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📷 | Photo exhibition "Prince Shotoku's land" XNUMX years after Prince Shotoku's death


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Photo exhibition "Prince Shotoku's land" XNUMX years after Prince Shotoku's death

 
If you write the contents roughly
And one piece that captures the rural scenery of Asuka village where cluster amaryllis blooms.
 

Around XNUMX years after Prince Shotoku's death, a photo exhibition that traces the places related to the work of photographer Irie Taikichi is a photo art in Nara City ... → Continue reading

 Nara TV Broadcasting

"Nara TV Broadcasting," a TV station in the ancient city of Nara, will provide you with the latest news about the prefecture, topics on the Great Buddha and deer, and information on delicious gourmet food.


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Amaryllidaceae

Amaryllidaceae(Cluster amaryllis, stone 蒜,scientific name : Lycoris radiata[1]) IsAmaryllidaceae[Annotation 1]Lycoris OfPerennialIs. Another name isAmaryllis(Manjushage), also called licorice radiata from the scientific name.It is native to the Chinese continent and grows in clusters on roadsides and paddy fields in the Japanese archipelago. It withers in early summer, which is unusual for a perennial plant.It is a poisonous plant that is highly toxic to underground bulbs, but it was once eaten as a salvage crop by detoxifying starch from the bulbs.

Name

Scientific name genus Lycoris(Licoris)Greek MythologyGoddess of the seaNereidIs one of(English edition(Lycorias)Seed name radiata (Radiata) means "radial" and is associated with the way the flowers spread out radially when they are fully open.[2]..In English, Red Spider Lily (Red spider lily), Spider Lily (Spider lily) And other flower names[3].

cluster amaryllisThe name of (cluster amaryllis) is autumnCluster amaryllisAround, suddenlyFlower stemStretch out and bright crimsonflowerDerived from the flowering of[4][5]..Another theory is that after eating this, there is only "higan (death)".

AliasAmaryllis(Manjushage) is also known for being sung in songs[6],Sanskrit"Red flower" in (Sanskrit)[7]It is said that it was named after the meaning of "blooming red flowers before the leaves".[4]..A transcription of the Sanskrit manjusaka, "Hokke SutraSuch asBuddhist scriptureDerived from.Also, in the Hokkekyo product, when Buddha preached the Hokkekyo, one of the flowers (four flowers) that fell from heaven to celebrate this is the cluster amaryllis.[7]The flower shape is unknown, but the color is assumed to be red from the Chinese translation of "Akadanka".Therefore, like the Mandala flower of Shika, the Mandala Saka in the Lotus Sutra also means a heavenly flower.

Also,"ManyoshuThere is also a theory that the "Ichishi no Hana" that appears in the book is used as a cluster amaryllis ("My love wife who doesn't know all the scorching flowers of the roadside Ichishi", 11).Although edible is generally dangerous, it can be interpreted as a long-sought flower because it may be used as an emergency food by removing poison.

In Japan, synonyms that are common only in each region are derived, and aliasesLocal name-dialectIs said to have hundreds to more than 1000 species[8][9]..Funeral flower (Soshikibana)[8], Tomb flower (Hakabana)[8], Dead flower (Shibitobana)[3], Hell flower (Jigokubana)[3], Ghost flower (Yureibana)[3], Fire flower (Kajibana)[8], Snake flower (Snake flower), Razor flower (Kamisori Bana)[3], Fox flower (fox flower)[3], Abandoned flower (Sutegobana)[3], Lantern flower, Canopy flower[3]For example, there are many ominous aliases.[7]..In addition, since there are no leaves at the time of flowering and the flowers and leaves cannot be seen at the same time, it also has another name of "Hanami".[10][7].

Distribution/habitat

Mainland ChinaOrigin of[11][5].Japanese archipelagoThen.HokkaidoからNansei IslandsCan be seen up to.It grows in man-made areas such as banks, embankments, ridges, roadsides, graveyards, and railroad tracks.[6][3]..Especially when lining up along the edge of the field, it creates a splendid landscape at the time of flowering.Prefers a damp place, sometimes washed with water to expose the bulbs.It may also be found in mountainous forests, but this is rather the place where such places were once remote (Satoyama).It is a flower derived from Buddhism, and since the original species bloomed around September on the equinoctial week, it was often planted around graveyards and temples.Also, from the vegetation, moles, etc. Vermin measuresIn some cases, it was planted in the ridges of rice fields.[8].

It is believed that it came to the Japanese archipelago from mainland China before prehistoric times, and is now wild in various places.[5]..For the background,Rice cultivationWith the soil when it was introducedBulbsIt is said that the soil has been mixed in and spread, but small animals that dig holes in the soil (Mole,A mouseEtc.), dare to bring in toxic bulbs,Ridge,bankThere is also an opinion that it was planted in[12]..Bulbs can be used as medicine if used properly, and can be exposed to water.alkaloidIf you remove the poisonFamine foodIt also becomes.

The cluster amaryllis breeding in the Japanese archipelagoChromosomeIs three times the basic numberTriploidBecause normal egg cells and sperm cells are not produced, it becomes so-called "seedless" and generallyseedI can't leave offspring[13]..In the same way as a plant with seeds, there is no way to expand the habitat by itself, so it is a plant that does not suddenly grow in a place that is completely out of the reach of humans.[14]..Therefore, there is a theory that distant Japanese ancestors planted it as an emergency food for their descendants.

However, seed breeding is possible in mainland China.Genetically diverseThere are several types of cluster amaryllis that grow naturally and are triploid.For this reason, it is speculated that "a triploid cluster amaryllis that was suddenly born in China may have been brought to Japan."[13].

Features

The whole plantpoisonousIPerennial OfBulbIs a plant that makes[6]..Small in the basement like an onionBulbsEgg-shaped sphere with black exodermis, slightly thicker and white belowBeard rootHave[4][6].

The flowering season is around the equinoctial week of autumn (mid-September), and the flower buds in the soil only feel the change in temperature to know the season.[7], From the ground before the leavesFlower stemPut out,UmbelIt blooms with several bright red 6-petaled flowers in a radial pattern.[6][5]..Its appearance is unique, height 30-60Centimeter (Cm) [3] OfbranchAlsoleafAlsosectionNoFlower stemProtrudes to the ground and at the tipBractsOnly one inflorescence wrapped in is attached.When the bracts are torn, about 1-5 flowers appear.[15]..花は短いFlowers are shortHandleThere is a sideways opening, and as a whole all the flowersWhole lifeLine up outward in a shape.花径は5 - 15 cmほどあるFlower diameter is about XNUMX-XNUMX cm[5].. One flower has a flower piece (petal) Is included[15], Length 40Mm (mm), wide and slender with a width of about 5 mm, and greatly warped[5].StamenIs 6,PistilThere is one, and both stick out long outside the flower[6]..ヒガンバナのCluster amaryllisbudIs made in the bulbs in mid-May, and even without leaves, it can grow the flower stalks using the nutrients stored in the underground stalks and bloom in about a week after coming out of the ground.[16].

TriploidIn the case ofseedWhen the flower stalk disappears after flowering (around October), the leaves start to grow.[4][6][5].leafIs linear, dark green and shiny, with whitish midribs and underside leaves[6][5]..晩秋に鱗茎1個から長さ30 - 50 cm の細い葉をFrom one bulb to thin leaves XNUMX-XNUMX cm long in late autumnrosettePut out several leaves in a shape, go through the winter while keeping the green, and wither the leaves in early summer (around April-June) when other plants start to grow leaves, and the above-ground part disappears.[4][6][10].

The cluster amaryllis of the Japanese archipelago is a representative species of triploid plants born in nature that does not produce seeds.[13]..However, although it usually does not bear fruit, it is said that seeds may be produced on rare occasions.[17]..Instead of seeding, make bulbs in the soilStock splitSince they have propagated in the same way, they have the same genetic gene, and individuals in the same area have almost the same flowering period, flower size, color, and plant height.[13].

Variants and cultivars

In rare cases, some individuals are whitish due to dysplasia of pigment.[Annotation 2]..After the end of floweringTriploidIt is sterile due to (3n = 33), but a variety of cluster amaryllis (Lycoris radiata there. line up) Is diploid (2n = 22), fertile, and diverse due to crossing with other species.Garden varietyHas been created, and there are also types with flower colors such as crimson and purple.[5].

Toxic

Cluster amaryllisPoisonous plantKnown as, especiallyBulbsHas a strong effect onalkaloidContains about 1 ‰[4]..As alkaloids contained,LycorineIs 50 percent, but other than thatGalantamine,, etc.[4]..The etymology of lycorine is derived from the scientific name "licorice" of the genus Lycoris.[8], When taken orallyFluent(Dripping)nauseaWith abdominal paindiarrheaIn case of severe poisoningCentral nervous system OfparalysisWake up and suffer[4], RarelydeadIn some cases.

In the Japanese archipelagoPaddy fieldRidgeCemeteryIt is often seen in Japan and is thought to have been artificially planted.The purpose is, in the case of ridgesA mouse,Mole,insectIt is said that animals that damage paddy fields dislike the poison of their bulbs and avoid (avoid) them by making holes in the paddy fields and causing water leaks.In the case of a graveyardInsect repellentas well as the BurialLater, it is said to prevent the corpse from being damaged by animals.[Annotation 3]..MoleCarnivoreTherefore, there is a view that it has nothing to do with cluster amaryllis, but it ’s food.EarthwormIt is also said that moles do not come near this grass because he hates cluster amaryllis and does not live in the soil.

BulbsStarchRich in[11]..鱗茎に含まれる有毒成分であるリコリンはLycorine, a toxic component contained in bulbsWater solubleSo, if you grind it and expose it to water for a long time, you can wash away lycorine with water and detoxify it, so you could eat it.[7]..しかし、毒性が強いため、どの程度さらせば無毒化して安全に食べられるのかについての定説は見当たらないHowever, due to its high toxicity, there is no established theory as to how much it should be detoxified and eaten safely.[8]..古い時代に飢饉の際の飢えを救ってきた救飢植物として、食料とするため各地に植えられたと考えられているIt is believed that it was planted in various places for food as a famine plant that saved hunger during famine in the old days.[8][15][7].Second World WarIt was edible during wartime and emergencies such as during the war, and was collected in early spring.[Annotation 4][18]..また、花が終わった秋から春先にかけては葉だけになり、その姿が食用のAlso, from autumn to early spring when the flowers are over, only the leaves are left, and the appearance is edible.Leek,Nobile,AsatsukiBecause it is similar to, there are cases where it is accidentally eaten.[19].

BulbsLycoris radiataNamed (Sekisen)Crude drugAndChinese nameIs also[6]..When the leaves began to die, the bulbs were dug up, the beard roots were removed and washed with water. In the past, it was used as a raw material for pharmaceuticals.[4]..In the private sector, its usage as an external medicine is known,Peritonitis,peritonitis,Kidney diseaseSuch asEdemaGrate the bulbsRicinus communisIf you crush (also known as castor bean) together in a mortar, mix it, smear it on one side of both feet with a cloth, etc., compress it, and wrap it with a bandage.Diuretic effectBySwellingIs said to be useful for removing[4][6]..However, diuresis andExpectorantAlthough it has an effect, it is toxic, so an amateurFolk remediesIt is dangerous to use as.Galantamine, one of the toxic components,Alzheimer's diseaseIt is used as a remedy for.

More

Season words
In haiku, "cluster amaryllis" and "manjushaka" are used in autumn.Season wordsIt is assumed[20].
Flower language
Cluster amaryllisFlower languageIs "passion"[3]"Independence"[3]"Reunion"[3]"give up"[3]"Sad memories"[21]"Travel"[5].
superstition
The shape of the flower looks like a burning flame, so "When you bring it home,firebecome[8]And "If you pick a cluster amaryllis, your house will catch fire."[7]..The reason is thought to be a legend to warn children from touching cluster amaryllis because it is a poisonous plant.[8].
Allelopathy
Lycorine contained in cluster amaryllis isAllelopathyHas the effect of inhibiting the growth of other plants.
Prefectural flower
Taiwan OfLianjiangIn, it is defined as a prefectural flower.

A famous spot for cluster amaryllis in Japan

  • SaitamaHidaka CityIt is inPurse : Known as a famous spot for cluster amaryllis[Annotation 5]..ヒガンバナの名所は多数あるものの、雑木林の中にある曼珠沙華の群生は希少であるAlthough there are many famous spots for cluster amaryllis, the herds of Manju Saka in the thickets are rare.[22]..例年は9月後半から10月上旬まで、500万本のヒガンバナが咲くEvery year, from the latter half of September to the beginning of October, XNUMX million cluster amaryllis bloom.[23]..巾着田の最寄り駅であるThe nearest station to KinchakudaSeibu Ikebukuro LineKoma StationMany extra trains stop at the station, and trains with cluster amaryllis head marks are operated.
  • KanagawaIseharaIt is inHyuga pharmacistNearby: 100 million cluster amaryllis bloom.
  • AichiHanda City OfYakachi RiverEmbankment: 300 million cluster amaryllis bloom[24]..近くにCloseNiimi Nankichi Memorial MuseumThere,Nankichi NiimiWork "Gon, the Little FoxIt is famous as the stage of.
  • GifuKaizu OfTsuya RiverBank: 3 cluster amaryllis can be seen over 10km.
  • Kojimako Flower Corridor, Minami-ku, Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture: Approximately 55 cluster amaryllis bloom in the natural green space inside the Flower Corridor Golf Course.
  • HiroshimaMiyoshi CityKisachoTsuji'sBasen RiverAlong: Received the highest award in the "Regional Activities Division" of the 12th Hiroshima Prefectural Landscape Conference "Landscape Creation Award".also,KodanshaIn "Weekly Flower Encyclopedia" No. 2004.9.16, it was selected as one of the 10 best spots for cluster amaryllis in Japan.
  • NagasakiOmuraHachimakiyama Observatory: Approximately 360 million cluster amaryllis bloom on the summit of Mt. Hachimaki with a 100-degree view.During the period, the Hachimakiyama cluster amaryllis festival will be held.
  • SaitamaChichibuYokoze TownIn: One million cluster amaryllis bloom on the ridges of rice terraces.Seibu Chichibu LineYokoze Station15 minutes on foot.

Related species

(Zhong Kuinarcissus,Lycoris traubii W.Hayw.[1]
It is a different species similar to cluster amaryllis, and there are differences in that the leaves are wide.This species also bears fruit.
(Lycoris × albiflora Koidz. [1]
It blooms white flowers that look like different colors of cluster amaryllis.The petals do not warp so much and are slightly yellowish.The leaves are rather wide.According to one theory, it is a hybrid of Chinese spider lily and cluster amaryllis, which produces seeds.[25]..However, there is a contradiction in the explanation that the red-flowering cluster amaryllis was crossed if it did not produce seeds, so it is possible that the red-flowering cluster amaryllis was mutated and a white cluster amaryllis was born. There is also a theory that[26].

A work with the title of cluster amaryllis

It is used in the titles of various creative works because of its vividness of flowers, toxicity and names reminiscent of death.

Song

Movies, games, novels, cartoons

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ APG systemClassification by.Cronquist systemThen.Lily family.
  2. ^ The cluster amaryllis is a different species.
  3. ^ In the past, many were burialsgraveTocoffinWas buried and covered with soil from above.これをthisFoxThere were cases where animals such as these were digged up and destroyed.
  4. ^ Nippon TVof"Tokoro's eyes are ten』(Broadcast on September 2005, 9) conducted an edible experiment using the recipe at that time.However, the experiment was conducted under the guidance of an expert with thorough preparation.If the same thing is actually done, there is a risk that the time for detoxification is insufficient, or that toxic components accumulate in the body due to long-term ingestion, causing poisoning.
  5. ^ Although it is a red flower, the locals dislike the image of equinoctial week = death, and dare to call it Manju Saka.

Source

  1. ^ a b c Koji Yonekura; Tadashi Kajita (2003-). “"BG Plants Japanese Name-Scientific Name Index" (YList)”. As of May 2012, 6オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.October 2011th, 10Browse.
  2. ^ Osamu Tanaka 2007, p. 118.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Hidehiro Inagaki 2018, p. 218.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Koji Tanaka 1995, p. 106.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shufu to Seikatsusha 2007, p. 127.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Atsushi Baba 1996, p. 96.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Hidehiro Inagaki 2018, p. 219.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Osamu Tanaka 2007, p. 119.
  9. ^ Kumamoto High SchoolPC Club (March 2010, 3). “Another name for cluster amaryllis". Flowers and plants of the four seasons. October 2011th, 10Browse.
  10. ^ a b Osamu Tanaka 2007, p. 125.
  11. ^ a b Supervised by Toshiaki Oshima 2002, p. 340.
  12. ^ "A bright red obi in the ridges of the fields, the best time to see cluster amaryllis in Otokuni, Kyoto""Kyoto Shimbun] November 2018, 9 (read April 21, 2018).
  13. ^ a b c d Osamu Tanaka 2007, p. 121.
  14. ^ Osamu Tanaka 2007, p. 122.
  15. ^ a b c Supervised by Fumihiro Konta by Ryukichi Kameda and Shigeo Arisawa 2010, p. 219.
  16. ^ Osamu Tanaka 2007, pp. 118, 124.
  17. ^ Tsuneo Suzuki, Fuyu Takahashi, Naofumi Annobu 2018, p. 14.
  18. ^ Ending material "History of Yasuura Town" p1064, edited by Yasuura Town History Committee, published on March 2004, 3
  19. ^ "Food poisoning due to accidental ingestion of Amaryllidaceae plants”. National Institute of Public Health. October 2020th, 12Browse.
  20. ^ Akira Matsumura, Akio Yamaguchi, Toshimasa Wada, ed., Obunsha Japanese Dictionary (8th Edition), p.1432 Obunsha, published October 1992, 10. ISBN-4 01-077702-8
  21. ^ Supervised by Takanori Shintani, "12-month tradition: Convinced if you know! Enjoy your life", edited by PHP Institute,PHP Institute, 2007, 100 pages.ISBN 978-4-569-69615-7.
  22. ^ "Flowers of the four seasons”. Kinchakuda Management Office, Hidaka City, Saitama Prefecture. October 2020th, 9Browse.
  23. ^ ""500 million" in re-survey Saitama / Hidaka Manjushage”. Asahi Shimbun (June 2013, 9). October 2013th, 9Browse.[Broken link]
  24. ^ "Yakachi River (cluster amaryllis)". Aichi Prefecture's official tourist guide "Aichi Now"Aichi Prefecture, Aichi Now Management Office (Pico Naresi). October 2020th, 9Browse.
  25. ^ Osamu Tanaka 2007, p. 120.
  26. ^ Osamu Tanaka 2007, pp. 122–123.

References

  • Yoshisuke Satake et al. (1982). Japanese Wild Plants Herbs 1 Monocotyledons. 平凡 社 

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