to 3 pm, with a minimum table spacing of 1.5 meters and a maximum of 30 people entering the restaurant. After 3:XNUMX pm, takeout or delivery only[608].. Supermarkets, pharmacies, gas stations, banks, etc. can be opened, and it is open even on Sundays when it is normally closed.[608].. Furthermore, the border is closed[608].
  • French flag France: Restricted going out, excluding shopping and commuting, for 2020 days from March 3, 17, punishment for offenders[603].
  • Israeli flag イ ス ラ エ ル: Implemented a stay-at-home ban on March 2020, 3[606].
  • Venezuelan flag ベネズエラ: Implemented a stay-at-home ban on March 2020, 3[606].
  • Belgian flag ベルギー: Implemented a stay-at-home ban on March 2020, 3[606].
  • Malaysia flag Malaysia: City blockade nationwide from March 2020th to 3st, 18[605][609].. All government and private offices and schools will be closed except for supermarkets, pharmacies, water, telecommunications carriers, prisons and defense.[609].. Large gatherings including Islamic events are prohibited, restaurants can only operate delivery services[609].. There are concerns about the impact on the supply chain due to the suspension of Japanese factories[609].
  • British flag The United Kingdom: Announced that the school will be closed all at once from March 2020th and 3th, 18[610].City of LondonClosed up to 3 subway stations from March 19th,KhanMayor asks not to use public transport unless necessary[611].
  • United States flag The United States of America : CaliforniaIssued a stay-at-home order on March 2020, 3.Food stores, pharmacies, banks, etc. will continue to operate[612].
  • Indian flag India: November 2020, 3,National Capital Territory of DelhiClosed all restaurants, sports gyms, and shopping malls, and banned going out nationwide from 22nd[613].
More
  • Austria, the United Kingdom, Germany and Iran have not been banned from going out, but movement is restricted[606].
  • In Tunisia, Bolivia, Serbia, New Jersey, U.S. Dominion Puerto Rico, and Manila, the capital of the Philippines,Curfew[606].

Correspondence of international organizations

WHO Countermeasures

WHOTedros AdanomThe Executive Secretary stated that he "trusted China's approach to epidemic control," called on the general public to "keep calm," and praised the Chinese authorities for their efforts to address and contain the epidemic.[614].. WHO in 2003SARSIn contrast to being accused of delaying efforts to prevent and contain the epidemic due to the secrecy of information by Chinese authorities during the epidemic, the central government "regularly provided information on the current crisis situation. By updating, we avoided panic before entering the Chinese New Year holidays. "[615].

In response to the decision by central authorities to implement a ban on public transport in Wuhan on January 2020, 1, WHO's representative from China, Gauden Gallea, said it was certainly not recommended by WHO. "It was a very important instruction that we were actively involved in containing the epidemic in this region of the highest transport concentration," he said of the ban, "an unprecedented attempt in the history of public health. I called[615].. In addition, human-to-human transmission in China is mainly limited to healthcare professionals who treat family members and patients, and human-to-human transmission has not been confirmed outside of China. But at the moment "Public health emergencies of international concern (PHEIC) ”, but requested the Chinese government to identify the source and route of infection in cooperation with WHO and others.[616].

On January 1, WHO released its latest report,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt was revealed that human-to-human transmission seems to have occurred in this case. Also prevalent in the past with coronavirusMERSAnd SARS, likecough,sneezeWe are calling for countermeasures because there is a possibility of infection due to splashes scattered by such as or direct contact.[617].

On January 1, WHO said on the epidemic after a human-to-human transmission was confirmed outside China and the number of infected people increased in other countries.Public health emergencies of international concern (PHEIC) ”was declared.2009 swine flu pandemicIt was the sixth PHEIC declaration since it was first activated. Regarding PHEIC, Secretary-General Tedros said, "It was not a motion of no confidence in China" in this case, but there is a risk of spreading the infection to low- and middle-income countries that do not have a particularly strong medical system worldwide. Therefore, it was revealed that the declaration was reached.[43][618].. "There is no reason to unnecessarily interfere with international travel and commerce," he said of the enforcement of travel restrictions. "WHO does not recommend restricting trade and movement."[619].. According to some reports, WHO has received a large amount of assistance from China for the birthplace of Executive Secretary Tedros.エチオピアTherefore, it is behind the scenes, such as praising China's measures and not recommending immigration restrictions.[620]In addition, it is an international organization that provides member countries with information on the prevention of infection by air.ICAOAlso(Chinese version)Since the Executive Secretary is from China, he was excluded by China's influence on international organizations along with WHO.Taiwan(Republic of China) Is reported to be an "air pocket" (blank area)[621].

February 2, WHO epidemic of infectious diseases worldwidePandemicIncorrect information is spread like "InfodemicWas raised by piggybacking on the new coronavirus.[17].

On February 2, a WHO spokesman announced that a team of multinational experts would be sent to China.[622].

On February 2, WHO said that even if the virus appeared, it was an urgent task to establish a system for low-income countries that did not have a system to detect people infected with the virus, and strategic infections in those countries. He called on the international community to donate $ 5 million to the Prevention Fund. "Our strength depends on our ties with the weakest people," said Tedros. "Investing today, or you will pay more later." Announced a statement[623].

On February 2, WHO announced at a press conference that it had named the disease COVID-11. In another statement released on the same day, Secretary-General Tedros of the United NationsAntonio GuterresAfter a brief talk with the Secretary-General, he revealed that he had agreed that he would take all possible measures from the United Nations. As a result, a UN crisis management team was set up to coordinate the response of the United Nations agency as a whole, and WHO said that the team would "focus on medical response, while other agencies would have that expertise. Can face the wide range of impacts of epidemics on global society, economy and development. "[624].

On February 2, a joint mission team with China was set up under the leadership of WHO, and international WHO experts came to the site to support epidemic management in China and held a workshop to "disease." Assess "severity and contagiousness", meet with key national institutions, guide field visits, and "impact epidemic response activities at provincial and county levels, including urban and rural areas" Was evaluated[625].

On February 2, WHO announced that it would not be called a pandemic.[626].

On February 2, WHO declared that "the world should be more and more prepared for a possible new coronavirus pandemic," and it is too early to call the current epidemic a pandemic, but nonetheless, countries. Said that it was "in a phase to prepare" for it[627]..In response to the growing epidemic of the new coronavirus in Iran, WHO announced on the same day that it would send a joint mission team to Iran to assess the situation in the country.[628].

On February 2, WHO officials announced that the global threat rating for the new coronavirus would be raised from "high" to the highest level of alert and risk assessment criteria, "very high." .. Mike Ryan, head of the WHO emergency program, said in a statement, "Here's a way to see the reality that every government on the planet should do. Wake up and get ready. (Governments) need to be prepared for this virus, which will be approaching. (You) have a duty to their own people and a duty to prepare for the world. "There is," he warned, saying that if the right measures were taken, the world could be saved and the "worst case" could be avoided.In addition, Ryan said current data do not provide a valid basis for public health officials to declare a global pandemic, which states that "as we originally admit, every human being on earth is a virus. Will be exposed to[629].

March 3, with the new coronavirusInfluenza virusPublished a report summarizing the differences between[630][631].

On March 3, WHO Executive Secretary Tedros talked about the epidemic.PandemicFor the first time, he expressed the view that it was equivalent to (a pandemic).[11][12].

Correspondence of research institute

Published in mid-January 2020Travel medicineIn the specialized magazine "Journal of Travel Medicine", an article was published that made a prediction of the infection spread route pattern by analyzing the international air passenger dynamics. according to it,International Air Transport Association Based on 2018 passenger dynamics data released by (IATA), among the 20 cities with the highest passenger traffic from Wuhan,Bangkok-Hong Kong-TokyoandTaipeiIs listed in the top four cities.Indonesia OfBaliIs considered to be the area with the lowest ability to respond to infectious diseases, with Tokyo in JapanOsakaAnd australiaSydneyとMelbourneIs considered the most responsive city[632][633].

January 1 (US time), United KingdomLancaster UniversityとUniversity of GlasgowAndAmerica OfUniversity of FloridaBy February 2, a research team of researchers from Wuhan alone published a scientific paper showing the potential for more than 4 infected people (35 to 164,602).[634][635].. The research team also said that 5.1% of patients diagnosed with Wuhan were actually infected. This means that 95% of infected people are undiagnosed or unaware of the infection. In addition, the research team estimates that one infected person can spread to others from 1 to 3.6. Much more than the WHO forecast of 4.0 to 1.4.

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Tohoku UniversityProfessor of the Graduate School of Medicine and a doctorHitoshi OshiyaSpeculated that "China took the same measures as during the SARS epidemic as an initial response, but the infection may have spread due to different epidemiological characteristics," and at present, it is taking action to suppress damage rather than containment measures. The shift, criticisms of China and WHO are of no benefit and the international community should cooperate.[636].

Socio-economic impact

1929 OfWorld DepressionBig sinceWorld economyRetreatCorona shockHappened[637][638][228][639]..Economically, the impact is great,International Monetary Fund (IMF)2020world ofGDPAnnounced forecast for growth of -4.4%[640].. This negative growth rate2008 OfLehman shockAt a value far exceeding -0.1% of the time,1929 OfWorld DepressionIt was the Great Depression since (the world GDP growth rate at that time was -15.0%), and in various fields.Corona shockWas also called[637][638][228][639].Financial marketOnly confusedLehman shockRather than destroying the real economy, in private companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprisesBankruptcy, dismissal, suspension of employment, wage cuts, and bonus cuts continueIn that senseCorona shockIs said to have worse properties.As the spread of infection continues to accelerate, there is no prospect of economic recovery.

Under this circumstance20st centuryIt has been maintained sequentially from the endOnlineUsing the environmentShut in economyThe practice of (economy that stays at home) begins, and when you go outSocial distanceThe world economy, such as securingITChanged to make the best use of[641]..The performance of IT companies that provide online services is growing due to the rapid progress of digitalization.New coronavirus (COVID-2)Unexpectedly became a game changer in the economy. For example, it is said to be the top company in the IT industry.GAFAMOfMicrosoft The2020In the April-June periodAzureRelated sales increased 47%,XboxRelated sales increased 64%,SurfaceRelated sales increased 28%[642].. In this income and expenditure report, the companyCEO OfSatya NadellaIs "COVID-19Affects every aspect of our work and life, for two years in the last two monthsDigital transformationWas seen. "[643]..In addition, it has been reported that a high load has occurred on the Internet infrastructure, demonstrating the importance of the Internet infrastructure in an emergency.The largest in the worldContent delivery networkIt is said that it controls 15 to 30% of the Internet traffic.Akamai TechnologiesHas confirmed that Web traffic has increased up to twice the previous year, and although it is an inexperienced traffic volume, content can be delivered without delay.[644][Note 3]..This change in economic activity is in the political and business worldNew normalWas recognized as.

Discrimination

For East Asian foreigners(Chinese version,English edition)Cases and[646][647],mainlySocial MediaIn online media centered onRelated misinformationCases such as[648].. Regarding this phenomenon, WHO saidInfodemic (infodemic) ”is proposed to call attention.[17].

Fundamental changes in the social and economic system

Corona shock[228][639][649] Since then, online utilization has become indispensable for promoting economic activities.

Depending on the time2019Before Corona[650],2020With corona until corona convergence[651], After corona after corona convergence[652] Changes in the economic system that can be divided into are predicted.

In the era of With Corona, society fell into a state of turmoil, but we saw this as an opportunity and changed the time of admission and joining the company, which takes time in normal times.[653], Simplification of procedure[654],Digital transformationThere is a movement to accelerate[655].. In addition, the emergence of a shut-in economy, which did not exist in the past, has been confirmed.[641].. In the shut-in economydelivery,OnlineMost of the economic activity depends on the physical factorscultureWas in danger of survival[656].

With changes in the corona era

From the new coronavirusEmergency evacuationThe following changes occurred in the process of.

Understanding the pandemic

1918から1921It became popular in the worldSpanish cold"Pandemic flu: A record of the" Spanish flu "pandemic" was released for free on the Web until April 2020, 4, and was reprinted.[657].. The book isMinistry of Interior Health BureauWas created in 1921.

Impact on the 2020 Tokyo Olympics
Issuance of a state of emergency

Recognizing that the world is in an emergency,PeopleThe behavior was restricted. First time in history in JapanEmergency宣言が発出される事態となった。当初は2020年4月7日(東京都など1都1府5県が指定され、4月16日に対象地域を全国に拡大)から5月6日までの1か月の期間を設定していたが、収束の傾向が見えず、vaccinebyCollective immunityHas not been established, so discussions on extending the period have started within the government.[658], October 4National Governors' AssociationAt the meetingTokyoMost of the governors, including the governor, have called for an extension of the state of emergency.政府 OfExpert meetingAt an informal meeting, they agreed that "the declaration should continue to be extended nationwide." On April 4, Prime Minister Abe announced at a press conference that he would extend the declaration, saying that it would be difficult to return to his former daily routine from May 30.[659].政府は対象地域を全国としたまま、1か月程度延長する方向で調整を進め、5月1日の専門家会議で現況の分析や判断基準の明確化を行った後、宣言が失効する直前の5月4日に延長期間を5月31日までと決定し、公表した。その後緊急事態宣言の一部解除を5月14日と5月21日に行い、5月25日に全面解除された。

Works on the epidemic of the new coronavirus infection

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ It is not reflected in the Johns Hopkins University tabulation.
  2. ^ In the view of the expert council, "a space with poor ventilation" is considered to mean that it does not meet the standard of the air environment of general buildings. In that senseBuilding Management Law StandardsIf the ventilation volume required to comply with the above (the required ventilation volume per person is approximately 30 m3 per hour) is satisfied, it is considered that the "closed space with poor ventilation" does not apply. →"Ventilation to improve "closed space with poor ventilation" in commercial facilities"Refer to “P.4”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare March 2020, 3
  3. ^ Akamai TechnologiesIs a company that is not generally known, but it is said that it has all of the major websites that are used on a daily basis to its customers due to its overwhelming high-speed content distribution.インターネットIs the largest company in[645].

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  95. ^ Kyoto Shimbun May 2020, 4 morning edition p2
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  113. ^ India confirms infection with new virus Over 100 million people with expanded testing(BBC News JAPAN, July 2020, 7)
  114. ^ Over 1500 million people infected with corona in the world(Asahi Shimbun DIGITAL, July 2020, 7)
  115. ^ US Corona Infection 400 Million Inpatients Increase, Concerns about Medical Tightness(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2020, 7)
  116. ^ More than 15 American new virus deaths infect Republican congressman(BBC NEWS, viewed July 2020, 7)
  117. ^ Over 200 million people infected in India Expanded in rural areas, hampering economy(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2020, 8)
  118. ^ Over 500 million people infected with coronavirus in the United States, 66 in 1 population(@Nifty News, August 2020, 8)
  119. ^ Brazil New Corona Infected More than 300 Million President President Accelerates Economic Resumption(NHK, July 2020, 8)
  120. ^ XNUMX million people infected with new coronavirus worldwide ... XNUMX million more in just XNUMX days(JoongAng Ilbo, August 2020, 8)
  121. ^ Over 300 million people infected in India, 2 million increase in 100 weeks(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2020, 8)
  122. ^ The world's first surpassing XNUMX million people infected with the new coronavirus in the United States(TBS NEWS, August 2020, 8)
  123. ^ Russia's XNUMXth country in the world with over XNUMX million people infected with corona(Tokyo Shimbun, September 2020, 9)
  124. ^ Brazil New Corona Infected More than 400 Million People Infected mainly in the poor(NHK, July 2020, 9)
  125. ^ Over XNUMX million people infected with new coronavirus in India(TBS NEWS, August 2020, 9)
  126. ^ [New Corona] Number of infected people in India ranked second in the world-Tokyo Olympics will be held and IOC(Bloomberg, September 2020, 9)
  127. ^ India, over XNUMX million infected people escape responsibility due to death of poor(Current affairs dot com, September 2020, 9)
  128. ^ Over XNUMX million people infected with corona in the world "Difficult to control" = Korean authorities(Yonhap News Agency, September 2020, 9)
  129. ^ The world's largest number of deaths from the new virus in the United States, exceeding 20(BBC NEWS, viewed July 2020, 9)
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  131. ^ India surpasses 600 million people infected with corona, second country after the United States(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2020, 9)
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  134. ^ First confirmed corona infection in Solomon Islands Students returning from the Philippines(Current affairs dot com, September 2020, 10)
  135. ^ India surpasses 10 new corona deaths Infection further spreads towards winter(Newsweek Japan version, October 2020, 10)
  136. ^ Brazil's new corona-infected person, over XNUMX million people live samba performance lifted in Rio(Current affairs dot com, September 2020, 10)
  137. ^ Brazil's new coronavirus dead, second in the world with over 15(WEDGE Infinity, October 2020, 10)
  138. ^ India's infection surpasses XNUMX million people, the second country after the United States, the largest number in the world(Sankei Shimbun, December 2020, 10)
  139. ^ U.S. corona infection warns 800 million people of "third wave" in the Midwest(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2020, 10)
  140. ^ Argentina surpasses 100 million new coronavirus infections, fifth in the world(REUTERS, January 2020, 10)
  141. ^ More than 4 million people infected with corona(Kyodo News, July 2020, 10)
  142. ^ Spain, sixth country with more than 100 million new virus infections(BBC NEWS, October 2020, 10)
  143. ^ [Breaking news] Over XNUMX million infected people in France(TBS NEWS, August 2020, 10)
  144. ^ Over XNUMX million infected in Colombia XNUMXth country in the world(Tokyo Shimbun, September 2020, 10)
  145. ^ Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean confirms first new virus infection(BBC NEWS, October 2020, 10)
  146. ^ Over XNUMX million people infected in India New infections continue to decline-new corona(Current affairs dot com, September 2020, 10)
  147. ^ The number of people infected with rice has increased rapidly again, surpassing XNUMX million ... About XNUMX million will increase in two weeks(Yomiuri Shimbun, October 2020, 10)
  148. ^ More than 100 million people infected with "Going out restrictions" in the UK(NTV NEWS24, November 2020, 11)
  149. ^ More than XNUMX million people infected with corona in the United States(ParsToday, August 2020, 11)
  150. ^ Corona: Over 4 dead in France.(Ovninavi, November 2020, 11)
  151. ^ Over 5000 million people infected with corona in the world October is the worst record(REUTERS, January 2020, 11)
  152. ^ Vanuatu, South Pacific, First New Coronavirus Infected Male Traveling to the United States(CNN, November 2020, 11)
  153. ^ Over 100 million people infected with corona in Italy, 10th country in the world(REUTERS, January 2020, 11)
  154. ^ Great Britain's new virus deaths, over 5 for the first time in Europe(BBC NEWS, October 2020, 11)
  155. ^ Mexico, 100 million new coronavirus infections Nihon Keizai Shimbun, (November 2020, 11) Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  156. ^ First confirmed corona-infected person in Samoa, spread in Pacific countries AFPBB News (August 2020, 11) Viewed August 19, 2020.
  157. ^ Over 900 million people infected in India The capital city of Delhi is on the rise(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2020, 11)
  158. ^ Brazil to XNUMX million people infected with new corona(Current affairs dot com, September 2020, 11)
  159. ^ New Corona kills more than 10 in Mexico United States Brazil Fourth country after India(Sponichi Annex, November 2020, 11)
  160. ^ Italy New Corona Deaths Over 5 Medical Infections Continue(NHK, July 2020, 11)
  161. ^ Total number of people infected with new corona exceeds 6000 million worldwide(NHK, July 2020, 11)
  162. ^ Germany's corona infection surpasses 100 million daily deaths record high(REUTERS, January 2020, 11)
  163. ^ The world's corona deaths total more than 150 million US rice 1 a day(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2020, 12)
  164. ^ Over 100 million people infected with Iran and 5824 seriously injured(Aviation Newspaper, December 2020, 12)
  165. ^ Over 1500 million people infected with coronavirus in the United States at the end of the year(REUTERS, January 2020, 12)
  166. ^ Corona infection "Increase XNUMX million people in one day" Turkey reflects statistical revision(Current affairs dot com, September 2020, 12)
  167. ^ Over 159 million infected people worldwide, 200 million dead ... Over XNUMX hospitals full in the US(Yomiuri Shimbun, March 2020, 12)
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  169. ^ More than XNUMX million people infected with new coronavirus in India The pace of expansion is slowing(Current affairs dot com, September 2020, 12)
  170. ^ From "Toyama Shimbun", page 2020, "The Third City Blockade of the British Capital, Corona Mutant Virus Expansion" dated December 12, 21.
  171. ^ Over 20 people infected with the new coronavirus in Japan(NHK, July 2020, 12)
  172. ^ "First corona infection in Antarctica, 36 people at a base near the northernmost point". Reuters.Retrieved January 2020, 12.
  173. ^ Peru surpasses 100 million new corona infections(REUTERS, January 2020, 12)
  174. ^ Italy surpasses 200 million people infected with corona 8th country in the world(REUTERS, January 2020, 12)
  175. ^ The number of people infected with the new corona virus in the world exceeds 8000 million(ParsToday, August 2020, 12)
  176. ^ South Africa, the first in Africa with over 100 million new coronavirus infections(AFP BB News, December 2020, 12)
  177. ^ Russia recognizes more than triple the death toll in Corona, the third largest in the world at 3(AFP BB News, December 2020, 12)
  178. ^ More than XNUMX million people infected with coronavirus vaccinated, failing to reach target(Current affairs dot com, September 2020, 1)
  179. ^ Brazil kills more than XNUMX new infections, worst XNUMX-new corona(Current affairs dot com, September 2021, 1)
  180. ^ Coronavirus infection re-expands in more than 9000 million people worldwide(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2021, 1)
  181. ^ "Micronesia first confirmed new corona, no community-acquired infection". AFP.Retrieved January 2021, 1.
  182. ^ Germany's corona-infected person surpasses 200 million in total(Newsweek, January 2021, 1)
  183. ^ Over XNUMX million deaths from infections in the world, the largest number is XNUMX in the US ...(Yomiuri Shimbun Online, January 2021, 1)
  184. ^ New American Corona Deaths Over 40 Total Deaths 1 in Over A Month(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 1)
  185. ^ More than 2500 million people infected in the United States Vaccination challenges(Livedoor News, January 2021, 1)
  186. ^ Indonesia, Corona Infection Over 100 Million Prominent in Southeast Asia(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2021, 1)
  187. ^ Britain's Corona Deaths Over 10 Mutant Infections Rapidly Increased(Tokyo Shimbun TOKYO Web, January 2021, 1)
  188. ^ New Corona Over 1 million infected people worldwide(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 1)
  189. ^ Brazil has more than XNUMX million infected people, the third in the world, XNUMX dead(Tokyo Shimbun TOKYO Web, January 2021, 1)
  190. ^ Spain surpasses 300 million corona infections Portugal border closure extension(REUTERS, January 2021, 2)
  191. ^ New Corona Brazil Over XNUMX Million Infected People(TBS NEWS, August 2021, 2)
  192. ^ From "The Kitanippon Shimbun", page 2021 of February 2, 20, "Africa's death toll exceeds 8, surged in the second wave of corona".
  193. ^ "American dead, the world's largest 50," cruel and tragic milestone ", President Biden". BBC NEWS JAPAN.Retrieved January 2021, 2.
  194. ^ Corona kills more than 250 million people worldwide, AFP total(AFP BB News, December 2021, 2)
  195. ^ Italy's Corona killed more than 10, Prime Minister Draghi "situation worsens"(REUTERS, January 2021, 3)
  196. ^ Turkey surpasses 3 new corona deaths Cumulative total exceeds 300 million(REUTERS, January 2021, 3)
  197. ^ Over 3000 million U.S. corona infections, movement to expand vaccine coverage to young people(REUTERS, January 2021, 3)
  198. ^ Citizens protest against Brazilian president as "murderer" ... Corona killed more than XNUMX, medical collapse is a reality(Yomiuri Shimbun Online, January 2021, 3)
  199. ^ France surpasses 10 deaths in Corona, the eighth highest in the world(REUTERS, January 2021, 4)
  200. ^ More than XNUMX million deaths worldwide Increased number of infected with mutant virus-new corona(Current affairs dot com, September 2021, 4)
  201. ^ Cumulative number of infected people exceeds 1500 million. Going out is prohibited in Delhi, and there are concerns about mutant strains.(Asia Economic News, April 2021, 4)
  202. ^ India, Corona killed more than 20 due to sickbed and lack of oxygen(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2021, 4)
  203. ^ a b Over XNUMX million people infected worldwide XNUMX dead in Brazil(Sankei Shimbun, December 2021, 4)
  204. ^ India continues "second wave" of new corona with more than XNUMX million infected people(Current affairs dot com, September 2021, 5)
  205. ^ Over XNUMX dead in India New Corona(Current affairs dot com, September 2021, 5)
  206. ^ India's corona infection surpasses 2500 million, affected by cyclone in Prime Minister's hometown(REUTERS, January 2021, 5)
  207. ^ India's Corona dead, over 30 in total(Nihon Keizai Shimbun, August 2021, 5)
  208. ^ "Palau records first coronavirus case but says no infection risk”. France24. 2021/7/6Browse.
  209. ^ U.S. New Corona Deaths Over 60 Per day is significantly lower than at one time(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 6)
  210. ^ From "The Kitanippon Shimbun", page 2021 dated June 6, 16, "New Corona Africa Infected 8 Million People Mortality Rate Exceeds the World Overall".
  211. ^ Brazil, Corona more than XNUMX dead, many infected at international soccer tournament(Current affairs dot com, September 2021, 6)
  212. ^ Cumulative total of 200 million corona infections in Indonesia exceeded, regulations tightened in capital cities, etc.(REUTERS, January 2021, 6)
  213. ^ New Corona Dead, More than XNUMX Anti-Government Demonstrations Affect-Colombia(Current affairs dot com, September 2021, 6)
  214. ^ Over 3000 million people infected in India, new infections continue to decline(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 6)
  215. ^ India's new corona deaths exceed 40, doubled in second wave(REUTERS, January 2021, 7)
  216. ^ Corona dead, more than 400 million worldwide increase in emerging markets, delta stock spread(Mainichi Newspaper, July 2021, 7)
  217. ^ Argentina's Corona kills more than 10 people killed 11 in just 14 days in the 614th country of the world(Sponichi Annex, November 2021, 7)
  218. ^ Brazil, the third country after the United States and India, which have a cumulative total of more than XNUMX million infections(Tokyo Shimbun TOKYO WEB, August 2021, 8)
  219. ^ The total number of people infected with corona in the world is over XNUMX million and the number of deaths is XNUMX million.(Yomiuri Shimbun Online, January 2021, 8)
  220. ^ Cumulative number of infected people in Japan exceeds 100 million New corona The rapid spread of infection continues(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 8)
  221. ^ Cumulative number of infected people on the African continent exceeds 700 million(Japan External Trade Organization, August 2021, 8)
  222. ^ New Corona Infected in Japan Over 150 million people "Fifth wave" expands at an accelerating rate(NHK NEWS WEB, March 2021, 9)
  223. ^ 2 million people infected worldwide-Over 2113.2 million people infected in the United States [Number of infected people by new corona country] Updated on the night of September 4000(Nippon.com, September 2021, 9)
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