How many do you know100 Japanese food heritage carefully selected by the queen of ekiben
If you write the contents roughly
Since it is rarely published in travel guidebooks and information magazines, it tends to be a hidden specialty.
At travel destinations, there are surprisingly few opportunities to eat delicious food that only locals know.Published in travel guidebooks and information magazines ... → Continue reading
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Travel guidebookWhat is (Ryokou Guidebook)?Tourism,workFor purposes such asunknownTo the area of (TravelTo provide information on the specific area that is the destination, information on the means of transportation, etc. to the person出版物That is.Travel guide,Travel guideOr simplyGuidebookAlso called.
Travel guidebooks provide information on the area of interest.As the contentterrain,climate, Animals, plants, etc.Geography,History,culture,Economy,言语Show the background of the specific area where information should be provided, such asTrain-bus-Automobile-rickshaw(Rickshaw)・Rental Bike-boat-aircraft・ Introduction of means of transportation, etc.clothing,宿 泊, Meals, highlights,Festival,Climbing,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euOtheractivityAnd experience,SouvenirDescribe information about such things accurately and easily to the reader.Also tourist spotsHotelAccommodations such asRestaurantsIt also criticizes and ranks such as.
Not only textual information, but also whole maps and detailed maps, etc.Map, Photos, etc. are also important guidebook elements.In addition, when guiding areas that use a language different from the description language, a phrasebook, vocabulary, and a simple dictionary are also included.
Most of the publication formats are divided into separate volumes and series, such as by country, region, and city.On the other hand, there are some that are issued independently by the local government agency or community.The contents of the travel guidebook will not be in line with the current situation as the publication date elapses.Therefore, it needs to be revised every year or every few years.Guidebooks in low-demand areas have a low circulation, resulting in less frequent revisions, resulting in less accurate information and, in some cases, integration with other areas.
The appearance of travel guidebooks is often small, such as A5, B5, B6, and bible size, which are relatively convenient to carry.On the other hand, the number of people who enjoy traveling by car has been increasing in recent years, and guidebooks with large maps that can be folded into A4 size are also remarkable.In addition, many of them are full-color to improve the appearance of maps and photographs.The contents are mainly introductions of local history and historic sites, consumption-guided articles such as dishes, hotels / hot springs, souvenirs, tie-up articles with specific tourist destinations and hotels, hotels / restaurants / tourist facilities. Some come with discount coupons.
Also, in recent years, guidebooks for moving long-term overseas life such as work, study abroad, long-term stay after retirement, etc. have appeared, not just a trip to Mt. Another guidebook has also increased.
History of travel guidebooks
If we think of travel guidebooks as a means of providing information to those heading to unknown areas, their origins can be traced back to the emergence of the habit of keeping records of humankind.If there is a recordPoseidoniusThe oldest guidebook written bybecome.
Transportation was underdeveloped in the first place, and travel probably included adventure and exploration elements.Many of the documents dealing with travel were in the style of travelogues that described the author's personal experiences and impressions, and many included the content created and exaggerated information.
1815ToNapoleonic WarHas ended, and many British have traveled to the mainland of Europe as leisure time.Until thenGrand tourA trip to the European continent, which belonged to only a few aristocrats, spread to the middle class, which emerged in the wake of the Industrial Revolution.It was around this time that a modern travel guidebook that included information on transportation, hotels, restaurants, etc., in addition to the cultural description of historic sites, appeared.
A modern travel guidebook series by region is published by Germans.Baedeker"(Baedeker)" Rhine River Guide "1828(1835,1839There is also a theory[Note 1]) Published by British John Murray1836ToMalay』(Murray) published" Continent Guide ".These two are considered to be the ancestors.
1900After entering, "Baedeker" increased its share in the English-speaking world.In FranceHachette"Gido Blue",Michelinof"Guido Michelin』(Michelin Guide, Michelin Guide) and so on. "Gido Michelin"1900It was a tourist pamphlet distributed free of charge with the aim of expanding sales of Michelin-made automobile tires due to increased travel.It has become a hotel / restaurant guidebook that has been rated by the number of stars in hotels and restaurants, eliminating all advertisements.Known asRed MichelinIs called.The red Michelin rating is still todayEuropeIt is considered to be one of the most prestigious evaluations in Japan.
World War IAfter that, the appearance of the travel guidebook changed.First, "Malay" and "Baedeker" declined.In England, "BaedekerIn the UK, "" was led by James F Muirhead, who was involved in writing and editing the English version of "".1918Published in and serialized.Since then, it has gained popularity mainly in English-speaking countries.
AmericaThen "" (Fodor's)But1936It was first published in.alsoNew Deal PolicyAs part of the writer's unemployment measures (FWP), the American Guide Series, a travel guidebook in the United States, has created a guidebook for each state.1935から1943It was published over.
Second World WarAfter that,TransportationThe development of means has led to the rapid popularization of travel.There has been a shift from traditional guidebooks that emphasize the cultural aspects of travel to guidebooks that emphasize how-to travel.1957America "" (Frommer's) "Europe on $ 1 a Day" is a typical example, and has since spread to guides around the world.
1973ToEnglishmanTony Wheeler(Tony Wheeler) couple ownsThe United KingdomからAsiaviaAustraliaSummarizing the contents of the trip toLonely Planet』(Lonely Planet) was published.After thatAustraliaLonely Planet's seriesBackpackerPopular among people who enjoy traveling abroad individually,FrenchA version and a Japanese version were also published.2004ToEnglishIt won the top spot with a 25% share in the area.
History of Japanese travel guidebooks
JapanEven in Japan, it has been around for a long time to keep a record of travel.However, the format of the guidebook, which is clearly different from the travel diary and travelogue, isEdo PeriodAppeared from.
Edo ShogunateIt is,samurai-Common peopleStrictly restricted the movement of people regardless of.On the other hand, the roads have been improved and the long-lasting TaiheiTimeAnd,Monomi YuzanAlso promoted the journey.Visit Fuji,Ise visitAnd so on.Along with this,Journey[Note 2]Many so-called guidebooks have appeared.
Also, Yasumiroan's "Travel Precautions" (1810(culture7 years)), including 61 articles on travel knowledge, of each countrySpa,streetIt was written in detail such as the distance of. There are expressions that still remain today, such as "Let a cute child travel."
Japan's modern travel guidebookMeijiEnter the period,TrainProgressed with.The first modern travel guidebook in JapanMeiji Era OfSanyo RailwayIt is said thatAfter that, when major railways were nationalized, travel guidebooks were published.Railway Institute-Ministry of RailwaysIt was recommended to be led by the railway business and the state.
1911(Meiji 44), the Ministry of Railways published "Railway Institute Line Roadside Sightseeing Site Guide".After that, it will be revised as "Railway Travel Information".In addition, Rika Taniguchi, who was involved in writing and editing in "Railway Travel Guide",HakubunkanMore "From the window of the train" (two volumes of "Southwest" and "Northeast")1918Published in (Taisho 7).
1912(Meiji 45) An affiliated organization of the Ministry of RailwaysJapan Tourist BureauWas established,1919(TaishoIn 8), a convention on tourist guides, "Internal and External Information Exhibition" was held.At the exhibition, the guidebooks that were in circulation at that time were unrealistic in beautiful and Chinese styles, unreliable for advertising purposes, and not useful for actual travel because they were travel-oriented and the costs and processes were unknown. The problem was pointed out.1929(ShowaFrom around 4 years)Ministry of RailwaysPublished "" edited by[Note 3]..It consists of eight volumes, Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kanto, Chubu, Kinki (top / bottom), Chugoku-Shikoku, and Kyushu, and most of the famous places and historic sites were introduced.It is said that this "Japan Guidebook" became the prototype of the current guidebooks in Japan.
1949(Showa 24)Japan Transportation CorporationThen, "New Travel Guide" was introduced, followed by "Latest Travel Guide", modeled after "Japan Guide". The "Latest Travel Guide" was 17 volumes for each area.1973In (48), all the cities, towns and villages in Japan at that time were introduced, and the "New Japan Guide", which was highly evaluated as a guidebook and valuable geographical material, was published.After that, it continued to "Ace Guide".
If I was working on a series of "Mountain Guidebooks", which are mountain guidebooks, at TomobundoJitsugyo no NihonshaMove to1961Published "Blue Guide" in 36.It gains popularity not only for mountaineering and hiking, but also for its editorial policy targeting individual travel.Later, the series was further subdivided according to the purpose.
1960 eraAfter that, otherInfomationSince then, guidebooks have been published in competition, and the number and types of guidebooks have increased dramatically.Many of them deal only with information on foods of a specific genre, especially the so-called ""KagawaInSanuki Udon NoodlesStore guidebooks and the like have been established as a genre of publications by themselves, and many publishers are competing for information.
またJTB publishing(A branch of the Publishing Business Bureau of Japan Transportation Corporation), a travel information magazine published by "RurubuAs a mook of "Rurubu Information Version"1984The Kyoto version appeared in (59).After thatShobunshaof"MappuruAlong with the "Magazine" series, a series targeting drive trips by private cars will be made.
Japanese guidebook for foreign travel
For foreign travel, foreign travel has become liberalized1959Before (Showa 34)Japan Transportation Corporation"Foreign travel guide"1952It was published in (Showa 27).1972In (47), the Japan Transportation Corporation published a guidebook for foreign travel for the general public as an "overseas guide series".
1979(54) from Diamond Big Co., Ltd.How to walk the earthIs published.At that time, overseas travel was becoming more popular as Japan's economy grew.In addition, the increase in the number of individuals who enjoy traveling abroad has helped them to gain an exclusive position as an overseas travel guidebook.alsoWay of walkingThe term has become established as an implicit term for guidebooks in general.
BackpackerSuch asFree tripAs a guidebook specialized for people,1996(Heisei8 years)Traveler notesWas published,2003In (15)media FactoryUntil then, there was only an English version.Lonely PlanetWas translated into Japanese.
A guidebook that introduces Japan
As a travel guidebook that introduces Japan overseas,1867NB Dennis published in "China / Japan Opening Port Information"Is the first. afterwards,1873(Meiji6 years)Kyoto ExpoI come toForeignerforYamamoto"Kyoto / Surrounding Places Guide" written by1874(Meiji 7)William Griffith"Yokohama Guide",1875(Meiji 8)Ernest Sato"Nikko Guide",1880In (Meiji 13), WEL Keyring's "Yokohama / Tokyo Guide for Travelers"』Continued.1881"Travel Guide for Central and North Japan for Travelers" by Ernest Mason Sato and HoesYokohamaPublished by Kelly Co., Ltd., as the second edition of the book, "Travel Guide to Japan for Travelers""But1884(Meiji 17)The United KingdomPublished by John Murray..As an authorBasil Hall ChamberlainTo holdKoizumi YakumoIntroduced the Japanese Alps to Europe by writing "Mountain climbing and exploration of the Japanese Alps"Walter WestonHas been contributed and is now a valuable document.The book has been published in nine editions over the next 30 years..
Murray's classic travel guide was becoming obsolete1914Around (Taisho 3), new English guidebooks appeared one after another."Terry's Guide to the Japanese Empire" by American Phillip Terry is characterized by picking up interesting things from the perspective of foreigners, and as a guidebook that is easy to obtain although there are difficulties in data accuracy.1933Revised editions were published many times until (Showa 8)..In addition, the "Japan Pocket Guide" published by Japan Tourist Bureau emphasized practicality such as travel expenses and accommodation expenses after arriving in Japan.
Published at the same timeRailway InstituteCreated "East Asia Travel Guide"[Note 4](An Official Guide to Eastern Asia: Trans-continental Connections between Europe and Asia) ”is“ Manchuria / Korea ”(1913(Taisho 2)), "Southwest Japan" (1913 (Taisho 2)), "Northeast Japan" (1914(Taisho 3)), "China" (1915(Taisho 4)), "East Indies" (1917(Taisho 6)), consisting of 5 volumes, not only from tourists but also from overseasTradeIt is a guidebook created for the purpose of attracting investment..1933In (Showa 8), "An Official Guide to Japan", which is a compilation of only the Japanese edition, was published. Eight years and a huge amount of money were used in the "East Asia Travel Guide", which adopted a format compliant with Baedeker, and was valuable with excellent photographs, maps, and detailed data.East AsiaAs a documentTime MagazineReceived high praise from.Pacific WarLaterJapan Transportation CorporationTakes over the publication,スイスThere was also a request from Nasal Co., Ltd. to transfer the publishing rights.
Accuracy and objectivity of travel guidebooks
Publications may have problems with the accuracy and objectivity of their content.Especially in the case of travel guidebooks that guide readers to unknown areas, readers tend to rely heavily on the information in the guidebooks.In addition, accommodations and restaurants listed in the guidebook (Hotel-Japanese inn-Restaurants-PatisserieIn some cases, the information published in the guidebook is used as advertising material.In addition, the higher the evaluation of accuracy and objectivity, the higher the reliability of the posted information.
Therefore, the accuracy and objectivity of the information contained in travel guidebooks, regardless of the east or west of the West, has always been the subject of debate.It is not uncommon for people to argue over the accuracy and objectivity of the content and to exchange criticisms among the parties concerned.Whether it is possible to add objectivity to the content of a guidebook and place an advertisement at the same time has long been a matter of judgment.
In particular, the red Michelin series of "Gido Michelin", which boasts authority in the rating of restaurants and hotels, is thoroughly surveyed anonymously regarding the evaluation target in addition to not posting advertisements.For this reason, restaurants and hotels that have been given three stars by "Gido Michelin" also have authority, and many tourists can be expected, and the owners and chefs are jumping, such as being covered by multiple media and increasing media exposure. It may be a darling of the times.
On the other hand, travel guidebookstv setAnd magazinesMediaSince the time when it has been frequently taken up by such people and has become more authoritative in the world of gastronomy and tourism, not a few harmful effects have been seen.For example, a store that has received high praise is flooded with customers, and not only are regular customers unable to make reservations properly, but in the end, the store's ability to respond is exceeded, resulting in service. There are many things that caused the decline in.On the contrary, the fact that the evaluation is lowered by a well-known guidebook not only reduces the number of visitors for the restaurant side and the cook, but in some cases it may directly affect the survival of the restaurant. There is a danger that the reputation of "first-class" will be lost.In fact, this downgrade caused the store to close, and even the cooks went out of business.suicideIt was rumored that if you picked up the details, you wouldn't have time to list them.[Note 7][Note 8][Note 9].
On the other hand, readers can expect to reduce the unit sales price by advertising, and guidebook publishers can expect an increase in the number of copies.Some people think that incorporating coupons and discount coupons into the guidebook will increase the convenience of readers.
On the other hand, accommodations and restaurants that are highly evaluated but refuse to be rated according to the owner's policies, ideas, management policies, etc., or to be listed in the guidebook are regardless of the east or west of the West. There are quite a few, and it is a fact that the information contained in travel guidebooks in any form of editing and publication does not cover the entire area. is there.In addition, some stores / owners allow publication only in specific guidebooks that they find to be reliable.Therefore, not only readers, but also accommodation facilities restaurant-CookThe amount of trust that can be gained from a travel guidebook is also an important factor that determines the amount of information and the value and accuracy of information.
However, on the other hand, some stores and owners to be evaluated refuse to publish because "I can not understand that the number of stars is the same as other stores in the same industry", if you turn it over, the editor is allowed to publish. As a condition of, only self-interest, such as implicitly demanding that "give the highest rating among restaurants of the same genre to your own restaurant and not give the same level of rating to other restaurants of the same genre" Some people don't think.
War and Travel Guidebook
Travel guidebooks are a publishing business that is established in the peaceful time of tourism.However, because the guidebook has local information and detailed maps, it was at the mercy of the war.
The "Hokkaido edition" published at the end of the "Japan Guide" series was influenced by information control by the wartime system.The part ordered to be deleted by censorship is printed blank,1936It was published in (Showa 11).
Second World WarIn1940(Showa 15) German troops in AprilノルウェーAppointed Commander-in-Chief when conducting the invasionNikolaus von FalkenhorstWhat he did as his first job was to purchase "Baedeker" to gain basic knowledge about the target area..
From April to May 1942 during World War II, the German army was in Britain.Canterbury,yoke,バ ー ス,ExeterBombed (by the Allied Forces)LübeckIt was allegedly in retaliation for the bombing).The bombing target at this time was selected from the stars indicating the historic sites in the "British Guide" of "Baedeker" (not military facilities).[Note 10]..EnglandBaedeker bombingHe blamed the act with the word (Baedeker-Raid).
- ^ Baedeker's "Rhine River Guide" has been revised several times, and it is difficult to judge which is the first, Murray or Baedeker, depending on which one is the first.The Malay side has criticized Baedeker's guide to the Rhine as a plagiarism in the form of a Malay guidebook, but most of the time, both Malay and Baedeker are the founders of modern travel guidebooks.
- ^ Edo PeriodVisited Japan at the endErnest SatoRepresents the travelogue as "Murray" in Japan. "Meiji Restoration as seen by a diplomat" (top / bottom)Iwanami library
- ^ laterHakubunkanEditing changes to
- ^ There is no official Japanese name.In addition, there are notation examples such as "Railway Institute version English Toa traffic guide" and "Official Toa guide".
- ^ The German version of the Swiss Guide, revised after World War I, featured 20 pages of advertising.However, he later returned to the policy of non-advertising.
- ^ It became a charge1920Since then, no ads have been posted
- ^ 1966,ParisAlan Zic, the chef of the popular Le Rey de Porcrollsuicide..It was rumored that the cause was that he was concerned about Michelin's evaluation.
- ^ Touted as a genius French cookBernard LoiseauIt is,2003Tosuicide..It was rumored that he might have been concerned about the evaluation of guidebooks such as Michelin because the time of suicide coincided with the time of revision of the guidebook.However, the truth is unknown.
- ^ In some cases, the Michelin rating has been lowered, and the Michelin listing has disappeared.Was given three stars by MichelinMaxim(Maxim's)1978There are no ratings for 6 stores from the edition.In response, Maxim commented, "We are a theater, not a restaurant. Therefore, Michelin is correct."It is said that when Michelin asked for a demotion from three stars to two stars, Maxim refused to list it as a restaurant.
- ^ Nuremberg TrialsIt became clear in the testimony of.
- ^ Takeshi Abe "Japanese History of Origin Modern and Contemporary" Doseisha
- ^ Akai 2016, pp. 117 --126.
- ^ 
- ^ a b c d Kana Nagasaka "Japan's first travel guidebook for foreigners in the early Meiji era"Bulletin of Keio University Graduate School of Sociology" No. 69, Keio University Graduate School of Sociology, 2010, pp. 101-115, ISSN 0912456X, NOT 120002791529.
- ^ Hirofumi Sumitani "The capture of "knowledge": The world's first English-language Japanese guidebook (1)"Bulletin of Osaka Kyoiku University 1 Humanities" Vol. 57, No. 2, Osaka Kyoiku University, February 2009, pp. 2-17, ISSN 03893448, NOT 120002108992.
- ^ a b c Akai 2016, pp. 126 --132.
- ^ Daily Gendai According to the article "Large ripples in Michelin rating" dated November 2008, 20.
- ^ Raymon Cartier "All History World War II Memoir 1" Shogakukan
- Koichi Nakagawa"Travel Culture Magazine" (1979)
- Japan Transportation Corporation"1982 Years of Japan Transportation Corporation" (XNUMX)
- Hisayasu Hirukawa"Thomas cookPortrait-Father of Social Reformism and Modern Tourism "Maruzen ISBN-4 62106-070-8 1998
- Travel Writer's Association "Slow Tourism Outlook" Contemporary Travel Research Institute ISBN-4 87482-091-3 2006
- Shoji Akai "Travel Modernism: Social and Cultural Changes in the Early Showa Era"Nakanishi Publishing, 2016.ISBN 9784779511035.