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🚁 | Kangawa Town that flew with hydrogen


Kangawa Town that flew with hydrogen

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If CO2 is recovered and stored underground during the production of hydrogen, it will not be released into the atmosphere, and even if hydrogen is used, CO2 will not be generated.

At the research institute of Power Supply Development Co., Ltd. in Chigasaki City, a test flight of a drone flying with hydrogen was carried out on September XNUMXth, and a few minutes in front of the press ... → Continue reading

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carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide(Nisanka Tanso,British: carbon dioxide) Iscarbon OfOxideOne of theChemical formula Expressed asInorganic compoundIs.It is sometimes called "CioXNUMX" because of its chemical formula.Greenhouse gasAndGlobal warmingIn the context of countermeasures, it is sometimes abbreviated as "carbon", which originally refers to carbon itself ("carbon-free").[2]""Carbon neutral"Such).

Carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphereIncluding地球It is the most representative carbon oxide above, and it is a simple substance of carbon.Organic compound OfcombustionEasily caused by.gas Thecarbon dioxide gas,solid Thedry ice,liquidIs liquid carbon dioxide,Aqueous solution TheCarbonic acid,Carbonated waterCalled.

Widely used in many industries (Later).JapanThen.High Pressure Gas Safety ActArticle XNUMX of the Container Safety Regulations stipulates that the color of carbon dioxide (liquefied carbon dioxide) containers (cylinders) is green.It is also a conversion index to show greenhouse gas emissions,methane,Nitrous oxide,FreonGas etc. are converted.In Japan, 2014 billion in 13.6TWas calculated as total emissions[3].


Normal temperatureColorless and odorless at normal pressuregas.. At normal pressureliquid-79 ° C でSublimationdo itsolid(Dry ice). It dissolves relatively well in water, and the aqueous solution (carbonic acid) is weakly acidic. For this reasonAlkali metalandAlkaline earth metal OfhydroxideAqueous solutions and solids absorb carbon dioxide,CarbonateorBicarbonateCause Of carbon dioxide at high pressureSaturationWhen the aqueous solution is cooledOctahydrate Cause

Alkali metalExcept for highly reactive substances such asFlammabilityThere is no.carbonSubstances containingoil,coal,woodEtc.)combustion, Flora and faunaBreathe,microorganismbyorganic matterDisassembly,VolcanoIt is caused by activities. Converselyplant OfphotosynthesisCarbon dioxide variesOrganic compoundToFixedIs done.

In addition,Three points (56.6- ° C, 0.52 MPa) Under the above temperature and pressure conditions, carbon dioxide liquefies. More temperature and pressureCritical point (31.1 ° C, 7.4 MPa)Supercritical stateTherefore, it has the characteristics of both gas and liquid. The carbon dioxide in these statesCompressed carbon dioxideorHigh density carbon dioxideIt is called.


Carbon dioxide空 気It is a substance that is very common in the earth's environment, and its toxicity is unlikely to be a problem.However, when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air becomes high,Human capital(Human) is put in a dangerous state.When the concentration exceeds 3-4%headache-dizzy-nauseaWhen it exceeds 7%Carbon dioxide narcosisLoses consciousness in minutes. If this state continues麻 酔By actionRespiratory centerBreathing stopped due to suppression ofdeadTo (carbon dioxide poisoning)[4].. It is said that he will die with relatively little pain,vertebrate Ofslaughter,SlaughterIn the laws and regulations ofAnthropomorphicOften only allowed.Also,Lake water explosionThere are also accidents in which humans are killed or injured by carbon dioxide poisoning due to the act of sublimating a large amount of dry ice in a closed room, or the malfunction or operation of fire extinguishing equipment that uses carbon dioxide.Lake Nyos # 1986 DisasterIs famous).

stressOr fatigue may cause excessive breathing (ventilation) or excessively fast breathing (ventilation), resulting in an abnormally low concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood of the human body.Hyperventilate this, orHyperventilation syndromeCalled (hyperpnea syndrome). Although the pathology of hyperventilation syndrome itself is not life-threatening, caution is necessary because physical diseases may be hidden in the background.


Carbon dioxide is a very stable compound,baseGender orNucleophilicityIt has the property of easily reacting with substances that have.In particularGrignard reagent,Alkyl lithiumShows high reactivity to reagents such ascarboxylic acidgive.


Also metalmagnesiumBurns in carbon dioxide,reductionIs made into carbon powder.carbon,zincand鉄Even reacts at high temperaturesCarbon monoxideTo generate.

It decomposes reversibly at high temperatures to produce carbon monoxide andoxygenBecomes

hydrogenBoth produce the following equilibrium at high temperature,catalystDepending on conditions such as the existence ofmethaneandmethanolMay be generated (Water gas shift reaction).

Incidentally,school education OfscienceExperimentCarbon dioxide, etc.Lime waterIt is widely known that the substance becomes cloudy when passed through. this isCalcium carbonateTo produce a white turbidity.

Further, if carbon dioxide is continuously passed through the cloudy lime water, the reaction proceeds and the liquid becomes transparent. This is water solubleCalcium hydrogen carbonateThis is to generate.


The carbon dioxide used as an industrial raw material in Japan ispetrochemistryプ ラ ン トProduced by recovering what is discharged from the product and repeating washing and refining[5]..The domestic production of carbon dioxide as an industrial product in Japan in FY2018 was 991,138. t[Annotation 1], Industrial consumption[Annotation 2]Is 149,035 t[6].. At the lab levellimestoneThinhydrochloric acidOr addsodium hydrogen carbonateGenerated by heating.Soft drinkThe carbon dioxide gas used in is also recovered from petroleum and used.

The United KingdomThen,ammoniaUtilizes by-products of manufacturing[7].


Industrial use

In industry, it has the following uses.

Agricultural use

Agriculture:In, there are the following uses.

  • Strawberry OfForcing, Of the ornamental aquariumAquatic plantsIt is used for carbon dioxide fertilization that accelerates the growth of plants.
  • Carbon dioxide is also used for CA controlled atmosphere storage of fresh agricultural products.
  • soda drink,Bath additiveIt is used as a foaming gas for fire extinguishing agents.
  • Widely used as cooling dry ice.
  • BicycleIt has also come to be used as an emergency supplement air.
  • Supercritical stateCarbon dioxide iscaffeine OfExtractionsolventAs,coffee OfDecafIt is used for.
  • RodentAnd animals such as small animalsSlaughterIt is also used in the method of doing. Normally麻 酔To lose consciousness after becoming a state and die as it isEuthanasiaIt is used as a means of.Cardiopulmonary arrest should be confirmed after exposure to carbon dioxide for a sufficient period of time.NewbornoxygenAgainsthemoglobinIt may take 15 minutes or more due to its high affinity.[10].
  • Dry iceSublimationSince it sometimes produces white smoke, it is also used for directing on stage and in parades.This is commonly called "charcoal gas" in the broadcasting industry.This white smoke is not carbon dioxide itself, but the moisture in the air as the temperature of the atmosphere drops.FreezingIs what you see.

Greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxideInfrared2.5 --3 uM, It has a strong absorption band in the wavelength band of 4-5 μm, so it prevents heat from the ground from diffusing into space, so-calledGreenhouse gasWork as.

Carbon dioxideGreenhouse effectIs about the same volumemethane,FreonAlthough it is smaller than the above, it emits a huge amount of electricity.Global warmingIs the biggest cause of

World Meteorological Organization(WMO) has an average annual carbon dioxide concentration of 2015 in the world in 400ppmI reported that I reached[11],Ice sheet coreFrom analysis such asIndustrial revolutionPreviously, it was estimated to have a concentration of approximately 280 ppm (0.028%).The main reason for the increase in concentration isFossil fuelIs considered to be a large consumption of.

Also, of carbon dioxide itselfseawaterSeawater is acidified by increasing the amount dissolved in it,EcosystemHas an adverse effect onOcean acidificationIs also a concern.

1997 ToKyoto ProtocolThe government has set targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in each country, including carbon dioxide.

There are various methods.EnergyAnd agricultureAnimal husbandryEfforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from human origin, and森林Maintenance and training ofCarbon dioxide capture and storageEfforts are underway to fix carbon dioxide, such as the development of (CCS) technology.AlsoEmissions tradingEfforts are being made to promote the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions worldwide by utilizing the above.

2013 year 5 month,米 国Hawaii OfMauna Loa Observatory,San DiegoThe Scripps Ocean Research Institute announced that the average daily carbon dioxide amount exceeded 400ppm for the first time in human history.[12].

Calculation of world average concentration

Carbon dioxide levels are measured by various research institutes around the world, but they are not always measured according to uniform standards (that is, the comparability of each measurement is not guaranteed. is there).World Meteorological Organization (WMO)Global Atmosphere Watch(Global Atmosphere Watch) The program has various standards and methods that are unified around the world, including carbon dioxide concentration.Earth's atmosphereWe are measuring the components[13]..And the world average carbon dioxide concentration using it isWMO Annual Greenhouse Gas Report(WMO Greenhouse Gas bulletin) Has been announced.this isUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangePublished annually in conjunction with the Conference of the Parties, this global average concentration is reported by the world's leading media.In addition, the measurement data of each region in the Global Atmosphere Watch Program isWMO Greenhouse Gas World Data CenterIt is released free of charge from (World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases) (you need to follow the usage policy when using data).This data center is entrusted by WMO in JapanJapanese Meteorological AgencyIs operated by.

Carbon dioxide capture, resource recovery and separation

In addition to efforts to reduce new carbon dioxide emissions, in order to curb global warming as described above,工場-Thermal power plantIn addition to the capture of carbon dioxide contained in the exhaust gas (CCS mentioned above), the technology to separate it from the atmosphere has been developed by the capture of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (DAC = Direct Air Capture).New control of carbon dioxide emissions is not enough to mitigate global warming, by planting treesphotosynthesisThe background of technological development is a sense of crisis that "negative emissions" (negative emissions) such as promotion, CCS, and DAC are necessary. DACThe United States of America,カナダ,スイスThere are 15 facilities such as (as of 2021), and Japan also set out to put it into practical use in 2050 in the "Green Growth Strategy."Like Swiss ClimbworksEmissions tradingSome companies have already commercialized using. DAC has the following methods[14].

  1. Chemical absorption / adsorption method using solution
  2. Physical adsorption method to adsorb to solid
  3. Membrane separation method
  4. Deep cooling method that cools the air to make it dry ice

The carbon dioxide thus obtained can be stored underground orPlasticAnd used as raw materials for pharmaceutical products.Amine,Potassium hydroxideIn addition to the method of absorbingKyushu UniversityThen in the atmospherenitrogenDeveloped a membrane that is difficult to pass through and easily allows carbon dioxide to pass through[15].

Tokyo Institute of TechnologyEtc.ElectrochemistryAs a catalystrheniumComplexIn 2018, we announced the development of a method that can efficiently collect carbon dioxide even if the concentration of carbon dioxide is low.[16]..Prior to this, at Tokyo Institute of Technology, we used carbon dioxide.hydrocarbonWe have developed an organic synthetic reaction to react with. As a catalystrhodiumIs used to weaken the bond between carbon and hydrogen to react. The reaction proceeds at atmospheric pressure, but certain compounds andaluminumThere are also issues for practical use such as the need for.[17]

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注 釈

  1. ^ Excludes in-house use for fertilizer and soft drink production.
  2. ^ Consumed as raw materials, processing, and fuel for other products at the factory. Therefore, the amount consumed for production at other factories is not included.


  1. ^ a b Merck Index 12th ed., 1857.
  2. ^ "Basic Hydrogen Strategy" aiming to build a carbon-free hydrogen societyMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAgency for Natural Resources and Energy(April 2018, 2) Viewed June 13, 2019
  3. ^ Greenhouse gas emissions (confirmed value) for FY2014 (FY26) <Overview>Ministry of the Environment (PDF)
  4. ^ Effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on the human body Okinawa CO2 Reduction Promotion Council (PDF)
  5. ^ Commentary by Showa Denko Gas ProductsorExplanation by Japanese liquid coal
  6. ^ "Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Production Dynamics Statistics Annual Report Chemical Industry Statistics"
  7. ^ "Can't drink beer watching the World Cup? Carbon dioxide shortage hits the industry directly in the UK". CNN (September 2018, 6). October 2018th, 6Browse.
  8. ^ Development of basic chemical manufacturing process technology for carbon dioxide National Research and Development AgencyNew Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(Retrieved September 2018, 7)
  9. ^ Dry ice blast Japanese liquid coal (PDF)
  10. ^ Euthanasia Animal experimentation technique
  11. ^ "WMO Annual Greenhouse Gas Report No. 12”. Japan Meteorological Agency. October 2019th, 4Browse.
  12. ^ "Atmospheric CO2 levels surpass historical levels, experts call for action". AFP (September 2013, 5). October 2013th, 5Browse.
  13. ^ Notomo Tsutsumi (2017). “New WMO / GAW Implementation Plan: About 2016-2023”. weather 64: 607-614. 
  14. ^ [Science Report] Challenge Carbon Zero / CO2 Reduction Ultimate Technology "DAC" Commercialized Overseas "Yomiuri Shimbun』Morning edition September 2021, 9 Living science side
  15. ^ "CO2 directly recovered from the atmosphere / decarbonized savior without restrictions on economic activity""Nihon Keizai Shimbun』Morning edition February 2021, 2 (Science and Technology) Viewed on the same day
  16. ^ "Discovery of a new catalyst that can capture dilute carbon dioxide and turn it into a resource"Tokyo Tech News (December 2018, 12) Read January 4, 2019.
  17. ^ "* Article name unknown *" "Asahi Shimbun』Morning edition January 2011, 1 25 pages

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