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🐈 | Criteria for choosing dog food for your dog, 2nd place "Price" – 1st place?


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Criteria for choosing dog food for your dog, 2nd place "price" – 1st place?

 
If you write the contents roughly
Most of the requests from manufacturers regarding dog food and dog treats were "Do not use dangerous additives", "Increase the number of additive-free foods", "Clarify the origin of raw materials", and "Made in China". "I don't want you to use the ingredients of the dog food", "I want you to use the ingredients that you can rest assured that it can be expensive", and "Quality control similar to humans".
 

On September 9, PLAN-B announced the results of a survey on "dog food and dog snacks."The survey period is 15 ... → Continue reading

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quality management

quality management(Hinshitsukanri, QC, Quality control) to provide to customersProductsandServices Of品質To improveCompanyA series of activity systems.

Overview

Quality control includes quality control in a broad and narrow sense.

Quality control in a broad sense ismanagementIt refers to quality management as a product, known as quality management.JISDefines "part of quality management focused on meeting quality requirements"[1].

When we say "quality control" at a company's production site, we often refer to quality control in a narrow sense. Quality control in a narrow sense has the following perspectives.

  • Design quality …… Quality standard targeted by the designer (Spec.) And "target quality"[2].
  • Matching quality …… Quality that meets the buyer's requirements[3].
  • Conformity quality: Actual quality from the perspective of whether the product characteristics and service level meet specifications, regulations, and demand.[4][5].

In terms of design quality, the higher the quality standard is set, the more the cost rises sharply, so it is not good if it is high, and it is necessary to set the specifications within the range where profits can be obtained. In addition, inspection is required to improve conformity quality, but the cost is still higher as the inspection standard becomes stricter, because the product cannot be produced according to the design quality and there are variations in the group and defects or repairs are required. It will rise. Appropriate (narrowly defined) quality control can improve the relationship between design quality, conformity quality and cost, but it can be said that management is in charge of control, so it is the content to be dealt with in quality control in a broad sense.[6].

Depending on the product, a sticker such as "QC Pass", "QA Passed", "OK to ship", etc. may be attached or a certificate may be attached to notify the purchaser that proper quality control is being performed. ..These certifications range from merely internal to external accreditation bodies.

History

The word Quality Control (QC) is AmericanBell LabsWhen I was an engineerWalter Shewhart 1931 Written in The Economic Control of Manufactured Product (D. Van Nostrand Company via Internet archive) Is said to have appeared for the first time[7].

In JapanSecond World WarAfter the defeat1948 The research activities of the Quality Control Research Subcommittee of the Quality Control Research Committee belonging to the Japan Science and Technology Federation and the Overseas Technology Research Committee1949 OfGHQSo-called CCS management course[8]Is the beginning. In particular, the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers came to Japan to make plans for the Japanese census.W. Edwards DemingInvitedStatistical process controlAnd gave a lecture on quality control. Deming is a statistician who studied with Shewhart at Bell Labs. As a result, quality control in Japan initially tends to be biased toward statistical methods. In 1956Japanese Industrial Standard"Quality control is a system of all means to economically produce quality products that meet the demands of buyers." "Modern quality control employs statistical means, so statistics Sometimes referred to as statistical quality control. "[9].

Quality control methods will develop at the sites of each company that has been taught by Deming.Showa 30From the middle to the latter half of the teens, many things that were not statistical approaches began to be seen. The collaboration of people at all stages of the company is emphasized, and a method to promote quality control is established by a collaborative system that eliminates organizational barriers. Beyond the statistical approachQC circleActivities[10],Kaizenand so on. In addition to the manufacturing department, activities that expanded QC activities company-wide, such as the service department and management department, TQCIt came to be called (Total Quality Control). The development of this TQCTQM(Total Quality Management). Deming's achievements were initially not well received in his home country of America,1980 ToNBC If Japan can ... Why can't we?It was noticed by broadcasting a documentary (Why can we not do it in Japan?)1990 eraOverAmericaIt is said that TQC was redefined and spread in Japan, which greatly contributed to the revival of the American manufacturing industry.[11].

QC method

Seven QC tools and seven new QC tools are typical. There are other methods for improving quality at the manufacturing stage, development design stage, and product planning stage.

QC seven tools

Phenomenon in managingNumerical valueTargetquantitativeTechniques for analysis. BothVisualizationThe aim is to make it easier for anyone to understand or explain the problem immediately.

Graph

Numerical valueデータIt is difficult to grasp the whole even if you look at it as it is, so in order to understand the whole situation quickly and correctlyGraphTo create. There is no set rule that you have to do this when creating a graph, but there is no point in drawing a drawing that only the person who created it can understand. for that reason

  • Which graph should be used
  • How to make a graph that is easy to understand
  • What should I do with color coding, line type, and dot type?

It is important to consider.

  • Line graph --See changes over time and changes in items.
  • bar graph --Compare the size at a certain point in time.
  • pie chart --Shows the percentage of the sample at one point in time.
  • Band graph --Indicates the percentage of breakdown for each item and changes over time.
  • Radar chart --Compare the performance of each target and see the balance between items.

histogram

A tool that allows you to determine data trends. Of the datasetAgainstAverage value-distributedFor reading.histogramIs used to grasp the overall tendency in a set of data in which variations are apparent.degreeBy creating a histogram based on, the average value of the entire set of data, the datadispersionCan be grasped. In quality control, it is important to read the distribution of the histogram and move on to the next action based on the result. From the shape of the mountain in the histogram, the stability of the process, from the extent of the mountainstandard deviationBy describing σ as a standard valuespecificationIt is possible to judge whether there is a problem such as disconnection.

control chart

A tool for managing the process.control chartIs a judgment material for grasping whether the process is in a stable state. Data according to rules such as hourlysamplingThen, the total is taken, and the result is used as a group to create a line graph in series. In the control chart, the center line (CL) and the control limit can be used to judge the abnormality of the control process from the arrangement and distribution of points. There are upper limit (UCL) and lower limit (LCL) in the control limit, and 3 sigma is often set.

Check sheet

A tool that extracts and summarizes the points to be confirmed in advance.Check sheetThe purpose is to instantly understand what data you need and to easily organize the collected data, and you must pay attention to that point when creating it.


Pareto chart

A tool used to improve the process. A bar graph and a cumulative curve are shown by classifying the problems that occur in the process by cause, loss amount, etc., and arranging them in descending order of the number of cases.Pareto chartIs used to extract problems that can be expected to have an improvement effect when examining process improvement activities. By classifying and illustrating the problems that the process has, it is possible to easily grasp the problems that must be improved first.

Characteristic factor diagram (cause and effect diagram)

A tool used to extract problems. In order to identify the causes related to a certain problem, the problem (characteristics) and the matters considered to be the cause (factor) of the occurrence are identified.ArrowThe one shown by connecting with. Another name because the shape of the figure resembles the shape of a fish bone.Fish bone diagram Also called (fishbone diagram).Ishikawa diagramIs an effective method when considering further improvement of process capacity.brainstormingThe relevance of the factors extracted and identified in the same way as in the above is shown in the characteristic factor diagram, and it is used as a material for ranking the factors to be approached. In the field of production process, as a factor for a certain problem4M(People (huMan) ・machine (Machine) ・Ingredients (Material) ・method (Method)) is the main point, and further factors are identified for those four points.5M(To 4MMeasuring instrument / measuring method (Add (Measure)) is also available.

To list the factors, it is meaningless to simply brainstorm from the beginning. Brainstorming and other techniques are used for the first time when factors inferred from past knowledge and field data are not sufficient.

Use as follows depending on the purpose:

Ishikawa diagram for management (Purpose of listing factors to be managed)
A list of all factors that require management for preventive purposes. Since it is before the actual results, there is no on-site data, and the concerns are comprehensively listed from the top down from knowledge, experience, and theory. Measures will be taken for all factors.
Ishikawa diagram for analysis (purpose of searching for the cause)
Collect on-site data (characteristics) of the trouble that actually occurred, list the factors estimated from the data, and take countermeasures. In this case, there are cases where countermeasures are taken after clarifying the cause, and cases where countermeasures are taken sequentially for suspicious ones.

Scatter plot

A diagram in which two pairs of data are plotted on the horizontal axis (cause system) and the vertical axis (result system).Scatter plotIs an effective method for visualizing the interrelationship between two variables.

Stratified

Analyze the data by dividing it into homogeneous groups (layers) (for layers)Stratified sampling methodSee). For example, analysis is performed separately for each age group, or for each machine or raw material. This is one of the ideas needed to acquire data. Information can be accurately grasped by analyzing the data layered, which is an effective means for determining the cause of the problem.

New QC Seven Tools

While the seven QC tools aim for quantitative phenomenon analysis, the new seven QC toolsQualitativeAim for analysis. The purpose is to clarify the structure of the problem at an early stage.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ JISQ9000 "Product Quality Management System-Basics and terms "-See" 3.3.7 Quality Control "
  2. ^ (Quality Control Handbook) [1] Introduction to Quality Control --1.2 Excerpts and summaries from the description of companies and quality control
  3. ^ (New Edition Quality Control Handbook 2nd Edition) 1.2.1 From the meaning of quality
  4. ^ (Quality Control Handbook) [1] Introduction to Quality Control --1.2 Excerpts and summaries from the description of companies and quality control
  5. ^ (New Edition Quality Control Handbook 2nd Edition) 1.2.1 From the meaning of quality
  6. ^ (Quality Control Handbook) [1] Introduction to Quality Control --1.2 Excerpts and summaries from the description of companies and quality control
  7. ^ (Quality Control Handbook) [1] From the introduction to quality control
  8. ^ (Goto) CCS: Civil Communication Section, a course for manufacturing business owners conducted by the Civil Communication Bureau
  9. ^ Defined in JIS Z 8101: 1956.As described in the "Preface" of Z 8101-1 "Statistics-Terms and Symbols-Part 8101", JIS Z 1981: 8101, which inherited this quality control definition, was abolished and replaced with JIS Z 1-1999: XNUMX. Currently, the wording of this quality control definition does not remain.
  10. ^ (New Edition Quality Control Handbook) See "1.5.4 Deployment to quality control with full participation". A small group that voluntarily carries out quality control activities in the same workplace is called this. Management is required to strengthen cooperation with such QC circle activities.
  11. ^ (Quality Control Society) "Quality control and its issues at a turning point" from Yoji Akao and others

References

  • Japanese Standards Quality Control Handbook Editorial Committee (ed.) "Quality Control Handbook" Japanese Standards Association, 1962.
  • Japanese Standards Quality Control Handbook Editorial Committee (ed.) "New Edition Quality Control Handbook" Japanese Standards Association, 1977.ISBN 978 4542501010.
  • Tetsuichi Asaka, Kaoru Ishikawa, Akira Yamaguchi (co-supervised) "New Edition Quality Control Handbook 2nd Edition" Japanese Standards Association, 1988.ISBN 978 4542251014.
  • Japan Quality Control Society (ed.) "Ayumi of Japan Quality Control Society: 1986-1990" Japan Quality Control Society, 1991.
  • Toshio Goto (Author) "The Origin of Forgotten Management-" Quality of Management "CCS Management Course Taught by GHQ" Productivity Publishing, March 1999.ISBN 978 4820116523.

Related item

Qualification test for quality control

 

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