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In the Heisei era, my family often said that I was like a Meiji person.
 

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Heisei

Heisei(Heisei)It is,Japan OfEraone of.

ShowaAfter,ReiwaBefore.Dahua247th since then[Note 1] The era name of.Akihito(125th generationEmperor) Reign period1989 (XNUMX)May 1から2019 (31)May 4Until[Note 2].

hereJapanese history period classificationUp,Gregorian calendar(AD)of20st centuryから21st centuryOverHeisei period(Heiseijidai) is also described.

Overview

Revised from Showa

History

1989 (64)May 1,Emperor Showa OfdemiseAlong withCrown princeAkihitoPrinceWas crowned the 125th emperor.thisSuccession of the throneOn the same day,1979 "(Showa 54) enacted"Era law(Law No. 54 of 43) ""Cabinet Order Revising the Era (Ordinance No. XNUMX of XNUMX)'Was promulgated and enforced, and the next day was "XNUMXMay 1It was revised by changing it to.For the first time in the history of the Japanese era, the era was revised in accordance with the law.The "Cabinet Order to Revise the Original Issue (Cabinet Order No. 64 of XNUMX)" was the first and last Cabinet Order in "XNUMX".

In addition, since the procedure premised on the demise cannot be performed in advance, the formal procedure was started on the day of the demise and the reorganization was carried out the next day.After making a formal commission over the phone on the day of the demise, the "Meeting of Experts on the Era" only exchanged opinions for about 20 minutes, and it was said that the new era was decided in a hurry in a heavy atmosphere.[1]..However, preparations are underway under the surface of the water, and Emperor Showa vomited blood and his condition deteriorated.1988 In September (63), the era was narrowed down to the three final candidates.[2].

In the early morning of the Demise of the Crown of the Showa Emperor (January 1th), the Cabinet Cabinet Office was finally appointed from about 7 candidates.Heisei(Heisei)""Edit(Severe)""Normalization(Cue)”, And narrowed down to three plansPrime MinisterNoboru Takeshita(Takeshita Cabinet) Approved.That afternoon, with the "Advisory Panel on the Era Name" (composed of the following eight experts)House of RepresentativesPrimary and secondaryChair(Kensaburo Hara-Shinnen Tagaya)as well asHouse of CouncilorsPrimary and secondaryChair(Yoshihiko Tsuchiya-Hideyuki Seya) Shows three candidates, "Heisei," "Shubun," and "Correcting," and asked for their opinions.

At that time, he was the Director of the Cabinet Secretary at that time.Junzo MatobaHowever, at once, the era name after the Meiji eraThe alphabetArrange the acronyms in order, "M(Meiji)·T(Taisho) ・SAfter (Showa)HWould be nice to set up. "[3][Note 3].

Experts who attended the "Advisory Panel on the Era"[4]
NameTitle (at that time)
Impact on a wide areaAffiliation
Yoshizo Ikeda4th generation (1973-1979)MitsuiChief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board14th (1988-1989) NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) Chairman
Ryogo KuboFranceAcademy of scienceHonorary memberKeio UniversityFaculty of Science and Engineering教授
Youji Kobayashi14th generation (1985-1991)Japan Newspaper AssociationPresidentYomiuri ShimbunChief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board
Nakagawa Jun7th generation (1984-1990)Japan Private Broadcasting FederationPresidentTelevision Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board
NakamuraIndian philosophyPerson,Buddhist scholarTokyo UniversityHonorary professor
Haruo NishiharaJapan Private University FederationPresident12th generation (1982-1990)Waseda UniversityPresident
NHK Commissioned Commentary(1975-1988)Director
Wataru Mori13th generation (1985-1989)National University AssociationPresident23th generation (1985-1989)Tokyo UniversityPresident

At the all-ministerial meeting held after that, they agreed on "Heisei".[5], Temporary held from 14:10 on the same dayCabinetThe new era was officially decided as "Heisei". 14:36,Keizo ObuchiChief Cabinet SecretaryAnnounced at a press conference.

The Cabinet Order, which has just ended, decided to change the era name, and as I said after the first extraordinary Cabinet meeting, it is scheduled to be promulgated today.
The new era is "Heisei(Heisei)Is. — Chief Cabinet Secretary Keizo Obuchi

After sayingJunichi Kato OfBlameThe figure showing the mount with the new era "Heisei" printed on it was regarded as a symbol of the new era (#backgroundSee also).When the new era was announced, it was difficult to explain it verbally, so it was announced as a "book" to appeal to the eyes.Hiroshi IshitsukiSecretaryIs the idea of[5].

On the same day, "Cabinet Order to Revise the Original Issue (Cabinet Order No. XNUMX of XNUMX)"New emperor OfJudgment(Insai)[Note 4] After receivingOfficial gazetteBy extraAnnounceAnd from January 1th the following dayEnforcementWas done.Also,"Matters concerning how to read the era(Cabinet of 64)noticeNo. 6) was announced, and it was clarified that the reading of the new era was "Heisei".

MeijiからTaisho, From the Taisho eraShowaUnlike when changing to[Note 5]As a background to the enforcement from the next day at the time of the Heisei era, the document work became complicated at that time.Word processorBeginning withOAAccompanyComputer programIt was reported that it was to make a change.

Matters concerning the "Heisei" proposal

It was an oriental historian who proposed "Heisei," which was one of the three final candidates.Tatsuro Yamamoto(Tokyo UniversityProfessor Emeritus)[2][5][6].

Involved in the selection of the new era as the then Chief Cabinet SecretaryJunzo Matoba[6] According to Yamamoto, the three finalists for the era were secretly commissioned.Seiichi Uno,Makoto MekadaIt is said that it was based on the proposal of Mr. 3 (I later admitted that Mekada proposed "Shubun" and Uno proposed "correction")[7].. 『文藝 春秋InShinichi SanoIn response to the interview with the (writer), Matoba said, "The era name is a lucky charm, and the proposal of the person who lost the era before the revision will be immediately abolished."Moroji Bridge,Shigeki Kaizuka,Taro SakamotoAll of these proposals are said to have been scrapped[7].

Matoba Cabinet Secretary of the Cabinet Secretary seeks an alternative scholar in secretMinistry of EducationThe selection was made only by the staff and two people, but the media reports were already overheated due to the deterioration of the emperor's condition, and many reporters were staking in front of the scholar's home, so he will participate.学会It is said that he got in contact with[8].

Kozo WatanabeAccording to the era name of "Heisei", Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita and others at the time of the revisionJapanese GovernmentIt is said that the leaders were obsessed before the decision[7]..Also at the time of the Takeshita CabinetDeputy Secretary-General, Cabinet Secretariat(Political affairs)Ichiro Ozawa"(Takeshita) The proposals that came up to the Prime Minister were" Heisei "and"ChemicalThe Prime Minister, Mr. Obuchi (Chief Cabinet Secretary), and myself (Ozawa) chose "Heisei". "[9].

After Prime Minister Takeshita stepped down from the Prime Minister1990 (Heisei 2) Although it was unofficial, "Heisei" was mentioned at the time of the lecture given in January.Positive studyPersonMasayasu YasuokaIt is said that it was a plan of[10]..However, since Yasuoka was also lost before the demise of the Emperor Showa, it is impossible for Yasuoka to come up with the idea.[11]..Matoba said, "In fact, the false theory that the creator of" Heisei "was Masahiro Yasuoka was widespread, so I began to reveal the process of selecting the new era so as not to distort the truth of history." It has said[5].

authority

The source of "Heisei" stated by Chief Cabinet Secretary Obuchi at the time of the announcement of the new era isChinese bookAnd it is as follows. * The era name was taken from the bold part in the Chinese text.

"History"Five Emperor Shun

InsideflatouterFormation
(InsideflatCrab outsideFormationNS)

"Calligraphy(Fake Kobunshosho) ”Yu the Great

GroundflatdayFormation
(GroundflatKanitenFormationNS)

"Heisei" means "both inside and outside the country, both inside and outside the country.平和Is achieved. "[12]..This is the first time in Japan that the era name has "Naru", but "Great success"(North Zhou) Or “Formation"(Light), Etc., foreign eras and 13sEmperor ShigeruIt is used in the posthumous name of, and "Heisei" can be said to be a classic era name in line with convention.

Edo PeriodAt the end, "KeioThere is "Heisei" in another plan when it was changed to "Heisei"[13][14], The source is also said to be from the same "History" and "Shokei"[15].

When deciding "Heisei", the expert said, "The source (corresponding item of the book) isCounterfeitIt is a fake ancient textbook, and it is not suitable. "

Presentation

Chief Cabinet Secretary Obuchi (at that time, later Prime Minister)Prime Minister's OfficeAtPress conferenceOn the mount used inHeisei"BlameWhat I didPrime Minister's Secretariat(at that time.Reorganization of central ministriesAfter thatCabinet OfficeMinister's Secretariat) Personnel Division Resignation ProfessionalJunichi Kato.

About 20 minutes before the press release, he was given a piece of paper with "Heisei" written in pencil and learned the name of the new era.After that, four pieces prepared by Kato himselfVotive paperWrite Heisei on each, put the 4th sheet in the frame,CardboardとFuroshikiWhat was packed in was carried to the Chief Cabinet Secretary of Japan, Obuchi.When he first learned of Heisei as a personal story of Kato himself, he thought that "characters with a small number of strokes are difficult to take and write."He also said that he intended to submit the fourth piece from the beginning, regardless of whether he was good or bad at choosing the fourth piece.The place to print the new era was decided in advance as the meeting room of the internal affairs deliberation room of the same government office.When I entered the room, several people were doing other work, so I asked them to open a corner of the work desk and wrote "Heisei".The work desk was relatively high, the chair was a pipe chair, and the surroundings were a little noisy, so it was very difficult to write.[16].

Hiroshi Ishitsuki, the secretary of the Chief Cabinet Secretary of Japan, was also unable to convey the atmosphere of Chinese characters on the radio when "Showa" was announced at the time of the revision from "Taisho".Kobun incidentThere was also a false alarm, and the public's expectations did not rise, so on TVLive broadcastI thought that it would be possible to foster "expectations and atmosphere for a new era", and emphasized TV interviews.[8]..It is said that Kato, who was volatile, also considered the appearance when the image flowed, such as suppressing the faintness of the characters "to show the strength for a certain future and the new era".[8].

I thought about not only the letters but also the movements when showing off, so I decided to put up a calligraphy next to my face to leave an impression.[8]..At first, I was planning to stick a piece of paper on an acrylic board, but when I consulted with the media just before,flashWas pointed out that it could not be seen due to reflection, and it was composed of "calligraphy plus white wood framework, no acrylic board".[8].

Kato2005 (17)12The 20th "National Personnel AuthorityReceived the "President's Award" in the individual category[17].

After the announcementVotive paperAs for, there is no agreement on how to handle it after the announcement.[Note 6] The actual copy was presented to Prime Minister Takeshita, and the spare copy was presented to Chief Cabinet Secretary Obuchi, who was treated as private property and was officially missing.[18]..After that, the singer / talent who is the grandson of Takeshita (the son of the second daughter)DAIGOAppearedTBS TVIn the program, he said that it was stored in the Takeshita family, and showed off the genuine memorial paper borrowed from the Takeshita family.[19][20] The whereabouts were found by doing.afterwards,National ArchivesContacted the Takeshita family and wrote a memorial paper2009 9Borrowed to, next2010 3Will be officially donated to[18].. In response to thisReiwaIt was decided to treat the memorial paper as an official document from the beginning of the announcement.[18].

The National Archives of Japan publishes scanned images as "Heisei (era name) books", but the originals cannot be viewed.[21]..Clear files based on scanned images are sold at the National Archives of Japan shop.[22].

"Heisei" that existed before the announcement of the era

After the announcement of "Heisei", the name of the organization named after itPlace nameThere are many such things (see "Things bearing Heisei" below). In the process of selecting "Heisei", the government investigated whether it was used in the names of groups, companies and individuals.インターネットSince it was an era when the search for things by means was not as widespread as it is today, there was a limit to the preliminary survey and it was the same as the original issue.漢字Understanding of the person's name and place name to be written was incomplete[8].

For this reason, men who read "Taira Shigeru" in their personal names and "Henari" in their place namesGifuMugi Town(CurrentSeki City)ofFine printEtc. have been confirmed as "Heisei" that existed before the announcement of the era.Matoba, who was involved in the selection of the era name, was a Chinese restaurant.NameI was looking into it, but I couldn't handle the small letters, and I recalled that I was "astounded" about these coincidences.[8][23].

other than this,MieOf the "Omoiroimon Ide Nyawa Exhibition" held by the Buried Cultural Center2015 (27) For the event,Matsusaka CityIt was written as "Heisei" excavated from the Asami ruins ofHeian periodMid-term ink writing pottery was released[24][25][26][27].KushidagawaIt is estimated that it was used for a festival to calm the flooding of.

Reiwa

History

2016 (28)May 8The 125th Emperor Akihito said, "His Majesty's words about his service as a symbol(Video message to the public), and since thenTransferDiscussions have become more active.

2017 (29), "The Exceptional Law of the Imperial Household Law concerning the resignation of the Emperor(Law No. 29 of 63) ”,3th Abe 2nd remodeling Cabinet(Shinzo AbeBy (Prime Minister)国会Submitted to the ordinary session of the Diet (ordinary Diet session)House of RepresentativesとHouse of CouncilorsIt was passed by both houses as originally proposedMay 6Became a law in the same month16 daysPromulgated in[28]..Article 3 of the law stipulates that "the emperor will abdicate only on the day of enforcement of this law, and the emperor will immediately take the throne." It was set as the date specified by the Cabinet Order within the range not exceeding the year.[28][29][30].. same yearMay 12Held inImperial meetingAnd the same month8 daysAfter a cabinet meeting,2019 (31)May 4It was officially decided that Emperor Akihito would abdicate.MoreoverMay 12, A Cabinet Order was promulgated with the enforcement date of the law as "April 31, 4".[31], Emperor Akihito abdicated on the same day according to the provisions of the law, and Akihito's first princeCrown Prince NaruhitoIs the nextMay 5The schedule for the coronation has been decided.Following the succession of this throne, the Era Name Act (Law No. 54 of 43, Paragraph 2 of the main rules: The era name isSuccession of the throneAmend only if there is. ), The era name is expected to be revised on May 5.On the other hand, the announcement of the new era was one month before the revision.May 4It was decided to become.

On April 2019, 31 (Heisei 4), the government will replace Heisei based on the Era Name Act.EraToReiwa(Reading: "Reiwa")[32].. Following the change from "Showa" to "Heisei", the first announcement will be from 11:41 amYoshii KanIt was held by the Chief Cabinet Secretary, and then a discourse by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe was announced from noon.On the same dayEra law(Section 1 of this rule: The era name isCabinet OrderDetermined by. ) Based onCabinet Order to Change the Era(Cabinet Order No. XNUMX of XNUMX) was promulgated by the abdicated Emperor Akihito and published in the "Kanpo" on the same date.[33].. "Reiwa", which is the reading of "Reiwa", was shown in the Cabinet Notification on the same day.[33].

"Ichigen systemWas stipulatedMeijiAfter that1979 "(54) enforced"Era lawThis is the first time under ", and even in the history of the imperial family.Edo PeriodIt corresponds to the second half1817 May 5(Old calendar:culture14 May 3)ofEmperor KokakuからEmperor NitakaIt ’s been 202 years since the transfer to the emperor.AbdicationAccompanySuccession to the throneWas revised. April 2019, 31, the abdication ceremony of the 4th Emperor Akihito based on the Emperor Akihito Special Law.Resignation Reijoden's ceremonyWas done.Then, at midnight on May 5, the following day, the 1th Emperor Akihito was abdicated and became the emperor, and the Crown Prince Tokuhito became the 0th Emperor.[34]The Heisei era, which lasted for more than 30 years, came to an end, and a government ordinance to revise the era was enforced, and it was changed to Reiwa.

The total period of Heisei is 11,070 days (30 years and 113 days).This is the Japanese eraShowa(62nd and 14th),Meiji(43nd and 281th),OeiIt is the fourth longest after (33 years and 313 days) (the fifth isPostponement23 years and 251 days)[Source required][Note 7].

Flow of the times

Overview of the times

From the bubble economy period to before the terrorist attacks on the United States (mainly at the end of the century)

1989 (XNUMX)May 1から2001 (13)May 9Until.

In Japan, due to speculative heat for real estate and securitiesBubble economyHappened,US-Japan trade frictionIn responseUS-Japan structural consultationHas begun.From Showa to HeiseiChangeWas done1989 In (XNUMX)Berlin Wall Collapseddid.Eastern EuropeThen one after anotherrevolutionIs happeningCommunismThe administration was overthrown one after anotherEast AsiaThen.Tiananmen IncidentHappened.Malta talksSoviet leadersCold WarDeclare the end,Second World WarThe Cold War, which lasted for 44 years, was over.

1990 In (2)Gulf WarBroke out,Checkbook diplomacyJapan was the first to be criticizedSDF overseas dispatchWill be done.Next year1991 In (3), it was one of the main nations of the Cold War.USSRCollapsed in JapanBubble economyCollapsed.Gulf WarOutbreakCollapse of the Soviet Union-Bubble burstByAmericanizationとGlobal capitalismSwept the world.AmericaUnipolar systemThe era has arrived.Also, during the period of economic growthJapanese govermentThe company builtlifetime employment-Seniority-Convoy system OfOffice workerMainstream society (Company社会) Collapsed and domestic demand shrankdeflationBegins.

Japanese societyLost ten yearsThe recession era continued, and the baby boomer junior generation studentsEmployment ice ageWas hit by.In Japanese politics, the formation of a new party has become active due to the reorganization of the political world.Non-LDP and non-communist coalition governmentNext55 yearsCollapsed.Of the established political parties that were hostile during the Cold War in the latter half of the Showa periodLDPとSocialist PartyTo seize powerIn-house coalitionWas established.1995 (7) is a milestone of "50th anniversary after the war"Murayama Tomi CityBy the prime ministerMurayama discourseThere,May 1ToGreat Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeOccurs,May 3ToAum ShinrikyobySubway Sarin caseThere has occurred. Around July 1999The Great of TerrorThe apocalyptic idea of ​​believing in the prophecy that humankind would be destroyed by the invasion of the human race spread in the 1990s.The Great Prophecy of Nostradamus,2000 issueな どEnd of the centuryAnxiety began to be screamed in the 1990s.With the collapse of the postwar regimeReligiousThe rise of power is accelerating,Soka GakkaiIs the backingKomeitoWithSelf-public coalitionHas begun.

Before the global financial crisis from the terrorist attacks in the United States

2001 (13)May 9から2007 (19)May 9Until.

new centuryBecame2001 (13)Islamic extremists American terrorist attacksWake upSuicide bombingとWar on terrorismIt was a turbulent era.Under the American unipolar systemAxis of evil((I.e.-(I.e.-north korea) Promote hard-line diplomacy,Iraq war,Afghanistan conflictLed the war on terrorism.

Due to soaring resource pricesUnited Arab EmiratesResource countries such asBrazil (Brazil) ・ロシア (Russia) ・India (India) ・People's Republic of China (China) ・Republic of South Africa (South Africa)BRICsCountries have emerged.

in Japan,Koizumi Cabinet SDF Iraq dispatchAndStructural reform without sanctuaryIn the name of politics and economyAmericanizationWas further strengthened.The economic situation temporarily improved due to the improvement of the export industry,Izanami businessWe reached the longest boom period after the war.wealthy classAnd foreign demand related industriesBusinessIt is said that there is no real feeling of recovery, "No real feelingeconomic growthWas said.Meanwhile, in ChinaEconomic developmentAs a result, Japan's largest trading partner has changed from the United States to China.

In the 1990s,Gender equalityWesternization of sexual events such as sexual liberation and sexual liberation has progressed.However, in the 2000s, the number of women who were non-regular workers such as dispatched workers increased rapidly, and the problem of women's poverty became a problem, making it a country with a low status among developed countries.

Computer2000 issueOr later,インターネットWith the rapid spread ofSankei Shimbun-NHKMany exceptMediaBut than the eraADIs often used mainly.Even in the private sector, except for industries that value traditions such as shrines and sumo, it has changed to use the Christian era in peacetime.

Reconstruction period after the Great East Japan Earthquake from the global financial crisis (mainly in the 20s)

2007 (19)May 9から2019 (31)May 4Until.

America'sSub prime loanTriggered byWorld DepressionCalled the return ofGlobal recessionBroke out.In the worldLehman shock-Dubai shock-GM bankruptcyAnd so on.A sharp credit crunch has occurred all over the worldUS government bondsBuy and support US finances with mass underwriting[35],Beijing Olympics opening ceremonyChina, which gathered leaders from the United States, Russia, Japan, etc. to show off its influence on the world, carried out large-scale economic stimulus measuresGDPTow (GDP)[36], Exceeded Japan's GDP.China and RussiaUnited Nations Security CouncilI often confront the United States, whose influence has declined due to such reasons.Second Cold WarAlso described as[37][38].2011 (23) At the beginningArab countriesThen.Arab springAnti-government demonstration byEgypt,(I.e.The long-term administration collapsed in(I.e. The内 戦A terrorist organization straddling Iraq, which was in a state of turmoil after the Iraq War in its neighboring countryHEAT World Islamic EmpireDeclared war on all over the world with the aim of constructing.

From the 20s in JapanPopulation decline societyTo enter the,Employment ice ageCome backDispatch cutEtc. of non-regular employeesDismissalThere are many.Yutori generationIn the era of new graduates finding employment, young people born in Heisei at a company were compared with university students of the postwar generation in the Showa era in terms of work ability.Disparity societyBecame a problem, and in the self-governmentNeoliberalismIn the political world, there are criticisms of economic policy.2008 Japan from around (20)Minsha United Nations AdministrationWas established (in Japan2009 From <21>).During this time, with Hatoyama, Suga, and Noda CabinetCivil union governmentChange rapidly in a short period of time,Tohoku-Pacific Ocean EarthquakeThere has occurred.Due to this earthquakeGreat East Japan EarthquakeandFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentOccurs,The Pacific OceanIn the coastal municipality(I.e.Loss of place of residence or workplace due toradioactive contaminationByFukushima OfHamadoriMany people in the disaster-stricken area were forced to relocate from a part of the disaster area, and there were concerns about power shortages due to the shutdown of nuclear power plants all over the country due to the earthquake and the nuclear accident.Electricity crisis caused by the Great East Japan EarthquakeからPower savingWas forced.Furthermore with RussiaNorthern Territories issue,China·TaiwanWithSenkaku Islands Dispute, South KoreaWithTakeshima problemSuch asterritorial dispute,Anti-JapanExercise intensified,The biggest national crisis after the warWas called.2012 (24) A change of government took place in December, and the self-government government was born again.First Abe Cabinet TheAbenomicsTo break out of deflation as part of the policymonetary easing,Public worksPromotion of disaster mitigation and disaster prevention byDeindustrialization of industryAs a countermeasureCorporate taxTax cut,Local creation, My number that assigns a 12-digit number to all citizens (personal number) Introduction of the system, promotion of employment of women,Work stylePromotion of reform,Foreign workerExpansion of acceptance,Trans-Pacific Partnership AgreementPolicies such as participation in negotiations were promoted.

Political history

Cabinet

Successive Cabinets of Japan (Heisei)reference

Political party

55 yearsA new party formed at the end of the period (from 5 to XNUMX)
After the 55 system collapsed1990 eraA new party formed in the middle to the late 1990s (6-11)
2000 eraA new party formed during the period (from 12 to 21)
2010 eraA new party formed during the period (22-31)[39]
Heisei Political Party History (Characteristics of the New Party in the Heisei Period)

In the Heisei period, the union-affiliated political parties in the latter half of the Showa periodJapanese Socialist PartyとDemocratic Party(Established political party under the 55 system) and urban innovation citizen partySocial Democratic UnionWas disbanded in the 1990s, and the worker party in the latter half of the Showa era disappeared.On the other hand, new parties were formed one after another (New Frontier Party, Democratic Party, Democratic Party, etc.)Two major partiesTemporarily formed from one ofMini partyUp to) such as national political parties and newRegional party,Religious party,Hospital groupWas formed.Also from the 20s2019 (Heisei 31)2010 eraShowaAfter the warPeriodMiddle districtThe Liberal Democratic Party, the Komeito Party, and the Japanese Communist Party, which have organizational strength and a support base, are the only national political parties that have existed as the same party since the institutional era.In many cases, new political parties also became short-lived, and mergers and divisions between political parties occurred one after another.

55 system period
The defeat of the Liberal Democratic Party and the breakthrough of the Japan Socialist Party
Ichiro Ozawa and political reform

Ichiro OzawaUnder the secretary general, the Liberal Democratic Party administration (Noboru TakeshitaとKanamaru ShinTakeshita faction centered onKeiseikaiDomination stabilizes the political world.The Takeshita faction, which was the largest faction of the Liberal Democratic Party,1992 In (4), the chairman of the KeiseikaiKanamaru Shin Tokyo Sagawa Express IncidentCentered around the Obuchi faction and Ichiro Ozawa after being arrested inHaneda schoolSplit into[44].

In his book, Ozawa emphasized the following points as advantages of changing the House of Representatives election system to a single-seat constituency as a political reform debate.

  1. Eliminate the faction by amicable fire between Liberal Democratic Party candidates and abolishing service battles.
  2. Two-party systemMake an election system that allows for a change of government.
  3. Make an election that doesn't cost money.
  4. Profit guidanceChange from type elections to policy-oriented elections.
  5. Aiming for a political party-oriented election from a person-oriented candidate-oriented one, a party leader's popularity is emphasized, and a political party manifesto is emphasized.
  6. The Japan Socialist Party, which was a perennial opposition party that had no intention of gaining power seriously, destroyed the left-wing forces by making it difficult to win in the single-seat constituencies, and promoted mergers by separation and dispersal between political parties, and a new government Form a strong opposition party to win.
New party boom

Kiichi MiyazawaIt was triggered by the remark of "The Prime Minister talks" in the program in which the Prime Minister appeared.Cabinet no confidence resolutionIn favor ofLiar dissolutionIchiro Ozawa left the Liberal Democratic PartyNew PartyWas launched.Another political reform group, "Utopia Political Study Group"ButNew partyWas launched.1993 (5)40th House of Representatives general electionでJapan New Party-New Party-New partyHas made a leap forward and a new party boom has occurred.

The era of coalition government

1993 In (5) (Japan New Party-New party-New Party-Komeito-Democratic Party-Japanese Socialist Party-Social Democratic Union-Democratic Reform Party) 7 parties 1 factionHosokawa CabinetWas established.Due to the establishment of a non-Liberal Democratic coalition government, the Liberal Democratic Party temporarily fell into the opposition.55 yearsCollapses1994 In (6), the Liberal Democratic Party returned to power as early as the Murayama coalition government with the Socialist Party, and then maintained the government with the Komeito coalition.[45].

Ruling party

The ruling party has the following transitions.

  1. LDPIndependent regime by
  2. Non-LDP and non-communist coalition government (Japan New Party-New party-New Party-Komeito-Democratic Party-Japanese Socialist Party-Social Democratic Union-Democratic Reform Party)
  3. By the Liberal Democratic Party, Japan Socialist Party, and New Party Sakigake during the Murayama Cabinet eraIn-house coalition
  4. Liberal Democratic Party during the Hashimoto Cabinet eraHashimoto CabinetAfter the 41st House of Representatives general electionExternal cooperationThe party name was changed from the Japan Socialist PartySocial Democrats・ Renamed to PRESTONew partyIn-house coalition administration by
  5. Liberal Democratic Party single administration
  6. LDP·Liberal partySelf-reliant coalition government by
  7. Liberal Democratic Party, Liberal Party,KomeitoSelf-public coalition administration by
  8. Liberal Democratic Party, Komei Party,Conservative partySelf-public insurance coalition administration by
  9. Liberal Democratic Party, Komei Party,Conservative New PartySelf-public insurance coalition administration by
  10. By Liberal Democratic Party / KomeitoSelf-public coalitionadministration
  11. Democratic Party-Social Democrats-New National PartybyMinsha United Nations Administration
  12. By the Democratic Party / People's New PartyCivil union government
  13. The Liberal Democratic Party and the Komeito Party have changed to a self-public coalition government, and the Liberal Democratic Party has changed from a single government to a coalition government.[46].
Political system
New Frontier Party and Democratic Party formed

Budding partyThe Japan Socialist Party, which was the first opposition party in the 55 system and was the second party until now, became the third party.Japanese Socialist PartyThe last in the eraNational electionbecome17rd House of Councilors ordinary election(1995 [Heisei 7]) was defeated.afterwards,Sadao YamahanaFormer chairman and new faction "Democrats"Hirotaka Akamatsuな どRightist Socialist PartyThere is a movement to form a new party of the Japan Socialist Party and the New Party Sakigake Union aiming for the third pole.Socialist LeftThe executive department is for the formation of a new party and a makeoverSocial DemocratsThe party name was changed to.However,In-house coalition-Budding partyDoes not belong to a powerThe third wayIt aims toDemocratic LeagueWas formed and further developedNew partyAsfraternityIs the philosophyYukio Hatoyama-Naoto KanByOld Democratic PartyWas formed.The Japan Socialist Party was split into a Democratic Party joining group and a Social Democratic Party remaining group.After that41th House of Representatives general electionDue to the defeat in (1996 [Heisei 8]), the number of seats of the former Socialist Party has decreased.[49].

1994 In June (6), the Liberal Democratic Party, the Japan Socialist Party, and the New Frontier Party pioneered the establishment of the Murayama Tomi City Cabinet. In order to win the 6st House of Representatives general election, a new new party will be formed and a part of the New Frontier Party and the Liberal Democratic Party Only the New Frontier Party joins the New Frontier Party), the Komeito Party, the Japan New Party, and the Liberal Democratic Party (the party that the Koushikai, the Reform Society, the New Party Mirai, and the Liberal Democratic Party merged) merged to become the second party to replace the Japan Socialist Party. An opposition New Frontier Party was formed, and the Liberal Democratic Party vs. the New Frontier PartyTwo-party systemWas established.The third pole where the Japan Socialist Party and the pioneering forces gathered (Yu Party) After the establishment of the Democratic PartyBudding partyIs divided into Ozawa Liberal Party, New Fraternity Party, New Party Peace, People's Voice, Dawn Club, and Reform Club and dismantled.1998 From (10) with the Liberal Democratic PartyDemocratic PartybyTwo-party systemWas established.

The era of the two-party system of the Liberal Democratic Party and the Democratic Party

2005 (17)LDP TheKoizumi Cabinet OfPostal dissolutionWon a big victory in the election by, and won an absolute majority of seats, but succeededAbe Cabinet The2007 (19)21rd House of Councilors ordinary electionLost to the Democratic PartyHouse of CouncilorsIs reversing the ruling and opposition partiesTwisted DietThe composition of was occurring.2009 (21),45th House of Representatives general electionThe Democratic Party won a big victory and the Liberal Democratic Party fell to the opposition,Minsha United Nations Administration OfYukio Hatoyama CabinetWas bornRegime changeHappened.2010 (22)May 5From, the Social Democratic Party withdrew from the coalition,Civil union governmentWas born.

2012 (24) October,Noda CabinetPromoteconsumption taxTax increaseTPPParticipation /Yatsuba DamConstruction resumedNuclear power plantA member of the Diet who rebelled against policies such as acceptance as violating the manifesto claimed by the Democratic Party left the Democratic Party.New Party Daichi / True DemocracyとKizuna PartyWas formed. In MarchKamei ShizukaThe People's New Party's representative insisted on withdrawal from the People's United Nations administration, and the People's New Party was split into the remnants of the administration and the independent secessionists. In July, the DemocraticIchiro OzawaCentered onOzawa GroupAmong the members of the House of Councilors, a member of the House of Councilors who voted against the consumption tax increase bill in the House of Representatives announced that he would leave the party.In the House of Representatives and the House of Councilors, the new faction "People's Life First, Independent Ayumu" (later "People's Life First") and the new partyPeople's lives are the firstFormed each[50].180th DietThe consumption tax increase bill (consumption tax related bill) was passed by the majority of the ruling and opposition parties (Democratic Party, Liberal Democratic Party, Komei Party).By the 3rd pole other than the ruling party of the 1st pole (Democratic Party / People's New Party) and the opposition party of the 2nd pole (Liberal Democratic Party / Komeito / Social Democratic Party / Japanese Communist Party)Olive treeThe idea emerged.Leaving the People's New PartyAkiko KameiA member of the House of Councilors and three female members of the House of Councilors from the Democratic Party have left the partyGreen windBy forming the Democratic Party of JapanFresh greeneryIs the Liberal Democratic Party, Sunrise Party, JapanIndependent societyLine up withHouse of CouncilorsIt became a minority sect close to the second sect of.As of 2Japanese political party TheTwo major partiesAnd with the middle partyMini partyThere are multipleRuling party Democratic PartyとNew National PartyAndOpposition LDP(Liberal Democratic Party) ・People's lives are the first-Komeito-Japan Communist Party(Communist Party) ・Everyone's party-Social Democrats(Social Democratic Party) ・Japan Restoration Party-New Party Daichi / True Democracy-Sun party-Tax reduction Japan-Green wind-New party reform[Note 8]-New Party JapanAnd2012 (24)46th House of Representatives general electionAt the time of the dissolution, 15 political parties, the largest number in history, were in a rush.

At the 46th House of Representatives general electionOppositionLiberal Democratic Party and Komeito win and regain power,Self-public coalitionHas been resurrected.A political composition with strong ruling parties (mainly the Liberal Democratic Party) and weak opposition parties was born.[51],2013 (25)23rd House of Councilors ordinary electionからOnline electionWas lifted.2016 (28) of July24rd House of Councilors ordinary electionThe four opposition parties cooperate in elections and the Japanese Communist Party supports candidates for the Democratic Party in a one-person district.People's joint struggleWas carried out.

Political thought and legal system reform

Tax reform

政治家

Member of Parliament

Hashimoto Cabinet OfPrime Minister's OfficeToAdministrative Reform CouncilIs installed,Central Reform Basic ActWas established.2000 (12)Reorganization of central ministriesAs a result, the prime minister's office took the initiative. Under the Koizumi administration from 2001 (Heisei 13) to 2006 (Heisei 18)Social Insurance AgencyThe pension problem has surfaced, and waste by bureaucratsdictateThe criticism and the voice of the bureaucrats intensified, and promoted the reform led by the administration.

2000 (12)42th House of Representatives general electionBorn in the last Meiji eraYoshio SakurauchiとKensaburo HaraRetired as a member of the Diet and all born in the Meiji era retired2009 (21)45th House of Representatives general electionso,Taro NakayamaWas defeated and was born in the Taisho era (Taisho generation) Has disappeared and all members were born in the Showa era.1990 eraIs the Takeshita-ha Nana magistrateSeiwakaiA politician called the Four Tennos was active. From the Taisho era during the 20th centuryShowa single digitBorn in the Taisho era (born in the Taisho era)Yasuhiro Nakasone-Noboru Takeshita-Sosuke Uno-Kiichi Miyazawa-Murayama Tomi City-Kajiyama ShirokuBorn in Showa single digit (etc.)Takako Doi-Toshiki Kaifu-Masayoshi TakemuraEtc.) ・ Born in the 10s of the Showa period (Ichiro Ozawa-Takeshi Haneda-Hosokawa Gohi-Ryutaro Hashimoto-Keizo ObuchiEtc.) up to politicians1990 eraLed the political world ofTakeshita faction magistrate,Abe ShitennoAround2000 eraMany of these politicians died or retired when they entered.LDPThen.Liberal Democratic Party presidential electionAtLiberal Democratic factionAlthough the conflict has weakenedPrime ministerAround the seat ofNeo New LeaderA politician calledKintake small-Antake Palace-YKK(Yamazaki Taku-Koichi Kato-Junichiro Koizumi)・Kozou Asagaki-NAIS meeting(Nemoto Takumi-Shinzo Abe-Nobuaki Ishihara-Yasuhisa Shiozaki) Etc. attracted attention.2000 eraBorn in the 10s of the Showa era (Mori-Junichiro Koizumi-Kamei Shizuka-Ichiro Ozawa-Fukuda Yasuo-Taro AsoEtc.) ・ Born in the 20s of the Showa period (Yukio Hatoyama-Naoto Kan-Katsuya Okada-Shinzo AbeEtc.) take the initiative,2010 eraBorn in the 30s of the Showa era (Seiji Maehara-Yoshihiko NodaEtc.) politicians have begun to take the initiative.After the war, the leader of the ruling and opposition parties was born, and the members of the DietDainichi this empirePeriod1945 From prewar and wartime politicians born before (20), baby boomers, etc.Second World WarThere were more politicians born after the war who were born after.There was a new party boom1990 eraIs1960 erabirth(New humanity-Bubble generation) However, in the 2000s when Koizumi Children, Ozawa Girls, etc. came to the spotlight.1970 erabirth(Baby boom junior-Post baby boom juniorGeneration) became a member of parliament.2010 eraTo1980 eraBorn to be a member of parliament.

20st centuryUntil then, it was common for elites such as highly educated, businessmen, and hereditary peers, and members of parliament from unions.21st centuryTo enter the,Employment ice ageAs the generation that experiencedPart-time worker(OriginalNon-regular workers)Taizo Sugimura-Kazumi OtaEtc. of general youthCareerSome politicians have something in common.

Until the end of the Showa period, the ratio of female members in the House of Representatives was a small number of about 1%.1986 (Showa 61)Same day electionAs a result, the number of female members of the House of Representatives was 7 and the ratio was 1.4%, and the number of female members of the House of Councilors was 22 and the ratio was 8.7%.Heisei firstNational electionBecame1989 (XNUMX)15rd House of Councilors ordinary electionでMadonna whirlwindSince a large number of female candidates were elected mainly by the Japan Socialist Party2009 (21)45th House of Representatives general electionAs a result, the number of female members was 54, and the ratio was 11.3%.2010 (22)22rd House of Councilors ordinary electionAs a result, the number of female members is 44, the ratio is 18.2%, and the number of female politicians is gradually increasing.

Single-seat constituency proportional representationThe election system has changedLDPとDemocratic PartyTwo major political partiesKoizumi Children,Ozawa ChildrenProducing members of the Diet who have become salaried workers,Middle-election systemLike the timesLandlordType politicianLabor unionThe number of graduates has dropped sharply.

Chief

In 2000 (Heisei 12) in rural areasFusae OtaBecame the governor of Osaka Prefecture, and Japan's first female governor was born.

Ministers and central ministries

1996 (8)Assistant to the Prime MinisterThe system was introduced.1999 (11)Parliamentary deliberation activation lawWas established.2001 (13)国会InGovernment memberInstitution andUnder Secretary of StateHas been abolished,Deputy MinisterとMinister of ParliamentWas newly installed.Deputy Minister of the Cabinet Office-Vice Minister for Reconstruction-Vice Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications-Deputy Minister of Justice-Deputy Foreign Minister-Vice Minister of Finance-Deputy Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Deputy Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare-Deputy Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry-Vice Minister of the Environment-State Minister of Defense-Deputy Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourismな どDeputy MinisterThe system was created.

Parliamentary Vice-Minister of Cabinet Office-Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications-Parliamentary Secretary of Justice-Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs-Parliamentary Vice-Minister of Finance-Parliamentary Vice-Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Parliamentary Vice-Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare-Parliamentary Vice-Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry-Parliamentary Vice-Minister of the Environment-Parliamentary Vice-Minister of Defense-Parliamentary Vice-Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport-Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Reconstructionな どMinister of ParliamentThe system was created.

Cabinet Office Establishment LawByCabinet OfficeWas founded.Great Hanshin EarthquakeLessons and lessonsGreat East Japan EarthquakeFrom correspondence toMinister of Reconstruction MeasuresWas installed.Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentThe Minister in charge of nuclear power was set up due to the need for countermeasures, and the Nuclear Safety Agency (Nuclear Regulatory Agency) Was decided by the Cabinet.2011 (23)Basic Law for Great East Japan Earthquake RecoveryIs established,2012 (24) in AugustReconstruction Agency establishment lawHas been enforcedReconstruction AgencyWas installed.At the same time, a bill was passed to increase the number of ministers in charge, which is the capacity of the Cabinet, by one.Rapidly advancedCountermeasures to the falling birthrateAsMinister of Special Affairs, Cabinet Office (in charge of gender equality)とMinister for Extraordinary Mission, Cabinet Office (in charge of declining birthrate)Was founded.Consumer Affairs AgencyHave jurisdiction overMinister of State for Consumer Affairs and Food Safety-Financial Services AgencyHave jurisdiction overMinister of Finance・ Has jurisdiction over Okinawa promotion and northern measuresOkinawa and Northern MinistersWas founded.Economic and Fiscal Advisory CouncilHave jurisdiction overMinister of Economic and Fiscal PolicyWas installed.Abduction Problem Countermeasures HeadquartersIs the top ofAbduction MinisterWas founded.2015 (27)May 10To prepare for the Tokyo Olympics and promote sportsSports AgencyBut,MilitaryweaponFor procurementDefense Equipment AgencyWere installed respectively.

TemporarilyMinister for Regulatory Reform-Minister for Science and Technology Policy-Minister for disaster prevention・ Minister of State for Food Safety ・Minister of State for Youth Development and Countermeasures against Declining Birthrate・ Minister in charge of personal information protection ・ Minister in charge of Industrial Revitalization Corporation of Japan ・ Minister in charge of food education ・Minister in charge of civil service system reform・ Minister in charge of re-challenge ・ Minister in charge of innovation ・Minister of State for Decentralization Reform-Minister of State for Quality LifeEtc. were installed.Democratic PartyAfter coming into powerMinister for Promotion of Regional Sovereignty-"New Public" Minister-Minister of State for the Nuclear Damage Compensation Support Organization-Minister of State for Nuclear Administration-Minister of Space Policy-Minister for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness・ The Minister in charge of rehabilitation of the Fukushima nuclear accident was established.At the Second Abe CabinetNational resilienceMinister in charge ・ Minister in charge of education revitalization ・Minister of State for the National Strategic Special Zones,Second Abe remodeling CabinetでMinister in charge of regional revitalization,Security legislationEstablished a minister in charge,3th Abe 1nd remodeling CabinetEstablished a minister in charge of 3 million total achievements, and a minister in charge of work style reform in the 2rd Abe XNUMXnd remodeling cabinet.

Kaifu CabinetでMayumi MoriyamaThe first womanChief Cabinet SecretaryAnd,Obuchi CabinetでSeiko NodaThe first womanPostal minister,Koizumi CabinetでMakiko TanakaThe first womanMinister of Foreign Affairs,First Abe CabinetでYuriko KoikeThe first womanMinister of Defense,Second Abe remodeling Cabinetso,Sanae TakaichiとYuko ObuchiBut each is the first womanMinister of Internal Affairs and Communications,Minister of Economy, Trade and IndustryIt became.The female ministerShowa periodOnly men and no women1st Koizumi CabinetIt has become commonplace for the second Abe remodeling cabinet to have five female ministers, with an average of one or two females entering the cabinet.1993 (5)May 8From the Japan Socialist PartyTakako DoiThe first womanChairman of the House of RepresentativesBecame (68th generation)2004 (16)May 7From the Liberal Democratic PartyChikage OgiThe first womanChairman of the House of Councilors(26th generation).

Democratic PartyIn the administrationNational Strategy OfficeIs installed,Administrative reform meetingbyBusiness sortingWas carried out.2011 (23)Noda CabinetThen policy sorting is carried out.

2010May 1ToCommissioner of Social Insurance AgencyTo the topMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare OfOuter office OfSocial Insurance AgencyIs abolished and becomes the Japan Pension Service.

National taxCollect and taxNational Tax AgencyWhen,National pensionとEmployee pensionな どPublic pensionTo operateJapan Pension ServiceThe idea of ​​establishing a new revenue agency has also emerged.

2006 In (18), the "E-Government Promotion Management Office (GPMO)" was established in the Cabinet Secretariat.Moreover2012 In (24), the head of government informatization (government)CIO) Is set up to direct the information system renewal of each ministry and agency and the My Number system ("National identification number system #JapanIt was decided to be in charge of auditing system procurement and coordinating each ministry and agency.

Municipalities

Regional party

Economic history

Bubble burst and Heisei recession

Koizumi Structural Reform and Economic Recovery

2001 Inaugurated as Prime Minister in 13Junichiro KoizumiByStructural reform without sanctuaryWas promoted.Koizumi Cabinet by civiliansParking guardIntroduction of the system, approval of sales of intestinal regulators and vitamins other than pharmacies,[62] Implemented any deregulation that can be established from 1 yen of a corporation.Also, with the slogan "From public to private"Japan Highway Public Corporation-Corporation subway-Narita AirportPrivatized[63].Koizumi Cabinet TheThree postal servicesThe policy goal was to reform the entry regulations for public services such as privatization, electricity industry, telecommunications industry, and transportation industry.The administration of private financial institutions has traditionally beenMinistry of Finance(CurrentMinistry of Finance) Has been in charge, but the inspection and supervision of private financial institutions, etc. have been separated.2001 (13)Cabinet OfficeWas established as an external agency ofFinancial Services AgencyByFinancial revitalization programWas implemented, and the disposal of non-performing loans by banks progressed, and financial institutions became sound.Bank of Japan TheZero interest rateFrom policyQuantitative easingTurn to policy,City bankAre the three majorMega bankWas integrated into.deflationFrom the advanced economic measuresNobel Prize in EconomicsWoneconomist OfPaul KrugmanAdvocated byInflation targetWas considered for introduction.

Long and gradual economic recovery (2002 (Heisei 14) From January2008 (Until February 20) continued, but this economic expansion was led exclusively by external demand, and domestic demand and personal consumption had cooled down due to the reduction in public investment and the decline in the labor share due to the restraint of labor costs of companies. It was up to.again,2003 The employment rate of university graduates in (15) dropped to 55%, and high school graduates also encountered the worst employment difficulties in history.With the economic development of emerging countriesProfoundThe reinstatement of the manufacturing industry, including industry, has occurred.On the other hand, as a new industryInformation revolutionByIT industryHas developed,Low birthrate and aging populationByNursing care businessIs growing and the number of deaths in the elderly is increasingFuneral business(Funeral business) has grownNon-regular employmentWith the increase ofWorker dispatchThe business has grown.

2000 eraIn the second halfRoppongi HillsA wealthy class called was sprinkled on the topic.While the wealthy class is increasingNon-regular employment(15 to 19 years old is about 7% non-regular employment) and even if you work full-time, you cannot get out of povertyWorking poorHas surfaced and is often found in the supporters of the Japanese Communist PartyProletarian literature OfCrab boatThe number of readers has increased rapidly,Disparity societyThe arrival of "has come to be shouted.2009 According to the announcement by the Japanese government (21)2006 As of (18)Poverty rateWas 15.7%.2008 In (20), the economy began to retreat again, and the recession continued amid rising resource prices.StagflationWas worried about the progress of.

Changes in economic structure and changes in Japanese society

1990 eraToBubble economybyLand mythDisappearsBubble burstThere,Standard land priceとOfficial land priceな どLand priceContinued to fall every year.2005 Since (17), the land price of some excellent land has started to rise.In the 20s,gasolinePressure on the management of the transportation industry due to soaring pricesGasoline tax OfTax reductionThe issue was raised.2008 (20)Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismAs an external agency ofSightseeing in JapanInviting a large number of foreign tourists to sightseeing spots, sightseeing (tourism) To aim for a nationTourism AuthorityWas established.gamblingIn a relationship,Number-selection National Autonomous Lottery OfNumbers-Mini lotto-Lotto 6-Lotto 7-Sports promotion lottery・ Horse racingwideWas introduced.In financial relationsPayoffIs implemented,Net securities-online shopping-Investment trustHas become widespread.AdsHuman advertisements such as face advertisements and absolute area advertisements have become widespread.Home Page,BlogOf advertising to paste onaffiliateSpreads, etc.Internet businessHas grown.In the 20sentertainerOn the blogStealth marketingIs a problem.

In the retail industryDaieiSuch asGMSHas come to an end100 Yen shop-Book Off Corporation-Japan McDonald's-YoshinoyaAttention was paid to the price reduction competition for products such as.Left behind in such price competitionSOGOSuch asDepartment storeHas shrunk.UNIQLOWith chains that sell in large quantities at low prices such as2000 (12)Large-scale retail store lawThe abolition of the store liberalized the construction and opening of large-scale stores, and the growth of suburban supermarkets represented by Aeon.Miura ExhibitionA large store that is a coined word ofChain storeThe phenomenon that the individuality of the area is lost when such things advance into the suburbsFast cultureとDownstream societyA social class with low motivation for improvement was born on top of the poor with low income.2014 In (26)Mild YankeeA young man called was noticed.In the suburbs of local citiesRoadside storeIs forested and consists of private shopsShopping districtHas devastated the central city area of ​​a local city (Shutter streetproblem).

In rural areasMedical collapseRailroadLocal line,Transit BusIs abolished one after another, and elderly people who cannot drive their own carsShopping refugeesAnd traffic refugees became a social problem.On the other hand, young people in urban areas with well-developed public transportation are no longer interested in automobiles, which are not daily necessities.Leaving the carI came to do.Was creating big jobs in rural areasConstruction industryIs significantPublic worksThe number of construction companies has decreased due to the reduction of[64], SomeAgriculture:,welfareThere was also a movement to turn into an industry.Manufacturing industry TheAppreciation of the yenDue to this, production was reduced and factories were relocated overseas.For men who progressed from the early Heisei period to the 2010sConstruction industry-Manufacturing industryAs a result of the decrease in jobs such as welfare, service industry, and clerical work for women, the value of men, who were the center of the labor force, declines relatively, but it becomes a hot topic.

Since the late 1990sElectronic moneyHas come to be used in various industries, especially in Japan, Edy (currentlyRakuten Edy),SuicaAdopted inFeliCaThe non-contact IC card type electronic commerce system has rapidly become widespread, and distribution and transportation companies have begun to provide various types of electronic commerce.With the spread of these electronic money,2011 In (23)1 yen coinNo coins were produced.Printed matter OfBookon behalf,E-bookBecomes widespread.

2006 (18)May 5ToextortionistTo regulateCompany law OfArticle 120 of the Companies ActWill be enforced.2011 (23)Mobile phoneとPHSThe number of contracts isJapan OfTotal populationThe number of people owned by more than 1 million people was 2805 million units, and the number of contracts was 1% of the population.Dedicated to communication devices other than ordinary mobile phonesSmartphoneIt is also analyzed that the increase in the number of people who have two mobile phones, which are used properly for work mobile phones and private mobile phones, is also a factor.

2000 eraIn the aviation industry due to Koizumi reformDeregulationWithSky mark, Hokkaido International Airlines (currentlyAIRDO) And other new airlines have entered the market one after another.Also, in the 2010s, we will realize low fares by simplifying services.Cheap airline (LCC) increased, and entry into the Japanese market increased for both international and domestic flights.

2012 From around (24)fryFrom lack ofeelThe price has soared.

Baby boom generationWas adolescent1970 eraDue to the high economic growth due to the demographic dividend, the baby boomer generation has become an elderly person over 60 years old.2000 eraThe economy has shifted to a deflationary economy due to the population onus, where the number of old people is increasing rapidly and the number of young people and other workers is decreasing.Aim for the elderlyPush buying,For saleBecomes a social problem.

バ ブ ルIn the periodwealthy classBetweenBillionIs popular, and in the Koizumi eraRoppongi HillsWealthy people living inHills) Attracted attention, but on the other hand it was common after the 2000sPrivate house(home-Rented house)・Apartment-ApartmentNot likeshare-houseThe number of young people (men and women) who live together in Japan has also increased rapidly.

With the speeding up of railways in the Heisei period,night Train,In-car salesTo abolishRailway companyincreased.2010 eraToChinese peoplesystem(People's Republic of China-Taiwan-Hong Kong-Singapore) To JapantouristHas increased sharply.

2012 With the release of Omiai and Pairs, the way to meet other people who have no connection through the matching app has expanded greatly, and people's communication has rapidly diversified.

2015 Drone from around (27)Unmanned aerial vehicle) Began to spread[65].

Global recession

In the 2000s, the manufacturing industry, which is an export industry, was strong, but the labor shortage was2004 (16)Worker dispatch lawIs revisedManufacturing industryIs also allowed to dispatchForeign workerincluding(I.e.It was covered by unstable employment workers.Therefore, the slowdown in overseas markets hit the manufacturing industry directly.2009 issueBy2008 (20) From around autumn, "dismissal and suspension of dispatched workers"Dispatch cut"increased.New Year's dispatch villagePoverty measures were taken, such as the establishment of2009 By March (21), 3 people had lost their jobs.A large number of dispatched employees who lost their jobs were expelled from the dormitory,ホ ー ム レ スTurned into[66].

America'sSub prime loanFrom the end of 2008 (Heisei 20) triggered byGlobal recessionIs "a recession once in 100 years" and "secondWorld DepressionIt is also called, and it is giving a serious blow to industries other than the manufacturing industry.2009 (21)Aso CabinetAs an emergency economic measureFixed benefitBenefits andEco-car tax reduction-Eco car subsidy-Eco pointMeasures such as the system, hometown employment business, etc. were taken, but they did not take a full-scale recovery route.

Internationalization and Japanese corporate issues

After the Great East Japan Earthquake (Tohoku Region Pacific Ocean Offshore Earthquake)

2011 (23),US Treasury shockAnd the Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake (Great East Japan Earthquake) occurred, and it causedFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentHappened.Due to this effect, stock prices have plummeted, production has become impossible, and crop rumors have been damaged.2011 (23) In the summer,Electricity usage restriction orderIs activated.Kan Cabinet TheCabinetIn exchange for the resignation ofFixed price purchase system Of再生 可能 エネルギーSpecial Measures LawTo establishWind-power generation-Solar power-Geothermal power generation-HydropowerSuch asnatural energyPromoted the utilization of.

Central Committee for Financial Public Relations2012 (24)May 2Announced to2011 According to the results of an opinion poll on household financial behavior (23), 2% of households with two or more households answered that they had no savings, and the survey was started.1963 Since (Showa 38), it has become the highest number ever.

2012 Around (24), Korean companiesSamsung electronicsBecame defeated by price, quality and human resources2000 eraToMie OfKameyama CityToSharp Kameyama Factory,OsakaSakai CitySakai WardToSharp Sakai FactoryConstruction of the worldKameyama modelWas calledliquid crystal televisionWas doing wellsharp-Toshiba-PanasonicSales of major electric appliances manufacturers are sluggishdeficitLarge-scale such as personnel reductionRestructuringWas carried out.Disaster areaRailway restoration is not progressingBus Rapid Transit (BRT)Kesennuma LineIntroduced in.Due to the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake, disaster countermeasures have attracted attention,Emergency suppliesAs long as it lastsBecame a hit product[68].

Abenomics (Second Abe Cabinet)

2012 (24)May 12ToFirst Abe CabinetWas established.The Abe Cabinet has a policy called AbenomicsBank of Japanbymonetary easingAnd by the Bank of JapanConstruction Government BondWe carry out purchase ofdeflationSet the inflation rate as high as 2% in order to break away fromInflation targetI set a goal, but I couldn't achieve it during Heisei.Abenomicsweaker yenbyTrade surplusWith an increase inStock priceBy rising etc.消费It was a policy aimed at the trickle-down effect that stimulates the society as a whole and brings benefits to society as a whole.Great East Japan EarthquakeFormulated from the fact that the social infrastructure was seriously damaged inDisaster prevention-Disaster reductionfor,High economic growthPromote repairs and renovations of roads constructed during the periodAbenomicsThe policy has come to be implemented.Economic and Fiscal Advisory CouncilIs resurrectedJapan Economic Recovery HeadquartersとIndustrial competitiveness conferenceWas installed.

2013 (25)Thailand,MalaysiaVisa exemption for tourists from2014 In (26)IndonesiaOf tourists fromIC chipenterpassportVisa exemption for those who haveForeign tourists visiting JapanAttracting customers is also actively promoted,2013 (25) reached 1036 million, exceeding 1000 million for the first time foreign tourists visiting Japan.2014 (26) recorded 1341 million people, breaking the record high of the previous year.In addition, the amount of money spent by tourists visiting Japan in 2014 reached a record high of 26 billion yen.[69].

Development of large-scale commercial facilities and the development of large-scale commercial facilities in order to disseminate Japanese content such as video and music to the world and to develop overseas markets for content such as fashion and animation.To support etc.Public-private fund"Overseas demand development support organization(Cool Japan Fund) ”,2013 (25)May 11Established by collecting 375 billion yen in total from the public and private sectors[70] In addition,Japan Finance CorporationHowever, we will consider a loan system with a lower interest rate than the conventional preferential interest rate for small and medium-sized enterprises expanding overseas.[71] In 2013, Japan's overseas exports of broadcast content amounted to approximately 25 billion yen, promoting policies to improve Japan's external image, increase exports of related content, and attract tourists. Doubled from about 138 billion yen in 2010[72].

Plan for 1000 million immigrantsAs part of2014 In (26), the Abe Cabinet was certified as a highly-skilled human resource.Foreigner Permanent residencyThe period of stay required to obtain a certificate will be shortened to 3 years, and parents and domestic servants will be allowed to accompany them.Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition ActThe amendment was approved by the Cabinet and the amendment law was passed in 2014.[73][74].

The cat boom occurred in the 2010s, and while the number of dogs kept decreased, the number of cats increased,2015 Around (27)CatomicsBecame a buzzword.During the Democratic Party administration, the yen appreciated in the 1 yen range and the average stock price was 80 yen or less, but the yen depreciated in the 1 yen range and the stock price temporarily recovered to the 1 yen range. , Slowing growth of the Chinese economy and falling global crude oil prices2016 (28)Bank of Japan TheNegative interest rate policyWas carried out.From around 30 at the end of HeiseiPart-time jobThere is an act of posting a prank on the net by a young man,Bite terrorBecomes a problem.

International economic issues

In the Heisei period, the manufacturing industry was relocated overseas one after another due to the restraint of labor costs and the appreciation of the yen.Hollowing out of industryHas advanced.

バ ブ ルAround the period, the number of manufacturing industries relocating overseas to resolve trade conflicts increased.After the burst of the bubble1990 eraIn the middleAppreciation of the yenAs a result, the number of manufacturing industries moving overseas has increased.2000 eraOnce in, to reduce labor costsPeople's Republic of ChinaAnd developing countries (ASEANThe manufacturing plant has often been relocated to (etc.).2010 eraOnce in, the yen appreciated again and the number of overseas relocations increased.2011 (23)Thai floodThere isKingdom of ThailandA Japanese company that had set up a large number of factories in an industrial park in the area was damaged.automotive industryFactories such as are shut down.

2000 eraDomestic affairs that occurred in JapanThe United States of AmericaJapanbeefAs a diplomatic issue and an international issue between Japan and the United States regarding the import ban and strengthening of inspectionsBSE problemThere has occurred.

Great East Japan Earthquake and suddenAppreciation of the yenIn the progression ofautomotive industry,Consumer electronicsExports have been sluggish,TEPCODue to the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in JapanNuclear power plantStopped power generation one after another for inspection and ensuring safety,Thermal power generationDue to the increase in power generation at the site, the value of fuel imports from overseas increased significantly.2011 (23) Japan's trade balance turned into a deficit,1980 (Showa 55) 2ndOil crisisAfter that, it will be the first time in 31 yearsTrade deficitI fell into the country.

Kan CabinetとNoda Cabinet TheTPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership)Started discussions to negotiate.

Stock market

Appreciation of the yen

Dollar-yen exchange rate
The yen in the early Heisei period was 1 to 120 yen to the dollar, but the yen appreciated from the mid-160s and exceeded 1990 yen to the dollar.After that, the appreciation of the yen subsided, and the dollar rarely exceeded 1 yen, but2008 Since (20), the yen has strengthened sharply, surpassing 1 yen per dollar.2011 From around (23), the yen continued to exceed 1 yen to the dollar, temporarily reaching the 80 yen level per dollar, breaking the yen's appreciation record.2013 During the period of Abenomics from (25) to 2015 (Heisei 27), the yen depreciated to the 1 yen level per dollar due to the yen depreciation policy.
However,2002 Until around (14), the dollar / yen exchange rate and the effective exchange rate were almost the same,2002 Since (14), the global value of the dollar has declined, so the value of the yen against the dollar and the global value of the yen have become divergent.
Euro-yen exchange rate
2000 Around (12) 1EuroIt was 90 to 110 yen, but then the yen depreciated.2000 eraIn the middle, it was in the 1 yen range per euro.2008 A rapid appreciation of the yen occurred in (20), and it was around 1 yen per euro, and thenGreek crisisThe yen appreciated further due to such factors, and reached the 1 yen level per euro.
RMB-Yen exchange rate
In the early Heisei period, it was about 1 yen per yuan,1990 eraThe yen appreciated rapidly toward the first half, reaching around 1 yen per yuan.afterwards,CNYThe market is stable due to the fixed exchange rate system and the currency basket system, and is around 1 yen per yuan.
Effective exchange rate "2005 When (17) is set to 100 yen, the higher the value, the stronger the yen. "
1990 Around (2), it was in the 90 yen range, but after that, the yen strengthened and1993 From around (5), it has exceeded 130 yen.1995 It temporarily exceeded 7 yen in (150), but after thatweaker yenIt fell to the 100 yen level.2000 Although the yen appreciated from around (12) to the 120-yen level, the yen depreciated after that and fell to the 80-yen level.2008 In (20), the yen appreciated sharply and rose to around 100 yen.After that, it depends on Abenomicsweaker yenThere is a policy and the market price is stable at around 1 yen to the dollar.

Education history

Education system reform

  • From the end of the Showa era to the beginning of the Heisei era, reform of the education system that emphasizes deviation values ​​was promoted.Extraordinary Education CouncilThe Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyNew view of academic abilityIntroduced, and the course of study based on that idea1989 Revised in (XNUMX),1992 It came into effect from (4).afterwards,Central Education CouncilWith the recommendation ofPower to liveThe purpose of training was introduced, and the course of study based on that goal was introduced.1998 Revised in (10),2002 It was officially enforced from (14).By this course of studyComprehensive learning timeWas set up, the number of lesson hours was reduced, and the content of education was reduced.However,PISAWas criticized for causing a decline in academic ability due to the drop in the ranking ofPower to liveWhile adhering to the goal of nurturing students, the curriculum guidelines include an increase in class hours and an increase in educational content.2008 Revised in (20),2011 It was officially enforced from (23) onwards.
  • As an educational reform, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology implemented educational reforms such as junior high and high school collaborative education and approval of distinctive schools as newly established high schools, and the following schools were established.
    1. New establishment of a comprehensive high school.
    2. Unit systemNew high school.
    3. New establishment of an international high school.
    4. Public high schoolでHigh school consistent educationdoSecondary schoolNew type high school.
    5. New establishment of an annexed secondary school type high school.
    6. Collaborative secondary integrated school typeHigh school consistent schoolNewly established.
    7. Welfare high schoolNewly established.
  • The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, which emphasizes the ability to live, has established the above new high school.
  • The following are new subjects established by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to foster vitality and promote school-specific education.
    1. Middle school and high schoolDepartment of Geography and HistoryNewly established.
    2. Lower grades of elementary schoolLife courseNewly established.
    3. In elementary, junior high and high school educationSchool setting subjectFounding of.
    4. Welfare departmentFounding of.
  • The following new subjects have been newly established.
  • As an educational reform to promote internationalization and gender equality, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has made the following subjects compulsory.
    1. As a foreign language activity in elementary schoolEnglishTheRequired subjectsIt became compulsory as.
    2. In high schoolWorld historyWas made compulsory as a compulsory subject.
    3. Gender equality societyIt aims toGender equalityAs a policy, in junior high school and high schoolHome economicsWas made compulsory for boys.
  • Attendance bookAlso changed to a mixture of men and women.Introduced the following activities and systems as an emphasis on work experience and deregulation of education for high school students with genius brains to accelerate university entrance due to the influence of American free education thought and free education thought in the Taisho era. bottom.
    1. Introduction of social service experience activities.
    2. UniversityJump into schoolIntroduction of.
    3. Weekly holiday 2 day systemIntroduction of.
  • As a plan to reform the education system under the Democratic Party of Japan, we aim to develop human resources who can play an active role in the international community by allowing excellent high school students to go on to university at an early stage and major in specialized fields.Ministry of education The2012 (24)May 6In addition, we decided on a policy to establish a system that allows students to graduate from high school in two years and enter university.National Strategy CouncilLed byHirofumi HiranoMinister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyWas working on it.

Achievement problem

From the 1990sLower academic abilityIs concerned,1999 In (11), "University students who cannot do fractions" was published.[75].. further2003 (15)OECD Student Learning Achievement Survey (PISA)International Mathematics and Science Education Survey (TIMSS),2006 In PISA (18), the decline in academic ability was remarkable.afterwards,2003 In (15), the upper limit of educational content was abolished.2007 In (19), all participants will participateNational Achievement/Study Status SurveyThe test was revived, and the route was changed to more space,2008 In (20), the guidelines were revised, and some of them were transitional measures.2009 Implemented from (21), fully in elementary school2011 It will be implemented from (23). At TIMSS in 2007 (19), the decline in academic ability stopped, and at PISA in 2009 (21), academic ability recovered.2013 (25)Economic Cooperation Development Organization In the (OECD) Program for the International Assessment of Adult PowerJapanWill be number one.

School system reform

2003 (15)National University Corporation LawWas enacted,National university National University CorporationIt became.A series of sexual crimes by teachers and education and behavior based on biased ideas became problems, and the system implemented as an educational reform to improve the qualifications of teachersTeaching graduate schoolWas founded, and it was consideredTeacher license renewal systemIs.Along with this, as an educational issue in Japan, parents' educational background, income, family background, occupation, etc.Economic disparityBy prefecture and by municipalityRegional disparityThe widening disparity in ability has surfaced against the background of.It is said that this is because the function of public education is declining, and distrust of public education is increasing.To make up for that, mainly in TokyoPublic school selection systemIntroduction and non-public schoolsCram school,private schoolThe number of applicants for going on to higher education is increasing.Some schools, such as private schools and areas that emphasize education,Ministry of educationThe education budget was increased according to the policy ofSmall class,Small-group educationIntroduce detailed guidance in "35 class" and "30 class" for the purpose ofEducation reformWas done.In the Heisei periodSchool group systemIs completely abolishedMarubozuSuch ashairAbolish the regulation ofLong hairOr approveuniformOnly fromPrivate serverApproveclothingLiberalization etc.School rulesThe number of schools to be revised has increased.Public elementary schoolとPublic junior high school Compulsory education"Collaboration education" that is integrated during the periodElementary and middle school integrated educationBecause of the spreadFirst Abe CabinetでCentral Education CouncilIn order to promote elementary and junior high school collaborative education, a 6-year consistent elementary and junior high school from 15 to 9 years oldCompulsory education school(Tentative name) ”was discussed[76]..Of high schoolgeneral courseso"Career educationWas considered compulsory.

Educational administration and new subjects

2001May 1 OfReorganization of central ministriesByMinistry of EducationReorganized,Science and Technology AgencyThe Ministry of Education and the Science and Technology Agency were integrated in the form of absorption-type merger and abolition.Ministry of educationIs installed.2003 From (15)Information departmentWas newly established in high schoolRequired subjectsBecomes2011 From (23), time for foreign language activities has been set up at elementary schools,2012 Safety issues have been discussed in secondary education since (24)martial artsFamily (kendoFamilyjudoFamilySumoIt is necessary to improve the third type of family) and the teaching method.ダンスFamily (Creative DanceFolk dance・ Modern rhythm dance) has been introduced, and it has become compulsory by selecting from the third type.2012 From (24)Wooden school buildingA burning experiment of a wooden school building was carried out to enable the construction of1972 It ended in (Showa 47)radiationEducation in junior high school for the first time in about 30 yearsscienceResurrected with.

Grade evaluation

2000 From (12) to elementary school and junior high schoolCompulsory educationIn the course ofRelative evaluationからAbsolute evaluationbyEducational evaluationとGrade evaluationHas come to be emphasized.For absolute evaluation that has come to be emphasizedCertification evaluationOthersAchievement evaluationIs one of the achievement evaluationsLearning situation by viewpointEducational evaluation and grade evaluation were introduced

school bag

Golden,greenEtc. of elementary school studentsschool bagWill be diverse in the 21st century.

Review of moral education and emphasis on moral education

LDP Of修身Education revivalmoralAdvocate for educationpatriotismとConfucianismmoralAiming to nurtureconservativesAt the will of a member of the DietMinistry of education 2002 In April (12), moral supplementary teaching materials were given to elementary and junior high schools nationwide.Note of the heartWas distributed free of charge.Assistance in creating teaching materials was abolished due to the business sorting of the Democratic Party of Japan.First Abe CabinetBy2018 In April (Heisei 4), morality became a formal subject at elementary school2019 (31) In April, it was upgraded to a subject called "special subject morals" at a junior high school and fully implemented.

Private junior high school exam

2007 (19)Capital Area,KeihanshinThen.Disparity societyProgress andYutori educationUnder the influence ofEducational society OfLosersBecomePublic junior high schoolI came to avoid.Among highly educated and high-income middle-class families, the number of families who are enthusiastic about competing for children's exams is increasing.Private middle schoolThe number of examinees peakedMiddle school examA bubble broke out, but the following year the private junior high school exam bubble burst.2008 (20)Lehman shockSubsequent economic downturn, in public schoolsElimination educationThe number of private junior high school examinees has continued to decrease due to the shift to the university and the Great East Japan Earthquake, and the decrease in the number of examinees has not stopped.The recruitment capacity of private junior high schools increased by about 3% from 9721 to 4, increasing the capacity due to the boom in private junior high school examinations and reducing the recruitment capacity of attached high schools by strengthening the integrated system of junior high and high schools. Was abolished.

College entrance exam

1990 (2)Common first-stage academic ability testInstead ofUniversity entrance examination center examinationWas introduced.Bubble generationWas a college student at the end of the Showa periodScholarshipな どUniversity brandIs strongMARCH-Nitto Komasen-Seki Seki SupportSuch asprivate universityWas popular,2000 eraLaterHeisei recessionDue to tuition problems such as the impact of the surge in poor families due toNational university(So-calledEkiben University) Become oriented.Many applicants for the examinationBaby boom juniorIn the early Heisei era, when the generation was university students, the population was 18 years old, and even at third-class universities, the magnification was high, making university entrance examinations difficult. Since the 3s, due to the decline in the 2000-year-old populationYoungerDue to the progress of the academic background and the progress of inflation, the number of students in the third-class private universities has increased sharply.1990 era TheNihon UniversityとWaseda UniversityThe number of applicants was the highest, but the number of applicants from Nihon University decreased in the 2000s.2008 Until (20), Waseda University was the top applicant for one win.2009 After (21), Waseda University applicants were at the top, but the appeal of the Waseda University brand changed and the number of applicants decreased, replacing it.Meiji UniversityBecomes the top applicant.2014 In (26)Kinki UniversityThe number of applicants will be the highest in Japan for the first time[77].

Education and social issues

School refusalProblems orFree schoolAttempts were made.Do not participate in society even after graduating from schoolneat,Social withdrawalMany people fell into this situation, and it was widely reported in the media and became a problem.It is said that this has a problem peculiar to Japan that there is a gap between school and the real world.Children who are too accustomed to school society are said to have difficulty adapting to society even after graduating.

Current withdrawal1970 eraMost people are born (withdrawal tends to decrease in later generations), and the lengthening and aging of withdrawal is becoming more serious.Also, over 35 years old, not defined as neatMiddle-aged unemployedIs also a problem[78].

1990 eraFrom the second half, PCs and mobile phones2010 eraFromSmartphoneHas become popular among students.2002 In (14), it was 1% in the first grade of elementary school and 5.0% in the first grade of junior high school, while it was 1%.2007 In (19), 1% of the first graders of elementary school and 11.7% of the first graders of junior high school became popular among elementary and junior high school students in the 1s.[79].

Also, in the latter half of the 2000s, teenagers left their PCs, and the usage rate of mobile phones is increasing.[80]..Despite the fact that these generations have acquired the ability to transmit information via the Internet using personal computers, mobile phones, etc.Information literacyAnd manners education could not catch upOnline bullyingBecame a social problem.

1980 eraBorn in the first half is "17 years oldAlso known as the "Kogal generation" and "Sake demon rose generation", and even moreKobe serial child killing case,Hikariichi Mother and Child Killing Case,Nishitetsu bus jack case,Akihabara street magic incidentCrime such asAid communicationAnd new adultsComing-of-age turmoilBecame a problem.

On the other hand, if those problems are stereotypes for young peopleSecular youth theoryThe concept was also born.Great East Japan EarthquakeUnder the influence of childrenPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases orDisaster area OfIwate-Miyagi-FukushimaThe number of children in school is increasing rapidly.

YoungerWith the progress ofUniversity admissionIn the 21st centuryUniversity bankruptcy eraLocal universities other than neighboring brand universitiesprivate universityIs in a financial crisis due to the lack of capacity.Some private universities and junior colleges have stopped recruiting students due to consolidation.Closed schoolThe number of schools that becomeA phenomenon called "heredity of disparity", in which parents' income and educational background are directly linked to their children's educational background, has become widely known.

On the other hand, on the contrary, he suffers from life while having a high degree of education.Educational refugeesA layer called is also generated from the glacial generation.The difficulty level of difficult universities is still high due to the increasing educational background of girls, the increase in the rate of advancement to school, and the difficulty-oriented attitude against the background of severe economic conditions.While the enrollment rate is increasingBF Rank UniversityThe entrance exam that you can pass just by writing the name ofUnique entrance exam,One performance entrance examinationThe number of entrance exams that are not tied to academic ability is increasing.

Bullying issue and media coverage

education doctrine

Heisei periodeducation doctrineIs roughly divided into two types.The following two types of educational ideas confront each other and become a fierce controversy.

  1. Educational thought that was mainstream in the postwar period of the Showa periodJerome BrunerSupports the educational theory ofHideki Wada OfEducational society-Competition-Deviation valueEducation firstStuffing educationThought to affirm.
  2. Develop individuality with empiricism such as writing and work experience that was popular in the United States and the Taisho eraJohn DeweyThere is an educational theory.Ministry of Education bureaucrats who support this liberal educational ideaTerawaki LabAt a public schoolStuffing educationLed the elimination of.It was reformed in the Heisei periodYutori education The20st centuryAmericanNew educationExerciseTaisho era OfTaisho Free Education MovementWas a model.Yutori Educational Thought became a new educational idea in the Heisei period.

Obuchi Cabinet OfNational Council for Educational Reformby17 suggestions to change educationAnnouncementAbe Cabinet OfEducation reproduction meeting,Fukuda Yasuo Cabinet OfEducational regeneration round-table conferenceWas installed.School education law-Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration-Social Education ActIs revised, etc.Education reform 3 bill] Was established.Neo-conservatismbyNational anthem,Basic Education LawAmendment etc.patriotismEducation was insisted.2001 (13),Meeting to create a new history textbookIs an existing social studies textbookLeft wing OfView of masochismConservatives who oppose those left-wing textbooks on the history of masochismDepartment of Geography and Historytextbook-Civil AffairsI wrote a textbook,People's Republic of China-South Korea-Asahi ShimbunSuch asLeft wingIn opposition to the forcesAcademic book certificationIs disturbedHistory textbook problemWoke up again.afterwards,Japan-China Joint History Research-Japan-Korea History Joint ResearchEtc. were also sought.

Social and university education

Business worldIn large companiesTokyo Stock ExchangeListingThe number one president of a company isShowa period OfTokyo UniversityFrom a nativeKeio UniversityBecame a graduate of Sanda, and in politics, the largest number of prime ministers by university in Heisei produced six.Waseda UniversityThe University of Tokyo, etc.ScholarshipWaseda University and Keio University made great strides and became no longer the top political and business world, and their educational background declined in the Heisei era.

The Ministry of Education aimed to create 1996 doctoral degree holders in a competitive environment in the research world during the five years from 8 (Heisei 2000) to 12 (Heisei 5).Postdoctoral fellows support plan for XNUMX peopleAnd at many universitiesFocus on graduate schoolIs implemented, but this has caused serious employment problems for young researchers (Surplus Doctoral Problem).2008"" of the year (Heisei 20)International student 30 Million people plan"soPeople's Republic of Chinaな どAsiafromStudentsWill increase rapidly.On the contrary, overseas students from Japan1990 eraWas peaked and decreased.2012 (24)Ministry of educationIs a curriculum required to obtain common university entrance qualifications adopted by universities around the world to promote study abroadInternational BaccalaureateA plan was made to set up study abroad support courses at 200 high schools in order to expand the number of domestically accredited schools.At some universities, lectures were translated into English to promote internationalization, andChiba UniversityHowever, this made it mandatory for all students to study abroad, but this increased the burden on students and made it even more difficult for low-income earners to go on to university.

In the Heisei period, the universityEducation continuance rateとGraduate school enrollment rateSoared.University entrance rate1989 From 24.7% of (XNUMX)2010 In (22), it was 50.2%.The number of students going on to higher education increased from about 40 to about 60.Focusing on girlsJunior collegeThe number of students going on to junior college shifts to a four-year university1994 (6) peaked at 13.2% and decreased2010 It was 22% in (6).MasterThe graduate school enrollment rate of the course soared to 17%,2003 In (15),Professional graduate schoolSystem was created,Law SchoolEtc. were made.Along with that, a university that has a graduate school without an undergraduate as an educational reform (so-called)Graduate school) Has also increased.In particular, the employment rate of university graduates (employees) has increased because the denominator (number of university graduates) has increased, even though the numerator (number of university graduates employed) is almost the same as during the bubble period. Number / number of graduates) was one of the factors that caused a significant decrease. In 2012 (Heisei 24), according to the statistics of students enrolled in 73 law schools nationwide, 86 schools, which is 63%, fell below the capacity.

2012 In the university reform during the Noda Cabinet era (24), the budget, equipment, and personnel were concentrated in each faculty to improve the quality of education and develop excellent human resources.National University CorporationUnder, the faculties of multiple universities are aggregated, and as a concrete example, university AFaculty of medicineとFaculty of Science and Engineering, University BFaculty of LawとFaculty of Economics, University CDepartment of literatureAssuming specialization inMinistry of educationIt is,PrefecturesBeyondNational universityThere was a policy to proceed with the reorganization of the faculties of.As a new university education system, the plan was to allow one national university corporation to operate multiple national universities and reorganize faculties with similar educational content at each university.

Showa period(After the warWas born inEkiben UniversitySince then, it has become more popular, and the Heisei era (21st century) Became called a convenience store universityConvenience storeBecause there was a problem with local universities and private universities2012 (24),Makiko TanakaMinister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyByUniversity establishment standardsThe problem of university approval has arisen.In the Heisei periodDepartment of NursingFrom the beginning of Heisei2010 eraThe number of nursing departments continues to increase[83].

Education method

Enhancement of new types of faculties / schools and distance learning

World

1989 Started in (Heisei XNUMX)ITO EN OfOi Ocha New Haiku Award,1990 Started in (Heisei 2)Sumitomo Life OfCreative four-character idiom,1995 (7)FoundationJapan Kanji Proficiency Test Association OfKanji of the yearHas started.

Academic research history

Math
physics
Chemical
Biology / Physiology / Medicine
engineering
  • Super computerIn the fieldKyotoMultiple Japanese supercomputers compete for computational performance, such as "BESTSELLERSI won the first place in the ranking.

PISA shock

2000 After (12),OECD Student Learning Achievement Survey (PISA) was performed, which was called the PISA shock.

World history

It is the year of the demise of the Showa Emperor1989 In (XNUMX)Fall of the Berlin WallOccurred, and in December of the same year by the US and Soviet UnionMalta talksThere isCold WarIs over.1991 (3)Soviet Socialist RepublicAll of the republics that made up the territory became independent and collapsed and disappeared.Thus, until thenKremlin,White HouseEthnic and religious conflicts broke out in the countries that had been oppressed.America is the only country after the collapse and disappearance of the Soviet UnionSuperpowerAmerica that becomes an absolute powerUnipolar systemAnd the former eastern nations were integrated into the western economy, especially1991 From (3)2000 Until (12), the world is "Americanization""GlobalizationCalled "Global capitalismWas caught in.

On the other hand,European Union (EU), China,ロシア,Latin AmericaEtc. are showing a move to restrain the American unipolar system.This movement is2001 (13)American terrorist attacksIt became remarkable after that.

Celebrate the 60th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations2005 In (17)Enemy clauseWith the deletion ofUnited Nations Security Council OfPermanent memberAiming to enter (Japan,Germany,India,Brazil), But was frustrated by opposition from China, South Korea, and even the United States.2011 In (23)Arab springByチュニジア,EgyptでDemocratizationAnd democratization demonstrations took place in neighboring countries.

History of international relations

Relationship with the United States

Japan uses US-Japan relations as the basis of diplomacy as in the Cold War eraGulf War,Iraq warCooperated with.After the Cold War, the political, economic, and social systems were uprooted and changed to the American style.

Okinawa U.S. Girl Assault Case 1995 Occurred in (7)Futenma base relocation problemHappened,2009 In (21), due to the unclear foreign policy and security policy of the Democratic Party of JapanHenokoThe idea of ​​moving to2012 In (24)OspreyDeployment is a problem.

Relationship with Asia

OverseasAsiaCountries, ChinaIndia·sea bream·MalaysiaAnd so onEconomic developmentAs a result, economic relations with Japan have become closer than ever.

Relationship with China

Beijing OlympicsとShanghai ExpoHeld, "Four modernizationsChina, which has been advancing, has rapidly strengthened its economic presence,Japan-China relationsIs "Political cold and heat(Japan's largest trading partner is China).At the same timeGas field development,尖 閣 諸島Touring territories such asSenkaku Islands DisputeFriction with Japan has surfaced.Also, ChinaTiananmen IncidentReceived sanctions from the international community1989 Since (XNUMX), it has been strongly promoting the strengthening of armaments year by year, and it is said that it poses a threat to Japan ().Chinese threat theory).2011 After (23),Ogasawara IslandsEtc. JapanWatersAt the innerCoralThePoachingChinese nationalFishing boatHas increased sharply.

Relationship with Korea

South KoreaThen democratization progresses,1993 In (5)Park ParkIt has been going on for 32 years since the administrationMilitary regimeDisappearedGold swimmingThe president has transitioned to a civilian government.However, the stance of "correcting history (역사 바로 세우기)", that is, using the "anti-Japanese stance" for diplomatic and domestic affairs, is the same as during the military administration, and President Kim Young-samSea of ​​Japan designation problem,Governor-General of KoreaGovernment buildingDemolitionTakeshimaIn collaboration with China on historical issues such as the effective control of China, a strong anti-Japanese campaign was carried out.continue1998 Inaugurated in (10)Kim Dae JungThe administration worked to accept Japanese culture and improve relations with Japan in 14.2002 FIFA World CupCo-sponsored by Japan and Korea, led by the mediaKoreanThe boom has heightened the cultural friendship mood.But politicallyTakeshimaThe surface of the territorial dispute andJunichiro KoizumiPrime ministerYasukuni ShrineThe worship has cooled the relationship between Japan and South Korea.2003 From (15)Roh Moo-hyunIn the times, it often showed a strong diplomatic stance toward neighboring countries, and friction with not only Japan but also China and the United States increased.2008 (20)Lee Myung-boThe administration was inaugurated.President Lee Myung-bakOsakaFromMt. Gassan AkihiroTo sayJapan namewas thereKoreans living in JapanAt firstPro-day OfPresident of South KoreaWas seen as2012 (24)May 8By visiting Takeshima for the first time as the first president of South Koreaterritorial disputeIntensifiedRequest for apology to the emperorThere isJapan-Korea relationsHas deteriorated.2005 Japan in (17)Shimane Prefectural AssemblyでTakeshima DayOrdinanceHas been passed every yearMay 2 anniversaryIt became.Put the highest priority on relations with ChinaMs. ParkWill become President of South KoreaMilitary comfort women issueMainlyTattletale diplomacyThe relationship between Japan and South Korea deteriorated, but2015 (27) in AugustJapan-Korea Agreement on Comfort WomenThe Japanese and Korean governments declared that the comfort women issue was finally and irreversibly resolved.2017 The first Japanese emperor in (29)Koma ShrineWorshiped.

Relationship with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

DPR KoreaWith (North Korea)Japanese abduction issue,Nuclear development issuesIs getting worse.The Japanese government also to solve the abduction problemEconomic sanctionsWe proceeded with legislation to enable this, and issued sanctions on the occasion of missile launch training.

Relations with Southeast Asian countries

In other Southeast Asian countries, their own economic developmentOverseasWith the increase in the population of China and the economic development of China, the traditional dependence on Japan, which has been represented by the flying geese paradigm led by Japan, has been reviewed, and relations with China, which has emerged as a new economic power, and other regions such as the EU. There is a movement to make the economy multipolar by strengthening.

In Southeast AsiaAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been formed, and Southeast Asian countries are seeking to form a community.

Relationship with Asia as a whole

East Asian Community, And the concept is emerging.This is the Asian version of the EU, a grand strategy jointly launched by countries such as ASEAN and Japan, China and South Korea, but regions such as ASEAN and Japan, China and South Korea have regions such as race, religion, language, culture and economic power. The concept itself is due to the fact that there is little commonality in the elements that promote integration, and although there is a tendency for Japan and China to vie fiercely over the initiative of the community, Asian countries do not want to choose between Japan and China. There are many views that will collapse in the air.

Cultural history

Bubble economyThe heyday-the collapse period (1989 <First year of Heisei>- 1994 <Around 6>)
The culture of this period is1980 eraThe color of continuation from is deep.
Bubble generationBetweenHigh legSwimsuit and bright redLipstickSovereign and Tosaka hair,Thick eyebrowsToBodyconA strong fashion was popular.The full-fledged orientation of food has become stronger,Italian foodAnd ethnic foods have taken root[84], With diversification of consumptionbrandEstablished a high-consumption culture oriented. "Tokyo love story''101st proposal"SuchTrendy dramaThe drama that appointed a popular actor at that time hit a high audience rating across the board.In the music industryBand boom-Being boomThe heyday of.Known as a synonym for customs during the bubble economyJuliana TokyoWas open[85], Hits the bubble burst period1991 From (3)1994 (6), which was already half a step behind the cutting edge of the times at that time.DiscoMet.on the other hand,IdolWas a period of stagnation called the "winter era" due to the decline of song programs on television.Information societyThe arrival ofPC communication,PagerWas most popular around this time.
Heisei recession (Heisei recession1995 <7>- 2000 <Around 12>)
Bubble burstDue to the prolonged recession, the "era of rising shoulders" has completely ended.deflationThe times have arrived and Japanese customs have reached a major turning point.
Fashion diversification has occurred1970 eraFrom the second half1980 eraBorn in the first half (Post baby boom juniorAmong the youth of generations)Amla-Uraharajukusystem·B system-ShibuyaFashion such as was popular.A change from the trend of the bubble economy era, the fine eyebrows became popular,Brown hairHas taken root.Junior high and high school students are recognized as the center of fashion[86],KogalWas noticed as a custom.As a means of communicationPHSincludingMobile phone,インターネットHas exploded.Windows 95It became cheaper with the release ofPersonal computerHas permeated many homes.1994 At the end of (6), "Weekly Shonen Jump』Achieved the highest number of copies in history of 653 million copies,1995 By (7)Japanese cartoonSales peaked.In the music industryBeingsystem(Being boom)・Komuro system[87]-Visual KeiAt the height of[88],1998 By (10)CDSales peaked.1999 (11),Hikaru UtadaReleased the album "First Love" and shipped more than 860 million copies in Japan, and more than 990 million copies including those outside Japan, shining at No. 1 on the Japanese album history chart.
"Structural reform without sanctuaryPeriod (2001 Around <13>- 2007 <Around 19>)
"I don't feel it because of the initiative of external demand.Economic recoveryWas continuing.During this time as well, most employeeswageIs on a downward trend, "Disparity societyBecame a buzzword.
For personal computers and mobile phones2000 eraOnce in, it spreads to most peopleインターネットThe use of is generalized.Blog-Social Media-Video posting siteInternet services, in which individuals are the senders, have become widespread as a new medium.So-called"Structural reformAs a result, austerity policies such as welfare, restraint of public works, and merger of cities, towns and villages were implemented, and the economy of regions other than metropolitan areas was exhausted.With the reduction of welfare services by the governmentCartoon cafe,Internet cafeHowever, it has come to function as a business for low-income earners.The circulation of publications such as magazines and manga has decreased (Publication depression) However, the number of issues is rather increasing.iPodRecorded explosive sales, and Internet distribution of music replaced the previous packaging medium (CD).In someTV awayBegan to be whispered, and the slump in the media industry became noticeable.In the movie, including works produced by TV stationsJapanese movies Western paintingBecame able to improve the box office performanceJapanese movieResurrection attracted attention.1980 eraIn the youth born,Akiba,NerdAs the culture permeates,maid Cafe,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euRepresented by "MoeThe social phenomenon surrounding "" was actively taken up.Burnt generation,Baby boom generationIn middle-aged and older people,1950 era~1960 era OfHigh economic growth periodThe trend of nostalgia has also spread.In fashionMinistry of the EnvironmentLed by government officesCool bizFashionSpread,Power savingFrom the spread of orientation, it gradually became established in private companies.Youth fashion has become so diversified that fashion trends that spread throughout generations are no longer seen.
Global recessionPeriod (around 2008 <20>- 2010 <Around 22>)
America'sSub prime loanThe depression that begins with covers the world (Global recession), It cast a deep shadow on Japanese customs, where the birthrate is declining and the population is aging and the number of poor people is increasing.
The manufacturing industry has deteriorated across the board, and withdrawals, closures, and overseas relocations have occurred one after another.The local economy, which has lost its core manufacturing industry, has been severely exhausted, and the local shopping districts are all over.Shutter streetBecame.Public worksAimed at regional development that does not rely onRegional revitalizationBusiness is being sought,Local gourmet,Yuru CharaWas taken up and became popular.Internet distribution andWeb application, The replacement of various conventional media and services has progressed through online shopping.Twitter,YouTube,Nico Nico DougaNew such asSocial mediaHas grown rapidly and has had a great impact on various aspects of culture, politics, and society.
Cigarette tax-Liquor taxIn addition to the successive tax increases and the accompanying saving consciousness, the establishment of global health consciousness has led to the alienation of tobacco.alcoholThe phenomenon called separation has become prominent in Japan as well.In addition, the cost of eating out has decreased significantly, especially among young people in their twenties, and they refrain from eating out and cook at home or cooked foods (cooked foods).Half board) Can be seen eating.
magazineIn the newspaper / advertising industry, which has fallen into a slump due to a series of suspensions of publication, publishers and newspaper companies are seeking voluntary retirement from employees.In music, personalization of tastes has further progressed,Record companyHas diminished its influence.With the drop in new song salesHit chartIt is,AKB48And someIdolGroups andAnime songThe environment is such that it is difficult to produce popular songs like in the past.However, on the other hand, the growth of various services targeting mobile phones has been remarkable, and the use of the Internet from mobile phones has exceeded that of personal computers.
Great East Japan EarthquakeSince then (2011 <23>- 2019 <31>)
Global recessionIt corresponds to the recovery period from.The Japanese government has also been "from the mid-2010s"Local creationWas raised.
2011 analog TV stoppageAs a result, TVs have moved away from young people to middle-aged and older people, and the shipment volume of print media has dropped sharply, and the leisure and media industries have shrunk significantly.iPhoneBeginning withSmartphoneHas become widespread, and online distribution of books and magazines has begun in earnest.In online culture, mainly young peopleLINE, Etc. have become widespread, and the form of communication has changed significantly.
The number of tourists to Japan from overseas, mainly in Asia, is increasing year by year, and the Japanese government is also supporting the tourism industry.The importance of money that foreign tourists drop into Japan has increased, but foreign tourists are greatly affected by exchange rates and international affairs, and the number of foreign tourists increases and decreases. ..
Domestic consumptionIzanami businessAfter Lehman shock,AbenomicsAfter the economy, the consumption tax hike continues to be sluggish with the recession[89]..In metropolitan areas where public transportation is well developed, do not own a private car.Leaving the carIs prominent.on the other hand,motorizationAs a result, buses and railroads have declined, and in rural areas where we have no choice but to rely on private cars, the heavy burden becomes a social problem and we cannot own private cars.Traffic vulnerableIt is inconvenient for us in various situations.Also, by the elderlyTraffic accidentHas become a major issue, such as becoming a social problem.

History of religion / history of social thought

[Reference] "20 Years of Heisei Religion" (Publisher: Gentosha New Book, Publication Year:2008 <20>, Author:Hiromi Shimada)

社会 問題

Aging and life protection issues / pension issues

Heisei declining birthrate problem

  • In 1989 (Heisei XNUMX)Total fertility rateIs 1.57 people1966 (Showa 41)Bing WuSince it was less than 1.58 people, it attracted social attention as a "1.57 shock".In the Heisei period, the birth rate continues to decline1992 (4) The word declining birthrate was used in the White Paper on National LifeLow birthrate and aging populationBecame known to the public.1995 In (7), the working-age population (15-64 years old) reached the highest value (8717 million).1996 From (8), the working-age population has entered the process of decline.1997 In (9), the birthrate was declining.
  • 2003 In (15), the annual number of births decreased to 112 million.2005 The number of births in (17) was 106, and the total fertility rate was 2530, the lowest ever, and the total population began to decline. The number of births fell below 1.26 million for the first time in 2016 (Heisei 28)[112] It did not increase during the Heisei era[113].
  • Working womenNursery OfWaiting-listProblems andList of child abuse casesAs there wasChild Welfare Act,Act on Prevention of Child AbuseWas enactedChild abuseIs a problem.

Medical and welfare issues

Environment issues

Chief Events
Environmentally related matters that have become a social problem
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Female history

Women's history before Heisei

Women and Marriage and Children's Problems

Gender equality and tradition / cultural issues

Social issues related to women

Female idols and female entertainers

Women's political history

Women's culture and trends

1989 (XNUMX)- 2000 (12)
2000s (12-21)
2010s (22-31)

Sports history

Baseball (professional baseball, high school baseball, international baseball)

1980s and 1990s (1989 <1999> --11 <XNUMX>)
After 2000 (12-31)

Grand Sumo

Chiyonofuji era in the early Heisei era-1990s wrestlers were young and dawning era, Futakoyama room era, Musashigawa room era (1989 <1999> --11 <XNUMX>)
Kimaru era around 13-Asashoryu era in the 2000s-Blue and white era (12-21)
Hakuho era after 2010- (22-31)
  • 2010 From (22)2012 The time of (24)Hokoma KamonIs the chairman2012 In (24), Kitanoumi Toshimitsu became the chairman of the Japan Sumo Association again.2015 (27) November (Kyushu placeHe died while he was the chairman of the middle). In December 2015Nobuyoshi YakuzaBecame the chairman of the Japan Sumo Association.Takanohana RoomTakanohana Koji was newly elected as a director of the Japan Sumo Association, but in the 30s he was a disciple.KinoiwaYokozuna Harumafuji was forced to retire from active duty due to the assault on the Sumo Association, and was virtually banished from the corner world in conflict with the Sumo Association.A new external director system was established in the 2010s.Former outside directorTokyo High Public Prosecutor's OfficeProsecutor'sHiroyoshi MurayamaBecame the acting chairman of the Japan Sumo Association, and a new vice-chairmanship was established.Asashoryu retired due to the assault, and the Asashoryu era ended in 2010 (the first place in 22), and the 2010s became the Hakuho era.Sumo baseball betting problemな どGangsterとAngular fieldBecause of the scandal that I had a relationship with2010 Held in (22)Nagoya placeAtNHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation)TV broadcast was canceled.2011 (23)Sumo match-fixing problemWas discovered in a scandalOsaka placeWas canceled,Summer placeBecame a skill examination place.YokozunaWhite PengHowever, he won 63 consecutive wins, which is a record of consecutive wins, and broke records such as winning 7 places in a row.Moreover2015 Former yokozuna who won 27 times at the first place (32)Kouki TaihoIt was the most victory 33 times or more.OzekiEmperor 2011 (23)Nagoya placeHakuho renewed 1 wins, which is the first place in history, but then Hakuho renewed with 1047 wins at the Nagoya place in