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💪 | [Follow-up] The whereabouts of the bear that attacked the man are still unknown.


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[Follow-up] The whereabouts of the bear that attacked the man are still unknown.

 
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The bear appears to be a black bear, but has not yet been caught.
 

On the evening of the XNUMXrd in Masuda City, Shimane Prefecture, a running man was attacked by a bear running from behind and was seriously injured.The bear is ... → Continue reading

 San-in Central TV

This is an account of "San'in Chuo Television Broadcasting" (Fuji Television affiliate) news. We will send you the latest news from Shimane and Tottori prefectures.


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Asiatic black bear

Asiatic black bear(Asiatic black bear[9],scientific name: Ursus thibetanus) Is a carnivora that is classified in the genus Carnivora, Carnivora.aliasAsian black bear,Himalayan bear[7].

distributed

アフガニスタン,(I.e.Southeast,India,Cambodia,Kingdom of Thailand,South Korea,People's Republic of ChinaNortheast to south,Taiwan,DPR Korea,Japan,ネ パ ー ル,Pakistan,バングラデシュ,ブ ー タ タ,Myanmar,Laos,ロシアeast[3]

form

Head-and-body length (Length) 120-180 cm[6][7].. Tail length 6-10.5 cm[7].WeightMale 50-120 kg[5], Female 40-70 kg[7].. Maximum weight 173 kg[7].. Shoulder not raised and taller[7].. The whole coat is black, but there are also reddish brown individuals[5][6][7].. Chest crescent-shaped or "V"-shaped white spots on the alphabet[6], Is the origin of the Japanese name[7].. Old genus nameSelenarctosMeans "moon bear," which is also derived from the plaque on the precordial area.[5]..On the other hand, some individuals do not have this mottle.[10].

Small eyes and pinna[7].. 3 pairs of teats[6].

Sort

The classification of the following variants follows Kawaguchi (1991) and Wozencraft (2005).[4][6].

Ursus thibetanus thibetanus G. Cuvier, 1823 Tibetan black bear[11]
Assam, Sylhet[6].. People's Republic of China (YunnanSouthwest,Sichuan ProvinceNorthwest,Qinghai ProvinceSouth,Tibet Autonomous RegionSoutheast)[11].
Ursus thibetanus formosanus Swinhoe, 1864 Taiwanese black bear[12]
Taiwan[6][8]
Ursus thibetanus gedrosianus Blanford, 1877 Balochistan black bear[13]
Iran, Pakistan[8]
Many individuals are covered with reddish brown hair[13].
Ursus thibetanus japonicus Drumstick, 1857 Japanese black bear[6][14]
Japan(Honshu,Shikoku)[6][8][14]
Ursus thibetanus laniger (Pocock, 1932) Himalayan black bear (Himalayan bear)[11]
Kashmir[6], Northern Pakistan[13]
Ursus thibetanus mupinensis (Heude, 1901) Black bear[11]
People's Republic of China (QinghaiGansu-ShaanxiFrom TibetGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region-Guangdong-Zhejiang ProvinceOver)[11]
Ursus thibetanus ussuricus (Heude, 1901) Ussuri black bear[11]
Republic of Korea, Northeastern China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Southeastern Russia[8]

In Cambodia, in the wildSun bearCases of crossing with[3].

Ecology

森林Inhabit[6].NocturnalIn the daytime, I rest in tree caves, rock fissures, caves, etc., but sometimes I have activities during the daytime when there are fruits.[6].. In summer it lives at an altitude of 3,600 meters, but in winter it moves to a lower altitude.[6].. Siberian populations hibernate for 4-5 months, while southern Pakistan populations do not[6].

Fruits, sprouts, small vertebrates,昆虫Eat invertebrates, carcasses of animals, etc.[6]..According to a survey of the contents of 1975 feces conducted in Nagano Prefecture, Japan from 1977 to 135, 47.4% (64) of feces contained plant matter and animals, and 39.3% (53) of feces containing only plant matter. There is a report that the ratio of feces containing only animal substances was 13.3% (13).[15]..In this survey, 71.8% of feces containing plant matterMizunara(The number of feces contained was 84), 19.7% of chocolate vines (23), 15.4%Aralia elata(18 pieces), to 9.4%Yama grape(11 pieces), to 8.5%A. argutaIt is reported that a part of (10) was included[15]..In feces containing animal quality, 57.3% were ants (47), 36.6% were wasps and honeybees (30), and 9.8%.Japanese hare(8), 4.9% beetles, 3.7%Japanese serowIt is reported that a part of (3) was included[15].Bird of prey(Golden eagle) Hina and large herbivore (Japanese serow) cubs are captured and eaten.[16].

Climb to the top of the tree to feed on acorns (nuts and nuts), but cannot move to the branches[17].. For that reason, the branches are pulled close to hand for feeding, but at that time the branches break and leave a trace of foraging like a bird's nest called a bear shelf on the tree.[17].. Bear shelves tend to be low in good harvest years and high in bad harvest years[17].

The breeding style is embryonic. Siberian population mates in June-July and Pakistan population mates in October[6].. Mainly spawns two cubs[6].. Lactation period is three and a half months[6].. The cub opens its eyes one week after birth and lives with its mother for 1-2 years after birth[6].. Matures 3-4 years after birth[6].. Life in captivity is about 33 years[6].. As an example of long-term survival in captivity as of 1991, there is an example of an individual (coro) that died in an estimated 39 years and 2 months (captured in March 1948-April 3) at Asa Zoo in Hiroshima City.[18]..There is an example of an individual (Sakura) who died at the Kyoto City Zoo in an estimated 39 years (visited in May 1975-November 5).[19].

Relationship with human

gall bladderIs medicated[3].. The medicinal properties areUDCAIt is said that it can be chemically synthesized and there are substitutes, but it is prized.[3].. Hunting (sports hunting) is permitted by law in Japan (more on this later) and Russia[3].

May directly damage crops, beekeeping and humans[3].SikkimSo at least 2008 people died from being attacked by this species in 2013-25[3].

Habitat destruction by road construction, dam development, farmland development, and tree planting,furOr gallbladderHandPopulation is decreasing due to overfishing and extermination[3][7].. There is also concern about capturing cubs as pets, removing fangs and claws, and fighting with dogs.[3].. It will not be seen in Afghanistan, and there is a high risk of extinction in Bangladesh and the Korean Peninsula[7].. It is said to have been smuggled to the People's Republic of China and the Korean Peninsula, although it may be subject to protection but may also be poached.[7].. International commerce is prohibited, but there is a record that 1970 animals were imported to the Republic of Korea in 1993-2,867, for example.[7].1977 The subspecies Balochistan black bear,1979 Listed by species in CITES Annex I[2].. The population of the former Soviet Union in the 1970s was between 6,000 and 8,000.1985 Population in the United States is estimated at 4,600-5,400[7].. In the People's Republic of China1995 The population in Japan is estimated to be 12,000-18,000.[7].

U. t. Formosanus Taiwanese black bear
It was targeted for hunting by natives.BununTraditionally, hunting is traditionally contraindicated for its common ancestors, but it is difficult to get hunted, so it was considered a hero if the hunt was successful.[12].. This species is not mainstream because it is aggressive, difficult to hunt, and rare among natives, but mainly ungulates[12].. On the other hand, in the survey to the Bunun people, they may be hunted by being caught by ungulate traps and traversers, or by accident.[12].. Traditionally, it is believed that each part of the Han people is medicinal and the value of the gallbladder is particularly high.However, because of the high culture, taste, and external market value of the indigenous people, parts other than meat are sold outside the market. Not sold between natives for sale[12].. Since the 1960s, the number of restaurants that handle wildlife meat has increased, and hunters have started selling meat and whole parts.[12].. For example, around Yushan National Park, hunting for sale was 1980% before the 22s, but increased to 1990% in the 59s.[12].
It was legally protected in Taiwan in 1989, but it can also be poached[12].
U. t. japonicus Japanese black bear
The population of Kyushu has been captured1941 , A sure sighting case found a carcass of a cub1957 Considered extinct since then[20].1987 In some cases, the skull measurements suggest that the individual is north of the Chugoku region,Mitochondrial DNAIn the molecular phylogenetic analysis of, the analysis results consistent with the population from Fukui prefecture to Gifu prefecture were obtained.[20].. Therefore, it is considered that individuals east of Lake Biwa or individuals east of Lake Biwa were artificially transferred and then captured.[20].grandmother-Mt. KatamukiyamaSystemKyushu mountain area-Mt. SefurisanHowever, there is a problem that even if there are wild individuals, it is impossible to conclude that it is a Kyushu population without genetic analysis based on the precedent that even if there were wild individuals, the invaded individuals were discovered from Honshu.[21].
Black bears on the Shimokita Peninsula (Shimokita Peninsula population)
In 1998Shimokita PeninsulaThe forest rate is 79%, which is decreasing, while the forest rate is 43%, which is increasing.[10].. As of 2008, the population is estimated to be 120-270.[10].
Endangered local population(Ministry of the Environment Red List)[10]
Asian black bear on the Kii Peninsula (Kii Peninsula population)
It has been a forestry area for a long time, and with the increase in forests after World War II, the ratio of forests is the highest among the endangered areas.[22].. In 1994, hunting was prohibited in Nara, Mie and Wakayama prefectures.[22].. The population is estimated to be 1965 in 335 and 1987 in 1999 and 180, respectively.[22].
Endangered local population(Ministry of the Environment Red List)[22]
Asiatic black bear in the eastern Chugoku region (Eastern population of the Chugoku region)
Increase in forests, road construction and ski resort construction,boarThere are concerns about the effects of bycatch due to traps[23].
Endangered local population(Ministry of the Environment Red List)[23]
Asiatic black bear in the western Chugoku region (Western Chugoku population)
There are concerns about the effects of the decrease in natural forests, the increase in residential areas and artificial forests, the development of ski resorts and the creation of villas, and the bycatch of wild boar traps.[24].. In 1994, hunting was prohibited in Shimane, Hiroshima and Yamaguchi prefectures.[24]..On the other hand, harmful extermination is being carried out, with 2006 animals captured in 239, 2008 animals in 67, and 2010 animals in 182.[24].. It is estimated that the population in 1998-1999 was 280-680 and that in 2004-2005 was 300-740.[24].
Endangered local population(Ministry of the Environment Red List)[24]
Asiatic black bear in the Shikoku Mountains (Shikoku population)
It became extinct in Ehime and Kagawa prefectures in the latter half of the 1970s, and it has been reported that it inhabits reliably since the 1990s.Mt. TsurugisanSurrounding (KochiNortheastTokushimaSouthwest)[25]..In addition to the very limited distribution area, wild boarsSika deerThere are concerns about the effects of bycatch and road construction due to traps.[25].. Hunting is banned throughout Kochi Prefecture in 1986, Tokushima Prefecture in 1987, and Shikoku in 1994.[25].. As of 1996, the population in Tokushima Prefecture is estimated to be 12 or more, and the population in Kochi Prefecture is estimated to be 2-10.[24][25].
Endangered local population(Ministry of the Environment Red List)[25]
It has been a target of hunting in Japan since ancient times.On the other hand, some local governments are banned from hunting, as described in the endangered areas above.[22][24][25].
Damage to livestock, crops and humans is occurring in Japan as well.[7]..As an example, 2004 victims (including 109 dead) nationwide in 2, 2006 (including 145 dead) in 3, and 2010 (including 147 dead) were reported in 2. Has been[26].KazunoIn 2016, seven people were damaged in the short period from late May to June, and four of them died and their bodies were eaten.[27]..It is often near the boundary between the forest and the human settlement area as well as in the forest.Also, bears have a habit of showing their backs and chasing those who run away, so if you encounter one, you should quietly step back.[28]..Apiaries and fish farms are also heavily damaged by bears.Mainly in Japan from June to JulyLarch-Cedar-CypressIt is considered a vermin in the forestry industry because it strips the bark and eats the cambium.[14].. With all-round peeling, it will die, and with partial peeling, if the peeling is large, it will be weakened, and damage such as deterioration of the value of timber due to corrosion etc. will occur.[14].. The reason for bark stripping is not well understood, and there are theories that food is scarce and that bark is edible, and that females are attracted to breeding behavior.[14].. Bark stripping damageWest Japan OfThe Pacific OceanIt has been said that the side is the center[14], In recent years in western JapanSea of ​​JapanSide orTohoku regionBut it has been confirmed to be serious[29].. In a survey of fecal contents, blood urea concentration, and blood hemoglobin concentration conducted in Gifu Prefecture in 1998-2000UwamizuzakuraThe ratio of the bark of coniferous trees increased in the year when the ratio of the fruit of the Some reports suggest that bark will be stripped.[30]
The number of individuals in Japan was estimated to be around 10,000. But the poor crop year of nuts2004 About 2,300 heads,2006 Killed about 4,600 bears[31] The number of facts is unknown because he was frequently witnessed even after he was taken.2010 Asahi Shimbun interviewed the person in charge in each prefecture during the year of mass haunts of 16,000-26,000[32] It was thought to be the population of dozens of animals in addition to the largeOkayamaThere are many examples in which nearly half of the estimated number is captured, which suggests the magnitude of the error.
As the cause and factor of the abnormal haunting of bears in recent years, in the short-term (direct/nearest) factor, there is a large crop of nuts, and an increase in the area of ​​oak dying due to oak dying. Also, as long-term background, recovery/increase of population, change of Okuyama forest, maturation of expanded plantation and habitat shift,SatoyamaArea abandonment and habitat change, increase in attracting factors (OysterAbandoned fruit trees, abandonment of fruit trees, leftover food, garbage), decrease in hunters, appearance of new generation bears, etc.[33][34].. In addition to strongly instructing the removal of discarded fruit trees and trash from the administration, early removal of attracted fruit trees such as oysters, maintenance of a chasing system (fire bombs, roaring bullets), establishment of warning and capture systems (trap, Extermination corps) is an issue for future administration[35].. As mid-term response issues,Hazard mapAnd the designation of warning areas, training and lifting of bans (districts, free-ranging for a limited time), maintenance of satoyama, maintenance of corridor structure[35].. Also, to prevent entryElectric fenceIn some cases, non-lethal control methods such as the installation of shavings and the installation of materials to prevent bark peeling are introduced.again,KanagawaLet ’s take the captured black bearFirecracker,fireworks,Red peppersWe use a spray to instill the fear of people and then release it to the mountains.2019 By the time 28 were released this way, but only 3 of them were recaptured.[36].

In Japan, as of 2021, in units of bear family (bear family)Specific animalIn June 2019, breeding for pet purposes was banned (enforced in June 6).[37].

Cultural aspects

JapanThen,AshigarayamaでKintaroLegend has it that he wrestled with a bear[38]But about this bear typeMasao Kawai (1996) with the Asian black bear[39],Yukio Togawa (1978) is "Because it's a bear on Mt. AshigaraBrown bearnot,Japanese black bearMust be (Japanese subspecies of Asiatic black bear). "It has said[38]..In addition, Togawa said, "Mito Komonman YuukiThere is also a story about Komon being saved by a bear in the snowy mountains, but this is also a Japanese black bear. "It has said[38].

image

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Appendices I, II and III (valid from 26 November 2019)<https://cites.org/eng> [Accessed 10/02/2021 XNUMX]
  2. ^ a b UNEP (2021). Ursus thibetanus. The Species + Website. Nairobi, Kenya. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Available at: www.speciesplus.net. [Accessed 10/02/2021 XNUMX]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Garshelis, D. & Steinmetz, R. 2020. Ursus thibetanus (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T22824A166528664. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T22824A166528664.enDownloaded on 10 February 2021.
  4. ^ a b c W. Christopher Wozencraft, "Order Carnivora," Mammal Species of the World, (3rd ed.), Volume 1, Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder (ed.), Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005, Pages 532 --628.
  5. ^ a b c d Fred Bunnell "Small Bear" Translated by Hiroyuki Watanabe "Animal Encyclopedia 1 Carnivores" Supervised by Yoshinori Imaizumi, edited by DW McDonald's,平凡 社, 1986, pp. 108-109.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Yukio Kawaguchi, "Classification of Bears", "Classification and Breeding of Animals in the World 2 (Carnivores)", supervised by Yoshinori Imaizumi, Tokyo Zoological Park Society, 1991, pp. 70-76.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Hideo Ohara "Black bear (Asian black bear, Himalayan bear)" "Animal World Heritage Red Data Animals 1 Eurasia, North America" ​​by Hideo Obara, Masanori Uramoto, Hidetoshi Ota, Masafumi Matsui,Kodansha, 2000, pp. 144-145.
  8. ^ a b c d e Toru Oi, Sayaka Shimoinaba, Onna Tatsukin "Asiatic Black Bear", "Asia Bears-The Present Situation and Future-", Japan Bear Network, 2007, p. iii.
  9. ^ Akira MatsumuraHen "Asiatic black bear (Asiatic black bear)" "Daijirin 4.0" Sanseido, 2019. 
  10. ^ a b c d Nobuo Ishii "Asiatic black bear on the Shimokita Peninsula" "Red Data Book 2014 Japan's Endangered Wildlife 1 Mammal", Ministry of the Environment, Natural Environment Bureau, Wildlife Division, Rare Species Conservation Promotion Office, Gyosei Co., Ltd., 2014, pp. 114-115.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Ricard B. Harris, "Chapter 13 Current Status of Bears in China," translated by Sayaka Shimoinaba, "Asia Bears-The Current Status and Future-", Japan Bear Network, 2007, pp. 95-100.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Huang Birei, Wang Zhao, "Chapter 5 Taiwanese Black Bear Habitat and Management," Translated by Akira Narita, "Asia Bears-The Current Situation and Future-", Japan Bear Network, 2007, pp. 105-108.
  13. ^ a b c Kashif B. Sheikh, "Chapter 1 Bear Habitat and Conservation in Pakistan," Translated by Akiko Sasamoto, "Asia Bears-The Present and Future-", Japan Bear Network, 2007, pp. 1-6.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Hiroyuki Watanabe "Mystery over the habits of the Japanese black bear Kawahagi" "Encyclopedia of Animals 1 Carnivores" Supervised by Yoshinori Imaizumi, edited by DW McDonald's, Heibonsha, 1986, pp. 110-111.
  15. ^ a b c Yasushi Takada "Eating habits of Japanese black bears in the central mountains of Nagano Prefecture"Mammalogical Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 1,"Mammalogical Society of Japan, 1979, pp. 40-53.
  16. ^ Kazunari Sudo "Black Bear (Ecology of Unknown Hunters) DVD" Eaglet Office, Inc., 2013,JAN code 4582402080034
  17. ^ a b c The black bear was looking at the trees and also at the forest-conditions for bears to climb trees and eat acorns- Forest Research Institute, read on January 2020, 1.
  18. ^ Yukio Fukumoto “The World's Longest-lived Japanese Black Bear” “World Animal Classification and Breeding 2 (Carnivora)” Supervised by Yoshinori Imaizumi, Tokyo Zoo Society, 1991, p. 77.
  19. ^ "About the death of a black bear”. Kyoto City Zoo. NovemberBrowse.
  20. ^ a b c Naoki Onishi, Hikiteru Yasukawa "The origin of the last black bear in Kyushu"Mammalian Science," Vol. 50, No. 2, Mammal Society of Japan, 2010, pp. 177-178.
  21. ^ Tomoaki Kurihara "Bear sightings in Kyushu since 2000"Mammalian Science," Vol. 50, No. 2, Mammal Society of Japan, 2010, pp. 187-193.
  22. ^ a b c d e Nobuo Ishii "Asiatic Black Bear on the Kii Peninsula" "Red Data Book 2014 Japan's Endangered Wildlife 1 Mammals" Ministry of the Environment, Natural Environment Bureau, Wildlife Division, Rare Species Conservation Promotion Office, Gyosei Co., Ltd., 2014, 116-117 page.
  23. ^ a b Nobuo Ishii "Asiatic Black Bears in the East China Region" "Red Data Book 2014 Japan's Endangered Wildlife 1 Mammals" Ministry of the Environment, Natural Environment Bureau, Wildlife Division, Rare Species Conservation Promotion Office, Gyosei Co., Ltd., 2014, 118- Page 119.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Nobuo Ishii "Black Bears in the West China Region" "Red Data Book 2014 Japan's Endangered Wildlife 1 Mammals" Ministry of the Environment, Natural Environment Bureau, Wildlife Division, Rare Species Conservation Promotion Office, Gyosei Co., Ltd., 2014, 120- Page 121.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Nobuo Ishii "Asiatic black bear in the Shikoku Mountains" "Red Data Book 2014 Japan's Endangered Wildlife 1 Mammals" Ministry of the Environment, Natural Environment Bureau, Wildlife Division, Rare Species Conservation Promotion Office, Gyosei Co., Ltd., 2014, 122 --123 page.
  26. ^ Koji Yamazaki "Bear infestations did not occur all over the country." "Thinking about Japanese bears Repeated infestations of bears-What have we learned? Report on the Current Status of Haunting and Countermeasures in 2010, Japan Bear Network, 2012, pp. 4-8.
  27. ^ Japan Bear Network, "Personal Accident Investigation Report Haunting by Asian Black Bears in Kazuno City," Japan Bear Network, 2016, pp. 1-17.
  28. ^ "Watch out for bears! -Avoid unexpected accidents- (PDF)”. Ministry of the Environment. NovemberBrowse.etc.[Detailed information for identifying documents]
  29. ^ Eiji Kitahara et al. (1997). "Deforestation caused by black bears". Forestry Research Institute Kansai Branch Annual Report (Forest Research Institute Kansai branch) No.38. http://www.ffpri.affrc.go.jp/fsm/research/pubs/nenpo/past/38_03.html. 
  30. ^ Hiroshi Yoshida, Susumu Hayashi, Midori Horiuchi, Toshio Tsubota, Tetsuma Murase, Tsukasa Okano, Miho Sato, Kaori Yamamoto "Japanese Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus)), "Mammalian Science," Vol. 42, No. 1, Mammal Society of Japan, 2002, pp. 35-43.
  31. ^ Responding to a large number of black bears infested! Request from the government and Ministry of the Environment -WWF Japan website October 2010, 10
  32. ^ Large numbers of bears haunting (2010 pages of evening edition, November 11, 26, Asahi Shimbun)[Source invalid]
  33. ^ "Investigate the causes of a large number of black bears, and predict their appearance (PDF)". Independent administrative agencyForest Research Institute (June 2011). NovemberBrowse.
  34. ^ Toshio Tsubota, "Bear Habitat Trends and Recent Damage Situations," Nijukai Journal, Vol. 66, 2013, pp. 131-137.
  35. ^ a b "Bear infestation manual-bears come down from the mountain (PDF)”. Ministry of the Environment. NovemberBrowse.
  36. ^ "Firecrackers and chili sprays on captured bears ... Release after teaching "human fear", drastically reduce hauntsAugust 2020, 11 Yomiuri ShimbunOnline(Retrieved September 2020, 11)[Source invalid]
  37. ^ Specific animal list (animal protection and proper management) (Ministry of the Environment・ Used on April 2021, 2)
  38. ^ a b c Yukio Togawa"Animal Babirusa (11) Bear Deer Wild Boar Cow Dog Wolf" "Chuo Koron History and People』Vol. 8, No. 11,Chuokoronsha, August 1978, 11. --No. 87, November 1978 issue.
  39. ^ Masao Kawai"Anesthesia poor man" "Shonen Animal Magazine" 8,Shogakukan<Masao Kawai's Collection>, November 1996, 11, first edition, first edition, page 20.ISBN 978-4096770085 .

References

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