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😀 | "Hakozume" illustration posting project is thriving "Fukuoka God Painter" also participates


"Police in a Pod" illustration posting project is thriving "Fukuoka God Painter" also participates

If you write the contents roughly
The affiliated station Fukuoka Broadcasting also participated in the war by uploading works with enthusiasm saying "I have no choice but to put out the illustrations of Hakozume drawn by the god painter of Fukuoka!", And the official drama Twitter introduced them one after another by RT. ing.

Japanese TV drama "Police in a Pod! Alternate Girls" starring actresses Erika Toda and Mei Nagano (every Wednesday ... → Continue reading

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Network (broadcast)

broadcastInnetworkIsBroadcasterTo openBroadcasterIt is a connection between each other. Also called "broadcast series".

In the networkBroadcast programExchanges, news materials and news programs are exchanged.For programs that are flexible within the series,Line netとTape netThere are two types.Also, apart from thisProgram salesSome programs are broadcast by (rebroadcast, purchase from other series, etc.).

Full net and cross net

Broadcasting stations that are members of a single network agreementFull net station", Broadcasting stations that are members of multiple network agreements"Cross net station"[1]..In addition, the state in which programs are supplied from multiple key stations is called "cross net".[2][3].. Abbreviation for "cross network".

In Japan, after the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications started allocating radio waves in the UHF band, around the time when many UHF stations were established from 1968 to 1970, JNN series (1959), NNN series (1966), FNN Series (1966), ANN series (1970) established[2]..At this time, the series was not very advanced, and there were many local stations in a cross-net state.[2].. Since 1974, the number of cross-net stations has decreased and the series has become stronger.[2].


In this sectionTelevision broadcastingDescribes the network in.The network in radio broadcasting isRadio networkSee.

It was enacted in 1950 (Showa 25) due to the government's intervention in broadcasting before the war and reflection on the concentration in Tokyo.Broadcasting lawso,General broadcaster(Currently private sectorTerrestrial broadcaster) That isPrivate broadcastingThe station isPrefecturesOr an area that combines some of themBroadcast target areaage,Nationwide broadcastingIt was decided that it could not be done.For this reason,Nippon TVWas envisioningNational broadcast planWas to fail.

In addition,Mass media concentration exclusion principleByJapan Broadcasting CorporationMultiple except (NHK)BroadcasterIs not allowed in principle[Note 1]..Under such circumstancesNews series(Distribution and mutual use of news videos) was first formed, and from there a network for distribution and supply of broadcast programs was born.

In particularTokyo Broadcasting(TBS, nowTBS TV)But,JNNWas formed, and TBS sponsored programs other than news to the affiliated businesses (member stations) (even now, in the TBS system, sales to member stations of general programs are ancillary business of JNN. Has been done).This has saved local stations the trouble of sales, and for TBS, it has become possible to spend a large amount of money on program production due to the expansion of the program budget.

Other stations that noticed this merit began to adopt the same system.Even so, at the beginning, the number of local stations was absolutely small, and even local stations had a relatively large choice in deciding which station's program to broadcast and inserting in-house produced programs, but since 1968 (Showa 43), the local area As the number of stations increased, the power of the network increased.Thus the two are almost virtually one.However, some series are formally divided.In addition, the broadcasting network in Japan has a strong relationship with newspaper companies, which was mass-opened during the time of the Minister of Posts and Telecommunications.Kakuei TanakaHas taken the route of granting a broadcasting license to newspaper companies.[4].

Regarding the supply of broadcast programsBroadcasting lawArticle 110 stipulates that a terrestrial core broadcaster "must not conclude an agreement on the supply of broadcast programs, including provisions that require the supply of broadcast programs only from specific persons." It is a mechanism that forcibly broadcasts network programs in many time zones (By interweaving programs from not only key stations in Tokyo but also quasi-key stations, etc. into network programs, Article 110 is added. I'm running away).In particular"Prime timeIn the time zone called ", under the premise of broadcasting on affiliated stations,sponsorThis is because the key stations collectively make contracts with (see the network sales frame).Programs without this contract do not have to be broadcast by affiliated stations and can be replaced with in-house produced programs (or purchased programs), but in-house produced programs are affiliated stations (for program production, searching for sponsors, etc.). Since the burden is placed on the side itself, it is possible to broadcast the program broadcast by the key station as it is.This trend is particularly strong in recent years.


Radio broadcast

Television broadcasting

Work name
Key station nameNumber of operators (including key stations)
Of which cross net
NTV seriesNNNNippon TV(NTV)30273[Note 2]
NNS29[Note 3]2[Note 2][Note 3]
TV Asahi seriesANNTV Asahi(EX)26242
TBS seriesJNNTBS TV(TBS)28280
(Exclusive agreementBanned by[Note 4])
TV Tokyo seriesTXNTelevision Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.(TX)660
Fuji TV seriesFNNFuji Television Network, Inc(CX)28262

Of these, the networks other than TXN are called the four major networks.Each network is called a key stationTokyoMainly on the broadcasting stations ofPrefectureWe have a network with a broadcasting station in.OsakaBroadcasting stationQuasi-key stationIt is called, and is entrusted with the production of a certain number of national online programs. The four major networks cover almost the whole country, but there is no network that covers all 4 prefectures.

Terrestrial core broadcasters that do not belong to the 5 seriesCapital Area,Kinki,Chubu regionIt exists in the prefectures of.They areIndependent broadcasting stationAs the name suggests, it has been organized with a strong originality, but it also has a considerable amount of mutual distribution of programs, and in fact it functions as the sixth series.In recent years, some of themTomeisaka Net 6-Metropolitan area triangle-5 together 3 channelHas formed a role similar to that of a network, such as co-producing programs.In addition, although it is different from a general networkEducational programAs forPrivate Broadcast Education AssociationThere is.


Currently, there are a total of five networks, three old networks (so-called "three major networks") and two emerging networks.

In addition, NBC, CBS, ABC will be the 3 major nets, Fox will be added to make the "4 major nets", and 4 major nets + CW will be the "5 major nets".

There was a network reorganization in September 2006,Time warnerSystem WB,CBS CorporationUPN (United Paramount Network) of the system is integrated and CW (C is CBS, W is an acronym for Warner) is formed. Former WB / UPN member stations that are out of CWNews CorporationFormed a second network, MyNetworkTV, but has not organized an original program since September 2.

On the other hand, public broadcasting networks in a different format from thesePBSAndSpanishBroadcast networkUnivision,Telemundo,Furthermoreキ リ ス ト 教There are also networks that have a religious color such as ancestry.


The network in the American broadcasting industry is a little different from that in Japan.There is no key station in the American network system like the Tokyo broadcasting station, which is responsible for most of the sales of online programs in program production and commercial broadcasting in Japan.

The main body of the network (≒ parent) arranges the program organization.Many of the programs are owned by each network and movie companyTV production companyProduced by.News programs and sports broadcasts are also produced by production companies within the group.[Note 5]..It is to be distributed to affiliated stations in each region.

In addition, the majority of affiliated stations focus on self-produced programs for local news programs, so they are used live.helicopterAnd used in weather forecastsDoppler radarIs not uncommon to own at a broadcaster[Note 6].

In some cases, existing programs are broadcast on other networks as they are due to the separate production and organization.For example, the drama "Buffy-The Cross in Love-Is produced20th Century Fox TelevisionHowever, it was not broadcast on Fox, it was broadcast on WB from 1997 to 2001, and transferred to UPN in the middle of 2001.

Directly managed stations and affiliated stations

Broadcasting is actually done by "broadcasting stations" all over the country, covering almost all areas.However, it is sufficient for broadcasting stations to install only one transmission station, and in most major cities, it is generally possible to watch.Cable TVThere are many areas that can only be viewed via.Including it, it is as close to 100% as possible.

Broadcasting stations directly owned by the network are called "Owned-and-operated stations" (O & O), and broadcasting stations owned by other companies are called "Affiliated stations".

Directly managed stations are owned mainly in large cities, for example.New York Stateニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク OfWABC-TV,CaliforniaLos AngelesKABC-TV,PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia OfWPVIIs a directly managed station of ABC.As for the number of possessions, it is possible to own as many as you like unless the total number of viewers is above a certain level.2004As of January, it accounts for 1% of all households in the United States.[5]..Besides, the channel of the broadcasting stationUHFIf it is a channel, the expected number of viewers is calculated in half, and many people who have UHF channels can own directly managed stations.[Note 7]..Most of Fox's directly managed stations, which currently own the most directly managed stations, are UHF channel broadcasters.[Note 8].

On the other hand, in areas where there are no directly managed stations, by concluding a contract with each broadcasting station, it becomes a "member station" in that area.For exampleMassachusettsDuffel BagWBTS-LD has a contract with NBC.The network pays a contract fee to the member stations, and it can be said that the directly managed stations that do not have to pay this contract fee are more profitable.

In addition, between TV stations in the same areaNet changeIs not uncommon[Note 9]..Also, the same company can have multiple broadcasting stations in the same area.[Note 10]..The broadcasting station itself is bought and sold, and the owner may change.[Note 11]..Although it has decreased since the beginning of television broadcasting, there are stations that have cross-nets belonging to multiple networks.But cable TVDigital broadcastingAs the spread of TV broadcasts progresses, there are many cases in which broadcasting of emerging networks is started on cable TV and digital broadcasting sub-channels.

The links below are a list of broadcasting stations (directly managed stations + member stations) of each network.


The networks are similar to each of the three major networks and the four emerging stations.

3 major networks

Emerging network

  • Prime time is set at 20:21 and XNUMX:XNUMX on weekdays.
  • In metropolitan areas, there is a remnant of broadcasting local news at 1960:22 from the XNUMXs when it was an independent station, and local news became established at other times (Good Day LAEtc.), and news programs for the whole country are not broadcast.Also, no soap opera or late-night talk has been organized (there was a time when I tried it).
  • Many stations outsource local news programs (mainly weekdays at 18:22 and 3:XNUMX) to affiliated stations of the three major networks. At CW, only tribune-owned stations produce their own local news.In small and medium-sized cities, some stations do not have local news itself.On the other hand, since the time zone restricted by the network is loose, many stations broadcast games of local professional sports and university sports mainly on weekends.
  • Fox organizes sports content such as NFL broadcasts, but not CW.Fox also organizes debate programs and news specials, but does not do any CW.Meanwhile, CW organizes talk shows and drama reruns nationwide during the day, but Fox doesn't.

Program sales

On the other hand, during times when there is no network distribution and no in-house production is done.Program salesWe are purchasing the program by.Mainly talk shows during the day, but there are various types such as morning news programs, entertainment news programs, and reruns of past dramas.Newly produced programs for program sales are broadly distinguished from "first run" and drama production companies selling rebroadcast rights to "off-network".As a first run program, "The Oprah Winfrey ShowAnd 'Jeopardy!], [Entertainment Tonight] Is famous.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ About NHKBroadcasting lawArticle 9 (5) states that "measures must be taken so that it can be received nationwide," and it is obligatory to cover the whole country as a single terrestrial backbone broadcasting company.
  2. ^ a b Fukui Broadcasting(FBC) is also a member of ANN, so in this table we will refer to FBC.Cross net station(The same applies to the ANN part).However, NTV, which is the key station of NNN, is NTV because all the programs specified by NTV are netted to FBC without omission.Website(See external link) does not use FBC as a cross-net station.
  3. ^ a b Member of NNNTV Miyazaki(UMK) is not a member of NNS.
  4. ^ However, in the past, there was a cross-net station between the JNN series and other series (FNS / NET line network → TV Asahi network), with the exception of general program supply, and NTV / NET in areas where there are no official affiliated stations. A considerable number of general programs in affiliated stations (in some stations, "JNN New ScopeThere was an example of sponsored nets (including JNN news such as ”) to provide internet security comparable to that of affiliated stations.
  5. ^ Even in Japan, newspaper companies produced news programs until the network system was established in the 1970s.
  6. ^ In most cases, the broadcasting rights of local, professional and university sports teams are monopolized by one station in the area.In the American football NFL, the league manages broadcasting rights.
  7. ^ In the United States, there are 2 to 13 VHF broadcasting stations. Broadcasters in the UHF band have channels 14 to 69.
  8. ^ Among the top 10 metropolitan areas with a viewable population, Chicago (WFLD / 32 channels), Philadelphia (WTXF / 29 channels), Boston (WFXT / 25 channels), Houston (KRIV / 26 channels) are UHF band broadcasters. is there.The parent company, News Corporation, sold 2008 directly managed stations in medium-sized cities such as Cleveland in July 7.
  9. ^ The standards of broadcasting regulations in the United States are loose, and there are more than 10 broadcasting stations by terrestrial broadcasting alone in areas that can be called metropolitan areas, and there is little adverse effect that programs on a specific network cannot be viewed due to a net change like Japan.
  10. ^ Taking advantage of this rule, there are examples of providing local news produced by local stations directly managed and affiliated with the three major nets to emerging net stations and independent stations of the same owner.It is mainly aired at 7:8 am and 22:XNUMX pm, which is the time behind the time when the three major networks produce programs.
  11. ^ Requires Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approval.However, it is unlikely that a network will have multiple stations in a metropolitan area. This is not the case for the same capital line, such as FOX and MNTV, CBS and CW, and NBC and Telemundo.
  12. ^ For the three major network stations, it is common to have 3 or 5 in the morning, after noon, 6 or 17 in the evening, and 18:23 in the evening.


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