Photo Outdoor Dog Festa in Yatsugatake 2021
Races, hot-air balloons, kayaks ... A number of "Sotoasobi" that you can choose according to your taste [Outdoor Dog Festa in Yatsugatake]
If you write the contents roughly
"Pet dog and hot air balloon", which has been implemented from the first time, is also a noteworthy content.
Outdoor Dog Festa started as an event where you can experience the goodness of "Sotoasobi", and this year marks the 7th time ... → Continue reading
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hot air balloon
Hot air balloonSphere (envelope)In a bag called空 気Attached to the bottomburnerIt is caused by heating with etc. and making the specific density lighter than the outside air.buoyancyLevitate with.The occupant was usually mounted under the bulbGondola (basket)get on.With some harness etc.ParaglidingSome fly in a suspended state like.
Only ascending and descending is possible by adjusting the thermal power of the burner, and horizontal movement is basically "WindLeave it to me. "airshipBasically, it is not possible to select the horizontal direction of travel with its own propulsive force.ButWindSince the direction and strength of the wind differ depending on the altitude, assume the wind in the direction you want to go. By adjusting the altitude to ride on it (I know from the weather etc. presented in), you can choose to some extent which direction to go.At the top of the hot-air balloon (often called the crown) is a valve for bleeding air inside the balloon.The valve has various structures, but the general one is closed by internal pressure with a cloth sewn in a circle called a parachute.When exhausting, pull down the parachute by pulling the exhaust valve, usually a string called the lip line, and exhaust.Exhaust valves are essentially divided into two types.Dump and lip.The dump is intended for use in flight over the sky, and the lip is for final exhaust.In the case of the parachute-type valve described above, the operating rope is called a lip line because it has both of these functions.
The fuel of the burner that is the heat source isFUELDepending on the flight time, one flight consumes about 1 to 2 months' worth of LPG used by ordinary households.In addition, there are cases where different fuels are used for aircraft that make special flights.
Hot-air balloon flights need to be coordinated with the airport that has jurisdiction over the area.Areas and altitudes that can be flown are determined for areas that avoid air routes and control areas.The area where you can flyNOTAMAnd will be announced to other aircraft in general.In areas close to some airports, it may be necessary to contact the airport before takeoff and after landing.
Old timesZhuge Liang Sky lanternThere is a myth that he invented the hot-air balloon.Also, if it is not limited to manned flightPortugalPeopleBartolomeu de GusmanWas flying a practical model of a hot-air balloon earlier than the Montgolfier brothers (in 1709) (this experiment was from the church).heresyHowever, all of them were small and more like balloons than balloons.
The first successful manned flight with a hot-air balloon wasFrance OfMontgolfier Brothers(Joseph Michel, Jack Etienne).The two arechimneyRise up from煙Warmed fromgasIt is said that he came up with the idea of packing the bag in a bag and flying in the sky.At first, the smoke of the fireplace is packed in a paper bag and experimented, and when they confirm that their theory is correct, they make a larger bag (balloon).1783 May 6Succeeded in unmanned flight.same yearMay 9ToPalace of VersaillesでLouis XVI,Marie AntoinetteSucceeded in a demonstration flight with animals in front ofMay 11NitoFrancois D'ArlandA balloon carrying the two Marquis flew from the Boulogne Forest at a height of 90 m for 25 minutes, about 8.8 km.Taking the name of the inventors, "Mongolian ale" is also a general noun meaning hot-air balloon in French and other languages.
Roger, the first aviator to board a balloon in humankind, was the year after next.1785 May 6With a new type of balloon that combines a hot-air balloon and a hydrogen balloon that he devised.Dover StraitDuring the flight test,hydrogenHe crashed and died with his fellow passenger Jules Romains in an explosion that ignited in Japan, and became the first human being to die from a balloon (this new balloon was re-utilized in the 20th century and "Rozière balloon(Roger) ").
Although the balloon became a boom for a while, it is not suitable for passengers and goods transportation because it is left to the wind.AdventurerIt was nothing more than a rich hobby, such as a long-distance flight record by.In addition, gas balloons have become the mainstream rather than hot air balloons due to the difficulty of maintaining thermal power in the air and supplying fuel.
Then the balloonairship,airplaneDeclined by the invention ofSecond World WarAfter thatSky sportsResurrected as. 1959 in the United StatesNASAIn collaboration withRAVENA modern hot-air balloon was created and flown by the company's engineers Edyoust and others.What is a modern hot-air balloon?NylonSuch asChemical fiberIs the bulb (envelope)propane gasRefers to an object that flies using.A few years after the successful flight, RAVEN launches the first hot-air balloon for sports on the market...After that, balloon makers were established in England and France.Picard, who is well known in the world of gas balloons, also manufactured hot-air balloons for a while.
JapanSo, the first manned flight by the Japanese was done in a hot-air balloon.Kyoto University,Ritsumeikan UniversityWith the Icarus Ascension Group, which consists of students from Kyoto centered aroundHokkaido UniversityA hot-air balloon created in collaboration with the expedition department of..The hot-air balloon had no name at the time of its first flight, and the tentative name "Sky Bozu" was used by a reporter from a television company who came to the interview.The first flight was in 1969 in HokkaidoMt. YoteiIt was held in Makkari village overlooking.The Icarus Ascension Group created the ball skin and gondola, and the Hot-air Balloon Group of the North University Exploration Department created the burner independently to complete the hot-air balloon.Nobuo Shimamoto, a student of Kyoto University, used a computer to determine the shape of the hot-air balloon's sphere.The pseudonym "Sorabozu" at the time of flight was later changed to Icarus No. 5 by the Icarus Ascension Group, so Icarus No. 5 is now the official name.The Icarus Ascension Group, which was also in charge of the first flightErio UmesaoIs a cultural anthropologistTadao UmesaoIs the son of.Since then, groups that carry out hot-air balloon activities one after another, such as the North University Exploration Department Africa Group, the Unknown Society, the Keio University Exploration Department, and the vast hot-air balloon club, have been established as Sky Sports.Hot air balloon competitionIs becoming popular.
At the 2014 World Hot Air Ballooning Championships in BrazilYudai FujitaThe player won the championship for the first time as a Japanese.
The activity of hot-air balloons in Japan was inspired by Icarus No. 5, and began with the activity of flying with a balloon made by the university exploration department.Clubs were founded at many universities to build balloons and fly.It took trial and error and a long production time to fly.
After that, aircraft made by Western balloon manufacturers began to be imported and generalized.Due to the decline of university clubs, few self-made balloons are made now, and most hot-air balloons are made by manufacturers.
American terrorist attacksAfter that, the manufacturer involved in the manufacture of balloons, which are aircraft, will hang up.Product liability insuranceAnd the user hangsLiability insuranceThe price of balloons has soared several times, and the balloon activity itself has been greatly affected..
Structure and equipment
Hot-air balloons are roughly classified according to the part called "ball skin" (bag for storing hot air) and the part called "lower" where the occupant is on board and is equipped with a burner that is loaded with fuel and becomes a heat source. It is composed.The bulb and the underside are connected by a 3mm to 5mm stainless steel or Kevlar fiber suspension cable.Below are gondola, rigid pole, burner, road frame, cylinder (FUELTank), instruments, etc.
The largest part of a hot-air balloon in flight.When stored, all air is evacuated and it becomes compact enough to fit in a gondola.The material is mainly polyurethane airtight coatingNylon,polyesterThe part that receives the load is reinforced with nylon or polyester road tape.These are mainly sewn with threads such as polyester.Places that require heat resistance are sewn with threads such as Nomex.
In addition, in the vicinity of the burner (around the opening), in order to increase the heat resistance, there are some that have increased the heat resistance with aramid fiber Nomex or Cornex, novoloid fiber Kainol, etc.The strength of the airtight coating and materials deteriorates with each flight.Depending on the material, it can fly for a total of about 200 to 600 hours.
The shape, size, and color scheme vary widely depending on the application and the taste of the purchaser.There are also special balloons that are shaped like objects called shape balloons.
A device for putting hot air into the bulb.Of a modern hot air balloonburnerHas adopted a structure that heats liquid propane with a heat exchange coil provided in the burner, converts it into steam at once, and burns it explosively to obtain high output.household useHobIt does not directly use vaporized gas as in.When burning, a loud flame is emitted with a loud noise.Basically, the burner has two systems, and it is designed so that even if one system breaks down in the sky, it can fly safely.
Burner output tended to increase gradually after the advent of modern hot-air balloons, but by the end of the 20th century sufficient output was available and the technological transformation used vaporized gas. Change the pilot valve from liquid to one, seek a low noise system, and moreErgonomicsWe have reached the pursuit of operability.
Large explosive due to combustion in the early stagesnoiseThere were many burners that emitted noise, but due to noise problems to animals and people on the ground, the noise was gradually reduced.Nowadays, various nozzles with improved mixing methods with air are sold by manufacturers, and they are quieter than before.Until these became widespread, a system that directly discharges and ignites a liquid, which was also a backup system, was sometimes used to reduce noise.
Early European systems were inspired by gas balloons, with only wires connecting the burner and gondola.Therefore, there is a risk that the burner will fall due to the impact at the time of landing, and passengers are required to wear a helmet.But nowadays, road frames and nylon resinPolycarbonateSince the burner is supported by a rigid pole made of wood, the burner part does not fall on the passenger and it is optional to wear a helmet.In the American system, the basket and burner are made of aluminum called upright.RattanThose supported by superstructures made of such materials have been used since the early days of modern hot-air balloons.
Used in ordinary householdsFUELIt is almost the same as a cylinder, and is often called a cylinder in the balloon world because of its fuel container and shape.A general hot-air balloon cylinder has two valves for gas supply and liquid supply, and a fuel gauge.Most hot-air balloons used in Japan are made of aluminum with a capacity of 2 kg.Higher safety in Europe and America due to strength and heat resistancestainlessIs the mainstream, and the capacity is generally 30 kg.Experimentallyカ ー ボ ンAndTitaniumFuel containers have been made, but they are not widespread.The fuel used for hot-air balloons is in liquefied petroleum gas.propaneIs mainly used.With propane on the marketbutaneThis is because propane, which has a high vapor pressure at room temperature, is easy to use.Butane mixed fuel is also used in some countries, but in that caseNitrogen gasIt is used by pressurizing with.
This is the part where people ride and load fuel.The gondola and burner are connected by stainless steel wires, or the aluminum or stainless steel road frame is connected by rigid poles and wires.The gondolaRattanBecause it is made by knitting, it is often called a basket.Wires, aluminum pipes, etc. are woven for reinforcement and are connected to the bulb via a road frame. ..The bottom has a structure woven with rattan and one using marine grade plywood.The rattan material is used as the main body of the structure because it has a flexible structure and can absorb the impact at the time of landing.The upper helicopter of the basket is often protected with a pad or leather material so that it is friendly to the occupants.There are various sizes depending on the number of passengers, such as large ones from 1m square to 2mX3m on a flat surface, but most of the ones with about 3 people are about 1mX1.2m.Most of them are square, but some manufacturers make triangular baskets.Some small single-seater aircraft simply hang crew and equipment with harnesses.Also, for special flights at high altitudes or long distancesFRPIn some cases, capsules made of products are used as gondola.
The flight instruments normally installed in hot-air balloonsAltimeter,Variometer,thermometerIs incorporated.An altimeter is an instrument that shows the current altitude.The variometer indicates whether the balloon is rising or falling and displays its speed.The thermometer displays the temperature of the sensor attached to the top of the balloon by transmitting it to the instrument with a cable or transmitter.Structurally, the old analog type isAneroid barometerThe type of thing that is mainly displayed as the long hand and the short hand is used.Recently, the mainstream is a digital structure that incorporates a pressure sensor and a computer and is equipped with a thermometer transmitter.Higher functionality is being developed, such as those that can digitally store flight records.AlsoGPSThere is also a device with a ballograf-like function that can record flight records in conjunction with.
Recently, portableGPSIs often installed.Since it flies on the wind, GPS, which can display accurate ground speed, flight direction, etc., is an important instrument following altimeters.In particular, it has become a necessity in hot-air balloon competitions, and in some competitions it is compulsory to install it as a logger in order for the tournament to manage the flight track.In addition, with GPScomputerBy connecting, you can manage logs such as flight track, altitude, time, etc.softwareIs also used.GarminMany made products are used.
Communication between the in-flight pilot and the ground crew by radio is essential (such as communication of the landing point) in order to have the ground crew assist in the recovery, not to mention during flight, especially before and during landing.
A blower that runs on a gasoline engine that first blows cold air when performing work to inflate a balloon.Engines are generally about 5hp to 8hp, and propellers are often about 24 to 27 inches.Propeller materials include cast wood and aluminum.
It is a vehicle for the crew to chase after the flying balloon, support it from the ground during flight, and collect it after landing, and may also carry the recovered balloon.Vans with large loading volumes, light trucks, pickups, etc. are used.In Japan, from the viewpoint of luggage capacity and capacityToyota Hiace,Nissan caravanIs often used.
 Issued by To Operate Hot Air Balloons in JapanPilot qualificationIs required.But under Japanese aviation lawhang gliding,ParaglidingLike hot air balloonsaircraftSince it is not classified as, there is no national qualification and it is not a legal license system.But in the Westballoonandhot air balloonIs usuallyaircraftIt is classified into the category of and issued by each country.licenseIs required (on the aircraft)Aviation radioEquipment and pilots or passengers are required to have Marine Radio qualifications).No special qualifications are required for passengers other than pilots.
Hot-air balloon maneuvering skill certification certification system (pilot)
Of hot air balloonControlOf so-called hot-air balloons to doPilot qualificationIs.The following conditions are required to obtain it.
- Must be 18 years of age or older
- Being a regular member of the Japan Balloon Federation
- Take a Pu / t (Pilot under Training) class
- Conforms to aptitude test (health diagnosis) items
- Perform 10 or more training flights with an instructor
- Altitude above ground level 2000 with an instructorftFlying over
- Performing a solo training flight (solo flight) by instructor ground standby
- Pass the written exam
- Receive the recommendation of an instructor and pass the practical test with an examiner (hot air balloon examiner)
Hot-air balloon coaching pilot (instructor)
Pilot guidanceIt is a qualification to do.The following conditions are required to obtain it.
- Being a member of the Japan Balloon Federation
- Must be 20 years of age or older
- Have a hot-air balloon pilot skill certificate for at least one year
- Flying for 50 hours or more as a captain
- Make two flights of 1 hour or more
- Perform two solo flights of 15 minutes or more
- Must be recommended by 2 instructors
- Flying as a captain within the past year
- Have attended a leader training course within the last two years
- Correctly understand the meaning of pilot logbook, training logbook, and aircraft logbook, and create and store them correctly.
- Those who understand and comply with the daily life, aviation law, free safety flight regulations of the Japan Balloon Federation, and mooring flight safety regulations.
- Have a good understanding of the teaching system
- Familiarity and understanding of the system of the Japan Balloon Federation
- The Safety Committee recognizes that it is suitable as an instructor
Hot-air balloon examiner (examiner)
ExaminerQualification.The following conditions are required to obtain it.
- Being a member of the Japan Balloon Federation for the past four years or more
- Continue to hold an instructor qualification for at least two years
- 50 or more passenger training flights
- At least one witness of a solo training flight
- Recommendation for practical test at least once
- After acquiring the pilot qualification, have flight experience of 10 different aircraft (including AX-6 or less, AX-7, AX-8 or more) as a captain.
- Those who correctly understand the meaning of pilot logbooks, training logbooks, and aircraft logbooks, and who correctly create, store, and practice these.
- Those who fly in compliance with the Japan Balloon Federation's Free Flight Safety Regulations, Mooring Flight Safety Regulations, Guidance System, and Aviation Law
- Must be recommended by 2 instructors
- Familiarity and understanding of the system of the Japan Balloon Federation
- Those who the Safety Committee deems suitable as an examiner
A person who inspects a balloon at the time of new aircraft registration and aircraft registration renewalQualification.The following conditions are required to obtain it.
- Hold the Hot Air Balloon Operator Skill Certificate of the Japan Balloon Federation
- Over 75 hours of flight
- More than 10 flights on different aircraft
- Must be recommended by one inspector
- Extensive knowledge of balloon structure, design and manufacture
- Correctly understand and practice the manned hot-air balloon airworthiness examination standards, aircraft logs, and aircraft registration system.
- Familiarity and understanding of the system of the Japan Balloon Federation
- The Safety Committee has confirmed that it is suitable as an inspector
Procedure from hot-air balloon preparation to takeoff
From the preparation of the balloon to the flight and recovery, the procedure is generally as follows.
- Inspection and confirmation of each equipment used
- Loading equipment into a transport vehicle (chase car)
- Release the balloons, check the wind direction and speed, and determine the start-up position and direction.
- Connection of gondola and road frame (burner)
- Fixing the cylinder to the gondola, connecting the cylinder and burner, checking for gas leaks, checking the fire extinguisher
- After igniting the burner and checking the operation and gas leak, extinguish the fire and roll over the gondola.
- A ground sheet is laid to protect the ball skin, and the ball skin is spread on it.
- Connection of bulb and road frame
- Checking the operation of instruments and wireless
- Open the mouth of the bulb and inflate with an inflator
- The left and right sides of the subcutaneous part of the bulb are held so that the crew can open.
- Checking and fixing the parachute
- Holds the crown rope extending from the crown ring on the top (crown) and controls the direction and position of the bulb
- Connect the weight and balloon using a quick release etc.
- Ignite and send hot air with a burner
- When sending hot air with a burner, great care must be taken so that the crew holding the opening does not get burned or burn the bulb with the hot air.
- Buoyancy and balloon independence
- Send hot air to the extent that it does not take off until it stabilizes
- Load instruments and board by non-pilot
- Take off after checking the wind direction and above
- Fly while adjusting altitude with a burner and lip
- Ground crew chases the balloon with a chase car
- Select a landing location, lower the altitude and land
- If necessary, change crew members, replace cylinders, and take off again.
- Collect crew and equipment at the end of the flight
- Filling used cylinders with gas and checking / repairing equipment
Japanese hot air balloon tournament
In JapanAviation lawBased on the above, depending on the airspace in which the balloon is flown / suspended, it may be prohibited to fly / float, or it may be necessary to notify the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in advance when flying / floating.
Accidents occur frequently.There are various causes, including fatal accidents not only during flight but also before flight, as well as wind accidents during landing.
- 1989 Australia13 people died in a collision between hot-air balloons.
- 1993 America-ColoradoAt, the wire of the balloon in flight was cut and the gondola fell.All six people on board died.
- 2011 New ZealandAt the time of landing, it touched the power line and burned, killing one pilot and all 1 passengers.
- October 2013th, 2 EgyptA fire broke out during the flightCrashAnd 19 people died (Luxor hot air balloon crash).
- October 2013th, 8スロベニアAt, a balloon that lost control due to a strong wind was caught in a tree and burned, killing 6 people.
- October 2013th, 5トルコ, A tourist balloon crashed into another balloon in central Cappadocia, killing and injuring 25 people.
In addition, there have been accidents such as being caught in or colliding with a building.
- ^ a b "Information regarding the suspension of production of Aero Star hot-air balloons". October 2016th, 12Browse.
- ^ Erio Umesao "Hot Air Balloon Icarus No. 5" (Chuokoron-sha, 1972) Introductory "Introduction" (Keiji Higuchi)
- ^ http://www.jballoon.jp/jimu/kaisoku.html
- ^ International Business Times Selena Shimada February 2013, 2 27:01
Control body related to balloons, etc.
- Japan Balloon Federation
- Japan Aviation Association
- World Air Sports Federation | Fédération Aéronautique Internationale World Air Sports Federation (English)