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👩‍🎤 | "A famous female voice actor is about to be raped by a male voice actor" !?


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"A famous female voice actor is about to be raped by a male voice actor" !? In the video of the game producer's exposure ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
"In the video, while prefaced with'rumors', it was revealed that there was a rumor in the industry that'a famous female voice actor was about to be raped by a male voice actor when he was a newcomer.'
 

Former who has produced many hits such as "Street Fighter II" and "Monster Hunter" series ... → Continue reading

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Voice actor

Voice actor(SeiyuIt is,ImageWorks andvoiceWithout showing yourself in the worksoundTo appear aloneAn actor[1].. In a broad sensenarratorIs also included.OccupationWhen used to indicate, and for video and audio worksrole,FunctionMay represent.

The voice actor was initiallyRadio DramaSpecialize inTokyo Broadcasting CompanyAnd other broadcastersMember of the troupe・ Refers to a radio actor[2], In the TV era, it became established as a term that refers to actors who perform dubbing and animation.

"Yomiuri Shimbun"so1926 (ShowaKnown to have been used since the first year)[3], The origin of the name has the following two theories, and it has not been clarified yet.

  1. By Tokusaburo Kobayashi, a Yomiuri entertainment reporter
  2. NHK's entertainment program chargeproducer・ Named by Tatsuo Ooka[4]

Overview

Act only with voicePerformerAnd many Japanese voice actorsJapan Actors Union, But unlike actors, is considered a voice-specific actor[5].. Read the manuscript again in the newscaster,announcerIt is also distinguished from those who are engaged in the business of broadcasting and news fields.

Often in animated worksCharacter voice(Character voice), abbreviatedCVTo sayJapanglishIs used. this is1980 eraIn the second halfAnime magazine"AnimatedWas the deputy editor-in-chiefShinichiro InoueIs a term proposed byKadokawa ShotenWhich was first published inMonthly new type] Is also used[6]..Also, in the works of the Showa period, it was often described as "voice appearance" in the ending credits.HeiseiからReiwaAt present, it is often written as "cast" or "CAST" or "CV" (character voice).

Due to the fix system described belowPersonality actorThere is also an aspect as.

In Japan, there are many cases where voice actors are specialized for historical reasons.Overseas, it is a part of the work of actors, but in the United States, the number of actors who specialize in voice actors is increasing, and some acting schools have voice actor courses.[7].

Since the 2000s, the activities as a singer and the talented activities such as publishing a photo book have been increasing.

History

The reason why voice actors have become more specialized in Japan is

And so on.

The possibility of audio media is "literatureFrom the proposal of "three-dimensional movement"Cloud meeting(1950 <Formed in 25>)Kunishi Kishida[8],In JapanModern critical literatureBecame a pioneer ofHideo Kobayashi[9],in JapanOrthodox drama(Dialogue drama[10]Advocated the establishment ofFukuda[11]Such asLiteraryIs pointed out by.

Kishida says "The beauty of'words spoken'" (1928 <Showa 3>), radio dramas and movie stories from the early days[12] He argues that the narrator's arousal of the listener's imagination is the key to development.[13]..Kobayashi is "age" (1950 <25>) and "Speaking and Writing" (1954 In <Showa 29>, in, "Spoken languageExpressing a linguistic view that emphasizes[14],Noricho Motoi』(1977 <Showa 52>) shows how the words "it's hard to resemble, it's easy to resemble".[15].

Fukuda said, "Words act" from the linguistic view.Hamlet』(1955 <Showa 30> performance)ShakespeareDrama Of翻 訳ShowAnd1963 (Showa 38)Contemporary Theater Association[Note 1] Presided over[16]..Its activities are not limited to theater, but the production of radio dramas and stage performances by drama.Ateleco controversyPre-emption, anime movie "Thousand and One Nights』(1969 <Published in 44>)Troupe cloudParticipation etc.[17], Continuously extends to voice appearances[18].

Commercial broadcasting started1951 In (Showa 26), a dialogue between Kobayashi and Fukuda was held in the planning of the magazine "Theatre" published by the Cloud Society, and a thought-provoking exchange was exchanged.

Kobayashi pureIdeaasMusicThat's why. …… Generally, I don't think the human ear is good.Everyone is bad, what is the ear?

Fukuda and otherssenseCompared to?

Kobayashi Yes.Compared to the eyes.Especially the earsTrainingExcept for a few people who are doing it.That's why I don't think anyone has the ears to listen to radio dramas.The human voice is veryexpressionIt will be rich in.No one can train their ears so much that they can understand humans by voice without looking.With the great development of radio dramas, such training may be possible.Then, even if you don't see it, your voice will be more expressive, and you will find a great actor specializing in radio dramas. ...... We live with our eyes open, so our ears are neglected.playThat guy is with both eyes and ears鑑賞I'm doing it.Oh dear,Storyteller,BailiffHow about becoming?For exampleRakugoAfter all, the life of talking isstoryI'm chasing you, but you can listen to the same story as many times as you like, right?You can listen to it as many times as you like, that is, it's a sound.It's the music of that voice.I'm enjoying listening to it. — "Theatrical questions and answers" Sound, ears, broadcast drama[19]

Regarding the voice appearance contract,Japan Actors UnionBy "External Painting Agreement" (1978 <Showa 53>), "Video Agreement" (1981 <Showa 56>) has been signed, and we are seeing the establishment of rights and economics.[20][21][22][23].

At the same time, "Space Battleship Yamato』(1977 <Showa 52>)Anime boomStrengthened the tendency to hire new human resources,Super Dimension Fortress Macross』(1982 Works such as <57>) have appeared.A series of voice actor booms specialized in voice actorsEntertainment office,Voice actor training centerHas led to the growth of voice actors and has become the starting point for the diversification of voice actor images to this day.[24][25].

For the person who developed the voice actor theory during this period, the animation directorYuno TominoIs recognized.

TominoOsamu TezukaOriginalComic"Astro boy"ofAnimatedActive since the dawn of TV animation starting in[26], 1981 (Showa 56) advocated "Anime New Century Declaration"[27]..Prior to that, he served as a negotiating committee member in the foreign film video subcommittee of the Japan Actors Union, and refuted the teleco controversy.Ichiro NagaiPlanning a dialogue with[28][29][30].

In addition, "Mobile Suit Gundam』(1979 During the production of <54>), animation productionス タ ッ フFrom the standpoint of, the view of voice actors has been expressed to aspiring voice actors.

 In this section of the anime trend, "voice actor" sounds like an independent profession.However, originally, the function of a voice actor is only a part of the talent of an actor.Only a performer can demonstrate the talent of a voice actor.In fact, with only voice actors as a profession,PopularityThere are few voice actors who are just enjoying their abilities.Acting with just your voice is justVocalizationTraining is not enough.In other words, don't forget that you have the ability as an actor (actor) and can do it for the first time.

 why?Why? ……so.Because even one voice has a physical bodyPersonalityBecause there is, there are a wide variety of voices.The manifestation of personality (as a person) is the voice.It means that there is no human being only by voice.From the moment you take this for granted, you will lose sight of the first step in getting started with voice actors. (Omitted)

 And finally, let's give a concrete guideline.If you really want to be a voice actor, first of allactingLook up the word "〟" in a dictionary. Then look up the unknown word in this article. And it's the real end. Do you have a facial expression in your voice? If not, give it a facial expression. It's the beginning of your actor training. — Yoshiyuki Tomino "Starting to be a voice actor"[31]

2005 (Heisei17 years),New National TheaterHas opened a theater training center.2007 (19),Japan Voice Actor Business CouncilHas been established.

Record era

1877 (Meiji10 years) in the United States in JulyThomas edisonIs a recording / playback typegramophoneInvent.

in JapanMeiji Restorationrear,Cabinet systemBy the time it was foundedCivilizationThe influence ofGenbun Itchi MovementSymbolized bysoftIt begins to be seen on the surface.1885 (Meiji 18) September,TsuyouchiBut"Novel essence』WrittenHistory of Japanese modern literatureAnnounced the full-scale beginning of.1886 In August (Meiji 19),kabuki OfModernizationAimed atTheater improvement societyWas formed.Saiharu is a translation of Shakespeare's drama and Kabuki performance "Paulownia』Creation,Mori OgaiWidely used in the literary and theater world during the Meiji era, such as the controversy over the ideal[32]..In response to the growing artistic fever due to these influences,Shimamura HogetsuThe year after he returned from study abroad,1906 In August (Meiji 39),Literary AssociationHas established[32]. Also,1909 In August (Meiji 42),Kaoru OyamauchiSaiji Ichikawa Free theaterHas been launched.

At the end of the Meiji eraハ ー ドModernization in terms of progress,1910 (Meiji 43) October, the first in JapanRecord companyIs established.1911 In August (Meiji 44),Imperial TheaterOpens.In May of the same year, Shakespeare's play "Hamlet" was performed by the Literary Society.[Note 2],In SeptemberIbsenDramaDoll houseWill be performed[33]..It was well receivedNew playActressSumiko MatsuiIs a first-year student at the Theater Research Institute attached to the Literary Society[34], Actress training was an epoch-making achievement.Also, from the second gradeNew national dramaBecome the founder ofShojiro SawadaHas been produced.

1913 (Taisho2 years) In July, Hogetsu and SumakoArt theaterFormed[35],1914 (Taisho 3) At the 3rd performance in March, in the re-dramatization of HogetsuTolstoyThe novel "ResurrectionWas staged [36]..The song in the play "Sumako sang"Headband songWas also sold as a record and became the first popular song in modern Japan.[37]..Not only the singing but also the passage of the third act, Kashiro, was recorded on the same board.In October of the same year, Shakespeare's play "Antony and CleopatraWas performed by the adaptation of Hogetsu[38][39]After the performance, the performers gathered in the recording studio to record the best of the stage.This is only for the lineAudio dramaIt was released as "Shakespeare'Cleopatra'" in December.[40].

In the Taisho eraSoga Hiroya troupe,Takarazuka Revue,Asakusa OperaEtc. also leave the sound source[41].

Radio drama era

1925 In March (Taisho 14), NHK's predecessor, Tokyo Broadcasting Station, started radio broadcasting.[42].

Only one month later, in the program of "Movie Dialogue"Silent movieThe dialogue drama of "The earth smiles" was broadcast.The appearance of the voice at this timeNew schoolActor'sMasao Inoue, Of the actressKurishima SumikoAnd so on. Not as a profession, but in effect they are the "first voice actor in Japan"[43][Note 3]..In July of the same year, "Kiri Ichiyo", which reproduced the stage broadcast in the studio (cast:Nakamura Utaemon (5th generation)Etc.), and Japan's first full-scaleRadio DramaAs "Captain's daughter" (starring: Masao Inoue,Yaeko Mizutani) Will be broadcast. Directed by Kaoru Osanai in August,Wada Sei OfSound effectThere is also a theory that it is "inside the coal mine" that was broadcast on[44]..Was one of the performersYasue YamamotoLater served as the leader of the Tokyo Broadcasting Company.

In August of the same year, a radio drama study group was established at the Tokyo Broadcasting Station.Mikihiko Nagata, Kaoru Osanai,Kubota Mantaro,Kume Masao,Hideo Nagata,Isamu Yoshii6 people as the main members[45]..Furthermore, in order to acquire listeners, a well-known literary writer is commissioned to write a script for XNUMX yen per volume.At that time, XNUMX yen was enough to build a house.[46], The face of the literary writer who wrote the script for the "2 Yen Drama" in two yearsSatomi,Matsui Matsuo, Kaoru Osanai, Hideo Nagata, Isamu Yoshii, Mantaro Kubota, Kunio Kishida,Hiroshi Kikuchi,Yuzo Yamamoto,Kichizo Nakamura,Okamoto KidouWas 11 people[47].

In September of the same year, the Tokyo Broadcasting Station recruited radio drama research students as professional actors who act only by voice.[48].. Twelve women were selected from more than 100 applicants and will speak to the radio drama "Tacho" in November.Many sources on the history of voice actors consider them to be the "first voice actors in Japan."At that time, newspapers called him a "radio actor."[Note 4].. Early radio dramaShiomi Hiroshi,Chieko HigashiyamaOpened the previous yearTsukiji small theaterMany actors were appearing[49].

1926 (Taisho 15) In August, the three corporations of Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya Broadcasting Stations were dissolved, and the Japan Broadcasting Corporation was established as a successor organization.

1928 From (Showa 3), a prize recruitment will be held for the purpose of training new employees.Yutaka Manafune,Kaoru Morimoto,Juro Miyoshi,Ryuichiro Yagi,Shuji Hojo,Ima HarubuWritten by[50].

1931 (Showa 6) From February1938 (Showa 13) Mantaro Kubota will be appointed as the chief of the literary section of the Japan Broadcasting Corporation until August.Kubota has a literary line,Natsume Soseki,Izumi Kyoka,Lunar,HugoAt home and abroadliteraturePromoted the radio drama of.Inoue Masao, taking advantage of Kubota's network of contacts in the theater world,Kitamura Midori,Sachiko Murase,Akiko Tamura,Kyosuke TomodaWe have appointed front-line actors in new schools and new plays such as[51]..Tokujiro Kobayashi, a staff member of the literary division, later said, "This was due to Kubota's skill, as it could only be done by radio broadcasting at the time when the actors in the new drama could not appear in commercial theaters. Speaking of which, Mr. Kubota was a famous producer who not only had an artistic side but also had political power. "[52]..Around this time (mainly1930 era) As a person who was active,Ayako IijimaCan be mentioned[Note 5].. Besides the radio dramaJapanese dancer,singerHe was also active as a (popular song, popular song, nursery rhyme operetta). From 1925 (Taisho 15) to 1938 (Showa 13), the total number of radio dramas broadcasted increased to 750.

1941 (Showa 16), NHK is recruiting research students from the Tokyo Central Broadcasting Station's exclusive theater company actor training center, which trains actors specializing in radio dramas.1943 The first student of the Tokyo Broadcasting Company, which completed training in (Showa 18), made its debut.[54].. This is considered the second voice actor[55][Note 6]There is also a document that the word "voice actor" has been used since this time.[57].

1951 In (Showa 26), a private radio station, Radio Tokyo (currently,TBS Radio) Started broadcasting and established a dedicated broadcasting company (Radio Tokyo Broadcasting Company, later TBS Broadcasting Company)1957 (Showa 32) The serial radio drama "Akazodo SuzunosukeHas gained tremendous support from the children of the time. The voice actor in the age of radio drama, where there was no television broadcast and radio was the main place in the mass media, was never in the shade, and played a lot of the second protagonist voice.Nagoya ChapterReceived dozens of fan letters a month[58].. When the radio drama reached its heyday, and the introduction articles of voice actors began to be published in the radio section of the newspaper, at the same time as a fan letter to voice actors, they longed for voice actors, and the number of voice actor applicants also increased rapidly.1953 It is said that 28 applicants flooded into the place where about 5 successful applicants were recruited for the 10th gen member of the NHK Tokyo Broadcasting Corporation (Showa 6,000).This era is a voice actorHisatsu KatsutaIs the first golden age of voice actors[59].

In anime,1933 (Showa 8)TalkieThe short animated film "World of Power and Woman" has been released. It was the comedy actor who gave the voice to the anime characters.Furukawa RoppaWere the movie actors including.1942 (Showa 17)ChugokuAn animated feature film "Saiyuki and Tetsugihime(Iron fan) was released in Japan,Activity beanFromTokugawa dream voice,Ichiro YamanoUttered a voice.Second World WarStarted laterToei videoDue to the constant production of animated films in Japan, movie actors, comedians, and members of the broadcast theater were used. Also, dubbing of Western movies began to take place in earnest after the TV era[Note 7].

First voice actor boom

In the early days of commercial television,1961 (Showa 36)Five company agreementDue to lack of software due to the decision to suspend the supply of Japanese movies to TV stations in overseasWestern paintingMany Japanese dubbed versions of so-called external pictures such as[61][62][63].. Initially, NHK basically broadcasted works outside Japan in subtitle supermarkets, so the dubbed Japanese version was mainly commercial. After that, works outside Japan1960 eraIt was broadcast with the first half as a peak. Against this background, the popularity of voice actors has increased. The centerpiece of the boomAlan DelonPlayed a roleNachi Nozawa[64],ChasingSaid that[65].

Since the actors of TV and movies did not dubb due to the issue of the five-company agreement and gala, dubbing on TV was done by many people from the broadcasting troupe from the radio era and stage actors of new plays.[66].. From the broadcasting companyWakayama GenzoAbout the new drama actor who entered the dubbing at that time, "It was only one-handed work for most of the people" "Many people who do not question even unnatural Japanese words and speak only according to the script I was very angry with it."[67].. Also, at this time, as actor theory and acting theoryAteleco controversyHas been deployed. In overseas animation, there are cases where rakugo artists and comedians from Asakusa also spoke to the characters.

There was a movement to unite to improve rights because the working environment and treatment were poor.Yasuo HisamatsuIs Akira ShimizuPacific TelevisionHowever, there is a labor dispute at the company. In response to thisTokyo Actors Co-op(Haikyo) was born, but there were some who were independent and did not belong, like Genzo Wakayama.[68].. Afterwards, many voice actor productions were formed after being separated from Haiko. The word voice actor was not generally recognized in this era[69], As another name, mainly because of dubbingDubbing talent, From applying a voiceAthi[70][71] There was something like that.

The first Japanese dubbed work on TVTBSKRT TV, the predecessor of1955 (30)May 10An American anime that started broadcasting from "Superman] Is said to be. In live action1956 It is recorded as "Cowboy G-Men" broadcast on KRT TV, the predecessor of TBS in (Showa 31).All of these broadcasts on KRT TV are dubbed live, and the first pre-recorded dubbed work was in 1 (Showa 1956) in the anime.May 4ToNippon TVHowever, it is an overseas animation "TV Boy Adventure" that was broadcast by requesting Harubei Yasui of Bancho Studio.

1966 In (Showa 41), "Saturday Western Painting Theater" (currently ""Sunday Western Theater』) started broadcasting, and this program started a holding system (fix system) that fixes the star's voice to a specific voice actor[72].

First voice actor boom

As the first recognized anime voice actor, while playing a child role at that timeSea TritonPlayed the leading role inTsubasa ShioyaIs known[73]After that, the second voice actor boom was the movie version of the latter half of the 2s.Space Battleship YamatoIt happened in parallel with the anime boom caused by the hit.

Pushed by the boom, music activities in parallel with voice acting became popular, andAkira Kamiya,Toru Furuya,Toshio FurukawaA band by a popular voice actor who plays the handsome boy character of anime such asSlap stickAnd formed live performances[74], Many voice actors put out records. As a voice actor who sold XNUMX units of records at that time,Banko,Keiko Toda, Akira Kamiya,Yu Mizushima, The name of slapstick is listed[75].

Also in "Space Battleship Yamato"Yuki MoriYoko Asagami (currently in charge ofKodanshi-Ichiryusai spring water) Is known to be a voice actor because he likes anime and wants to be a voice actor [2], The first voice actor discharged by a voice actor training center[73] Not only that, he is the founder of idol voice actors, and his genealogy isMami Koyama, Continues to Keiko Han.Keiko Han, who released four of her own albums, was called the original idol.[76].

1979 Broadcasting started in (54) "Anime topia], Etc., anime voice actorsPersonalityThe radio programs etc. that serve are also born. In the radio drama, with the background of popular voice actorsDrama house at night, And an amateur voice actor contest was also held.[77].

This eraAnime magazineIt was also the time when was first published, and "AnimageIs the first editor-in-chief ofOgata HideoIs the voice actorIdolChanged to one of the editorial policies[78].. Similarly, anime magazines other than "Animage" also set up a voice actor section on the magazine and regularly disseminated information on voice actors.

In terms of human resources supply and training, the number of voice actor-specialized productions began to gradually increase due to the division, and at the same time, each productionVoice actor training centerWas provided.As a result, voice actors who aimed to become anime voice actors began to appear from the beginning, rather than voice actors as part of actor activities such as those from the broadcasting theater company and stage actors, or as an extra skill.This boom is mostly1980 eraIt is supposed to be in the first half.

Around 1990

From the latter half of the 1980s, "voice actor idolization" or "appearance" by appearing in anime events (shows) became common.[73]..For example, the TV anime "Armor biography samurai trooperWith 5 male voice actors who appeared in1989 A unit formed inNG5Was so popular that it was featured on news programs. It is also said to be a pioneering group in which voice actors have become multi-activity[79].. OVA series from 1993 (Heisei 5) "Idol Defense Corps Hummingbird』Since then, it has become a presence on the front stage due to the media-like production that reminds each other of the characters in the animation and the real voice actors in various ways.In this way, idol fans will be incorporated into anime fans by building an idol-like image.

そ し て,Megumi HayashibaraFemale voice actors such asRecord companyThere are more and more examples of singing activities by signing a contract with[80].

さ ら に,1990 eraAs a result, when dubbed works were transmitted in various forms such as DVD packages and CS broadcasts in addition to terrestrial broadcasting, the number of cases where multiple dubbed works were made for the same work increased.For this reason, it has been pointed out that the conventional holding system has almost disappeared.[81]However, the custom that the same voice actor continues dubbing the same actor like Tom Cruise of Tomoyuki Morikawa remains.[82].

First voice actor boom

As a term, it was used frequently from the mid to late 1990s, but there is no clear definition. The primary and secondary usages are also used backwards from this term, and there is no clear definition here either. The characteristics of this period are "voice actors' multi-activation and idolization by advancing into singer activities"Video games"Increase in work due to the emergence of computer games and computer games" and "Dissemination of radio programs in which voice actors serve as personalities". From this, it is said that voice actors are required to have not only their voice acting ability, but also their good looks and singing ability in order to play an active part especially in animation games.

1994 In (6), it became the first voice actor magazine, "Voice actor grand prixAnd "Voice Animage" were launched one after another[83].1995 In (7), the first TV program specializing in voice actors, "Voice ♥ Yu ClubWas broadcast.

Kaori Shimizu,Sakamoto MaayaEtc. at that timeMiddle school studentsIn some cases, he was selected as the main character of a TV anime, and received idol-like attention.[84][85].

In 1997Go to ShiinaHeld a solo concert at Nippon Budokan for the first time as a voice actor.Shiina seems to be the first to show that the voice actor can be a star character, not necessarily the voice actor who is the shadow of the character in the video, such as anime and foreign movie dubbing. ing[73].

Also, as a pioneer of the example where the voice actor who was in charge of the voice in the animation work plays the character in charge at the stage performance etc.Sakura Wars Series #Kayo ShowBegins.This continues from 1997 (Heisei 9) to 2007 (19),Sakura warsThe voice actor who plays the voice of the character of the Imperial Combat Revue Hanagumi is a musical-style performance that actually plays that character on the stage. Having a child who pointed out the difference, he is the general producer of the Sakura Wars series.Hiroi PrinceWas casting with a view to stage performances when deciding the voice actor in charge of the character.

From around 2000

Active since the 1990sMizuki Nana,Yukari TamuraOr I changed from a stage actorMamoru MiyanoSuch asVoice actor artistIt has been held since 2005 (Heisei 17).Animelo Summer LiveSuch asAnime songSystemLive like a joint festival[Note 8] Due to the spread of voice actors, the number of voice actors who balance voice actors and singer activities has been increasing since this period.Especially for Mizuki, dome toursNHK Red and White Singing BattleParticipation inFirst voice actorOften engaged in music activities.

Since the mid-2010s, this tendency has become more prominent year by year, and as a singer.Nippon BudokanVoice actors who realize solo performances in Japan are appearing almost every year (as an example).Uchida Aya[86],Nao Higashiyama[87],Maaya Uchida[88] Such. Higashiyama, in particular, was his first solo performance at the Nippon Budokan).

Since the late 2000s, the expression "4th voice actor boom" has been used in some media (but there is no clear definition).[89][90].. From around this time, "voice actors" came to rank higher in the "vocational rankings that children want to become".[89].

Since the late 2000sMidnight animeThe number of[Note 9]..This created the so-called "animation bubble" situation.The debut of new voice actors continues to increase,水 瀬 い の り[91],Hayashi drum[92],Kusunoki Tomori[93][94] At that time, there are more examples of teenagers starring in TV animation.[Note 10].

Moreover,"lovelive!And 'Idol Master''K-on!''BanG Dream!''Ensemble Stars!], Etc., based on projects derived from games and anime programsVoice actor unitIs becoming more and more popular regardless of gender.

Especially of "Love Live!"μ'sHas gained popularity by participating in the Tokyo Dome performance and the NHK Kouhaku Uta Gassen.For this reason, current voice actors are like idols, not just acting.looksIn some cases, singing ability and dance skills are required.vice versaAsano Tano(OriginalBOYSTYLE) AndAkika Nakatani(OriginalAKB48),Ami Maejima(OriginalSUPER ☆ GiRLS), Etc., it is said that the number of cases of changing from an idol to a voice actor is increasing.[95].

From the 2010sArisa Komiya,Kayama Miyama,Haruka FukuharaSome people also work as voice actors, actors, and singers.[96][97].. In the latter half of the 2010s, a virtual character was created, and a voice actor spoke to it.YouTubeDistribute using video distribution, etc.VTuberHowever, the phenomenon that YTuber speaks to other anime / game works, etc., with this character as a "voice actor" has begun.#VTuber advanceSee also

work

Anime,Original video animation (OVA),Radio Drama,Drama CD,Game,tv set,movies,Western painting,Foreign dramaof Japanesedubbing, Voice drama, narration, announcement, narrator in the program, reading aloud, etc.

In addition to acting by voice, there are appearances accompanying events and advertisements related to the appearance work, but the appearance fee system is different from the actor, such as it is often decided by consultation each time without prior contract[98].

How to get a job is selection by audition or nomination, and securing casting right by investment, but it depends on the type of job.

Anime

Looking at the screenlinesBlow inDubbingThen, record the dialogue in advance and make a video later according to itPrescoThere are two methods.JapanThen dubbing is the mainstream.Due to the digitization of animation production in recent years, there are many examples of correcting pictures after dubbing.In addition, from giving a voiceAtelecoAlso say. The mainstream is to collect voice actors in the studio all at once, but when using non-voice actors such as entertainers and singers, they are often recorded separately.

The performance fee isRank systemSubject to.

The role may be nominated by the original author or the production side with a voice (voice quality) or acting ability that matches the image, but the system that obtains after audition selection is the mainstream.[99].

Normally, a production company etc. informs the voice actor's office affairs about the audition, and the office usually selects several voice actors who belong to the office, and only the selected one can audition. Is. Therefore, in a large office that has a large number of voice actors, you will not even have the opportunity to audition unless you compete in the office first.[100].. And even if you get the audition, it is said that the competition rate is such that you only have to receive one in 60.[101].

Toshio Furukawa said, "Pop Team EpicIn response to some of the viewers saying, "I'm a big man, I can choose a job," he said, "It's not a joke. The anime character's voice is my main job. I'm not in a great position to choose my first job." "Do you know how many times your manager bows down to get a job?"[102][103].

In 2005 (Heisei 17), there is also an example of open recruitment format.SPEED GRAPHERThen, the role of the heroine was selected as an open call for audition, but after being narrowed down in the 1st and 2nd screening, it was held in a format that also takes into account the general votes on the web (Kei MadoWas chosen).2013 (25), TV animation "The two of Milky HolmesAn audition was held for the protagonist ofAyasa ItoWas chosen). 2018 (Heisei 30) broadcastKarakuri CircusAnnounced that one of the leading roles will be decided by public recruitment audition regardless of professional amateur, but the total number of applications was over 1[104](For newcomersChihiro UedaWas chosen). In 2021 (3rd year of Reiwa)Waccha Primagi!Then, the screening of the open recruitment audition is open to the public at each stage.[105].

#Open call for participantsSee also

Nowadays, some companies that invest in anime have taken the method of securing appearance slots, and some people are not performing by audition.

From the image projected on the large-scale visionAbemaCMs including distribution video advertisements that you see on YouTube, etc.pachinkoAnimation videos are very often used for videos such as reach actions in slots and slots, and it is the voice actor's job to take charge of the voices of the characters appearing in these video media.

Game

Basically, each person is recorded individually rather than in conversation.

CD-ROMBegan to spread1980 eraIt is a job that has increased since the end[106].1990 eraToPlayStationWith the advent of high-performance game consoles such as, it has become common for voice actors to be appointed. "Tokimeki Memorial』(1994 <6>-) has ignited popularityLove gamesBegan to be called "gal game" from games in which only beautiful girls appeared, and there was a time when it became a genre and was made in large numbers.

Initially, there was no clear standard for performance fees,1998 (10)Japan Actors Union(Nikkairen) and incorporated associationsComputer Entertainment Association(CESA), after the consultation was held, the rank system was applied to the game for the general public as well as the animation.

Like the anime, it is selected by audition and nomination.

Appearance in an adult work

Adult game(Eroge)Adult animeAssign a voice to works with age restrictions such as. In this case, the voice actor's name is usually not made public or another stage name is used.[107][Note 11].Ishida Akira,Kazuya Ichijo,Marina Ono(Currently Marina Ono),Satomi KorogiThere are also voice actors who appear under the same name as general works.Dynamite Ami,Shizuka Ami,Minami NagasakiThere are also voice actors who specialize in adult works, and there are many examples of activities in general works in line with the animation of the game.

ComicFesta AnimeIn the general version that cut the depiction for adults, and the complete version that contains all depictions, each has a different voice actor.

Ateleco in a costume

Special effectsIn the program, in addition to the appearance appearanceSuit actorThere is also the job of being in charge of the voices of monsters played by.Akumaizer 3,Space squadron kyurenja,Machinery squadron ZenkaigerSuch as heroes mainly in costumes, and these daysUltraman seriesThen, since Ultraman speaks, a voice actor who speaks in particular is required.

In hero programs, he is often in charge of voices (such as shouts) for transformations.

Normally, the suit actor is in charge of the movement and speaks according to it, but in some cases, the voice and the actor are also used.Cho (actor)Is in charge of "peek-a-boo!It is known that Wan Wan in 』also serves as a suit actor and speaks directly.Miyako SuzudaAlso wears a costume as a means of not appearing in public.else"Ultraman』To be the voice of the Alien ZarabTakeshi AonoNot tired of it, he actually goes into the costume and plays the Alien Zarab to get a feel for it.Ultra sevenAppeared in "35th Anniversary" EVOLUTION "Pentalogy" (5 <2002>)Tomokazu SekiAs a Gard alien, there are cases where he plays not only his voice but also his usual appearance.

Puppet show and costume show

In the puppet show, you either say the lines while matching the timing with the character's performance, or dubbing while watching the pre-recorded video. Many NHK puppet shows are in Presco format.In addition, there are many styles in which one person concurrently serves multiple roles,The Three MusketeersIn, 30 people play the roles of nearly 7 people,Puppet show SangokushiThen, the actor who plays the main character also serves as five or more people.

costumeAt the show, there are times when the voices are matched live, but basically the voices are recorded in advance and the costume performers (Suit actor) Will perform.

Troupe airshipThe performance of "Mask Play" is a method in which an actor wearing a costume plays according to the voice blown by the voice actor.

Japanese dubbing

Performs voices of characters in foreign dramas and foreign movies on behalf of the actors. Like anime, it is subject to rank system.

Sometimes the role is fixed by the fix system, but in some cases there are different voice actors in the broadcast and cell versions.

Such as news and documentariesVoice overIs also subject to rank system.

Unlike anime, auditions are rarely performed, and it is said that producers and directors appoint voice actors to make decisions.[99][108]. However,デ ィ ズ ニ ーthe work,Stephen Spielbergthe work,George LucasIt is said that auditions will be held in the same way as animation, not in nomination in works etc.[109].

Voice drama

Radio Drama-Drama CDPlay the voice of the character in a drama work with only audio.

In the case of drama CDs, we often use well-known voice actors in consideration of sales.[110]..On the contrary, there are cases where newcomers and amateurs are selected by audition.

Media mix

In works where media mix is ​​performed, such as anime, games, drama CDs, and toys, the same voice actor is fixed to the same role, but it may change due to various circumstances.

Audio work

Apart from the narrator and reading, record audio works such as voice and speakingcassette tape,compact discIt is recorded on a voice recording medium and sold as a voice collection, etc., and since the 2010s, it has been further developed by acoustic technology.ASMRthe work·Binaural recordingAudio works have appeared in Japan, and are mainly sold by download through the Internet.Well-known voice actors have been entering the download sales of such audio works one after another since the 2020s.

Narration announcement

Reading TV programs, TV and radio commercials, PR videos, commentary videos, event announcements, etc.Ring announcer, Recorded message for directory assistance,Department store,supermarketRecording information for stores, announcements of public transportation such as stations and fixed-route buses (automatic broadcasting), etc.

Jobs not covered by rank system[Note 12] The gala is much more expensive than anime, Japanese dubbing, and games, especially TV commercials.[111]..However, it is basically a one-off and irregular work, and it is difficult to generate a stable income.It also competes with narrators and announcers in the main business.

Like Japanese dubbing, auditions are rarely done, and it is almost always decided by nomination.[112][113].

Stage play

As mentioned above, there are many cases where stage actors also serve as voice actors from the early days.In addition to working in parallel while belonging to a theater company,Tomokazu SekiThere are also those who preside over the theater company.

Apart from the usual stage play, there is also a reading drama (reading) that is performed in the style of reading aloud with a script, and there is also a performance as a media mix.[114].

Actor/Talent Activities

Some are acting in movies and TV dramas, and in recent years they have appeared in variety shows.

Keiko Toda in 1998Shomuni (TV drama) He started appearing in TV dramas and TV commercials from 2010, but after XNUMX, the drama "Manpuku Shoujo Dragonet』(2010)Kubo Yurika,We still do not know the name of the flower we saw that day.(2015)NHK serial TV novel"Ama-chan』(2013)水 瀬 い の り, NHKTaiga drama"Sanadamaru』(2016)Takagi Wataru, NHK serial TV novel "Ale" (2020)Kenjiro Tsuda,Kirin comes(2020)Akio Otsuka,Naoki Hanzawa(2020), Mamoru Miyano, "Oh! My Boss! Love is a separate volume(2021), Natsuki Hanae, "Hit the blue sky』(2021)Ryutaro Okiayu,Riko cutlet』(2021)Three StonesYou can see an example of.

From the latter half of the 2010s, "Voice girl!(2018) andGekidan Sphere(2019),Voice actor detective(2021), a live-action drama in which a voice actor appears as an actor has been produced.

Regarding the movie appearance, "Battle Royale』(2000)Yuko Miyamura,Bandage club』(2007)Kenshō Ono,Monochrome girl(2009) Miyu Irino, "I need you(2015) Kana Hanazawa, "Onodera's younger brother, Onodera's older sister(2014) "" (2011)Minako Kotobuki, "" (2011)Kisho Taniyama,Suzune, a veterinarian "EVOLUTION" (2011) "Cat Cafe" (2018) Yurika Kubo, "Library war』(2013)Suzuki TatsuhisaThere are examples of these.

In addition, the movie "2nd photo department(2009), live-action "Yatterman(2009),She is a rot girl.(2009),My unfriendly senior(2010),Wonderful World(2010),Light Novel Fun Writing(2010),God ☆ Voice ~ THE VOICE MAKES A MIRACLE ~ ”(2011),“The two death moans are... Chapter 2012 Color Nonai Blue ”“ Two Deaths Wowakatsumade… Chapter XNUMX Pumpkin Flower -nananka- ”(XNUMX), special effects drama“Unofficial Sentai Akiba Ranger"Unofficial Sentai Akibaranger Season Pain" (2012-2013), "Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger(2013-2014) Final episode and ending dance, "Green Flash』(2015), there are many works in which multiple voice actors appear in the face.

Nana Mizuki, Maaya Uchida,Ayana TaketatsuLike,CMThe number of voice actors who appear in the face is increasing. CM corresponds to the assessment of the person in charge of the advertising agency and is not subject to the rank system.[115] .

2010 In his late teens,Kaji YukiThere are also voice actors who appear as commentators on news programs.

There is also a laughing activity in addition to this,Koichi YamaderaEven if he appeared in a mimicry program like this, he showed off the imitation, and in July 2019, he formed a combination called "Rush Style".Hayami AwardYukihiro Nozuyama M-1 Grand PrixI have entered in 2019[116].

Since the latter half of the 2010s, voice actor x two-dimensional entertainer projects such as "" and "" have been underway.Among them, "GET UP! GET LIVE!Not only does the voice actor play the role of an entertainer, but he actually challenges the leading live performances of comics and tales at events.Natsuki Hanae, who plays the role of an entertainerKotaro Nishiyama,Yohei Azakami,Kentaro KumagaiAre actually at the eventComic,ControlIs showing off.

#Entertainment activities in other fields by voice actorsSee also

Singer activity

Music cdOrconcertSuch as holding asingerAs an activity. vice versa,IdolSometimes a singer turns into a voice actor.

Anime-GameIn the, the voice actors willTheme songMay sing. Also,characterIs set to be singing, not in the name of the voice actor himself, but in the name of the characterCharacter songMay be released.

Megumi HayashibaraIs the first voice actor to sign an exclusive contract with King Record Star Child Label since March 1991.Record companyIt is common to conclude an exclusive contract with a singer and perform full-scale singer activities.

Several voice actorsMusic unitI sometimes formed singer (music) activities,Voice actor unitOften referred to as. 『Idol MasterAnd 'lovelive!], etc.,Dome StadiumLIVEThere are also popular works that do[Note 13].

OriconSuch asHit chartAt onceAnime song TheChildrenIt was counted separately as a song for. Also, there are anime storesConsumer electronics storeWas not included in the calculation. From the mid-1990s when these were fixed, a CD of voice actor songsRankingThe number of higher ranks has increased[117].

1997 (9) Hekiru Shiina becomes the first voice actor in FebruaryNippon BudokanStarting with the solo concert, voice actors started holding solo concerts at large venues such as Budokan.2011 In 12 monthMizuki NanaIs the first voice actorTokyo DomeHeld a solo concert[Note 14].

As anime songs permeate the general public, voice actors are increasingly appearing on music TV programs and singing songs. In 1997 (Heisei 9), Hekiru Shiina became a "Music Station".2009 In (21), Nana MizukiNHK Red and White Singing Battle(The 60th NHK Red and White Singing Battle) For the first time as voice actors[Note 15][Note 16].

Mizuki NanayaChihara Minori,Aoi ShotaLike, a person who originally wanted to be a singer became a voice actor, and later debuted as a singer.

# "Idol voice actor" and "voice actor artist"See also

Radio personality

By voice actorradioThe personality of the show has existed for a long time, but since the 1990sNippon Cultural Broadcasting, Inc.,Radio Osaka,Radio kansai AnirajiThe number of programs has increased rapidly, including the establishment of specialized broadcasting slots. Since the 2000s, not only terrestrial broadcastingInternet radioThe number of programs is increasing.

Virtual YouTuber activity

YouTuber began to gain popularity in the latter half of the 2010s, and virtual YouTuber and VTuber are also gaining enthusiastic support among anime fans and voice actor fans.Kizuna eyeVirtual YouTubers led by steadily as a major genreCitizenshipHowever, there are many virtual YouTubers who are so popular that they surpass the appearance of YouTubers.Virtual YouTuber / VTuber is a CG character that distributes videos as YouTuber,AvatarWith motion capture technology that reads the facial expressions and movements of performers equipped with dedicated equipment for video distribution using3DCGBy animating the character created in and giving a voice, it looks as if the character actually exists.And since "acting ability by voice" is required, it is known that the person who speaks to the character is often a voice actor.A considerable proportion of professional voice actors are in charge of voice and body movements as the performers and act as virtual beings, but VTuber is set to post videos by the characters themselves, so speak out. It is also seen as a kind of taboo among fans to mention the person who is.

Since VTuber involves operators such as companies and performers such as voice actors, as a way for voice actors to become VTuber, the operator first talks about an audition to recruit performers from the voice actor office, and the voice actors talk about it. receive.

However, a popular voice actor whose voice is generally recognized and who can identify the person should act.[Note 17]Is a small number, but this is because the reward is less than general voice actor work such as dubbing and narration of animation, and voice actors who are not popular voice actors and are not well-known and who are not selling well or new voice actors with few careers are appointed. There are many cases.Even if the amount of money that an individual can barely eat, it is not a job of acting a character according to the script, such as a motion actor or other work that is not a normal voice actor's job, but the role of a distributor who talks about himself without a script It can be said that it is a job that the affiliated office does not make a profit in the voice actor work such as taking charge.

The reward for the VTuber performer depends on the amount of dialogue, but because there is no market price in the industry, it is a pinch, the amount of money is significantly different from the work done by the voice actor and the reward does not match, and the VTuber performer is the voice actor's work It is said that the reward will be lower than that.It is also known that it is difficult for VTuber itself to survive in the harsh YouTube world.

Change of voice actor

In addition to the retirement, death, and dismissal of the voice actor in charge, mainly in the long-term series, there are occasional changes due to various circumstances.Similarly, there are many cases in which another voice actor is "temporarily" acting as a substitute due to medical treatment due to illness, maternity leave, accident, etc., or leave due to study abroad.

One case

Heterosexual role / child actor

Since the voice quality of men and women is different, female voice actors are boys (especially) due to dubbing of animation and dubbing of Western movies.Strange voiceThere are many examples of playing the voice of a former boy / young boy).Akira Ishida is a male voice actor who plays a child and does not feel uncomfortable.Dai Yongyi, Yuki Kaji, etc., but it is rare for male voice actors other than child actors to imbue boy characters.

And an example of a male voice actor playing the voice of a woman (especially a girl or a young girl)Aoi Shota,Ayumi Murase,Kazuomi YamamotoAnd so on (it doesn't work unless the voice is high).

As the first example of an adult playing the role of a child in Japan, the NHK radio drama "1954 (Showa 29)"Yanbo Ninbo TonboIs known, but for the role of childrenA childThere was a difficult aspect in appointing, such as acting guidance.

An example of a child actor being appointed as a main character with many linesBarakamon,Yumeiro Patissiere,Cookin Idol Ai! My! Main!And so on.

In the 1980s, when children were the main characters in Hollywood movies, there was a lot of tendency in Japan to play the role of a boy as a child in a dubbed version.The person who belonged to the children's theater company at that time was in charge of dubbing the child actor.Namikawa DaisukeSome have become voice actors.

Outside of Japan, it is the mainstream to let children take charge of the role of children.Of the screenwriterBreak snyderTo help his father, who was a TV producer when he was eight years old,Sterling HollowayPlayed the role of a child with them, but was dismissed due to a strange voice[120].

Voice actors outside Japan

It is said that few foreign countries have established professional voice actors like Japan. There are more than 200 representative people in America[121]In recent years, voice actors have become the main actors due to the dubbing of Japanese anime and the increase of games with voice.

South KoreaThen, the broadcasting stationVoice actor)have.

Liu Seira,Jenya,Amagi SallyFrom overseasJapanese Mother tongueHowever, there are cases where he has learned Japanese and is active as a voice actor in Japan.

Even Japanese content is in demand as a foreigner[122].

Career

The following are examples of the careers of voice actors.

Broadcast troupe

Organized by NHK and commercial broadcastersTroupeSo, apart from the station announcer, he is a broadcasting talent who was trained at a broadcasting station to take charge of performing arts and was mainly in charge of radio dramas.

"Voice actor" was born as a word to refer to them.

With the rise of entertainment agencies, everything is now disbanded[123].

NHKTokyo Broadcasting CompanyFromIshinoshiro,Michiko Kato,Noriko Nakamura,Tamio OhkiFrom the NHK Sapporo Broadcasting Theater CompanyWakayama GenzoFrom the NHK Kyushu Broadcasting CompanyKenji UtsumiAnd many more.

From the Radio Tokyo Broadcasting Company, which later became TBS in commercial broadcastingToru Ohira,Nakamura Tadashi,Junpei Takiguchi,Nobuo Tanaka,Tetsuya Asato,Mukai Marikoetc.

At the local station, from the CBC Chubu Nippon Broadcasting CompanyShinji Nakae, From the RKB Mainichi Broadcasting CompanyYanami childetc.

He was active in local stations until the heyday of radio dramas, and in the television era, voice actors' work such as dubbing overseas works in Japanese was concentrated in Tokyo.

Voice actor training center/voice actor school

Voice actor production includedVoice actor training center, A training center that mainly teaches lessons to become a voice actor,Voice actor school(There is a voice actor training departmentVocational school) And so on.

The most common way to become a voice actor is to attend a voice actor training school or vocational school.The training period is generally one to three years, and if you pass the affiliation audition held after the training period is completed, you will be in production.At this point, it will be an apprenticeship period called "newcomer," "junior," "temporary affiliation," etc.After the apprenticeship period is over and after an internal examination, only those who are approved will become regular affiliations (regular affiliations).

Some people go to the training school from the time they were students, while others go to the training school after becoming a member of society.Many are examples of the former,Norio Wakamoto,Ai Chino,Tomoko KanedaAfter working as a member of society, he went to a training center and later became a voice actor.AlsoHitomi RawEtc. from a voice actor vocational schoolTroupe(Tokyo Kandenchi) And then went to a training school to make his debut.

81 Produce,Wise productionThere are also open-house auditions that are recruited not only from vocational schools and training centers but also from the general public, but the Grand Prix winners of these auditions are in addition to lessons at the training studio run as a scholarship student. , Not only debut but also back-up for long-term voice actor activities after that.

Sayaka KandaBegan working as a voice actor in 2012, but before that he had been preparing to attend a voice actor training school.Riko SasakiAfter making his debut as a singer, he went on to a vocational school for voice actors, and then started voice actors.

Akio Otsuka[Note 18] In his book "Voice Actor Soul", training schools and vocational schools do not need to guarantee the future and salaries of students. "Voice actor schools and training schools are very profitable businesses." It's because of you. If a good star comes out, you can say, "Oh, I grew up with me." Then the next candidates for voice actors come to the advertising tower.・High return”[124].. Also, "People who choose a school as a "safety measure" are choosing a certain stereotype at that time, and in the world of performing arts, there is no one who can dispose of it as quickly as a stereotype." Are[124].

Faculty of Arts, Department of Drama

Nihon University College of Art,Toho Gakuen College of Art,Tamagawa UniversityFrom a university educational institution such as.Taichiro Hirokawa,Plain text,Ryoko Sakakibara,Kana Mika,Yuji Ueda,Megumi BanAnd so on.Rikiya KoyamaEtc. went on to school after graduating from another university.

As an example of a child actor going on to schoolMina Tominaga,Aya Hirano,Kanako MiyamotoAs an example of going to a voice actor training school during or after graduationIshida Akira,Tomoko Kawakami,Yuko MiyamuraAnd so on.

Actor/Stage actor

Stage theatermusicalThere have been many examples of stage actors who are active in Japan, who have been active as voice actors for a long time since the time when the profession of voice actors was established.Goro NayaEtc. correspond to this.

dubbingCentered onAn actorIn some cases, actors who have been active as voice actors will be active as voice actors for a long time.Tsukayama Species,Tsutomu IsobeEtc. correspond to this.

There is also an opinion that the experience in the theater company and the stage has a good influence on the voice actor business.[125].

Park LumeiIn some cases, while belonging to a theater company, he got a voice job by shooting a role in an audition.Yuuki Tenma, who was in the theater company,Tokyo Mew Mew Nyu ~ ♡After passing the open recruitment audition, he belongs to the entertainment agency.

TAKARAGENNEFor voice actors fromYoshiko Ota,Katsuragi Nanao,Mizuki Rena,Mayo Suzukaze,Hiromi Nanami,Nanako MoriAnd so on.

A child

Children's troupeThere have been many examples of child actors who belong to the above, etc., who started to work as voice actors and voice actors, and have been active mainly in the voice actor business since the time when the profession of voice actor was established.Shuichi Ikeda, Toru Furuya, Toshio Furukawa,Rihoko Yoshida,Tamagawa Sunako,Yuji Mitsuya,Kozo Shioya・ Tsubasa brothers,Mitsuo Iwata,Honna Yoko,Riko Aikawa, Etc. correspond to this.In recent years, Mamoru Miyano,Ukiyama,Ryohei Kimura,Irino freedom,Yufuko Sanpei,Kimura Subaru,Riho Iida,Yuki Aoi,Eri Kitamura,Kenshō Ono,Toyonaga Toshiyuki,Rina Hidaka,Hanazawa Kana,Yui Ogura,Yume Miyamoto,Morohoshi Sumire,Tomoyo KurosawaEtc. correspond to this.

Most of them are from children's theater companies,Chiba Sako,Yuka Nanri,Akiko Kobayashi,Juri Takita,Rina Nakayamaな どMinami Aoyama Girl Opera CompanyI was mainly in the girl model business and transferred to the voice actor department in the officeSumire UesakaThere is also a case of.

Open call for participants

In some cases, he became active as a voice actor because he was selected in a contest to directly recruit voice actors.

At the audition for aspiring voice actors, we gather human resources from all over the country.In fact, there are also public recruitment of leading voice actors and auditions conducted by the office itself, which are conducted by the voice actor office and animation production companies and magazine companies.

In the case of open recruitment, in addition to attracting people from all over the country, we think that there is a high probability that excellent people will come out from there by gathering people who are highly motivated to apply for auditions.[126].

In some cases, he entered the training center in the wake of the audition voice actor contest "Voice Actor Soul" sponsored by the International Voice Actor Development Association.HakuhodoIn some cases, he directly belongs to the production after participating in the "All Japan Beautiful Voice Woman Contest", a voice actor audition project by.

aside from thatSawashiro Miyuki,Sasaki Mirai,Yuka Iguchi,Saori Goto,Sachika Misawa,Amane ShindoIn addition to the examples of being trained in the drama club or broadcasting club in high school, or participating in a general open recruitment audition that was directly recruited for interest, and passing the audition to become a voice actor.Kana Azumi TheKoumeAnd at the public audition in 2005 (Heisei 17)Junior idolInori Minase, who had the experience of, has become a voice actor by winning a prize sponsored by Sony, which is a public audition.Among those from Anist TheresAnju InamiIs a graduate of a specialized school, but Tomori Kusunoki, who has not received voice actor education,Takeda MarikoThey are aspiring to be singers and are entering the contest.

Among the voice actor units by members who belong to Music Ray'n and were selected in the open recruitment audition sponsored by the same officeSphereThen.Haruka TomatsuexceptMinako KotobukiFor child actors and schoolsTakagaki AyahiAt universityVocal musicWas majoring inAyo ToyosakiHas been performing arts on local TV programs and commercials since high school, but on the other handTrySailThe three of them applied for the audition and passed the audition without any achievements, and are voice actors.

Among the voice actor units formed by selecting members at the "Anison Vocal Audition" held by Avex and 81 Produce.i ☆ RisThen.Saki Yamakita,Yu Serizawa,Yuki WakaiWe went to a training school, etc.Akaneya Hikai summer,Kubota Mimu,Azusa ShibuyaThey were selected at the above audition without going through a training center.alsoWUGOut ofMayu YoshiokaHas a track record of child actors, but other members (Nagano Airi,Miumi Tanaka,Yoshino Aoyama,Kaya Okuno,Nanami Yamashita,Miyuki Takagi) Similarly, it is selected in the above audition without going through a training center. In 81 Produce, popular voice actors in recent years have debuted at the 8 audition held in August by open recruitment every year.

In addition, open recruitment contests such as "Pony Canyon Voice Tama Princess" and "Animax Anison Grand Prix" are being held.All Japan Anison Grand PrixMany have become voice actors as a result of participation and winning.

More

Natsuki HanaeApproached production directly, but these examples are known as rare cases.HoweverKenneThere are actually cases where the office is recruiting.otherStardust promotionIs a voice actor auditionOsawa OfficeIs involved in the audition for research student recruitment.

Other than changing from a child actor or a stage actor belonging to a theater company,Idol,Gravure idol,singer,モデル,Special effectsProgram actor,comedian,Reporter,CosplayersThere are cases where a talent with a career such as, etc., started to work as a voice actor, or got a role in an audition and plays an active part mainly in the voice actor business as it is.for exampleSogo NakamuraBefore becoming a voice actor artist, he was only involved in music activities.Yurika Kubo until she became a voice actorNikomoAfter that, I was a gravure idol.Riho Iida has also been a gravure idol since she was a child actor.Akiko Kobayashi is AniradiGayaAudition, Kanako Miyamoto from the singing audition of the insert song,Ryoka YukiBy the time you become a movie actress, nude model, etc.Ayano YamamotoIs a gravure idol,Haruka KudoWas a fashion magazine model.Mikako KomatsuThe elected audition is an idol audition,YurinIs a talent business in the Horipro era,MAKOAfter the girls band group activity was suspendedYukari Goto TheAAAFrom the additional members of the voice actor unit "Trefle",Iwao JunkoIs an idol to a nursery rhyme singer[127]ThroughSeiichi MoritaAfter working as an actor, he has been a voice actor since 2001.

The transition from an idol to a voice actor is Noriko HidakaRei Sakuma,Rumi Shishido,Satoshi SakuraiHowever, especially after the 2010s, the number of people who are active idols and also act as voice actors has been increasing.[128].

As an example, Sayaka Nakaya (former AKB48), Ami Maeshima (former SUPER ☆ GiRLS),Uki Satake(9nine) And the like.

On the other hand, as a stepping stone to becoming a voice actor, examples of being an idol and a singer (#Voice actor artistThere are also examples of aiming to become a voice actor as a stepping stone to becoming a voice actor.

Yukari FukuiIs the firstEntertainment officeSince I started working at the company, I was doing a lot of idol talent business such as impersonation and gravure idol activities at the beginning of my career.

Sawako Hata TheAkibaBecause it was a recruitment of auditions that appeared in related magazines,SKE48I thought that becoming a voice actor was a shortcut.

Yuki YomichiWhen I was a teenager locallyscoutTriggered by being doneLocal idolIn addition to his activities, he called out in a distribution game, and even after moving to Tokyo, he went on to become a voice actor while attending a training school and doing YouTube activities and cosplayers on his own.

As a unique example, the transition from entertainer to voice actorHozumi GoudaAndAina AibalikeFemale professional wrestlerSome people are known to be voice actors with an unusual background.AlsoAi ShimizuIs known as the first female professional wrestler in the voice actor world.

Eric KelsoWas originally a film director, but after arriving in Japan, he has expanded his field of activity to include narrator, dubbing in English, and radio personality, and is also active as a voice actor for anime and games.

Voice actor activities such as entertainers and celebrities in other fields

Actors, singers, musicians, idols, gravure idols, models, comedy talents, athletes, and celebrities may act as voice actors or be appointed as voice actors depending on the work.

Even in animated works, there are many examples in which the person is made to appear in the work by means of the role of the person himself / herself.

Originally, when no professional voice actor was established,Toei videoIt is not uncommon to use other entertainers and celebrities as voice actors in feature animation movies since the feature film.1990 eraLaterStudio GhibliProduction work,2000 eraLaterStudio mapThis tendency continues to this day, even in the works produced.

In addition, as a voice actor who can do a side job, there are times when we are recruiting from recruitment sites, part-time job information, crowdsourcing, etc. as jobs that can be earned by voice, such as audio books and part-time jobs for reading aloud.

Appointing non-actors as voice actors

First voice actor boomMade inAteleco controversyThen, the issue of the status of voice actors is being proposed.Regarding the performance of Ateleco, the appointment of an actor is only provisional, and "Rakugo performerButannouncerBut,Tourist information deskHowever, it is okay to be selected from people who use voice. "

Anime directorTakahata IsaoIt is,PrescoIt was adopted"Heisei Tanuki Battle Ponpoko』In the rakugokaYanagiya smallThe announcerAkira FukuzawaEtc. are appointed.

Mickey MouseWas acting as a voice actorTakashi AoyagiIs a university教授Was the main business and the voice actor was a side business.

Anime directorHayao Miyazaki"I make movies in a place where I don't really have time, so I rely on the dexterity of the voice actors. But after all, there are times when I get frustrated somewhere. It's like having no presence." I have expressed my opinion, "My Neighbor Totoro] InCopywriter OfItoi ShigesatoIs appointed[129]..The latest feature film, "Breeze』Also in the anime directorHideaki Anno"On the contrary, Anno (Hideaki) also Steve Alpert[Note 19]Is just a presence.I think it was pretty rough, but I thought it was more suitable for the movie. Explaining its intention[130].

When TV news appears in the play, there is an example in which an announcer of the main business that belongs to the broadcasting station is appointed with emphasis on reality,Chiaki MatsuzawaAppears only as an announcer and a reporter.

Narration and announcements are also part of the voice actor's work,Free announcerHowever, no one is active under the title of voice actor.In the early days, there were cases where the announcer of the station spoke, but in modern times, the announcer and the voice actor who do not act are regarded as different occupations.

In rare cases, production staff and original authors may be appointed as guest appearances.

Cases that musicians are in charge of

It may be used when music or singing is important in the play.

Lynn MinmeiUsefulMari Iijima, Director Mamoru Hosoda "Belle and Belle Princess"ofKaho Nakamura,Creamy Mami, the Magic Angel"ofTakako Ota, "Magic Star Magical Emi"ofYoko Obataetc.

There is an opinion that it is impossible for musicians to perform voice acting.[131], Disney official video distribution service "Soulful world], Grammy Award artists are participating as voice actors, and the Japanese version is also availableEitoWill make a cameo appearance as a Japanese voice actor as a street musician.

"Tottoko Hamtaro"ofMinihamsAnd "Zombie Land Saga』, Like the white dragon, the means to guess the characters that imaged themselves,Yamazaki HakoBut"Chibi Maruko-chanIn some cases, he played the role of himself.

Among the band units of the "BanG Dream!" ProjectRAISE A SUILENattend toRaychell,Summer sproutIs a musician who also worked as a backing band for other groupsRiko OharaWas doing band activities in parallel.Morphonicattend toYuka NishioMusic activities such as DJ,mikaIs a drummer,AyasaIs a violinist.

Appointment of an actor

Actors and members of theatrical troupe were appointed because the TV puppet show was broadcast even before the work of the voice actor was established.After that, actors were often selected, and it was broadcast in 2014 (Heisei 26).Sherlock HolmesThen, actors and voice actors were mixed and appointed.Actors are often appointed in movies[132].

Anime directorKeiichi HaraUses other entertainers and actors and actors of theatrical company as voice actors.[133]..Similarly, anime director Yoshiyuki Tomino has criticized the acting of voice actors as being stereotyped.[134], A lot of troupes from the troupe and new voice actors are appointed as leading roles. Also from the anime directorOshii MamoruAs the presence and freshness can beat the voice actor[135], Actor in multiple worksNaoto TakenakaHas been appointed,Sky Crawlers], the actor was appointed as the main character.

In the TV anime work, "Moomin(1969 <Showa 44>)Kyoda Kyoko, NHK version "Snoopy and Charlie Brown(1972 <Showa 47>)Kei Tani,Midori UtsumiEtc. were selected, and Fuji TV "Nissei Family SpecialIn the frame animations "Bocchan" and "Sanshiro Sugata" (1980 <55>)Hideki SaijoI worked hard.After that, there are cases where actors are selected, such as when the director is selected. "Nobunaga the Fool] In the original seriesShoji Kawamori Takarazuka RevueActive when interviewedTAKARAGENNEIsHiromi NanamiI was selected after seeing the stage.Nanami has been active as an actor and voice actor even after leaving Takarazuka. "Millionaire Detective Balance:UNLIMITED』The directorTomohiko ItoEmphasizes the originality of the work rather than using famous voice actors, and in order to emphasize the presence of the protagonist who is a millionaire, as a voice that matches the image of the dancer and actor.Yusuke OnukiWas selected[136].

Regarding the actors mentioned above being used as voice actors,Takeshi Suto"I think that actors who actually play in front of the audience are being bought, even if they have less skill as a voice actor than a voice actor who is just speaking in front of a microphone," he said.[137].

Actor'sGoro NayaSays that the stage and the voice actors are the same, and that the difficulty of Ateleco lies in grasping the play performed by the subject to be voiced.For those who want to be a voice actor, he said, "It's the basics. You have to do the basics of acting, the so-called stage, as I said earlier."[138].

Actor'sMasaaki YajimaHe said that if he entered with only voice, the basics of embodying the role by himself would be lost, and for those who aim for voice work, the first thing to do is not to think "It's easy because it's only voice". If you want to be a voice actor, I would like you to start from the play. "Also, to the younger generation, "I think that the fact that the people in the play are sweeping the world of dubbing these days means that those who have grown up purely as voice actors must feel a sense of crisis. That's right. "[139].

Actor'sNachi NozawaEmphasized that the actors and actresses of Hollywood movies are the actors of the Hyakusen Hakusen, saying, "So, if you don't train desperately as an actor, you can't do ateleco." To be able to play as much as they do[140].

ActressKeiko TodaSaid his view of voice actors, "If you haven't neglected as an actor, it's okay as a voice actor. I don't think" to be a voice actor "at all." States that there is no difference from the work of[141].

Voice actorKeiichi NambaHas a positive thought, "I like that. I hope the small world of voice actors will disappear."[142].

A game series that uses a lot of actorsLike a dragon], a certain famous actor was appointed, but he did not prepare in advance and was recorded, and his performance did not improve easily.Yokoyama MasayoshiWas repeated many times, and over time I explained the feeling of distance and feelings of the scene and recorded up to the point that can be said to be the final point, ``I am sorry to another actor who made the same trouble, compromise There is also a case where I was forced to get out of the car as ``I do not want to do it''[143].

ActressYoshioka RihoSaid that voice actors are completely different professions, "I would be very happy if there was a story like" If there is a story like "Riho Yoshioka's voice is not possible" in the future, I would like to study properly and challenge. " It has said[144].

ActressMari NatsukiShows the view that the work of voice is a whole-body exercise in which various things such as the tempo, high and low, and strength of the sound are put on the body.I was very lucky to meet him as an actor, and he said, "I think it's a good job to study so much that all actors should be done," and recommends it to Riho Yoshioka.[144][145].

Appointment of entertainer

As a comedian,Lupin IIIWith the death of Yasuo Yamada, he will play the role of Lupine as a voice actor.Kanichi Kurita,Eyeshield 21(2005 <17> -2008 <20>)Atsushi Tamura,Celestial warrior sun red(2008 <20>)Yamada Louis 53rd, Etc. are known.American crayfishTetsuya Yanagihara is a voice actor in many anime works, taking advantage of his characteristic voice quality.

Most of the guest appearances in animated films are similar to those of actors, but comedians sometimes use various roles depending on their tales and comics.For this reason, there are many people who have superior acting ability compared to actors and talents.In some cases, he is appointed as a comedian or a comedian.

With a voice actorKodanshiTo work side by sideIchiryu Sadatomo, Katsura Bunshi XNUMXth, a radio personality DJ and narration as a voice actorTakasugi'Jay'Jiro(Tei name is the first Saegusa Teijiro), former voice actor Yoshimoto entertainer who is active under the title of voice actor entertainer is also known.

Hideyuki KanayaAlsoMandankaAnd voice actors in parallel.

Voice actor activities of special effects program actors

Toei OfSpecial effectsTransformation hero work, especially "Kamen Rider series"Showa Rider" final work ""Kamen Rider BLACK RX"and"Super squadron seriesThen, "Engine Sentai Go-onger] Has been produced for a long time in all dubbing.

The so-called "Heisei Rider" first work "Kamen Rider Kuuga"[146] and"Samurai Sentai Shinkenger"[147] So, although the scene where the actor plays with a face was basically switched to the same shooting and simultaneous recording method as a general drama,Suit actorSince dubbing is often used in various parts of the program production such as the scene after the transformation played by, it can be said that the actor who has appeared in the special effects program has virtually the acting experience as a voice actor.For that reason, actors who have appeared in special effects programs may make voices such as animation, and some of themMasaya Matsukaze,Tsuchida University,Joji Nakata,City Road MaoSome people have turned their voice actors into their main business.

Voice actors may be appointed from the beginning for the voices of non-human characters such as monsters appearing in special effects.

Machiko Soga,Naoya Uchida,Nishirin Taro,Teruaki Ogawa,Yuji Kishi,Mika Kikuchi,Takayuki Godai,Kihachiro Uemura,Yuta Mochizuki,Junya Ikeda,Hiroki AibaMany actors who have experienced special effects programs are compatible with voice actors.

Advancement of VTuber

From the 2010ssingerSoraruTie-upIn addition to being appointed in some of the TV anime "2018 (Heisei 30), the TV anime"Grandson's grandsonWon the auditionYoshichimi.Was in charge of voice actors and ED themes, and received a special award.Maya HinanogiAppears as a voice actor.

"Jahy-sama won't be disappointed!Even with titles such as "Video distributor) Are acting as cast performers and theme song artists.

"I'm standing on a million livesToBisonji sji OfHiguchi KaedeQuietHas appeared, and Kaede Higuchi has sung the OP theme "Baddest".

"Lupin IIIPART6 ”and“Yamigami drop kickVTuber also appeared as a voice actor in the third term.

After 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)HOLO LIVEVTuber, which belongs to the above, is actively expanding into the voice actor business.

game"Earth Defense Force 6』DLCOgami MioAppears.

Other TV animation "The detective is already dead.] InWhite FuukiSummer color festivalIs playing the role as it is.The activity in such animation is not active in the setting as if the anime character actually exists, but the appearance of the animation in the role of the person is close to the form in which the actual talent appears as the person in question.Basically, VTuber is a setting that the figure of the river who is a virtual talent is the person himself.For this reason, it is close to a real voice actor, artist, and YouTuber.

As a diagram, alreadycharacterIs playingVTuberHowever, he will play the characters of anime and games. In the virtual talent called VTuber, there is a person who speaks with a performer (in the case of motion capture etc.) called a middle person, and in some cases a voice actor is doing it.Kizuna eyeThe original virtual YouTuber like this is a minority, and most of them are doing activities like so-called streamers.

For VTuber and others, it can be said that VTuber is purely expanding the range of activities, acting as a voice actor and performing music activities, just like real talents and artists.

VTuber Production, which is operated by the company, has the concept of "V voice actor" who is active in the voice actor industry, with talents using 2D and 3D avatars making their debut as voice actors.

On the other hand, auditions to become VTuber / Virtual YouTuber are also being widely held.

Criticism

In movies, celebrities and celebrities are often appointed as voice actors, aiming for topicality rather than quality of the work.[148]There are also criticisms for using voice actors such as entertainers and celebrities.

2007 Published anime movie "The Simpsons Movie] Or2012 (24) The movie "ア ベ ン ジ ャ ー ズ, Etc., a voice actor who was in charge of dubbing Japanese in the previous series was replaced by an actor/talent in a new movie, and criticism of the company was inundated. "The Simpsons Movie" "TAXi ④''Eclipse/Twilight Saga], along with the software, in addition to the theater version, a new dubbed version by the voice actors who were originally in charge was recorded at the same time. However, in most cases, only the movie release version is recorded when the software is made. Especially in "Avengers", there are criticisms about casting changes etc.Amazon.co.jpIt became a situation where the review section of this work was flooded[149].2012 (24) The movie "PrometheusOf the talent in the dubbing of the main character of Elizabeth ShawGome AyameWhen it was appointed, there was no change in software,エ イ リ ア ン] The series was slammed by fans and the reviews on Amazon.co.jp went up.[150].

"Terminator 3And 'Silent Hill: Revelation 3DIn the theatrical release version, the entertainer was in charge of dubbing, but in the software version, it may be replaced with a voice actor.There are also examples, such as "X-MEN Future & Past," which are re-recorded when a new version is softened.

2004 (16) Animated movie "イ ノ セ ン ス], of the producerToshio SuzukiPlanned to hire a big actor and played the role of Motoko KusanagiAtsuko TanakaからTomoko YamaguchiHowever, in addition to the schedule, Yamaguchi, who refused to appear, should not change the final image, and Tanaka continued to cast due to opposition from the director and voice actors.

Suzuki isStudio GhibliRegarding the reason why he uses a person who is not a professional voice actor, in "Ghibli Textbook 3 My Neighbor Totoro", about professional voice actors, "I'm cute, isn't it?" In "Toshio Suzuki's Studio Ghibli Sweaty", he played the role of Tsukishima Shizuku's father in "Whisper of the Heart".Takashi TachibanaIn a conversation with him, when he auditioned for "My Neighbor Totoro", he would become an ordinary father after all, so he asked Shigesato Itoi for a feeling that wasn't like a dad, and Shigesato of "Whisper of the Heart". Dad also chose Tachibana from the same point of view, and the voice actor's play is "Hare" when divided into Halle and Ke, but in Ghibli movies where there are many daily plays, what he actually wants is "Ke".[151].

Oricon styleIn the questionnaire survey, "whether or not talents (entertainers, celebrities, etc.) should be used as voice actors"2014 When I went to (26), opinions were divided in almost half.[152].

On the other hand, it was a big hit in 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa).Movie version Devilish Blade: Infinite Train』, All of them, including the newly introduced characters, are solidified with voice actors, and there is a prediction that the flow of appointing talent will change due to topicality.[153].

Entertainment activities in other fields by voice actors

Since the 2000s, it has become especially prominent for voice actors to perform in other fields such as singers and actors (especially on stage).

Actor activity is one example of a voice actor performing entertainment activities in other fields.The reason is that "Voice actors have a" voice recognition "that is not known as" Oh, that voice person ", so even if you don't understand your face, you will be impressed and talked about when you understand your" voice ". Because there is "[154].

However, voice has played the most important role as a medium that builds a correlation between characters and voice actors and plays a role in connecting them, but in 2007 (Heisei 19).BushiroadSince the establishment of a company that develops media mix later, it has progressed further, and instead of being performed by the animation or computer game work itself, it uses various elements such as event appearances (appearances) and radio related to the work. The connection is made.Since it is assumed that the viewer of the animation is the voice actor who plays the voice of the character, the element that connects the voice actor and the character from now on is not only the voice, but also the visual element and the specific voice actor individual. It depends on the recognition of[155].

On the other hand, among the actor activities, there are many voice actors who are compatible with the activities on the stage, but the reason is that "the stage cannot be redone and the audience actually sees the play and breathing, which is the voice. "Because I live in a play" etc.[156].

Mayumi Tanaka is still working on the stage,Terasoma SakiIn addition to performing special effects character ateleco in parallel with acting activities, Joji Nakata was originally focusing on acting.

In addition, examples of voice actors making them compatible with activities such as singers have become particularly prominent since the 2000s, and this will be described in the following section.

2014 In (26)Oscar promotionAoni Production"" "Beauty" combined with the two elements of appearance and voice jointly held byactress・ "" "The 1st All Japan Beautiful Voice Woman Contest" was held to discover voice actors.To the main graduatesmanga artist,IdolAct asYoshimi Tsuji,Rie HanabusaTopianist,Fashion ModelDo activities such asMaiko IrieIs mentioned.

Kuribayashi Minami,Haruko Momoi,Makino YuiProviding music to other voice actors, etc.SongwriterExample of doing,Shirako Souko, Is a gravure idol activity,Arisa Noto TheChoreographer,Motion actorIt is also active as.

In addition, Aki ToyosakiAzusa SaitoIn the morning information programWeather sisterThere is also.

After making his debut as a voice actor, he also works as a voice actor while turning to an entertainer.Kimiko KoyamaThere was an example of (when showing a story as a comedian, the name is "Kimi Kimi"). NSCIn 2010 (Heisei 22), he transferred to Yoshimoto Kogyo and was active as an entertainer until 2011 (Heisei 23).

Having the XNUMXth Sanyutei Enraku as his father,Rakugo performerBelongs to Aoni Production, which is also active, and works as a voice actorIchitaro Ai(The name of Takaza is Ichitaro Sanyutei), and Yoku Shioya and Subaru Kimura also have the name of Rakugoka.

In addition to SNS activities, some voice actors have set up dedicated channels for YouTuber activities and are distributing them.For example, Natsuki HanaeTomokazu SugitaChannel is so popular that it has more than millions of subscribers.

"Idol voice actors" and "voice actor artists"

Voice actors that are compatible with activities such as singers are often referred to as "idol voice actors" or "voice actor artists."

Idol voice actor

Idol voice actorWas called the third voice actor boom1990 eraCommon name that came out around the middle. By this timeVoice idolAlso called[157].

Beyond the main business, release the CD through songs, perform singer activities such as holding live performances, appear in gravure such as voice actor magazines and manga magazines, release photo books and image videos, appear in CM (this) Including so-called "Web CM") etc.IdolOften refers to a voice actor who engages in specific activities.

Ayako Iijima, who was active in radio dramas before the war, also released several records such as popular songs and nursery rhymes.Japanese danceIt was also a house.After thatYokoyama Chisa,Kyoko Hikami,Kouda Mariko, Yuko Miyamura, and many other voice actors who are likely to make their debut in the 1990s, but most of them are voice actors trained at the voice actor training center mentioned above, but they are not active experience as idols / transition groups from idols before that. ..However, due to the widespread exposure of these voice actors to the mass media, the acceptance of popular voice actors in the 1990s was different from the acceptance before that, especially for new voice actors who had just left the training school from this time. It is speculated that the expansion of the media in which voice actors are active was planned as one of the purposes of stabilizing the rewards of the voice actors, and that the appearance of voice actors through various media began as one of its commercial strategies.[73].

After the mid-2010s, Mamoru Miyano and Maaya Uchida[158][159],Ayana Taketatsu[160], Haruka Tomatsu[161][162],Mimori Suzuko[163][164],Sakura Ayane[165],Rikako Aida[166][167], Shuka Saito[168] As such, the number of cases of appearing in commercials with appearances, appearing as guests of variety shows and quiz shows, and appearing in gravure in general manga magazines that are not for enthusiasts is increasing.

Furthermore, voice actor units that reproduce the idols (characters) in charge of idol-based anime and game works as they are in actual live performances have appeared, and there are cases that are comparable to full-time idols.for exampleIdol Master series(THE IDOLM @ STER-Idolmaster Cinderella Girls-Idol Master Million Live!-Idol Master SideM),Love Live! Series Ofμ's-Aqs,Wake Up, Girls!,Pripara Ofi ☆ Risand so on.

In particular, the cast of the "Love Live!" Series had no experience as a voice actor until then due to auditions that emphasized singing ability and dance ability (in addition to members from other industries such as actresses, the activity experience itself in the entertainment world itself. Some members did not have.Aina Kusunoda,Ai FuruhataEtc. fall under this category) There are many employees.

In fact, besides i ☆ Ris, Wake Up, Girls!22/7The number of “groups that sing a balance between voice actors and idols” is increasing.[128].

Even in the 2020s, Sophia University's beauty pageant championshipMariko Toribe[169],Miss japanContest 2020 ・ Komori Aoki, who was selected as a Miss Kimono[170]In some cases, a person whose appearance has been evaluated, such as a beauty pageant participant, aims to become a voice actor.

Yu AsakawaOn his blog, complained to the voice actor world, which is said to be becoming more idol, and relatedNoriko Kuwashima"Idol voice actors will not be used after the season"[171]There are also industry people who question evaluation criteria that have nothing to do with acting.In fact, from the 1990s to the 2000sGo to ShiinaBecame popular as a singer and toured a considerable number of concert performances nationwide, but it became a factor to keep away from dubbing and dubbing work, and the regular appearance of animation is only a few in a year. It is known that even among anime producers including professional voice actors in the same industry, they were regarded as heretics as voice actors.[73].Yumori HanamoruEtc. said in an interview that they do not want to be seen by idol voice actors about themselves[172].

On the other hand,Yamato NadeshikoIn the interview at the time of formationYui HorieHe said that he was surprised to have an idol-like job since he became a voice actor, but he said that idols are attractive to him, so he makes it fun and energetic just by looking at them. I think it's weird. I think it's a problem if you're doing a job to moisturize the viewer's heart and don't do that. "

Voice actor artist

Voice actor artistOn behalf of the above idol voice actor2000 eraIt is a common name that came out around the middle, and often refers to a voice actor who balances the voice actor and singer industries.[89].

This name can be seen from the fact that Hekiru Shiina introduced herself as "I am a voice actor with an artist" at the start of the radio program in 1994, and from the advertising phrase of her training institution. , The influence of the creator including the person who manages it is strongly shown[73].

In recent years, even though he has not become an independent singer, he is in charge of the theme song etc. when appearing in animation.[Note 20], Related programs (Aniraji,Nico Nico Live Broadcast, Etc.) and appearances at events are becoming more common.[173].

TARAKO,Sakamoto Maaya,MoeMiIn parallel likeSinger-songwriterIn recent yearsManami Numakura,Suzuki Minori,Saori Hayami, Tomori Kusunoki,Koiwai Kotori, Amamiya Sora and others have increased the number of voice actor artists who write and compose songs by themselves.Tomoki OnoThe mini-album "Winter Voice Friends" is composed of songs provided by his own voice actors.

otherbandSome people are formingSuzuki Tatsuhisa TheOLDCODEXBand,Takayuki KondoOno DaisukeIs a techno vocal unit "TRD", Kotori Koiwai mentioned above is a metal band DAW, Yukari Tamura is also a metal unit 120600mAh,Kisho TaniyamaIs a music unitGRANRODEOI am active in.Taniyama is under the name of KISHOW in GRANRODEO, and in similar casesNinomiya YuiHowever, when he is a voice actor, he works under the name of Yui Ninomiya, and when he is an artist, he works under the name of Yui Ninomiya.

Like the band unit of the "BanG Dream!" Project, there are cases where the music band of the character who was in charge of the voice in the play is actually performing band activities.Sae OtsukaSome people like this are mainly singer-songwriter activities.Besides, high school girl rock band manga "Girls Fist !!!!A rock band of young female voice actors who are active in conjunction with the four characters that appear inMinami Matsumoto High School Punk Rock Club, There are voice actor girls rock bands that you can meet.

またHealer GirlsThere is also a group that claims to be a chorus unit like this.

Both "idol voice actors" and "voice actor artists" are said to be particularly common among Japanese female voice actors.

Whether the voice actor is an idol voice actor or a voice actor artist, the reason why the voice actor's activities are increasing is that, in addition to improving the social status of the voice actor, changes in the voice actor's role and image (“backside work”) It has been pointed out that the background has been that "the appearance and youth are emphasized"[89][171].

Activities in other fields by voice actors

Although it is not an entertainment activity, there are many voice actors who are active voice actors, serve as instructors at training centers, run offices, and also sound directors.

other than this,Shintaro AsanumaOriginally besides the actorWriterI was doingArakawa MihoUntil a certain timenurseI was a voice actor while doing.Masumi Asano ThePicture bookHas won the literary award by publishing.Jurota Kosugi TheZ GundamEra,ShochikuI work as a salaryman in charge of sales atMitsuo IwataIs "AKIRAI was working at a design office at that time, and was a voice actor as a side job.

Professional bowlerAlso serve asKeiaki WatanabeOr professionalSparrowBut alsoOkame AsukaThere is also an example.

Shinichiro Miki,Namikawa Daisuke,Ishikawa Kaijin,Yu HatanakaHave formed a car racing team called "VART".

Voice actor production

Normal for productions to which voice actors belongEntertainment productionIn addition to the voice actor section of, many voice actors belong toVoice actor productionThere is.

Voice actor production collects fees from voice actors, and managers assigned to their specialty fields such as animation, Japanese dubbing, and narration perform sales activities and voice actor sales to sound production companies and broadcasting stations. It also has specialized training centers and cooperates with vocational schools to train new employees.

Originally located as an affiliated company of the production company, there are productions with strong collaboration, especially in the 2000s, there were examples of new establishments.[Note 21] However, since the 2010s, it has been directly managed as a division of a production company, and there are productions with stronger collaboration.[Note 22]. Even if the collaboration with a specific production company is strong, we can also undertake the work that other production companies handle. In recent years, there have been cases in which voice actors were originally managed in music production.[Note 23], In this case, the singer's activity is often done actively by making full use of his main business.[Note 24][Note 25]. There are also cases where entertainment production centered on other fields will focus on the voice actor category.[Note 26].

Economic environment

Voice actors have no basic salary from their office[Note 27], Guarantee (reward) based on each person's work performance becomes incomeSole proprietorIs.Usually, a one-year renewal management contract is signed with the agency, and about 1% to 20% of the performance fee is paid to the agency as an administrative fee on average in the industry as compensation for sales and management.Tax withholdingAlso 10%[Note 28] Pulled[Note 29], The rest will be the reward for the voice actor[174]..Like singers and actors, it is a competitive society of systems, and many people drop out because they cannot be financially independent.

Japanese dubbing has started1960 eraSays that the voice work is 7% of the appearance fee of "appearance seven appearance"[175]It was considered a low-ranking job, and the stage actor was doing it like a part-time job.Compared to the stage and live-action work, the dubbing work requires less restraint time and can be performed, so if you manage the number, you can increase your income, and few people are dissatisfied because you can make use of your acting ability.

Many voice actors are improving their wagesJapan Actors UnionBelonging to (Nippon Haren), Japan Haren is organized by the Japan Music Makers Federation (Voice Federation), which is a collection of sound production companies, and a company that manages voice actors.Japan Entertainment Management Business Association(Manekyo) and the “Three-Group Practical Subcommittee” have been set up and have proposed to revise the appearance rules and improve treatment. Sometimesstrike(1973 <Showa 48>May 8) And the streetDemonstration activitiesIn 1973 (Showa 48), the reward increased by about 3 times.1980 In (55), the usage fee for rebroadcasting was certified.1991 In (3), he has won results such as a 1.7-fold increase in remuneration.

Not only for the industry, but also in 1973 (Showa 48)2001 In (13)Demonstration march,1988 (Showa 63)Ichiro NagaiBut"All things』(文藝 春秋), "Isano Namihei's annual income is 164 million yen", and an article that appeals to the low animation fee is sent, and the action to seek the understanding of the general public is taking place.[176].

As a result of discussions by the Japan-Hairen, Manekyo, and Shonen, we have signed the regulations for appearance of foreign movies, newcomer registration system, special regulations regarding CS programs, regulations for appearance of games, etc. In the anime, with the broadcasting station,Anime production companyA collective agreement has been concluded with the addition of the Japan Video Makers Federation. As a result, the reward per work is calculated by calculating the amount received according to the genre of the work, the broadcast time zone, the number of broadcasts, secondary use due to softwareization, and the experience record etc. The one-sided asking price of the production company is not used to decide the takeover[Note 30].

The above agreement will not be bound unless the voice actor, management company, and voice production company belong to their respective organizations. For example,Yujiro IshiharaIs a movieArcadia of my youthIt is said that the performance fee for[177]..In order to increase the organization rate, the number of performers who will appear in the works produced by the voice reunion is set to "the number of performers who do not belong to the Nichihairen is within 20% of the total", and the performers who do not belong to the Nichihairen are members. It is imposed on the voice ream to recommend.On the contrary, the Manekyo / Nichihairen side is to recommend the production companies that are not included in the Voice Ren to join the Voice Ren.

Hate these agreementsNihon Ad SystemsThere are also producers such as, and there are examples of appointing voice actors who do not belong to Nichihairen.1990 eraIt increased from the middle,Toei Academy,RamsIn some cases, the business was suspended.As a business that does not belong to the voice reamJinnan StudioAs a company that does not belong to Manetkyo, there are audiovisual systems (now San Onkyo) etc.Nerke planningand so on[Note 31].

Rank system

The voice actors who belong to the Nichihairen have a rule about the appearance fee when they give voices to anime and Japanese dubbed works. Under this system, the reward is calculated based on the rank and the restraint time, regardless of the amount of dialogue of the role played. Also, the incorporated associationComputer Entertainment AssociationA similar rank system has been established with game companies that are members of (CESA).The rank setting is updated every April, and as it becomes more popular and careers grow, the rank will rise after discussions with Manekyo and Voice Ren.Each time the rank goes up, the performance fee will increase by 4 yen.As an exception, people over the age of 1 can raise their rank but not lower it. In 1,000 (Heisei 60), the performance fee increased by about 1991 times, so that veteran voice actors with high rank (high performance fee) will not be appointed for animation and dubbing with limited budget. became.As a result, a special period was set up to allow rank down for a limited period of two years from 3 (Heisei 1.7).

The lowest rank of the 30-minute frame work is 1 yen, the highest rank is 5,000 yen, and there is no rank on top of it, which is the basic performance charge. As a "purpose usage fee", 4 times will be added to the basic appearance fee for animation, and 5,000 times will be added to the dubbing. If you do a trailer line, a gala based on the rank of the basic appearance fee will be added. If the broadcast time frame is 1.8 minutes or 1.7 minutes, it will be a "time premium" and the amount will be paid. The appearance work is made into softwarere-airIf it is done, the "conversion fee (secondary usage fee)" will be paid according to the regulations. The total of these will be the voice actor's total appearance fee, from which about 2% to 30% will be deducted for administrative fees and taxes.

The market price of the reward for voice works varies from several hours to several days depending on the number of words, and although it depends on the rank of the voice actor, it is about 2 to 3 yen per hundred words, and famous voice actors become social games. It is incomparable with the unit price when it comes out.Only a handful of voice actors earn a stable income because the office takes most of the sales, so there are few office voice actors who can live on their own.However, even so, in order to get a job, it is basic to belong to the office, and the office voice actor who earns profits at events, concerts, live performances, etc. will work stably.

Newcomer

After graduating from a voice actor school or voice actor training institute,Japan Entertainment Management Business AssociationA new voice actor who has passed the audition of a voice actor office affiliated with (Manekyo) first starts a voice actor business from the status of “keeping”. At this point as a voice actor individualJapan Actors UnionYou cannot join (Nichi Hairen). Custody is the de facto extra of the rank system as the first step in the voice acting business. After completing the custody period, you will be in the junior rank, and you can stay in the junior rank for three years or until you reach the prescribed employment rate, after which you will join the Nichi Hairen and become a normal rank voice actor.[178].

Because the performance fee is too low1990 Once (2), the newcomer (junior) rank was abolished, but1994 It was introduced again in a new form from (6).

The deposit and junior-ranked voice actors have an appearance fee of 1 yen, unlike the ranked voice actors, the above-mentioned "purpose usage fee," "trailer charges for the trailer," "time premium," and "conversion fee" are paid. Absent.

veteran

As the voice actor becomes a veteran and the rank of Nichihairen becomes higher, the work of anime, games, and dubbing will naturally become impossible due to budget constraints. To compensate for such things, in commercials and TV programsNarrationIs the job. The narration is not tied to the rank by the agreement of Nichi Hairen[Note 32]Also, guarantees are much more expensive than anime, games and dubbing.Perhaps because of this, when he was a newcomer / young voice actor, he appeared in many anime, but later, as he became a mid-career / veteran, his work in anime gradually decreased, and narration tended to become the main focus.In addition, there are cases where veteran voice actors appear only once and are used for roles with short recording times such as few lines, so the appearance of animation and games is not eliminated.

Some of the veteran voice actors perform side jobs such as managing the voice actor office, instructors of voice actor training schools and vocational schools, instructors of the talking class of culture school, sound director, etc. in addition to the main business to supplement the low income. Some are. In addition, when it comes to veterans, it is said that it is not uncommon for a voice actor to say that such a side business is a core business rather than economically.

Current status

The number of people who are aiming for voice actors is on the increase, but few are able to play active roles as voice actors as occupations. We won't be able to compete with other voice actors in the audition, we couldn't get a job and dropped out without name, we couldn't be financially independent, and then we stopped in a short period of time. It is said that there are many new voice actors who are judged as ``no prospect'' and cancel the contract[179][180]..In fact, as an example, Aya Uchida said in an interview in September 2015, "When a voice actor's job is vacant until about a few years before you can eat with one voice actor's job. Was doing a part-time job for dispatch. "[181][Note 33].Uchiyama YumiExample of returning after retiring once (due to the convenience of the house)[182] There is also.

1996 Approximately 8 voice actors were listed in the Kinema Junpo "Voice Actor Directory" released in 2,400, but only about 300 of them have established themselves as voice actors, and of these, voice actors. About half of the people can eat only by work[183][Note 34].

Despite having a certain level of name recognition, number of appearances, and years of activity, many people have retired because it is difficult to make a living with a voice actor, and it is difficult to maintain a continuous work environment. is there[180].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The policy aimed at inheriting the will of the Unkai is Chairman:Fukuda, Permanent Council:Hiroshi Akutagawa, Director:Hideo Kobayashi,Shohei Ooka,Mitsuo Nakamura,Kenichi Yoshida,Yasushi TakedaIt was also reflected in the face at the time of inauguration.
  2. ^ Writer'sNatsume SosekiIs one of the invited guests, June 1911th and 6th, 5 after the performance,Tokyo Asahi ShimbunA commentary entitled "Dr. Tsubouchi and Hamlet" is posted in the literary section that he himself presides over.
  3. ^ However, it is broadcast as a voiceless version of a silent movie, and its quality is different from that of a full-scale radio drama.
  4. ^ As described below, the word "voice actor" was used in the "Yomiuri Shimbun" as of 1926.
  5. ^ Miyako Murata (Mieko Murata at that time), Takeko Murata (all actressesMurata KikukoWas treated as a "star" with his sister[53].
  6. ^ 1st genMichiko KatoWhen Yomiuri died, the Yomiuri Shimbun introduced it as "pioneering voice actors"[56].
  7. ^ The first Japanese dubbed work1931 The American movie "Port of Rebirth" was not followed because the Japanese accent in Hiroshima was unpopular.[60].
  8. ^ Other than that,ANIMAX MUSIX(Started in 2009),Lisani! LIVE(Started in 2010) and so on.
  9. ^ In 2007,BS11by"Anime +Since the founding of ", this tendency has become more noticeable year by year.
  10. ^ However, in the old daysShowaThen.Toru Furuya,Hiromi Tsuru,Mina Tominaga,Hiroko KasaharaSuch,HeiseiButSawashiro Miyuki,Aya Hirano,Ryunosuke KamikiPlayed a leading role in his teens in the pastveteranThere are many voice actors.
  11. ^ On rare occasions, the voice actor name that is usually used is credited.
  12. ^ However, anime, Japanese dubbing, and game narration are subject to rank system.
  13. ^ Especially born from "Love Live!"μ'sWas the first voice actor unit to hold a solo concert at Tokyo Dome on March 2016st and April 3st, 31, and was full on both days.
  14. ^ In addition to holding a solo concert at Tokyo Dome in 2016, he became the first solo singer as well as a voice actor in the same year.Hanshin Koshien StadiumHas realized a concert in. MizukiHanshin Tigers Ofフ ァ ンThe concert at the Koshien Stadium was also one of my wishes.
  15. ^ Mizuki continued to participate every year thereafter, and participated in a total of 2009 times from 2014 to 6.
  16. ^ In 2015, the voice actor unit μ's played the second voice actor group, Kohaku and White, after Mizuki.
  17. ^ There are some audiences such as Kana Asumi's VTuber's Nachoko and Kenichi Suzumura's 29-year-old Rinkuro.
  18. ^ Literary Theater,ScorpioI was active as an actor.
  19. ^ A person who worked in Studio Ghibli overseas business until 2011.Hayao Miyazaki set and appointed a role modeled after him.
  20. ^ There are also cases where the work is limited to a voice actor unit.
  21. ^ Avex Planning & Development(Formerly Active. After being reduced as a voice actor production, the group reorganizationAvex picturesIt became one department ofKADOKAWAsystemProduction ace,AniplexsystemVoice and heart(Independent from Aniplex after closing down),Dwango Artist Production(Dwango Planning and Development.MAGES.BecomeAG-ONEAfter the company integration, closed business) etc.
  22. ^ MAGES.-Emulate(The de facto successor of Dwango Artist Production),Gakken plus-office EN-JIN (there will be no members in 2019 and the business will end virtually),Avex pictures(Partially accepted from Avex Planning & Development),Pony canyon-Swallow,BushiroadBy a production subsidiarysound.
  23. ^ Music rain,S Co., Ltd., Pony Canyon Artists (currently not handled. After dividing voice actors and animation related companies into the in-house organizational management organization "Swallow", it was integrated into the parent company Pony Canyon from July 2019).
  24. ^ He holds an audition in the "voice actor and artist" frame.
  25. ^ There is an example in which aspiring singers make their (or) debut as voice actors.Emi NittaThere is also an example that, although he passed the audition as a singer, he made his debut as a voice actor at the beginning of the office according to the policy of the office, and made his debut as a singer five and a half years after passing, and also Pony Canyon Artists (now Swallow). ofYurika Endo(June 2018, retired from the entertainment industry) There are also examples of debuting as a voice actor after the debut of a singer.
  26. ^ As an example,Horipro(Currently transferred to affiliated company Horipro International),Sony Music Artists,Space craftetc.
  27. ^ Exceptionally,HoriproSome offices are based on a monthly salary system such as.
  28. ^ Special income tax for reconstruction will be added for 25 years after FY 25, resulting in 10.21% [1].
  29. ^ However, a person who has too little annual income and consequently has withheld the withholding tax can be refunded by the tax return of the following year.
  30. ^ Although it cannot be said to be unequivocal, the Nikkairen basically set the highest class reward for programs that are broadcast during the golden hours of weekends and holidays.
  31. ^ However, there are now companies that are actually joining because more staff have been transferred.
  32. ^ The narration of anime/games is bound by rank.
  33. ^ Since debuting in 2008 as a voice actor,Kiddy garland』(2009. as a school) starring in, such as the number of appearances has been accumulated, but the number of appearances as the main character increased after 2012.
  34. ^ In addition, "Voice actor grand prix'' 2018 voice actors are recorded in the separate volume appendix of the March 3 issue, ``Voice Actors Directory 2018 Female Edition'', and in the separate volume appendix of the April 800 issue of the same magazine, ``Voice Actors 2018 Male Edition'' There were 4 male voice actors recorded (that is, 2018 in total).

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  132. ^ Young actresses who challenge anime voice actors such as Mone Kamishiraishi and Mayu Matsuoka What is the appeal of Yu Aoi as a voice actor?Highly rated by anime fans Mayu Matsuoka, Kiko Mizuhara, Haru ... Challenge to anime voice actors of popular actresses one after another
  133. ^ "Casting of a new movie directed by Keiichi Hara!" "Saizo" Infoburn, August 2007 issue.
  134. ^ Yuno Tomino"Yuuki Tomino Interview Collection Tomino Glossary"Laport, 1999, p. 1.ISBN 978-4-89-799296-9.
  135. ^ Oshii Mamoru"All movies become animation" Tokuma Shoten, March 2004, 3, pp. 27-307.ISBN 978-4-19-861828-5.
  136. ^ “Mysterious” story creation by the “Millionaire Detective Balance: UNLIMITED” producer [Interview] - Anime! Anime!
  137. ^ "Takeshi Suto "Scenario Edaba Creative Techniques 39th "Sengoku Genie Goshogun" Notice..."". WEB anime style (September 2006, 3). NovemberBrowse.
  138. ^ "Supermarket!Drama TV Overseas Drama: Interview with Goro Naya". www.superdramatv.com. NovemberBrowse.
  139. ^ "Supermarket!Drama TV Overseas Drama: Interview with Masaaki Yajima". www.superdramatv.com. NovemberBrowse.
  140. ^ "The 2nd Nachi Nozawa [Interview with Fuki Frog] Operation Frog Frog !!". www.fukikaeru.com. NovemberBrowse.
  141. ^ Voice actor grand prix"Knowledge of work and tips for living that XNUMX voice actors want to convey"SHUFUNOTOMO, 2019, p. 2.ISBN 9784074352296.
  142. ^ Kensho Yamamoto "To become a voice actor" Perikkansha, 2007, p.55
  143. ^ Weekly Famitsu "Ryu ga Gotoku Series 10th Anniversary Book Ryu Taizen" KADOKAWA, 2015, p.81-82
  144. ^ a b "Riho Yoshioka: "It was my conceit ..." A lot of "awareness" in the voice actor challenge”(Japanese). MANTANWEB. NovemberBrowse.
  145. ^ "Supermarket!Drama TV Overseas Drama: Interview with Mari Natsuki". www.superdramatv.com. NovemberBrowse.
  146. ^ From the old content "Job DB" in the BIGLOBE portal, 33rd Interview with Nobuhiro Suzumura. February 2014, 2 confirmation(As of January 2014, 2Archive
  147. ^ Samurai Sentai Shinkenger, Act II Toei official website Read on January 2014, 1.
  148. ^ Keiichi Hara, Yasuki Hamano, "Animation Director Keiichi Hara", Shobunsha, 2005, p.48. "The casting of celebrities in the movie "Crayon Shin-chan" is part of the advertisement," says Keiichi Hara.
  149. ^ Critiques rushed to the flames in the comment section! Angry explosion of movie fans to use Japanese dubbed version of talent! (Cinema Today)
  150. ^ Strong criticism of the movie "Prometheus" voice actor using talented talent Ayame / Fan "Is the manufacturer sane?" Rocket News 24, read March 2015, 3.
  151. ^ Toshio Suzuki "Ghibli's Philosophy What Changes and What Doesn't Change"
  152. ^ Employing talented voice actors, opinions are split almost in half ORICON STYLE Retrieved November 2014, 8.
  153. ^ With the hit of "Kimetsu no Yaiba", the return to the origin of "for voice actors" accelerates, and Natsuki Hanae plays a hub role. - ORICON NEWS
  154. ^ "Voice actors are active in the actor industry What is the voice actor's position in the first place?”. Oricon. NovemberBrowse.
  155. ^ Television Animation"Bakemonogatari(2009), an anime version and a live-action version will be prepared at the opening, and in the live-action version, the voice actor who gives the voice of the anime character will play the character in the live-action video, and the production is intended to be seen in comparison with each other. However, by showing the live-action version on the telop, the whole picture can be understood for the first time (Naito, 2017).In the TV anime "Yumeiro Patissiere" (2019-2020), the voice actor made an appearance at the end of the program.
  156. ^ For example, "Voice Actor Bible 2016" pages 22-29 (Interview page of Jiyu Irino), "Voice Actor Bible 2017" pages 18-25 (Interview page with Seki Tomoichi).
  157. ^ "Where is the voice actor industry tomorrow?" "Fashion criticism SPECIAL EDITION Anime lovers who can't be otaku" Killtime Communication, 1997, p. 114.
  158. ^ "Voice actor Maaya Uchida responds to a new commercial of Mitsubishi Estate Residence with a good-looking guy”. Netoraba. NovemberBrowse.
  159. ^ "Maaya Uchida: Introductory gravure for Young Jump”. Mantan Web. NovemberBrowse.
  160. ^ "Popular voice actor Ayana Taketatsu demonstrates "Gluttonous character" in collaboration with Yoshinoya!!”. ORICON STYLE. NovemberBrowse.
  161. ^ "Voice actor Haruka Tomatsu made a live-action commercial debut on September 9th with a Furuta confectionery commercial on air.”. Excite News. NovemberBrowse.
  162. ^ "Haruka Tomatsu: Popular voice actors appeared in "Yang Jean" gravure Bikinis and bold figures”. Mantan Web. NovemberBrowse.
  163. ^ "Pylon PL granule site”. Shionogi Healthcare. NovemberBrowse.
  164. ^ "FLASH special edition|Magazine|Kobunsha”. Kobunsha. NovemberBrowse.
  165. ^ "Ayane Sakura: Popular voice actor is the first cover of "Magazine" Kyoto "Japanese" gravure”. Mantan Web. NovemberBrowse.
  166. ^ "Rikako Aida: Popular voice actor appears in "Kaki no Tane" CM CM shows off in her room wear "Stop!"”. Mantan Web. NovemberBrowse.
  167. ^ "Rikako Aida: “Beautiful voice actor world's most beautiful woman” is bare skin that reappears on the cover of “Yangjan”!”. Mantan Web. NovemberBrowse.
  168. ^ "Azusa Saito: “Love Live! Sunshine!!” voice actor becomes “Yang Jan” gravure”. Mantan Web. NovemberBrowse.
  169. ^ "28th Mariko Toribe”(Japanese). seigura.com. NovemberBrowse.
  170. ^ "Miss Nippon Contest 2020 ・ Miss Kimono by Komori Aoki 19 years old aiming to be a voice actor | News | Deview-Debut". Deview. NovemberBrowse.
  171. ^ a b "Yu Asakawa complains about the world of voice actors who are becoming idols As a result of the industry demanding "popular Kawaiko-chan," newcomer voice actors...”. Otapol. NovemberBrowse.
  172. ^ "Nikkei Entertainment! Anime Special Voice Actor Bible 2020" (Nikkei BP Mook, 2019)
  173. ^ "It's difficult to work if the song or event is new to NG" Professionals seriously debate the changing voice actor's current situation Excite Review Read May 2015, 5 and September 11, 9.
  174. ^ Nomura Michiko 2009, p. 148-149.
  175. ^ Tori Miki "Movie Hidden Treasure Vol.3 Tori Miki's Movie Dubbing King" Yosensha, 2004, p.141. Interview with Nachi Nozawa
  176. ^ "The 30-year history of the Japan Actors Union 1986-1990' Japan Actors Association official website
  177. ^ Animage editorial department, edited "70 years history of theater animation" Tokuma Shoten, 1989, 93 pages.
  178. ^ Michiko Nomura, "How to become Shizuka-chan, aim to be a voice actor Ichibanboshi," Libre Publishing, 2009, pp.148-149
  179. ^ Episode 044 Her Decision: That's a Voice Actor! WEB Masumi Asano-Kenjiro Hata Retrieved November 2013, 12.
  180. ^ a b "A real life of "voice actor" who is said to be able to survive”. Financial field. NovemberBrowse.
  181. ^ "[Attractive discoveries and videos] Aya Uchida makes a big break in the anime "Love Live!"”. Sankei Shimbun. NovemberBrowse.
  182. ^ "Voice actor future forecast 9th Mr. Yumi Uchiyama". Voice actor grand prix web (September 2012, 2). NovemberBrowse.
  183. ^ Mitsutoshi Ichihara, "A Book That Can Be a Voice Actor-That Voice Actor Reveals Everything!" Sekai Bunka, 1996, p. 101.ISBN 4418965084. 

References

Related item

外部 リンク

Voice actor

Voice actor(SeiyuIt is,ImageWorks andvoiceWithout showing yourself in the worksoundTo appear aloneAn actor[1].. In a broad sensenarratorIs also included.OccupationWhen used to indicate, and for video and audio worksrole,FunctionMay represent.

The voice actor was initiallyRadio DramaSpecialize inTokyo Broadcasting CompanyAnd other broadcastersMember of the troupe・ Refers to a radio actor[2], In the TV era, it became established as a term that refers to actors who perform dubbing and animation.

"Yomiuri Shimbun"so1926 (ShowaKnown to have been used since the first year)[3], The origin of the name has the following two theories, and it has not been clarified yet.

  1. By Tokusaburo Kobayashi, a Yomiuri entertainment reporter
  2. NHK's entertainment program chargeproducer・ Named by Tatsuo Ooka[4]

Overview

Act only with voicePerformerAnd many Japanese voice actorsJapan Actors Union, But unlike actors, is considered a voice-specific actor[5].. Read the manuscript again in the newscaster,announcerIt is also distinguished from those who are engaged in the business of broadcasting and news fields.

Often in animated worksCharacter voice(Character voice), abbreviatedCVTo sayJapanglishIs used. this is1980 eraIn the second halfAnime magazine"AnimatedWas the deputy editor-in-chiefShinichiro InoueIs a term proposed byKadokawa ShotenWhich was first published inMonthly new type] Is also used[6]..Also, in the works of the Showa period, it was often described as "voice appearance" in the ending credits.HeiseiからReiwaAt present, it is often written as "cast" or "CAST" or "CV" (character voice).

Due to the fix system described belowPersonality actorThere is also an aspect as.

In Japan, there are many cases where voice actors are specialized for historical reasons.Overseas, it is a part of the work of actors, but in the United States, the number of actors who specialize in voice actors is increasing, and some acting schools have voice actor courses.[7].

Since the 2000s, the activities as a singer and the talented activities such as publishing a photo book have been increasing.

History

The reason why voice actors have become more specialized in Japan is

And so on.

The possibility of audio media is "literatureFrom the proposal of "three-dimensional movement"Cloud meeting(1950 <Formed in 25>)Kunishi Kishida[8],In JapanModern critical literatureBecame a pioneer ofHideo Kobayashi[9],in JapanOrthodox drama(Dialogue drama[10]Advocated the establishment ofFukuda[11]Such asLiteraryIs pointed out by.

Kishida says "The beauty of'words spoken'" (1928 <Showa 3>), radio dramas and movie stories from the early days[12] He argues that the narrator's arousal of the listener's imagination is the key to development.[13]..Kobayashi is "age" (1950 <25>) and "Speaking and Writing" (1954 In <Showa 29>, in, "Spoken languageExpressing a linguistic view that emphasizes[14],Noricho Motoi』(1977 <Showa 52>) shows how the words "it's hard to resemble, it's easy to resemble".[15].

Fukuda said, "Words act" from the linguistic view.Hamlet』(1955 <Showa 30> performance)ShakespeareDrama Of翻 訳ShowAnd1963 (Showa 38)Contemporary Theater Association[Note 1] Presided over[16]..Its activities are not limited to theater, but the production of radio dramas and stage performances by drama.Ateleco controversyPre-emption, anime movie "Thousand and One Nights』(1969 <Published in 44>)Troupe cloudParticipation etc.[17], Continuously extends to voice appearances[18].

Commercial broadcasting started1951 In (Showa 26), a dialogue between Kobayashi and Fukuda was held in the planning of the magazine "Theatre" published by the Cloud Society, and a thought-provoking exchange was exchanged.

Kobayashi pureIdeaasMusicThat's why. …… Generally, I don't think the human ear is good.Everyone is bad, what is the ear?

Fukuda and otherssenseCompared to?

Kobayashi Yes.Compared to the eyes.Especially the earsTrainingExcept for a few people who are doing it.That's why I don't think anyone has the ears to listen to radio dramas.The human voice is veryexpressionIt will be rich in.No one can train their ears so much that they can understand humans by voice without looking.With the great development of radio dramas, such training may be possible.Then, even if you don't see it, your voice will be more expressive, and you will find a great actor specializing in radio dramas. ...... We live with our eyes open, so our ears are neglected.playThat guy is with both eyes and ears鑑賞I'm doing it.Oh dear,Storyteller,BailiffHow about becoming?For exampleRakugoAfter all, the life of talking isstoryI'm chasing you, but you can listen to the same story as many times as you like, right?You can listen to it as many times as you like, that is, it's a sound.It's the music of that voice.I'm enjoying listening to it. — "Theatrical questions and answers" Sound, ears, broadcast drama[19]

Regarding the voice appearance contract,Japan Actors UnionBy "External Painting Agreement" (1978 <Showa 53>), "Video Agreement" (1981 <Showa 56>) has been signed, and we are seeing the establishment of rights and economics.[20][21][22][23].

At the same time, "Space Battleship Yamato』(1977 <Showa 52>)Anime boomStrengthened the tendency to hire new human resources,Super Dimension Fortress Macross』(1982 Works such as <57>) have appeared.A series of voice actor booms specialized in voice actorsEntertainment office,Voice actor training centerHas led to the growth of voice actors and has become the starting point for the diversification of voice actor images to this day.[24][25].

For the person who developed the voice actor theory during this period, the animation directorYuno TominoIs recognized.

TominoOsamu TezukaOriginalComic"Astro boy"ofAnimatedActive since the dawn of TV animation starting in[26], 1981 (Showa 56) advocated "Anime New Century Declaration"[27]..Prior to that, he served as a negotiating committee member in the foreign film video subcommittee of the Japan Actors Union, and refuted the teleco controversy.Ichiro NagaiPlanning a dialogue with[28][29][30].

In addition, "Mobile Suit Gundam』(1979 During the production of <54>), animation productionス タ ッ フFrom the standpoint of, the view of voice actors has been expressed to aspiring voice actors.

 In this section of the anime trend, "voice actor" sounds like an independent profession.However, originally, the function of a voice actor is only a part of the talent of an actor.Only a performer can demonstrate the talent of a voice actor.In fact, with only voice actors as a profession,PopularityThere are few voice actors who are just enjoying their abilities.Acting with just your voice is justVocalizationTraining is not enough.In other words, don't forget that you have the ability as an actor (actor) and can do it for the first time.

 why?Why? ……so.Because even one voice has a physical bodyPersonalityBecause there is, there are a wide variety of voices.The manifestation of personality (as a person) is the voice.It means that there is no human being only by voice.From the moment you take this for granted, you will lose sight of the first step in getting started with voice actors. (Omitted)

 And finally, let's give a concrete guideline.If you really want to be a voice actor, first of allactingLook up the word "〟" in a dictionary. Then look up the unknown word in this article. And it's the real end. Do you have a facial expression in your voice? If not, give it a facial expression. It's the beginning of your actor training. — Yoshiyuki Tomino "Starting to be a voice actor"[31]

2005 (Heisei17 years),New National TheaterHas opened a theater training center.2007 (19),Japan Voice Actor Business CouncilHas been established.

Record era

1877 (Meiji10 years) in the United States in JulyThomas edisonIs a recording / playback typegramophoneInvent.

in JapanMeiji Restorationrear,Cabinet systemBy the time it was foundedCivilizationThe influence ofGenbun Itchi MovementSymbolized bysoftIt begins to be seen on the surface.1885 (Meiji 18) September,TsuyouchiBut"Novel essence』WrittenHistory of Japanese modern literatureAnnounced the full-scale beginning of.1886 In August (Meiji 19),kabuki OfModernizationAimed atTheater improvement societyWas formed.Saiharu is a translation of Shakespeare's drama and Kabuki performance "Paulownia』Creation,Mori OgaiWidely used in the literary and theater world during the Meiji era, such as the controversy over the ideal[32]..In response to the growing artistic fever due to these influences,Shimamura HogetsuThe year after he returned from study abroad,1906 In August (Meiji 39),Literary AssociationHas established[32]. Also,1909 In August (Meiji 42),Kaoru OyamauchiSaiji Ichikawa Free theaterHas been launched.

At the end of the Meiji eraハ ー ドModernization in terms of progress,1910 (Meiji 43) October, the first in JapanRecord companyIs established.1911 In August (Meiji 44),Imperial TheaterOpens.In May of the same year, Shakespeare's play "Hamlet" was performed by the Literary Society.[Note 2],In SeptemberIbsenDramaDoll houseWill be performed[33]..It was well receivedNew playActressSumiko MatsuiIs a first-year student at the Theater Research Institute attached to the Literary Society[34], Actress training was an epoch-making achievement.Also, from the second gradeNew national dramaBecome the founder ofShojiro SawadaHas been produced.

1913 (Taisho2 years) In July, Hogetsu and SumakoArt theaterFormed[35],1914 (Taisho 3) At the 3rd performance in March, in the re-dramatization of HogetsuTolstoyThe novel "ResurrectionWas staged [36]..The song in the play "Sumako sang"Headband songWas also sold as a record and became the first popular song in modern Japan.[37]..Not only the singing but also the passage of the third act, Kashiro, was recorded on the same board.In October of the same year, Shakespeare's play "Antony and CleopatraWas performed by the adaptation of Hogetsu[38][39]After the performance, the performers gathered in the recording studio to record the best of the stage.This is only for the lineAudio dramaIt was released as "Shakespeare'Cleopatra'" in December.[40].

In the Taisho eraSoga Hiroya troupe,Takarazuka Revue,Asakusa OperaEtc. also leave the sound source[41].

Radio drama era

1925 In March (Taisho 14), NHK's predecessor, Tokyo Broadcasting Station, started radio broadcasting.[42].

Only one month later, in the program of "Movie Dialogue"Silent movieThe dialogue drama of "The earth smiles" was broadcast.The appearance of the voice at this timeNew schoolActor'sMasao Inoue, Of the actressKurishima SumikoAnd so on. Not as a profession, but in effect they are the "first voice actor in Japan"[43][Note 3]..In July of the same year, "Kiri Ichiyo", which reproduced the stage broadcast in the studio (cast:Nakamura Utaemon (5th generation)Etc.), and Japan's first full-scaleRadio DramaAs "Captain's daughter" (starring: Masao Inoue,Yaeko Mizutani) Will be broadcast. Directed by Kaoru Osanai in August,Wada Sei OfSound effectThere is also a theory that it is "inside the coal mine" that was broadcast on[44]..Was one of the performersYasue YamamotoLater served as the leader of the Tokyo Broadcasting Company.

In August of the same year, a radio drama study group was established at the Tokyo Broadcasting Station.Mikihiko Nagata, Kaoru Osanai,Kubota Mantaro,Kume Masao,Hideo Nagata,Isamu Yoshii6 people as the main members[45]..Furthermore, in order to acquire listeners, a well-known literary writer is commissioned to write a script for XNUMX yen per volume.At that time, XNUMX yen was enough to build a house.[46], The face of the literary writer who wrote the script for the "2 Yen Drama" in two yearsSatomi,Matsui Matsuo, Kaoru Osanai, Hideo Nagata, Isamu Yoshii, Mantaro Kubota, Kunio Kishida,Hiroshi Kikuchi,Yuzo Yamamoto,Kichizo Nakamura,Okamoto KidouWas 11 people[47].

In September of the same year, the Tokyo Broadcasting Station recruited radio drama research students as professional actors who act only by voice.[48].. Twelve women were selected from more than 100 applicants and will speak to the radio drama "Tacho" in November.Many sources on the history of voice actors consider them to be the "first voice actors in Japan."At that time, newspapers called him a "radio actor."[Note 4].. Early radio dramaShiomi Hiroshi,Chieko HigashiyamaOpened the previous yearTsukiji small theaterMany actors were appearing[49].

1926 (Taisho 15) In August, the three corporations of Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya Broadcasting Stations were dissolved, and the Japan Broadcasting Corporation was established as a successor organization.

1928 From (Showa 3), a prize recruitment will be held for the purpose of training new employees.Yutaka Manafune,Kaoru Morimoto,Juro Miyoshi,Ryuichiro Yagi,Shuji Hojo,Ima HarubuWritten by[50].

1931 (Showa 6) From February1938 (Showa 13) Mantaro Kubota will be appointed as the chief of the literary section of the Japan Broadcasting Corporation until August.Kubota has a literary line,Natsume Soseki,Izumi Kyoka,Lunar,HugoAt home and abroadliteraturePromoted the radio drama of.Inoue Masao, taking advantage of Kubota's network of contacts in the theater world,Kitamura Midori,Sachiko Murase,Akiko Tamura,Kyosuke TomodaWe have appointed front-line actors in new schools and new plays such as[51]..Tokujiro Kobayashi, a staff member of the literary division, later said, "This was due to Kubota's skill, as it could only be done by radio broadcasting at the time when the actors in the new drama could not appear in commercial theaters. Speaking of which, Mr. Kubota was a famous producer who not only had an artistic side but also had political power. "[52]..Around this time (mainly1930 era) As a person who was active,Ayako IijimaCan be mentioned[Note 5].. Besides the radio dramaJapanese dancer,singerHe was also active as a (popular song, popular song, nursery rhyme operetta). From 1925 (Taisho 15) to 1938 (Showa 13), the total number of radio dramas broadcasted increased to 750.

1941 (Showa 16), NHK is recruiting research students from the Tokyo Central Broadcasting Station's exclusive theater company actor training center, which trains actors specializing in radio dramas.1943 The first student of the Tokyo Broadcasting Company, which completed training in (Showa 18), made its debut.[54].. This is considered the second voice actor[55][Note 6]There is also a document that the word "voice actor" has been used since this time.[57].

1951 In (Showa 26), a private radio station, Radio Tokyo (currently,TBS Radio) Started broadcasting and established a dedicated broadcasting company (Radio Tokyo Broadcasting Company, later TBS Broadcasting Company)1957 (Showa 32) The serial radio drama "Akazodo SuzunosukeHas gained tremendous support from the children of the time. The voice actor in the age of radio drama, where there was no television broadcast and radio was the main place in the mass media, was never in the shade, and played a lot of the second protagonist voice.Nagoya ChapterReceived dozens of fan letters a month[58].. When the radio drama reached its heyday, and the introduction articles of voice actors began to be published in the radio section of the newspaper, at the same time as a fan letter to voice actors, they longed for voice actors, and the number of voice actor applicants also increased rapidly.1953 It is said that 28 applicants flooded into the place where about 5 successful applicants were recruited for the 10th gen member of the NHK Tokyo Broadcasting Corporation (Showa 6,000).This era is a voice actorHisatsu KatsutaIs the first golden age of voice actors[59].

In anime,1933 (Showa 8)TalkieThe short animated film "World of Power and Woman" has been released. It was the comedy actor who gave the voice to the anime characters.Furukawa RoppaWere the movie actors including.1942 (Showa 17)ChugokuAn animated feature film "Saiyuki and Tetsugihime(Iron fan) was released in Japan,Activity beanFromTokugawa dream voice,Ichiro YamanoUttered a voice.Second World WarStarted laterToei videoDue to the constant production of animated films in Japan, movie actors, comedians, and members of the broadcast theater were used. Also, dubbing of Western movies began to take place in earnest after the TV era[Note 7].

First voice actor boom

In the early days of commercial television,1961 (Showa 36)Five company agreementDue to lack of software due to the decision to suspend the supply of Japanese movies to TV stations in overseasWestern paintingMany Japanese dubbed versions of so-called external pictures such as[61][62][63].. Initially, NHK basically broadcasted works outside Japan in subtitle supermarkets, so the dubbed Japanese version was mainly commercial. After that, works outside Japan1960 eraIt was broadcast with the first half as a peak. Against this background, the popularity of voice actors has increased. The centerpiece of the boomAlan DelonPlayed a roleNachi Nozawa[64],ChasingSaid that[65].

Since the actors of TV and movies did not dubb due to the issue of the five-company agreement and gala, dubbing on TV was done by many people from the broadcasting troupe from the radio era and stage actors of new plays.[66].. From the broadcasting companyWakayama GenzoAbout the new drama actor who entered the dubbing at that time, "It was only one-handed work for most of the people" "Many people who do not question even unnatural Japanese words and speak only according to the script I was very angry with it."[67].. Also, at this time, as actor theory and acting theoryAteleco controversyHas been deployed. In overseas animation, there are cases where rakugo artists and comedians from Asakusa also spoke to the characters.

There was a movement to unite to improve rights because the working environment and treatment were poor.Yasuo HisamatsuIs Akira ShimizuPacific TelevisionHowever, there is a labor dispute at the company. In response to thisTokyo Actors Co-op(Haikyo) was born, but there were some who were independent and did not belong, like Genzo Wakayama.[68].. Afterwards, many voice actor productions were formed after being separated from Haiko. The word voice actor was not generally recognized in this era[69], As another name, mainly because of dubbingDubbing talent, From applying a voiceAthi[70][71] There was something like that.

The first Japanese dubbed work on TVTBSKRT TV, the predecessor of1955 (30)May 10An American anime that started broadcasting from "Superman] Is said to be. In live action1956 It is recorded as "Cowboy G-Men" broadcast on KRT TV, the predecessor of TBS in (Showa 31).All of these broadcasts on KRT TV are dubbed live, and the first pre-recorded dubbed work was in 1 (Showa 1956) in the anime.May 4ToNippon TVHowever, it is an overseas animation "TV Boy Adventure" that was broadcast by requesting Harubei Yasui of Bancho Studio.

1966 In (Showa 41), "Saturday Western Painting Theater" (currently ""Sunday Western Theater』) started broadcasting, and this program started a holding system (fix system) that fixes the star's voice to a specific voice actor[72].

First voice actor boom

As the first recognized anime voice actor, while playing a child role at that timeSea TritonPlayed the leading role inTsubasa ShioyaIs known[73]After that, the second voice actor boom was the movie version of the latter half of the 2s.Space Battleship YamatoIt happened in parallel with the anime boom caused by the hit.

Pushed by the boom, music activities in parallel with voice acting became popular, andAkira Kamiya,Toru Furuya,Toshio FurukawaA band by a popular voice actor who plays the handsome boy character of anime such asSlap stickAnd formed live performances[74], Many voice actors put out records. As a voice actor who sold XNUMX units of records at that time,Banko,Keiko Toda, Akira Kamiya,Yu Mizushima, The name of slapstick is listed[75].

Also in "Space Battleship Yamato"Yuki MoriYoko Asagami (currently in charge ofKodanshi-Ichiryusai spring water) Is known to be a voice actor because he likes anime and wants to be a voice actor [2], The first voice actor discharged by a voice actor training center[73] Not only that, he is the founder of idol voice actors, and his genealogy isMami Koyama, Continues to Keiko Han.Keiko Han, who released four of her own albums, was called the original idol.[76].

1979 Broadcasting started in (54) "Anime topia], Etc., anime voice actorsPersonalityThe radio programs etc. that serve are also born. In the radio drama, with the background of popular voice actorsDrama house at night, And an amateur voice actor contest was also held.[77].

This eraAnime magazineIt was also the time when was first published, and "AnimageIs the first editor-in-chief ofOgata HideoIs the voice actorIdolChanged to one of the editorial policies[78].. Similarly, anime magazines other than "Animage" also set up a voice actor section on the magazine and regularly disseminated information on voice actors.

In terms of human resources supply and training, the number of voice actor-specialized productions began to gradually increase due to the division, and at the same time, each productionVoice actor training centerWas provided.As a result, voice actors who aimed to become anime voice actors began to appear from the beginning, rather than voice actors as part of actor activities such as those from the broadcasting theater company and stage actors, or as an extra skill.This boom is mostly1980 eraIt is supposed to be in the first half.

Around 1990

From the latter half of the 1980s, "voice actor idolization" or "appearance" by appearing in anime events (shows) became common.[73]..For example, the TV anime "Armor biography samurai trooperWith 5 male voice actors who appeared in1989 A unit formed inNG5Was so popular that it was featured on news programs. It is also said to be a pioneering group in which voice actors have become multi-activity[79].. OVA series from 1993 (Heisei 5) "Idol Defense Corps Hummingbird』Since then, it has become a presence on the front stage due to the media-like production that reminds each other of the characters in the animation and the real voice actors in various ways.In this way, idol fans will be incorporated into anime fans by building an idol-like image.

そ し て,Megumi HayashibaraFemale voice actors such asRecord companyThere are more and more examples of singing activities by signing a contract with[80].

さ ら に,1990 eraAs a result, when dubbed works were transmitted in various forms such as DVD packages and CS broadcasts in addition to terrestrial broadcasting, the number of cases where multiple dubbed works were made for the same work increased.For this reason, it has been pointed out that the conventional holding system has almost disappeared.[81]However, the custom that the same voice actor continues dubbing the same actor like Tom Cruise of Tomoyuki Morikawa remains.[82].

First voice actor boom

As a term, it was used frequently from the mid to late 1990s, but there is no clear definition. The primary and secondary usages are also used backwards from this term, and there is no clear definition here either. The characteristics of this period are "voice actors' multi-activation and idolization by advancing into singer activities"Video games"Increase in work due to the emergence of computer games and computer games" and "Dissemination of radio programs in which voice actors serve as personalities". From this, it is said that voice actors are required to have not only their voice acting ability, but also their good looks and singing ability in order to play an active part especially in animation games.

1994 In (6), it became the first voice actor magazine, "Voice actor grand prixAnd "Voice Animage" were launched one after another[83].1995 In (7), the first TV program specializing in voice actors, "Voice ♥ Yu ClubWas broadcast.

Kaori Shimizu,Sakamoto MaayaEtc. at that timeMiddle school studentsIn some cases, he was selected as the main character of a TV anime, and received idol-like attention.[84][85].

In 1997Go to ShiinaHeld a solo concert at Nippon Budokan for the first time as a voice actor.Shiina seems to be the first to show that the voice actor can be a star character, not necessarily the voice actor who is the shadow of the character in the video, such as anime and foreign movie dubbing. ing[73].

Also, as a pioneer of the example where the voice actor who was in charge of the voice in the animation work plays the character in charge at the stage performance etc.Sakura Wars Series #Kayo ShowBegins.This continues from 1997 (Heisei 9) to 2007 (19),Sakura warsThe voice actor who plays the voice of the character of the Imperial Combat Revue Hanagumi is a musical-style performance that actually plays that character on the stage. Having a child who pointed out the difference, he is the general producer of the Sakura Wars series.Hiroi PrinceWas casting with a view to stage performances when deciding the voice actor in charge of the character.

From around 2000

Active since the 1990sMizuki Nana,Yukari TamuraOr I changed from a stage actorMamoru MiyanoSuch asVoice actor artistIt has been held since 2005 (Heisei 17).Animelo Summer LiveSuch asAnime songSystemLive like a joint festival[Note 8] Due to the spread of voice actors, the number of voice actors who balance voice actors and singer activities has been increasing since this period.Especially for Mizuki, dome toursNHK Red and White Singing BattleParticipation inFirst voice actorOften engaged in music activities.

Since the mid-2010s, this tendency has become more prominent year by year, and as a singer.Nippon BudokanVoice actors who realize solo performances in Japan are appearing almost every year (as an example).Uchida Aya[86],Nao Higashiyama[87],Maaya Uchida[88] Such. Higashiyama, in particular, was his first solo performance at the Nippon Budokan).

Since the late 2000s, the expression "4th voice actor boom" has been used in some media (but there is no clear definition).[89][90].. From around this time, "voice actors" came to rank higher in the "vocational rankings that children want to become".[89].

Since the late 2000sMidnight animeThe number of[Note 9]..This created the so-called "animation bubble" situation.The debut of new voice actors continues to increase,水 瀬 い の り[91],Hayashi drum[92],Kusunoki Tomori[93][94] At that time, there are more examples of teenagers starring in TV animation.[Note 10].

Moreover,"lovelive!And 'Idol Master''K-on!''BanG Dream!''Ensemble Stars!], Etc., based on projects derived from games and anime programsVoice actor unitIs becoming more and more popular regardless of gender.

Especially of "Love Live!"μ'sHas gained popularity by participating in the Tokyo Dome performance and the NHK Kouhaku Uta Gassen.For this reason, current voice actors are like idols, not just acting.looksIn some cases, singing ability and dance skills are required.vice versaAsano Tano(OriginalBOYSTYLE) AndAkika Nakatani(OriginalAKB48),Ami Maejima(OriginalSUPER ☆ GiRLS), Etc., it is said that the number of cases of changing from an idol to a voice actor is increasing.[95].

From the 2010sArisa Komiya,Kayama Miyama,Haruka FukuharaSome people also work as voice actors, actors, and singers.[96][97].. In the latter half of the 2010s, a virtual character was created, and a voice actor spoke to it.YouTubeDistribute using video distribution, etc.VTuberHowever, the phenomenon that YTuber speaks to other anime / game works, etc., with this character as a "voice actor" has begun.#VTuber advanceSee also

work

Anime,Original video animation (OVA),Radio Drama,Drama CD,Game,tv set,movies,Western painting,Foreign dramaof Japanesedubbing, Voice drama, narration, announcement, narrator in the program, reading aloud, etc.

In addition to acting by voice, there are appearances accompanying events and advertisements related to the appearance work, but the appearance fee system is different from the actor, such as it is often decided by consultation each time without prior contract[98].

How to get a job is selection by audition or nomination, and securing casting right by investment, but it depends on the type of job.

Anime

Looking at the screenlinesBlow inDubbingThen, record the dialogue in advance and make a video later according to itPrescoThere are two methods.JapanThen dubbing is the mainstream.Due to the digitization of animation production in recent years, there are many examples of correcting pictures after dubbing.In addition, from giving a voiceAtelecoAlso say. The mainstream is to collect voice actors in the studio all at once, but when using non-voice actors such as entertainers and singers, they are often recorded separately.

The performance fee isRank systemSubject to.

The role may be nominated by the original author or the production side with a voice (voice quality) or acting ability that matches the image, but the system that obtains after audition selection is the mainstream.[99].

Normally, a production company etc. informs the voice actor's office affairs about the audition, and the office usually selects several voice actors who belong to the office, and only the selected one can audition. Is. Therefore, in a large office that has a large number of voice actors, you will not even have the opportunity to audition unless you compete in the office first.[100].. And even if you get the audition, it is said that the competition rate is such that you only have to receive one in 60.[101].

Toshio Furukawa said, "Pop Team EpicIn response to some of the viewers saying, "I'm a big man, I can choose a job," he said, "It's not a joke. The anime character's voice is my main job. I'm not in a great position to choose my first job." "Do you know how many times your manager bows down to get a job?"[102][103].

In 2005 (Heisei 17), there is also an example of open recruitment format.SPEED GRAPHERThen, the role of the heroine was selected as an open call for audition, but after being narrowed down in the 1st and 2nd screening, it was held in a format that also takes into account the general votes on the web (Kei MadoWas chosen).2013 (25), TV animation "The two of Milky HolmesAn audition was held for the protagonist ofAyasa ItoWas chosen). 2018 (Heisei 30) broadcastKarakuri CircusAnnounced that one of the leading roles will be decided by public recruitment audition regardless of professional amateur, but the total number of applications was over 1[104](For newcomersChihiro UedaWas chosen). In 2021 (3rd year of Reiwa)Waccha Primagi!Then, the screening of the open recruitment audition is open to the public at each stage.[105].

#Open call for participantsSee also

Nowadays, some companies that invest in anime have taken the method of securing appearance slots, and some people are not performing by audition.

From the image projected on the large-scale visionAbemaCMs including distribution video advertisements that you see on YouTube, etc.pachinkoAnimation videos are very often used for videos such as reach actions in slots and slots, and it is the voice actor's job to take charge of the voices of the characters appearing in these video media.

Game

Basically, each person is recorded individually rather than in conversation.

CD-ROMBegan to spread1980 eraIt is a job that has increased since the end[106].1990 eraToPlayStationWith the advent of high-performance game consoles such as, it has become common for voice actors to be appointed. "Tokimeki Memorial』(1994 <6>-) has ignited popularityLove gamesBegan to be called "gal game" from games in which only beautiful girls appeared, and there was a time when it became a genre and was made in large numbers.

Initially, there was no clear standard for performance fees,1998 (10)Japan Actors Union(Nikkairen) and incorporated associationsComputer Entertainment Association(CESA), after the consultation was held, the rank system was applied to the game for the general public as well as the animation.

Like the anime, it is selected by audition and nomination.

Appearance in an adult work

Adult game(Eroge)Adult animeAssign a voice to works with age restrictions such as. In this case, the voice actor's name is usually not made public or another stage name is used.[107][Note 11].Ishida Akira,Kazuya Ichijo,Marina Ono(Currently Marina Ono),Satomi KorogiThere are also voice actors who appear under the same name as general works.Dynamite Ami,Shizuka Ami,Minami NagasakiThere are also voice actors who specialize in adult works, and there are many examples of activities in general works in line with the animation of the game.

ComicFesta AnimeIn the general version that cut the depiction for adults, and the complete version that contains all depictions, each has a different voice actor.

Ateleco in a costume

Special effectsIn the program, in addition to the appearance appearanceSuit actorThere is also the job of being in charge of the voices of monsters played by.Akumaizer 3,Space squadron kyurenja,Machinery squadron ZenkaigerSuch as heroes mainly in costumes, and these daysUltraman seriesThen, since Ultraman speaks, a voice actor who speaks in particular is required.

In hero programs, he is often in charge of voices (such as shouts) for transformations.

Normally, the suit actor is in charge of the movement and speaks according to it, but in some cases, the voice and the actor are also used.Cho (actor)Is in charge of "peek-a-boo!It is known that Wan Wan in 』also serves as a suit actor and speaks directly.Miyako SuzudaAlso wears a costume as a means of not appearing in public.else"Ultraman』To be the voice of the Alien ZarabTakeshi AonoNot tired of it, he actually goes into the costume and plays the Alien Zarab to get a feel for it.Ultra sevenAppeared in "35th Anniversary" EVOLUTION "Pentalogy" (5 <2002>)Tomokazu SekiAs a Gard alien, there are cases where he plays not only his voice but also his usual appearance.

Puppet show and costume show

In the puppet show, you either say the lines while matching the timing with the character's performance, or dubbing while watching the pre-recorded video. Many NHK puppet shows are in Presco format.In addition, there are many styles in which one person concurrently serves multiple roles,The Three MusketeersIn, 30 people play the roles of nearly 7 people,Puppet show SangokushiThen, the actor who plays the main character also serves as five or more people.

costumeAt the show, there are times when the voices are matched live, but basically the voices are recorded in advance and the costume performers (Suit actor) Will perform.

Troupe airshipThe performance of "Mask Play" is a method in which an actor wearing a costume plays according to the voice blown by the voice actor.

Japanese dubbing

Performs voices of characters in foreign dramas and foreign movies on behalf of the actors. Like anime, it is subject to rank system.

Sometimes the role is fixed by the fix system, but in some cases there are different voice actors in the broadcast and cell versions.

Such as news and documentariesVoice overIs also subject to rank system.

Unlike anime, auditions are rarely performed, and it is said that producers and directors appoint voice actors to make decisions.[99][108]. However,デ ィ ズ ニ ーthe work,Stephen Spielbergthe work,George LucasIt is said that auditions will be held in the same way as animation, not in nomination in works etc.[109].

Voice drama

Radio Drama-Drama CDPlay the voice of the character in a drama work with only audio.

In the case of drama CDs, we often use well-known voice actors in consideration of sales.[110]..On the contrary, there are cases where newcomers and amateurs are selected by audition.

Media mix

In works where media mix is ​​performed, such as anime, games, drama CDs, and toys, the same voice actor is fixed to the same role, but it may change due to various circumstances.

Audio work

Apart from the narrator and reading, record audio works such as voice and speakingcassette tape,compact discIt is recorded on a voice recording medium and sold as a voice collection, etc., and since the 2010s, it has been further developed by acoustic technology.ASMRthe work·Binaural recordingAudio works have appeared in Japan, and are mainly sold by download through the Internet.Well-known voice actors have been entering the download sales of such audio works one after another since the 2020s.

Narration announcement

Reading TV programs, TV and radio commercials, PR videos, commentary videos, event announcements, etc.Ring announcer, Recorded message for directory assistance,Department store,supermarketRecording information for stores, announcements of public transportation such as stations and fixed-route buses (automatic broadcasting), etc.

Jobs not covered by rank system[Note 12] The gala is much more expensive than anime, Japanese dubbing, and games, especially TV commercials.[111]..However, it is basically a one-off and irregular work, and it is difficult to generate a stable income.It also competes with narrators and announcers in the main business.

Like Japanese dubbing, auditions are rarely done, and it is almost always decided by nomination.[112][113].

Stage play

As mentioned above, there are many cases where stage actors also serve as voice actors from the early days.In addition to working in parallel while belonging to a theater company,Tomokazu SekiThere are also those who preside over the theater company.

Apart from the usual stage play, there is also a reading drama (reading) that is performed in the style of reading aloud with a script, and there is also a performance as a media mix.[114].

Actor/Talent Activities

Some are acting in movies and TV dramas, and in recent years they have appeared in variety shows.

Keiko Toda in 1998Shomuni (TV drama) He started appearing in TV dramas and TV commercials from 2010, but after XNUMX, the drama "Manpuku Shoujo Dragonet』(2010)Kubo Yurika,We still do not know the name of the flower we saw that day.(2015)NHK serial TV novel"Ama-chan』(2013)水 瀬 い の り, NHKTaiga drama"Sanadamaru』(2016)Takagi Wataru, NHK serial TV novel "Ale" (2020)Kenjiro Tsuda,Kirin comes(2020)Akio Otsuka,Naoki Hanzawa(2020), Mamoru Miyano, "Oh! My Boss! Love is a separate volume(2021), Natsuki Hanae, "Hit the blue sky』(2021)Ryutaro Okiayu,Riko cutlet』(2021)Three StonesYou can see an example of.

From the latter half of the 2010s, "Voice girl!(2018) andGekidan Sphere(2019),Voice actor detective(2021), a live-action drama in which a voice actor appears as an actor has been produced.

Regarding the movie appearance, "Battle Royale』(2000)Yuko Miyamura,Bandage club』(2007)Kenshō Ono,Monochrome girl(2009) Miyu Irino, "I need you(2015) Kana Hanazawa, "Onodera's younger brother, Onodera's older sister(2014) "" (2011)Minako Kotobuki, "" (2011)Kisho Taniyama,Suzune, a veterinarian "EVOLUTION" (2011) "Cat Cafe" (2018) Yurika Kubo, "Library war』(2013)Suzuki TatsuhisaThere are examples of these.

In addition, the movie "2nd photo department(2009), live-action "Yatterman(2009),She is a rot girl.(2009),My unfriendly senior(2010),Wonderful World(2010),Light Novel Fun Writing(2010),God ☆ Voice ~ THE VOICE MAKES A MIRACLE ~ ”(2011),“The two death moans are... Chapter 2012 Color Nonai Blue ”“ Two Deaths Wowakatsumade… Chapter XNUMX Pumpkin Flower -nananka- ”(XNUMX), special effects drama“Unofficial Sentai Akiba Ranger"Unofficial Sentai Akibaranger Season Pain" (2012-2013), "Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger(2013-2014) Final episode and ending dance, "Green Flash』(2015), there are many works in which multiple voice actors appear in the face.

Nana Mizuki, Maaya Uchida,Ayana TaketatsuLike,CMThe number of voice actors who appear in the face is increasing. CM corresponds to the assessment of the person in charge of the advertising agency and is not subject to the rank system.[115] .

2010 In his late teens,Kaji YukiThere are also voice actors who appear as commentators on news programs.

There is also a laughing activity in addition to this,Koichi YamaderaEven if he appeared in a mimicry program like this, he showed off the imitation, and in July 2019, he formed a combination called "Rush Style".Hayami AwardYukihiro Nozuyama M-1 Grand PrixI have entered in 2019[116].

Since the latter half of the 2010s, voice actor x two-dimensional entertainer projects such as "" and "" have been underway.Among them, "GET UP! GET LIVE!Not only does the voice actor play the role of an entertainer, but he actually challenges the leading live performances of comics and tales at events.Natsuki Hanae, who plays the role of an entertainerKotaro Nishiyama,Yohei Azakami,Kentaro KumagaiAre actually at the eventComic,ControlIs showing off.

#Entertainment activities in other fields by voice actorsSee also

Singer activity

Music cdOrconcertSuch as holding asingerAs an activity. vice versa,IdolSometimes a singer turns into a voice actor.

Anime-GameIn the, the voice actors willTheme songMay sing. Also,characterIs set to be singing, not in the name of the voice actor himself, but in the name of the characterCharacter songMay be released.

Megumi HayashibaraIs the first voice actor to sign an exclusive contract with King Record Star Child Label since March 1991.Record companyIt is common to conclude an exclusive contract with a singer and perform full-scale singer activities.

Several voice actorsMusic unitI sometimes formed singer (music) activities,Voice actor unitOften referred to as. 『Idol MasterAnd 'lovelive!], etc.,Dome StadiumLIVEThere are also popular works that do[Note 13].

OriconSuch asHit chartAt onceAnime song TheChildrenIt was counted separately as a song for. Also, there are anime storesConsumer electronics storeWas not included in the calculation. From the mid-1990s when these were fixed, a CD of voice actor songsRankingThe number of higher ranks has increased[117].

1997 (9) Hekiru Shiina becomes the first voice actor in FebruaryNippon BudokanStarting with the solo concert, voice actors started holding solo concerts at large venues such as Budokan.2011 In 12 monthMizuki NanaIs the first voice actorTokyo DomeHeld a solo concert[Note 14].

As anime songs permeate the general public, voice actors are increasingly appearing on music TV programs and singing songs. In 1997 (Heisei 9), Hekiru Shiina became a "Music Station".2009 In (21), Nana MizukiNHK Red and White Singing Battle(The 60th NHK Red and White Singing Battle) For the first time as voice actors[Note 15][Note 16].

Mizuki NanayaChihara Minori,Aoi ShotaLike, a person who originally wanted to be a singer became a voice actor, and later debuted as a singer.

# "Idol voice actor" and "voice actor artist"See also

Radio personality

By voice actorradioThe personality of the show has existed for a long time, but since the 1990sNippon Cultural Broadcasting, Inc.,Radio Osaka,Radio kansai AnirajiThe number of programs has increased rapidly, including the establishment of specialized broadcasting slots. Since the 2000s, not only terrestrial broadcastingInternet radioThe number of programs is increasing.

Virtual YouTuber activity

YouTuber began to gain popularity in the latter half of the 2010s, and virtual YouTuber and VTuber are also gaining enthusiastic support among anime fans and voice actor fans.Kizuna eyeVirtual YouTubers led by steadily as a major genreCitizenshipHowever, there are many virtual YouTubers who are so popular that they surpass the appearance of YouTubers.Virtual YouTuber / VTuber is a CG character that distributes videos as YouTuber,AvatarWith motion capture technology that reads the facial expressions and movements of performers equipped with dedicated equipment for video distribution using3DCGBy animating the character created in and giving a voice, it looks as if the character actually exists.And since "acting ability by voice" is required, it is known that the person who speaks to the character is often a voice actor.A considerable proportion of professional voice actors are in charge of voice and body movements as the performers and act as virtual beings, but VTuber is set to post videos by the characters themselves, so speak out. It is also seen as a kind of taboo among fans to mention the person who is.

Since VTuber involves operators such as companies and performers such as voice actors, as a way for voice actors to become VTuber, the operator first talks about an audition to recruit performers from the voice actor office, and the voice actors talk about it. receive.

However, a popular voice actor whose voice is generally recognized and who can identify the person should act.[Note 17]Is a small number, but this is because the reward is less than general voice actor work such as dubbing and narration of animation, and voice actors who are not popular voice actors and are not well-known and who are not selling well or new voice actors with few careers are appointed. There are many cases.Even if the amount of money that an individual can barely eat, it is not a job of acting a character according to the script, such as a motion actor or other work that is not a normal voice actor's job, but the role of a distributor who talks about himself without a script It can be said that it is a job that the affiliated office does not make a profit in the voice actor work such as taking charge.

The reward for the VTuber performer depends on the amount of dialogue, but because there is no market price in the industry, it is a pinch, the amount of money is significantly different from the work done by the voice actor and the reward does not match, and the VTuber performer is the voice actor's work It is said that the reward will be lower than that.It is also known that it is difficult for VTuber itself to survive in the harsh YouTube world.

Change of voice actor

In addition to the retirement, death, and dismissal of the voice actor in charge, mainly in the long-term series, there are occasional changes due to various circumstances.Similarly, there are many cases in which another voice actor is "temporarily" acting as a substitute due to medical treatment due to illness, maternity leave, accident, etc., or leave due to study abroad.

One case

Heterosexual role / child actor

Since the voice quality of men and women is different, female voice actors are boys (especially) due to dubbing of animation and dubbing of Western movies.Strange voiceThere are many examples of playing the voice of a former boy / young boy).Akira Ishida is a male voice actor who plays a child and does not feel uncomfortable.Dai Yongyi, Yuki Kaji, etc., but it is rare for male voice actors other than child actors to imbue boy characters.

And an example of a male voice actor playing the voice of a woman (especially a girl or a young girl)Aoi Shota,Ayumi Murase,Kazuomi YamamotoAnd so on (it doesn't work unless the voice is high).

As the first example of an adult playing the role of a child in Japan, the NHK radio drama "1954 (Showa 29)"Yanbo Ninbo TonboIs known, but for the role of childrenA childThere was a difficult aspect in appointing, such as acting guidance.

An example of a child actor being appointed as a main character with many linesBarakamon,Yumeiro Patissiere,Cookin Idol Ai! My! Main!And so on.

In the 1980s, when children were the main characters in Hollywood movies, there was a lot of tendency in Japan to play the role of a boy as a child in a dubbed version.The person who belonged to the children's theater company at that time was in charge of dubbing the child actor.Namikawa DaisukeSome have become voice actors.

Outside of Japan, it is the mainstream to let children take charge of the role of children.Of the screenwriterBreak snyderTo help his father, who was a TV producer when he was eight years old,Sterling HollowayPlayed the role of a child with them, but was dismissed due to a strange voice[120].

Voice actors outside Japan

It is said that few foreign countries have established professional voice actors like Japan. There are more than 200 representative people in America[121]In recent years, voice actors have become the main actors due to the dubbing of Japanese anime and the increase of games with voice.

South KoreaThen, the broadcasting stationVoice actor)have.

Liu Seira,Jenya,Amagi SallyFrom overseasJapanese Mother tongueHowever, there are cases where he has learned Japanese and is active as a voice actor in Japan.

Even Japanese content is in demand as a foreigner[122].

Career

The following are examples of the careers of voice actors.

Broadcast troupe

Organized by NHK and commercial broadcastersTroupeSo, apart from the station announcer, he is a broadcasting talent who was trained at a broadcasting station to take charge of performing arts and was mainly in charge of radio dramas.

"Voice actor" was born as a word to refer to them.

With the rise of entertainment agencies, everything is now disbanded[123].

NHKTokyo Broadcasting CompanyFromIshinoshiro,Michiko Kato,Noriko Nakamura,Tamio OhkiFrom the NHK Sapporo Broadcasting Theater CompanyWakayama GenzoFrom the NHK Kyushu Broadcasting CompanyKenji UtsumiAnd many more.

From the Radio Tokyo Broadcasting Company, which later became TBS in commercial broadcastingToru Ohira,Nakamura Tadashi,Junpei Takiguchi,Nobuo Tanaka,Tetsuya Asato,Mukai Marikoetc.

At the local station, from the CBC Chubu Nippon Broadcasting CompanyShinji Nakae, From the RKB Mainichi Broadcasting CompanyYanami childetc.

He was active in local stations until the heyday of radio dramas, and in the television era, voice actors' work such as dubbing overseas works in Japanese was concentrated in Tokyo.

Voice actor training center/voice actor school

Voice actor production includedVoice actor training center, A training center that mainly teaches lessons to become a voice actor,Voice actor school(There is a voice actor training departmentVocational school) And so on.

The most common way to become a voice actor is to attend a voice actor training school or vocational school.The training period is generally one to three years, and if you pass the affiliation audition held after the training period is completed, you will be in production.At this point, it will be an apprenticeship period called "newcomer," "junior," "temporary affiliation," etc.After the apprenticeship period is over and after an internal examination, only those who are approved will become regular affiliations (regular affiliations).

Some people go to the training school from the time they were students, while others go to the training school after becoming a member of society.Many are examples of the former,Norio Wakamoto,Ai Chino,Tomoko KanedaAfter working as a member of society, he went to a training center and later became a voice actor.AlsoHitomi RawEtc. from a voice actor vocational schoolTroupe(Tokyo Kandenchi) And then went to a training school to make his debut.

81 Produce,Wise productionThere are also open-house auditions that are recruited not only from vocational schools and training centers but also from the general public, but the Grand Prix winners of these auditions are in addition to lessons at the training studio run as a scholarship student. , Not only debut but also back-up for long-term voice actor activities after that.

Sayaka KandaBegan working as a voice actor in 2012, but before that he had been preparing to attend a voice actor training school.Riko SasakiAfter making his debut as a singer, he went on to a vocational school for voice actors, and then started voice actors.

Akio Otsuka[Note 18] In his book "Voice Actor Soul", training schools and vocational schools do not need to guarantee the future and salaries of students. "Voice actor schools and training schools are very profitable businesses." It's because of you. If a good star comes out, you can say, "Oh, I grew up with me." Then the next candidates for voice actors come to the advertising tower.・High return”[124].. Also, "People who choose a school as a "safety measure" are choosing a certain stereotype at that time, and in the world of performing arts, there is no one who can dispose of it as quickly as a stereotype." Are[124].

Faculty of Arts, Department of Drama

Nihon University College of Art,Toho Gakuen College of Art,Tamagawa UniversityFrom a university educational institution such as.Taichiro Hirokawa,Plain text,Ryoko Sakakibara,Kana Mika,Yuji Ueda,Megumi BanAnd so on.Rikiya KoyamaEtc. went on to school after graduating from another university.

As an example of a child actor going on to schoolMina Tominaga,Aya Hirano,Kanako MiyamotoAs an example of going to a voice actor training school during or after graduationIshida Akira,Tomoko Kawakami,Yuko MiyamuraAnd so on.

Actor/Stage actor

Stage theatermusicalThere have been many examples of stage actors who are active in Japan, who have been active as voice actors for a long time since the time when the profession of voice actors was established.Goro NayaEtc. correspond to this.

dubbingCentered onAn actorIn some cases, actors who have been active as voice actors will be active as voice actors for a long time.Tsukayama Species,Tsutomu IsobeEtc. correspond to this.

There is also an opinion that the experience in the theater company and the stage has a good influence on the voice actor business.[125].

Park LumeiIn some cases, while belonging to a theater company, he got a voice job by shooting a role in an audition.Yuuki Tenma, who was in the theater company,Tokyo Mew Mew Nyu ~ ♡After passing the open recruitment audition, he belongs to the entertainment agency.

TAKARAGENNEFor voice actors fromYoshiko Ota,Katsuragi Nanao,Mizuki Rena,Mayo Suzukaze,Hiromi Nanami,Nanako MoriAnd so on.

A child

Children's troupeThere have been many examples of child actors who belong to the above, etc., who started to work as voice actors and voice actors, and have been active mainly in the voice actor business since the time when the profession of voice actor was established.Shuichi Ikeda, Toru Furuya, Toshio Furukawa,Rihoko Yoshida,Tamagawa Sunako,Yuji Mitsuya,Kozo Shioya・ Tsubasa brothers,Mitsuo Iwata,Honna Yoko,Riko Aikawa, Etc. correspond to this.In recent years, Mamoru Miyano,Ukiyama,Ryohei Kimura,Irino freedom,Yufuko Sanpei,Kimura Subaru,Riho Iida,Yuki Aoi,Eri Kitamura,Kenshō Ono,Toyonaga Toshiyuki,Rina Hidaka,Hanazawa Kana,Yui Ogura,Yume Miyamoto,Morohoshi Sumire,Tomoyo KurosawaEtc. correspond to this.

Most of them are from children's theater companies,Chiba Sako,Yuka Nanri,Akiko Kobayashi,Juri Takita,Rina Nakayamaな どMinami Aoyama Girl Opera CompanyI was mainly in the girl model business and transferred to the voice actor department in the officeSumire UesakaThere is also a case of.

Open call for participants

In some cases, he became active as a voice actor because he was selected in a contest to directly recruit voice actors.

At the audition for aspiring voice actors, we gather human resources from all over the country.In fact, there are also public recruitment of leading voice actors and auditions conducted by the office itself, which are conducted by the voice actor office and animation production companies and magazine companies.

In the case of open recruitment, in addition to attracting people from all over the country, we think that there is a high probability that excellent people will come out from there by gathering people who are highly motivated to apply for auditions.[126].

In some cases, he entered the training center in the wake of the audition voice actor contest "Voice Actor Soul" sponsored by the International Voice Actor Development Association.HakuhodoIn some cases, he directly belongs to the production after participating in the "All Japan Beautiful Voice Woman Contest", a voice actor audition project by.

aside from thatSawashiro Miyuki,Sasaki Mirai,Yuka Iguchi,Saori Goto,Sachika Misawa,Amane ShindoIn addition to the examples of being trained in the drama club or broadcasting club in high school, or participating in a general open recruitment audition that was directly recruited for interest, and passing the audition to become a voice actor.Kana Azumi TheKoumeAnd at the public audition in 2005 (Heisei 17)Junior idolInori Minase, who had the experience of, has become a voice actor by winning a prize sponsored by Sony, which is a public audition.Among those from Anist TheresAnju InamiIs a graduate of a specialized school, but Tomori Kusunoki, who has not received voice actor education,Takeda MarikoThey are aspiring to be singers and are entering the contest.

Among the voice actor units by members who belong to Music Ray'n and were selected in the open recruitment audition sponsored by the same officeSphereThen.Haruka TomatsuexceptMinako KotobukiFor child actors and schoolsTakagaki AyahiAt universityVocal musicWas majoring inAyo ToyosakiHas been performing arts on local TV programs and commercials since high school, but on the other handTrySailThe three of them applied for the audition and passed the audition without any achievements, and are voice actors.

Among the voice actor units formed by selecting members at the "Anison Vocal Audition" held by Avex and 81 Produce.i ☆ RisThen.Saki Yamakita,Yu Serizawa,Yuki WakaiWe went to a training school, etc.Akaneya Hikai summer,Kubota Mimu,Azusa ShibuyaThey were selected at the above audition without going through a training center.alsoWUGOut ofMayu YoshiokaHas a track record of child actors, but other members (Nagano Airi,Miumi Tanaka,Yoshino Aoyama,Kaya Okuno,Nanami Yamashita,Miyuki Takagi) Similarly, it is selected in the above audition without going through a training center. In 81 Produce, popular voice actors in recent years have debuted at the 8 audition held in August by open recruitment every year.

In addition, open recruitment contests such as "Pony Canyon Voice Tama Princess" and "Animax Anison Grand Prix" are being held.All Japan Anison Grand PrixMany have become voice actors as a result of participation and winning.

More

Natsuki HanaeApproached production directly, but these examples are known as rare cases.HoweverKenneThere are actually cases where the office is recruiting.otherStardust promotionIs a voice actor auditionOsawa OfficeIs involved in the audition for research student recruitment.

Other than changing from a child actor or a stage actor belonging to a theater company,Idol,Gravure idol,singer,モデル,Special effectsProgram actor,comedian,Reporter,CosplayersThere are cases where a talent with a career such as, etc., started to work as a voice actor, or got a role in an audition and plays an active part mainly in the voice actor business as it is.for exampleSogo NakamuraBefore becoming a voice actor artist, he was only involved in music activities.Yurika Kubo until she became a voice actorNikomoAfter that, I was a gravure idol.Riho Iida has also been a gravure idol since she was a child actor.Akiko Kobayashi is AniradiGayaAudition, Kanako Miyamoto from the singing audition of the insert song,Ryoka YukiBy the time you become a movie actress, nude model, etc.Ayano YamamotoIs a gravure idol,Haruka KudoWas a fashion magazine model.Mikako KomatsuThe elected audition is an idol audition,YurinIs a talent business in the Horipro era,MAKOAfter the girls band group activity was suspendedYukari Goto TheAAAFrom the additional members of the voice actor unit "Trefle",Iwao JunkoIs an idol to a nursery rhyme singer[127]ThroughSeiichi MoritaAfter working as an actor, he has been a voice actor since 2001.

The transition from an idol to a voice actor is Noriko HidakaRei Sakuma,Rumi Shishido,Satoshi SakuraiHowever, especially after the 2010s, the number of people who are active idols and also act as voice actors has been increasing.[128].

As an example, Sayaka Nakaya (former AKB48), Ami Maeshima (former SUPER ☆ GiRLS),Uki Satake(9nine) And the like.

On the other hand, as a stepping stone to becoming a voice actor, examples of being an idol and a singer (#Voice actor artistThere are also examples of aiming to become a voice actor as a stepping stone to becoming a voice actor.

Yukari FukuiIs the firstEntertainment officeSince I started working at the company, I was doing a lot of idol talent business such as impersonation and gravure idol activities at the beginning of my career.

Sawako Hata TheAkibaBecause it was a recruitment of auditions that appeared in related magazines,SKE48I thought that becoming a voice actor was a shortcut.

Yuki YomichiWhen I was a teenager locallyscoutTriggered by being doneLocal idolIn addition to his activities, he called out in a distribution game, and even after moving to Tokyo, he went on to become a voice actor while attending a training school and doing YouTube activities and cosplayers on his own.

As a unique example, the transition from entertainer to voice actorHozumi GoudaAndAina AibalikeFemale professional wrestlerSome people are known to be voice actors with an unusual background.AlsoAi ShimizuIs known as the first female professional wrestler in the voice actor world.

Eric KelsoWas originally a film director, but after arriving in Japan, he has expanded his field of activity to include narrator, dubbing in English, and radio personality, and is also active as a voice actor for anime and games.

Voice actor activities such as entertainers and celebrities in other fields

Actors, singers, musicians, idols, gravure idols, models, comedy talents, athletes, and celebrities may act as voice actors or be appointed as voice actors depending on the work.

Even in animated works, there are many examples in which the person is made to appear in the work by means of the role of the person himself / herself.

Originally, when no professional voice actor was established,Toei videoIt is not uncommon to use other entertainers and celebrities as voice actors in feature animation movies since the feature film.1990 eraLaterStudio GhibliProduction work,2000 eraLaterStudio mapThis tendency continues to this day, even in the works produced.

In addition, as a voice actor who can do a side job, there are times when we are recruiting from recruitment sites, part-time job information, crowdsourcing, etc. as jobs that can be earned by voice, such as audio books and part-time jobs for reading aloud.

Appointing non-actors as voice actors

First voice actor boomMade inAteleco controversyThen, the issue of the status of voice actors is being proposed.Regarding the performance of Ateleco, the appointment of an actor is only provisional, and "Rakugo performerButannouncerBut,Tourist information deskHowever, it is okay to be selected from people who use voice. "

Anime directorTakahata IsaoIt is,PrescoIt was adopted"Heisei Tanuki Battle Ponpoko』In the rakugokaYanagiya smallThe announcerAkira FukuzawaEtc. are appointed.

Mickey MouseWas acting as a voice actorTakashi AoyagiIs a university教授Was the main business and the voice actor was a side business.

Anime directorHayao Miyazaki"I make movies in a place where I don't really have time, so I rely on the dexterity of the voice actors. But after all, there are times when I get frustrated somewhere. It's like having no presence." I have expressed my opinion, "My Neighbor Totoro] InCopywriter OfItoi ShigesatoIs appointed[129]..The latest feature film, "Breeze』Also in the anime directorHideaki Anno"On the contrary, Anno (Hideaki) also Steve Alpert[Note 19]Is just a presence.I think it was pretty rough, but I thought it was more suitable for the movie. Explaining its intention[130].

When TV news appears in the play, there is an example in which an announcer of the main business that belongs to the broadcasting station is appointed with emphasis on reality,Chiaki MatsuzawaAppears only as an announcer and a reporter.

Narration and announcements are also part of the voice actor's work,Free announcerHowever, no one is active under the title of voice actor.In the early days, there were cases where the announcer of the station spoke, but in modern times, the announcer and the voice actor who do not act are regarded as different occupations.

In rare cases, production staff and original authors may be appointed as guest appearances.

Cases that musicians are in charge of

It may be used when music or singing is important in the play.

Lynn MinmeiUsefulMari Iijima, Director Mamoru Hosoda "Belle and Belle Princess"ofKaho Nakamura,Creamy Mami, the Magic Angel"ofTakako Ota, "Magic Star Magical Emi"ofYoko Obataetc.

There is an opinion that it is impossible for musicians to perform voice acting.[131], Disney official video distribution service "Soulful world], Grammy Award artists are participating as voice actors, and the Japanese version is also availableEitoWill make a cameo appearance as a Japanese voice actor as a street musician.

"Tottoko Hamtaro"ofMinihamsAnd "Zombie Land Saga』, Like the white dragon, the means to guess the characters that imaged themselves,Yamazaki HakoBut"Chibi Maruko-chanIn some cases, he played the role of himself.

Among the band units of the "BanG Dream!" ProjectRAISE A SUILENattend toRaychell,Summer sproutIs a musician who also worked as a backing band for other groupsRiko OharaWas doing band activities in parallel.Morphonicattend toYuka NishioMusic activities such as DJ,mikaIs a drummer,AyasaIs a violinist.

Appointment of an actor

Actors and members of theatrical troupe were appointed because the TV puppet show was broadcast even before the work of the voice actor was established.After that, actors were often selected, and it was broadcast in 2014 (Heisei 26).Sherlock HolmesThen, actors and voice actors were mixed and appointed.Actors are often appointed in movies[132].

Anime directorKeiichi HaraUses other entertainers and actors and actors of theatrical company as voice actors.[133]..Similarly, anime director Yoshiyuki Tomino has criticized the acting of voice actors as being stereotyped.[134], A lot of troupes from the troupe and new voice actors are appointed as leading roles. Also from the anime directorOshii MamoruAs the presence and freshness can beat the voice actor[135], Actor in multiple worksNaoto TakenakaHas been appointed,Sky Crawlers], the actor was appointed as the main character.

In the TV anime work, "Moomin(1969 <Showa 44>)Kyoda Kyoko, NHK version "Snoopy and Charlie Brown(1972 <Showa 47>)Kei Tani,Midori UtsumiEtc. were selected, and Fuji TV "Nissei Family SpecialIn the frame animations "Bocchan" and "Sanshiro Sugata" (1980 <55>)Hideki SaijoI worked hard.After that, there are cases where actors are selected, such as when the director is selected. "Nobunaga the Fool] In the original seriesShoji Kawamori Takarazuka RevueActive when interviewedTAKARAGENNEIsHiromi NanamiI was selected after seeing the stage.Nanami has been active as an actor and voice actor even after leaving Takarazuka. "Millionaire Detective Balance:UNLIMITED』The directorTomohiko ItoEmphasizes the originality of the work rather than using famous voice actors, and in order to emphasize the presence of the protagonist who is a millionaire, as a voice that matches the image of the dancer and actor.Yusuke OnukiWas selected[136].

Regarding the actors mentioned above being used as voice actors,Takeshi Suto"I think that actors who actually play in front of the audience are being bought, even if they have less skill as a voice actor than a voice actor who is just speaking in front of a microphone," he said.[137].

Actor'sGoro NayaSays that the stage and the voice actors are the same, and that the difficulty of Ateleco lies in grasping the play performed by the subject to be voiced.For those who want to be a voice actor, he said, "It's the basics. You have to do the basics of acting, the so-called stage, as I said earlier."[138].

Actor'sMasaaki YajimaHe said that if he entered with only voice, the basics of embodying the role by himself would be lost, and for those who aim for voice work, the first thing to do is not to think "It's easy because it's only voice". If you want to be a voice actor, I would like you to start from the play. "Also, to the younger generation, "I think that the fact that the people in the play are sweeping the world of dubbing these days means that those who have grown up purely as voice actors must feel a sense of crisis. That's right. "[139].

Actor'sNachi NozawaEmphasized that the actors and actresses of Hollywood movies are the actors of the Hyakusen Hakusen, saying, "So, if you don't train desperately as an actor, you can't do ateleco." To be able to play as much as they do[140].

ActressKeiko TodaSaid his view of voice actors, "If you haven't neglected as an actor, it's okay as a voice actor. I don't think" to be a voice actor "at all." States that there is no difference from the work of[141].

Voice actorKeiichi NambaHas a positive thought, "I like that. I hope the small world of voice actors will disappear."[142].

A game series that uses a lot of actorsLike a dragon], a certain famous actor was appointed, but he did not prepare in advance and was recorded, and his performance did not improve easily.Yokoyama MasayoshiWas repeated many times, and over time I explained the feeling of distance and feelings of the scene and recorded up to the point that can be said to be the final point, ``I am sorry to another actor who made the same trouble, compromise There is also a case where I was forced to get out of the car as ``I do not want to do it''[143].

ActressYoshioka RihoSaid that voice actors are completely different professions, "I would be very happy if there was a story like" If there is a story like "Riho Yoshioka's voice is not possible" in the future, I would like to study properly and challenge. " It has said[144].

ActressMari NatsukiShows the view that the work of voice is a whole-body exercise in which various things such as the tempo, high and low, and strength of the sound are put on the body.I was very lucky to meet him as an actor, and he said, "I think it's a good job to study so much that all actors should be done," and recommends it to Riho Yoshioka.[144][145].

Appointment of entertainer

As a comedian,Lupin IIIWith the death of Yasuo Yamada, he will play the role of Lupine as a voice actor.Kanichi Kurita,Eyeshield 21(2005 <17> -2008 <20>)Atsushi Tamura,Celestial warrior sun red(2008 <20>)Yamada Louis 53rd, Etc. are known.American crayfishTetsuya Yanagihara is a voice actor in many anime works, taking advantage of his characteristic voice quality.

Most of the guest appearances in animated films are similar to those of actors, but comedians sometimes use various roles depending on their tales and comics.For this reason, there are many people who have superior acting ability compared to actors and talents.In some cases, he is appointed as a comedian or a comedian.

With a voice actorKodanshiTo work side by sideIchiryu Sadatomo, Katsura Bunshi XNUMXth, a radio personality DJ and narration as a voice actorTakasugi'Jay'Jiro(Tei name is the first Saegusa Teijiro), former voice actor Yoshimoto entertainer who is active under the title of voice actor entertainer is also known.

Hideyuki KanayaAlsoMandankaAnd voice actors in parallel.

Voice actor activities of special effects program actors

Toei OfSpecial effectsTransformation hero work, especially "Kamen Rider series"Showa Rider" final work ""Kamen Rider BLACK RX"and"Super squadron seriesThen, "Engine Sentai Go-onger] Has been produced for a long time in all dubbing.

The so-called "Heisei Rider" first work "Kamen Rider Kuuga"[146] and"Samurai Sentai Shinkenger"[147] So, although the scene where the actor plays with a face was basically switched to the same shooting and simultaneous recording method as a general drama,Suit actorSince dubbing is often used in various parts of the program production such as the scene after the transformation played by, it can be said that the actor who has appeared in the special effects program has virtually the acting experience as a voice actor.For that reason, actors who have appeared in special effects programs may make voices such as animation, and some of themMasaya Matsukaze,Tsuchida University,Joji Nakata,City Road MaoSome people have turned their voice actors into their main business.

Voice actors may be appointed from the beginning for the voices of non-human characters such as monsters appearing in special effects.

Machiko Soga,Naoya Uchida,Nishirin Taro,Teruaki Ogawa,Yuji Kishi,Mika Kikuchi,Takayuki Godai,Kihachiro Uemura,Yuta Mochizuki,Junya Ikeda,Hiroki AibaMany actors who have experienced special effects programs are compatible with voice actors.

Advancement of VTuber

From the 2010ssingerSoraruTie-upIn addition to being appointed in some of the TV anime "2018 (Heisei 30), the TV anime"Grandson's grandsonWon the auditionYoshichimi.Was in charge of voice actors and ED themes, and received a special award.Maya HinanogiAppears as a voice actor.

"Jahy-sama won't be disappointed!Even with titles such as "Video distributor) Are acting as cast performers and theme song artists.

"I'm standing on a million livesToBisonji sji OfHiguchi KaedeQuietHas appeared, and Kaede Higuchi has sung the OP theme "Baddest".

"Lupin IIIPART6 ”and“Yamigami drop kickVTuber also appeared as a voice actor in the third term.

After 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)HOLO LIVEVTuber, which belongs to the above, is actively expanding into the voice actor business.

game"Earth Defense Force 6』DLCOgami MioAppears.

Other TV animation "The detective is already dead.] InWhite FuukiSummer color festivalIs playing the role as it is.The activity in such animation is not active in the setting as if the anime character actually exists, but the appearance of the animation in the role of the person is close to the form in which the actual talent appears as the person in question.Basically, VTuber is a setting that the figure of the river who is a virtual talent is the person himself.For this reason, it is close to a real voice actor, artist, and YouTuber.

As a diagram, alreadycharacterIs playingVTuberHowever, he will play the characters of anime and games. In the virtual talent called VTuber, there is a person who speaks with a performer (in the case of motion capture etc.) called a middle person, and in some cases a voice actor is doing it.Kizuna eyeThe original virtual YouTuber like this is a minority, and most of them are doing activities like so-called streamers.

For VTuber and others, it can be said that VTuber is purely expanding the range of activities, acting as a voice actor and performing music activities, just like real talents and artists.

VTuber Production, which is operated by the company, has the concept of "V voice actor" who is active in the voice actor industry, with talents using 2D and 3D avatars making their debut as voice actors.

On the other hand, auditions to become VTuber / Virtual YouTuber are also being widely held.

Criticism

In movies, celebrities and celebrities are often appointed as voice actors, aiming for topicality rather than quality of the work.[148]There are also criticisms for using voice actors such as entertainers and celebrities.

2007 Published anime movie "The Simpsons Movie] Or2012 (24) The movie "ア ベ ン ジ ャ ー ズ, Etc., a voice actor who was in charge of dubbing Japanese in the previous series was replaced by an actor/talent in a new movie, and criticism of the company was inundated. "The Simpsons Movie" "TAXi ④''Eclipse/Twilight Saga], along with the software, in addition to the theater version, a new dubbed version by the voice actors who were originally in charge was recorded at the same time. However, in most cases, only the movie release version is recorded when the software is made. Especially in "Avengers", there are criticisms about casting changes etc.Amazon.co.jpIt became a situation where the review section of this work was flooded[149].2012 (24) The movie "PrometheusOf the talent in the dubbing of the main character of Elizabeth ShawGome AyameWhen it was appointed, there was no change in software,エ イ リ ア ン] The series was slammed by fans and the reviews on Amazon.co.jp went up.[150].

"Terminator 3And 'Silent Hill: Revelation 3DIn the theatrical release version, the entertainer was in charge of dubbing, but in the software version, it may be replaced with a voice actor.There are also examples, such as "X-MEN Future & Past," which are re-recorded when a new version is softened.

2004 (16) Animated movie "イ ノ セ ン ス], of the producerToshio SuzukiPlanned to hire a big actor and played the role of Motoko KusanagiAtsuko TanakaからTomoko YamaguchiHowever, in addition to the schedule, Yamaguchi, who refused to appear, should not change the final image, and Tanaka continued to cast due to opposition from the director and voice actors.

Suzuki isStudio GhibliRegarding the reason why he uses a person who is not a professional voice actor, in "Ghibli Textbook 3 My Neighbor Totoro", about professional voice actors, "I'm cute, isn't it?" In "Toshio Suzuki's Studio Ghibli Sweaty", he played the role of Tsukishima Shizuku's father in "Whisper of the Heart".Takashi TachibanaIn a conversation with him, when he auditioned for "My Neighbor Totoro", he would become an ordinary father after all, so he asked Shigesato Itoi for a feeling that wasn't like a dad, and Shigesato of "Whisper of the Heart". Dad also chose Tachibana from the same point of view, and the voice actor's play is "Hare" when divided into Halle and Ke, but in Ghibli movies where there are many daily plays, what he actually wants is "Ke".[151].

Oricon styleIn the questionnaire survey, "whether or not talents (entertainers, celebrities, etc.) should be used as voice actors"2014 When I went to (26), opinions were divided in almost half.[152].

On the other hand, it was a big hit in 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa).Movie version Devilish Blade: Infinite Train』, All of them, including the newly introduced characters, are solidified with voice actors, and there is a prediction that the flow of appointing talent will change due to topicality.[153].

Entertainment activities in other fields by voice actors

Since the 2000s, it has become especially prominent for voice actors to perform in other fields such as singers and actors (especially on stage).

Actor activity is one example of a voice actor performing entertainment activities in other fields.The reason is that "Voice actors have a" voice recognition "that is not known as" Oh, that voice person ", so even if you don't understand your face, you will be impressed and talked about when you understand your" voice ". Because there is "[154].

However, voice has played the most important role as a medium that builds a correlation between characters and voice actors and plays a role in connecting them, but in 2007 (Heisei 19).BushiroadSince the establishment of a company that develops media mix later, it has progressed further, and instead of being performed by the animation or computer game work itself, it uses various elements such as event appearances (appearances) and radio related to the work. The connection is made.Since it is assumed that the viewer of the animation is the voice actor who plays the voice of the character, the element that connects the voice actor and the character from now on is not only the voice, but also the visual element and the specific voice actor individual. It depends on the recognition of[155].

On the other hand, among the actor activities, there are many voice actors who are compatible with the activities on the stage, but the reason is that "the stage cannot be redone and the audience actually sees the play and breathing, which is the voice. "Because I live in a play" etc.[156].

Mayumi Tanaka is still working on the stage,Terasoma SakiIn addition to performing special effects character ateleco in parallel with acting activities, Joji Nakata was originally focusing on acting.

In addition, examples of voice actors making them compatible with activities such as singers have become particularly prominent since the 2000s, and this will be described in the following section.

2014 In (26)Oscar promotionAoni Production"" "Beauty" combined with the two elements of appearance and voice jointly held byactress・ "" "The 1st All Japan Beautiful Voice Woman Contest" was held to discover voice actors.To the main graduatesmanga artist,IdolAct asYoshimi Tsuji,Rie HanabusaTopianist,Fashion ModelDo activities such asMaiko IrieIs mentioned.

Kuribayashi Minami,Haruko Momoi,Makino YuiProviding music to other voice actors, etc.SongwriterExample of doing,Shirako Souko, Is a gravure idol activity,Arisa Noto TheChoreographer,Motion actorIt is also active as.

In addition, Aki ToyosakiAzusa SaitoIn the morning information programWeather sisterThere is also.

After making his debut as a voice actor, he also works as a voice actor while turning to an entertainer.Kimiko KoyamaThere was an example of (when showing a story as a comedian, the name is "Kimi Kimi"). NSCIn 2010 (Heisei 22), he transferred to Yoshimoto Kogyo and was active as an entertainer until 2011 (Heisei 23).

Having the XNUMXth Sanyutei Enraku as his father,Rakugo performerBelongs to Aoni Production, which is also active, and works as a voice actorIchitaro Ai(The name of Takaza is Ichitaro Sanyutei), and Yoku Shioya and Subaru Kimura also have the name of Rakugoka.

In addition to SNS activities, some voice actors have set up dedicated channels for YouTuber activities and are distributing them.For example, Natsuki HanaeTomokazu SugitaChannel is so popular that it has more than millions of subscribers.

"Idol voice actors" and "voice actor artists"

Voice actors that are compatible with activities such as singers are often referred to as "idol voice actors" or "voice actor artists."

Idol voice actor

Idol voice actorWas called the third voice actor boom1990 eraCommon name that came out around the middle. By this timeVoice idolAlso called[157].

Beyond the main business, release the CD through songs, perform singer activities such as holding live performances, appear in gravure such as voice actor magazines and manga magazines, release photo books and image videos, appear in CM (this) Including so-called "Web CM") etc.IdolOften refers to a voice actor who engages in specific activities.

Ayako Iijima, who was active in radio dramas before the war, also released several records such as popular songs and nursery rhymes.Japanese danceIt was also a house.After thatYokoyama Chisa,Kyoko Hikami,Kouda Mariko, Yuko Miyamura, and many other voice actors who are likely to make their debut in the 1990s, but most of them are voice actors trained at the voice actor training center mentioned above, but they are not active experience as idols / transition groups from idols before that. ..However, due to the widespread exposure of these voice actors to the mass media, the acceptance of popular voice actors in the 1990s was different from the acceptance before that, especially for new voice actors who had just left the training school from this time. It is speculated that the expansion of the media in which voice actors are active was planned as one of the purposes of stabilizing the rewards of the voice actors, and that the appearance of voice actors through various media began as one of its commercial strategies.[73].

After the mid-2010s, Mamoru Miyano and Maaya Uchida[158][159],Ayana Taketatsu[160], Haruka Tomatsu[161][162],Mimori Suzuko[163][164],Sakura Ayane[165],Rikako Aida[166][167], Shuka Saito[168] As such, the number of cases of appearing in commercials with appearances, appearing as guests of variety shows and quiz shows, and appearing in gravure in general manga magazines that are not for enthusiasts is increasing.

Furthermore, voice actor units that reproduce the idols (characters) in charge of idol-based anime and game works as they are in actual live performances have appeared, and there are cases that are comparable to full-time idols.for exampleIdol Master series(THE IDOLM @ STER-Idolmaster Cinderella Girls-Idol Master Million Live!-Idol Master SideM),Love Live! Series Ofμ's-Aqs,Wake Up, Girls!,Pripara Ofi ☆ Risand so on.

In particular, the cast of the "Love Live!" Series had no experience as a voice actor until then due to auditions that emphasized singing ability and dance ability (in addition to members from other industries such as actresses, the activity experience itself in the entertainment world itself. Some members did not have.Aina Kusunoda,Ai FuruhataEtc. fall under this category) There are many employees.

In fact, besides i ☆ Ris, Wake Up, Girls!22/7The number of “groups that sing a balance between voice actors and idols” is increasing.[128].

Even in the 2020s, Sophia University's beauty pageant championshipMariko Toribe[169],Miss japanContest 2020 ・ Komori Aoki, who was selected as a Miss Kimono[170]In some cases, a person whose appearance has been evaluated, such as a beauty pageant participant, aims to become a voice actor.

Yu AsakawaOn his blog, complained to the voice actor world, which is said to be becoming more idol, and relatedNoriko Kuwashima"Idol voice actors will not be used after the season"[171]There are also industry people who question evaluation criteria that have nothing to do with acting.In fact, from the 1990s to the 2000sGo to ShiinaBecame popular as a singer and toured a considerable number of concert performances nationwide, but it became a factor to keep away from dubbing and dubbing work, and the regular appearance of animation is only a few in a year. It is known that even among anime producers including professional voice actors in the same industry, they were regarded as heretics as voice actors.[73].Yumori HanamoruEtc. said in an interview that they do not want to be seen by idol voice actors about themselves[172].

On the other hand,Yamato NadeshikoIn the interview at the time of formationYui HorieHe said that he was surprised to have an idol-like job since he became a voice actor, but he said that idols are attractive to him, so he makes it fun and energetic just by looking at them. I think it's weird. I think it's a problem if you're doing a job to moisturize the viewer's heart and don't do that. "

Voice actor artist

Voice actor artistOn behalf of the above idol voice actor2000 eraIt is a common name that came out around the middle, and often refers to a voice actor who balances the voice actor and singer industries.[89].

This name can be seen from the fact that Hekiru Shiina introduced herself as "I am a voice actor with an artist" at the start of the radio program in 1994, and from the advertising phrase of her training institution. , The influence of the creator including the person who manages it is strongly shown[73].

In recent years, even though he has not become an independent singer, he is in charge of the theme song etc. when appearing in animation.[Note 20], Related programs (Aniraji,Nico Nico Live Broadcast, Etc.) and appearances at events are becoming more common.[173].

TARAKO,Sakamoto Maaya,MoeMiIn parallel likeSinger-songwriterIn recent yearsManami Numakura,Suzuki Minori,Saori Hayami, Tomori Kusunoki,Koiwai Kotori, Amamiya Sora and others have increased the number of voice actor artists who write and compose songs by themselves.Tomoki OnoThe mini-album "Winter Voice Friends" is composed of songs provided by his own voice actors.

otherbandSome people are formingSuzuki Tatsuhisa TheOLDCODEXBand,Takayuki KondoOno DaisukeIs a techno vocal unit "TRD", Kotori Koiwai mentioned above is a metal band DAW, Yukari Tamura is also a metal unit 120600mAh,Kisho TaniyamaIs a music unitGRANRODEOI am active in.Taniyama is under the name of KISHOW in GRANRODEO, and in similar casesNinomiya YuiHowever, when he is a voice actor, he works under the name of Yui Ninomiya, and when he is an artist, he works under the name of Yui Ninomiya.

Like the band unit of the "BanG Dream!" Project, there are cases where the music band of the character who was in charge of the voice in the play is actually performing band activities.Sae OtsukaSome people like this are mainly singer-songwriter activities.Besides, high school girl rock band manga "Girls Fist !!!!A rock band of young female voice actors who are active in conjunction with the four characters that appear inMinami Matsumoto High School Punk Rock Club, There are voice actor girls rock bands that you can meet.

またHealer GirlsThere is also a group that claims to be a chorus unit like this.

Both "idol voice actors" and "voice actor artists" are said to be particularly common among Japanese female voice actors.

Whether the voice actor is an idol voice actor or a voice actor artist, the reason why the voice actor's activities are increasing is that, in addition to improving the social status of the voice actor, changes in the voice actor's role and image (“backside work”) It has been pointed out that the background has been that "the appearance and youth are emphasized"[89][171].

Activities in other fields by voice actors

Although it is not an entertainment activity, there are many voice actors who are active voice actors, serve as instructors at training centers, run offices, and also sound directors.

other than this,Shintaro AsanumaOriginally besides the actorWriterI was doingArakawa MihoUntil a certain timenurseI was a voice actor while doing.Masumi Asano ThePicture bookHas won the literary award by publishing.Jurota Kosugi TheZ GundamEra,ShochikuI work as a salaryman in charge of sales atMitsuo IwataIs "AKIRAI was working at a design office at that time, and was a voice actor as a side job.

Professional bowlerAlso serve asKeiaki WatanabeOr professionalSparrowBut alsoOkame AsukaThere is also an example.

Shinichiro Miki,Namikawa Daisuke,Ishikawa Kaijin,Yu HatanakaHave formed a car racing team called "VART".

Voice actor production

Normal for productions to which voice actors belongEntertainment productionIn addition to the voice actor section of, many voice actors belong toVoice actor productionThere is.

Voice actor production collects fees from voice actors, and managers assigned to their specialty fields such as animation, Japanese dubbing, and narration perform sales activities and voice actor sales to sound production companies and broadcasting stations. It also has specialized training centers and cooperates with vocational schools to train new employees.

Originally located as an affiliated company of the production company, there are productions with strong collaboration, especially in the 2000s, there were examples of new establishments.[Note 21] However, since the 2010s, it has been directly managed as a division of a production company, and there are productions with stronger collaboration.[Note 22]. Even if the collaboration with a specific production company is strong, we can also undertake the work that other production companies handle. In recent years, there have been cases in which voice actors were originally managed in music production.[Note 23], In this case, the singer's activity is often done actively by making full use of his main business.[Note 24][Note 25]. There are also cases where entertainment production centered on other fields will focus on the voice actor category.[Note 26].

Economic environment

Voice actors have no basic salary from their office[Note 27], Guarantee (reward) based on each person's work performance becomes incomeSole proprietorIs.Usually, a one-year renewal management contract is signed with the agency, and about 1% to 20% of the performance fee is paid to the agency as an administrative fee on average in the industry as compensation for sales and management.Tax withholdingAlso 10%[Note 28] Pulled[Note 29], The rest will be the reward for the voice actor[174]..Like singers and actors, it is a competitive society of systems, and many people drop out because they cannot be financially independent.

Japanese dubbing has started1960 eraSays that the voice work is 7% of the appearance fee of "appearance seven appearance"[175]It was considered a low-ranking job, and the stage actor was doing it like a part-time job.Compared to the stage and live-action work, the dubbing work requires less restraint time and can be performed, so if you manage the number, you can increase your income, and few people are dissatisfied because you can make use of your acting ability.

Many voice actors are improving their wagesJapan Actors UnionBelonging to (Nippon Haren), Japan Haren is organized by the Japan Music Makers Federation (Voice Federation), which is a collection of sound production companies, and a company that manages voice actors.Japan Entertainment Management Business Association(Manekyo) and the “Three-Group Practical Subcommittee” have been set up and have proposed to revise the appearance rules and improve treatment. Sometimesstrike(1973 <Showa 48>May 8) And the streetDemonstration activitiesIn 1973 (Showa 48), the reward increased by about 3 times.1980 In (55), the usage fee for rebroadcasting was certified.1991 In (3), he has won results such as a 1.7-fold increase in remuneration.

Not only for the industry, but also in 1973 (Showa 48)2001 In (13)Demonstration march,1988 (Showa 63)Ichiro NagaiBut"All things』(文藝 春秋), "Isano Namihei's annual income is 164 million yen", and an article that appeals to the low animation fee is sent, and the action to seek the understanding of the general public is taking place.[176].

As a result of discussions by the Japan-Hairen, Manekyo, and Shonen, we have signed the regulations for appearance of foreign movies, newcomer registration system, special regulations regarding CS programs, regulations for appearance of games, etc. In the anime, with the broadcasting station,Anime production companyA collective agreement has been concluded with the addition of the Japan Video Makers Federation. As a result, the reward per work is calculated by calculating the amount received according to the genre of the work, the broadcast time zone, the number of broadcasts, secondary use due to softwareization, and the experience record etc. The one-sided asking price of the production company is not used to decide the takeover[Note 30].

The above agreement will not be bound unless the voice actor, management company, and voice production company belong to their respective organizations. For example,Yujiro IshiharaIs a movieArcadia of my youthIt is said that the performance fee for[177]..In order to increase the organization rate, the number of performers who will appear in the works produced by the voice reunion is set to "the number of performers who do not belong to the Nichihairen is within 20% of the total", and the performers who do not belong to the Nichihairen are members. It is imposed on the voice ream to recommend.On the contrary, the Manekyo / Nichihairen side is to recommend the production companies that are not included in the Voice Ren to join the Voice Ren.

Hate these agreementsNihon Ad SystemsThere are also producers such as, and there are examples of appointing voice actors who do not belong to Nichihairen.1990 eraIt increased from the middle,Toei Academy,RamsIn some cases, the business was suspended.As a business that does not belong to the voice reamJinnan StudioAs a company that does not belong to Manetkyo, there are audiovisual systems (now San Onkyo) etc.Nerke planningand so on[Note 31].

Rank system

The voice actors who belong to the Nichihairen have a rule about the appearance fee when they give voices to anime and Japanese dubbed works. Under this system, the reward is calculated based on the rank and the restraint time, regardless of the amount of dialogue of the role played. Also, the incorporated associationComputer Entertainment AssociationA similar rank system has been established with game companies that are members of (CESA).The rank setting is updated every April, and as it becomes more popular and careers grow, the rank will rise after discussions with Manekyo and Voice Ren.Each time the rank goes up, the performance fee will increase by 4 yen.As an exception, people over the age of 1 can raise their rank but not lower it. In 1,000 (Heisei 60), the performance fee increased by about 1991 times, so that veteran voice actors with high rank (high performance fee) will not be appointed for animation and dubbing with limited budget. became.As a result, a special period was set up to allow rank down for a limited period of two years from 3 (Heisei 1.7).

The lowest rank of the 30-minute frame work is 1 yen, the highest rank is 5,000 yen, and there is no rank on top of it, which is the basic performance charge. As a "purpose usage fee", 4 times will be added to the basic appearance fee for animation, and 5,000 times will be added to the dubbing. If you do a trailer line, a gala based on the rank of the basic appearance fee will be added. If the broadcast time frame is 1.8 minutes or 1.7 minutes, it will be a "time premium" and the amount will be paid. The appearance work is made into softwarere-airIf it is done, the "conversion fee (secondary usage fee)" will be paid according to the regulations. The total of these will be the voice actor's total appearance fee, from which about 2% to 30% will be deducted for administrative fees and taxes.

The market price of the reward for voice works varies from several hours to several days depending on the number of words, and although it depends on the rank of the voice actor, it is about 2 to 3 yen per hundred words, and famous voice actors become social games. It is incomparable with the unit price when it comes out.Only a handful of voice actors earn a stable income because the office takes most of the sales, so there are few office voice actors who can live on their own.However, even so, in order to get a job, it is basic to belong to the office, and the office voice actor who earns profits at events, concerts, live performances, etc. will work stably.

Newcomer

After graduating from a voice actor school or voice actor training institute,Japan Entertainment Management Business AssociationA new voice actor who has passed the audition of a voice actor office affiliated with (Manekyo) first starts a voice actor business from the status of “keeping”. At this point as a voice actor individualJapan Actors UnionYou cannot join (Nichi Hairen). Custody is the de facto extra of the rank system as the first step in the voice acting business. After completing the custody period, you will be in the junior rank, and you can stay in the junior rank for three years or until you reach the prescribed employment rate, after which you will join the Nichi Hairen and become a normal rank voice actor.[178].

Because the performance fee is too low1990 Once (2), the newcomer (junior) rank was abolished, but1994 It was introduced again in a new form from (6).

The deposit and junior-ranked voice actors have an appearance fee of 1 yen, unlike the ranked voice actors, the above-mentioned "purpose usage fee," "trailer charges for the trailer," "time premium," and "conversion fee" are paid. Absent.

veteran

As the voice actor becomes a veteran and the rank of Nichihairen becomes higher, the work of anime, games, and dubbing will naturally become impossible due to budget constraints. To compensate for such things, in commercials and TV programsNarrationIs the job. The narration is not tied to the rank by the agreement of Nichi Hairen[Note 32]Also, guarantees are much more expensive than anime, games and dubbing.Perhaps because of this, when he was a newcomer / young voice actor, he appeared in many anime, but later, as he became a mid-career / veteran, his work in anime gradually decreased, and narration tended to become the main focus.In addition, there are cases where veteran voice actors appear only once and are used for roles with short recording times such as few lines, so the appearance of animation and games is not eliminated.

Some of the veteran voice actors perform side jobs such as managing the voice actor office, instructors of voice actor training schools and vocational schools, instructors of the talking class of culture school, sound director, etc. in addition to the main business to supplement the low income. Some are. In addition, when it comes to veterans, it is said that it is not uncommon for a voice actor to say that such a side business is a core business rather than economically.

Current status

The number of people who are aiming for voice actors is on the increase, but few are able to play active roles as voice actors as occupations. We won't be able to compete with other voice actors in the audition, we couldn't get a job and dropped out without name, we couldn't be financially independent, and then we stopped in a short period of time. It is said that there are many new voice actors who are judged as ``no prospect'' and cancel the contract[179][180]..In fact, as an example, Aya Uchida said in an interview in September 2015, "When a voice actor's job is vacant until about a few years before you can eat with one voice actor's job. Was doing a part-time job for dispatch. "[181][Note 33].Uchiyama YumiExample of returning after retiring once (due to the convenience of the house)[182] There is also.

1996 Approximately 8 voice actors were listed in the Kinema Junpo "Voice Actor Directory" released in 2,400, but only about 300 of them have established themselves as voice actors, and of these, voice actors. About half of the people can eat only by work[183][Note 34].

Despite having a certain level of name recognition, number of appearances, and years of activity, many people have retired because it is difficult to make a living with a voice actor, and it is difficult to maintain a continuous work environment. is there[180].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The policy aimed at inheriting the will of the Unkai is Chairman:Fukuda, Permanent Council:Hiroshi Akutagawa, Director:Hideo Kobayashi,Shohei Ooka,Mitsuo Nakamura,Kenichi Yoshida,Yasushi TakedaIt was also reflected in the face at the time of inauguration.
  2. ^ Writer'sNatsume SosekiIs one of the invited guests, June 1911th and 6th, 5 after the performance,Tokyo Asahi ShimbunA commentary entitled "Dr. Tsubouchi and Hamlet" is posted in the literary section that he himself presides over.
  3. ^ However, it is broadcast as a voiceless version of a silent movie, and its quality is different from that of a full-scale radio drama.
  4. ^ As described below, the word "voice actor" was used in the "Yomiuri Shimbun" as of 1926.
  5. ^ Miyako Murata (Mieko Murata at that time), Takeko Murata (all actressesMurata KikukoWas treated as a "star" with his sister[53].
  6. ^ 1st genMichiko KatoWhen Yomiuri died, the Yomiuri Shimbun introduced it as "pioneering voice actors"[56].
  7. ^ The first Japanese dubbed work1931 The American movie "Port of Rebirth" was not followed because the Japanese accent in Hiroshima was unpopular.[60].
  8. ^ Other than that,ANIMAX MUSIX(Started in 2009),Lisani! LIVE(Started in 2010) and so on.
  9. ^ In 2007,BS11by"Anime +Since the founding of ", this tendency has become more noticeable year by year.
  10. ^ However, in the old daysShowaThen.Toru Furuya,Hiromi Tsuru,Mina Tominaga,Hiroko KasaharaSuch,HeiseiButSawashiro Miyuki,Aya Hirano,Ryunosuke KamikiPlayed a leading role in his teens in the pastveteranThere are many voice actors.
  11. ^ On rare occasions, the voice actor name that is usually used is credited.
  12. ^ However, anime, Japanese dubbing, and game narration are subject to rank system.
  13. ^ Especially born from "Love Live!"μ'sWas the first voice actor unit to hold a solo concert at Tokyo Dome on March 2016st and April 3st, 31, and was full on both days.
  14. ^ In addition to holding a solo concert at Tokyo Dome in 2016, he became the first solo singer as well as a voice actor in the same year.Hanshin Koshien StadiumHas realized a concert in. MizukiHanshin Tigers Ofフ ァ ンThe concert at the Koshien Stadium was also one of my wishes.
  15. ^ Mizuki continued to participate every year thereafter, and participated in a total of 2009 times from 2014 to 6.
  16. ^ In 2015, the voice actor unit μ's played the second voice actor group, Kohaku and White, after Mizuki.
  17. ^ There are some audiences such as Kana Asumi's VTuber's Nachoko and Kenichi Suzumura's 29-year-old Rinkuro.
  18. ^ Literary Theater,ScorpioI was active as an actor.
  19. ^ A person who worked in Studio Ghibli overseas business until 2011.Hayao Miyazaki set and appointed a role modeled after him.
  20. ^ There are also cases where the work is limited to a voice actor unit.
  21. ^ Avex Planning & Development(Formerly Active. After being reduced as a voice actor production, the group reorganizationAvex picturesIt became one department ofKADOKAWAsystemProduction ace,AniplexsystemVoice and heart(Independent from Aniplex after closing down),Dwango Artist Production(Dwango Planning and Development.MAGES.BecomeAG-ONEAfter the company integration, closed business) etc.
  22. ^ MAGES.-Emulate(The de facto successor of Dwango Artist Production),Gakken plus-office EN-JIN (there will be no members in 2019 and the business will end virtually),Avex pictures(Partially accepted from Avex Planning & Development),Pony canyon-Swallow,BushiroadBy a production subsidiarysound.
  23. ^ Music rain,S Co., Ltd., Pony Canyon Artists (currently not handled. After dividing voice actors and animation related companies into the in-house organizational management organization "Swallow", it was integrated into the parent company Pony Canyon from July 2019).
  24. ^ He holds an audition in the "voice actor and artist" frame.
  25. ^ There is an example in which aspiring singers make their (or) debut as voice actors.Emi NittaThere is also an example that, although he passed the audition as a singer, he made his debut as a voice actor at the beginning of the office according to the policy of the office, and made his debut as a singer five and a half years after passing, and also Pony Canyon Artists (now Swallow). ofYurika Endo(June 2018, retired from the entertainment industry) There are also examples of debuting as a voice actor after the debut of a singer.
  26. ^ As an example,Horipro(Currently transferred to affiliated company Horipro International),Sony Music Artists,Space craftetc.
  27. ^ Exceptionally,HoriproSome offices are based on a monthly salary system such as.
  28. ^ Special income tax for reconstruction will be added for 25 years after FY 25, resulting in 10.21% [1].
  29. ^ However, a person who has too little annual income and consequently has withheld the withholding tax can be refunded by the tax return of the following year.
  30. ^ Although it cannot be said to be unequivocal, the Nikkairen basically set the highest class reward for programs that are broadcast during the golden hours of weekends and holidays.
  31. ^ However, there are now companies that are actually joining because more staff have been transferred.
  32. ^ The narration of anime/games is bound by rank.
  33. ^ Since debuting in 2008 as a voice actor,Kiddy garland』(2009. as a school) starring in, such as the number of appearances has been accumulated, but the number of appearances as the main character increased after 2012.
  34. ^ In addition, "Voice actor grand prix'' 2018 voice actors are recorded in the separate volume appendix of the March 3 issue, ``Voice Actors Directory 2018 Female Edition'', and in the separate volume appendix of the April 800 issue of the same magazine, ``Voice Actors 2018 Male Edition'' There were 4 male voice actors recorded (that is, 2018 in total).

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