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😀 | "If you take an HIV test ..." A cartoon that conveys the importance of early detection and prevention distributed to high schools in the prefecture


"If you take an HIV test ..." A cartoon that conveys the importance of early detection and prevention distributed to high schools in the prefecture

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Distribution is scheduled to begin mainly in high schools in the prefecture from October, and if there is an inquiry, it will be distributed free of charge at each educational institution such as elementary and junior high schools and medical institutions.

In order to let people know about the importance of tests for early detection of HIV (AIDS virus), the prefecture's infectious disease medical treatment center ... → Continue reading

 Ryukyu Shimpo

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Educational institution

Educational institution(Kyoikukikan) means "Education,AcademicandcultureAboutJewelry businessThe main purpose is to carry out “businesses that are closely related to education, academics and culture”organ.


Education managed by the national or local government is called public education[1].. Typical of public education is school education and social education.Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular, As an institution that does the latterlibrary,博物馆,Public halland so on[1].

The nature of public education depends on the politics, economy, social situation, and historical background of each country.[1].. For example, in a national education system that stipulates a certain religion as a national religion, public education may include religious education.[1].. There are also differences in the period of conducting compulsory education depending on the country.[1].

Historically, public education is religiously neutral because the leaders of education move from religious organizations such as temples and churches to the country, and the idea that all children should receive education is obligatory and free. It has been established[1].. The three foundations of duty, grant, and neutrality are said to be the principles of public education[1].

Japanese educational institutions

Basic Education Law

Basic Education LawArticle 6 Clause 1 is about school education: "A school stipulated by law has a public nature, and only the national government, local governments, and legal entities can establish it." Establish. In addition, Article 12, Paragraph 2 of the Basic Education Act refers to social education. "The national and local governments set up libraries, museums, public halls and other social education facilities, use of school facilities, opportunities for learning and provision of other information. Efforts must be made to promote social education."

Educational institutions established by local governments

Type, type, etc.

Local governmentFor educational institutions established byLaw on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration"(Showa31 lawNo. 162), “Chapter 4 Educational Institutions”, etc.

For the definition of educational institutions established by local governments, see Article 30 of the "Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration" (見 出 しIs often referred to as "(establishment of educational institution)", and Article 30 of the Act is as follows.

Article 30 Local governmentslawSchools, libraries, museums, public hallsMoreIn addition to setting up educational institutionsOrdinance, It is possible to establish facilities for researching specialized and technical matters related to education or training of education-related staff, health or welfare facilities, and other necessary educational institutions.

Based on Article 30 of "Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration"SortThen it becomes as follows.


Local governmentFor educational institutions established byUniversity(Junior collegeIs included)long ConcernHowever, other things (schools other than universities, social education facilities, etc.)Board of educationHas jurisdiction over. (Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration(Article 32 text)

However,2008 (Heisei20 years)May 4FromOrdinanceAccording to the provisions ofSportsThing (in schoolphysical educationExcept for)cultureAbout (Cultural property OfprotectionExcept forOffice workAny or all ofManagementAndImplementationThe jurisdiction of the educational institution, which is solely responsible for doing so, is the head of the local government. (Refer to Article 23, Article 24, Article 24-2, Article 32 proviso, etc. concerning the law and organization of local educational administration)

Interpretation in administration

1956 (31)May 9ToMinistry of Education(Now OfMinistry of education)ofBureau of Primary and Secondary EducationlongIssued byNoticeIn "Statement No. 411", the educational institutions established by local governments are as follows.Be understoodThere is.

Local government law(Law No. 22 of 67) Article 244-2 paragraph 1 (at that time, Article 213 paragraph 1),Ordinary local government(Prefecturesand市町村) Is the law or is based on the lawCabinet OrderExcept for those with special provisions inresidents OfwelfareTo provide the residents with the purpose of promotingPublic facility(At that time,Construction)) and the management of “public facilities” must be stipulated by ordinance (note thatspecial area,Union of local governments,Property ward,Special merger wardIs the same).

However, the ordinance regarding the installation and management of "public facilities" according to Article 244-2, Paragraph 1 of the Local Autonomy Law is "Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration"Unlike the regulations of educational institutions under Article 30, regarding the installation and management of "public facilities" established by the relevant local governmentGeneralIt does not require individual ordinances regarding the installation of individual "public facilities".

(Note: CurrentLocal government law(Law No. 22 of 67),Law on special cases of merger of municipalities(HeiseiSee also Law No. 16, 59)

1963 (38)May 12Answered by the Director of Primary and Secondary Education, Ministry of Education (now Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology)documentsIn "Committee first 5-50", the following is understood about educational institutions established by local governments.

School education law(Showa 22 law No. 26) The school stipulated in Article 1 corresponds to the "public facility" of Article 22 of the Local Autonomy Law (Act No. 67 of 244), and the installation is 244 of Article 2. The regulations will be based on. The contents of the regulations when setting up and managing schools as "public facilities" areNameand位置It suffices to specify. Management does not need to be established by ordinance.

1957 (32)May 6In the response document “Committee No. 158” issued by the Director of the Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau of the Ministry of Education (now Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), the educational institutions established by local governments are understood as follows.

"Educational institution" in Article 30 of the "Act on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration" means business related to "education, science and culture" or specialized and technical matters related to "education, science and culture". The main purpose is to carry out projects closely related to "education, science and culture" such as research or training of education-related staff, health, welfare, and welfare.Exclusive OfObjectFacilities andPeopleAnd equipped withManagerUnder the control ofWillOf the business continuouslyManagementIs an institution. (Answer 1)

public OfVarious schools(Various schools established by local governments) are educational institutions that require the ordinance of Article 30 of the "Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration". (Answer 2) (Note: At that time,Vocational school OfsystemTherefore, the specialized training school is considered to be an educational institution that requires the establishment ordinance of Article 30 of the "Law on Organization and Management of Local Education Administration".

Child Welfare Act(Showa 22Law No. 164)Child welfare facility(Midwifery facility,Infant clinic,Mother and child life support facility,Licensed Nursery School,Child welfare facility,Orphanage,Facilities for children with intellectual disabilities,Facilities for children with intellectual disabilities,Deafblind child facility,Facilities for physically handicapped children,Facilities for severely handicapped children,Short-term treatment facility for children with emotional disorders,Child independence support facilityandChild and Family Support Center)andOccupational Ability Development Promotion Act(Showa 44Law No. 64)Public vocational capacity building(Vocational development school,Vocational Development Junior College,Vocational Development College,Vocational Development Promotion CenterorVocational development school for people with disabilities) (At that time,Employment Security Act(Showa 22Law No. 141) (based on the current law) is not included in the educational institutions under Article 30 of the "Law Concerning Organization and Management of Local Education Administration". (Reply 3)

1959 (34)May 4In the response document “Committee No. 80” issued by the Director of the Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau of the Ministry of Education (now Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), the educational institutions established by local governments are understood as follows.

Municipalitiesprimary school-Junior high schoolWhen it is unavoidable to install, it can be installed outside the area of ​​the municipality.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Takahide Kato, Tomomi Usui, Hiromi Kurama, "New Edition Education Organization and Management," Academic Publication, 2016, p. 11

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Medical institution

Viewed by creatorJapan OfMedical institution(November 2019)[1]
Public medical institution1,2023,5222614,985
Social insurance affiliates514507508
Medical Corporation5,72043,59314,76264,075

Medical institution(Irikyokan) is a facility that provides medical care.

Medical institutions in Japan

What are medical institutions in Japan?Medical lawStipulated inMedical facilitiesRefers to.AdministrationInhospital,pharmacy,Visiting nursing stationIt is the institution for secondary medical examinations and prosthetic limb type instructors. In a narrow sense, a hospital,Clinic,Nursing care health facility,DispensingRefers to the pharmacy and other facilities that provide medical care (hereinafter referred to as "medical care facilities"). Although there are many misunderstandings, osteopathic clinics, osteopathic clinics, acupuncture and moxibustion clinics, chiropractic clinics, and chiropractic clinics are practicing medical institutions and are not medical institutions.

Established by the provisions of each law related to medical insuranceInsurance medical institutionIs different from the definition.

Classification in medical law

Classification by creator

Minister's Secretariat, Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareClassification of establishments of medical facility surveys by the statistical information department

Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareNational Hansen's Disease Sanatoriumな どCategory: Japanese medical institutions (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)
National Hospital OrganizationNational hospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (National Hospital Organization)
National University CorporationNational University HospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (national university corporations)
Incorporated Administrative Agency Workers Health and Safety OrganizationLabor accident hospitalCategory: Medical institutions in Japan (Institute for Health and Safety of Workers)
National Center for Advanced Medical ResearchNational Cancer Center Hospitalな どCategory: Japanese medical institutions (National Center for Advanced Medical Research)
Incorporated administrative agency regional medical function promotion mechanismFormer Social Insurance Hospital (National Federation of Social Insurance Associations), Welfare Pension Hospital, Crew Insurance HospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (Regional Medical Function Promotion Organization)
Institutions in other countriesMinistry of Defense(SDF hospital,National Defense Medical College Hospital),Ministry of Justice(Medical prison),Imperial Household Agency(Imperial Household Agency)SuchCategory: Japanese medical institutions (institutions in other countries)
Public medical institution
PrefecturesPrefectural hospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (prefectures)
市町村Municipal hospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (municipalities)
Local independent administrative corporationSome prefectural hospitals and some municipal hospitals have movedCategory: Japanese Medical Institution (Local Incorporated Administrative Agency)
Public university corporationPublic university hospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (public university corporations)
Japanese Red Cross SocietyRed Cross HospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (Nisseki)
SaiseikaiSaiseikai HospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (Saiseikai)
Hokkaido Social Work AssociationCategory: Japanese medical institutions (Hokkaido Social Work Association)
KoseirenJA Koseiren HospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (Koseiren)
National Health Insurance Association
Social insurance affiliates
Mutual aid associationAnd its federationNational Public Employee Mutual Aid Association, Local Public Employee Mutual Aid Association (Local Employee Mutual Aid Association, Public School Mutual Aid Association, Police Mutual Aid Association, Metropolitan Employee Mutual Aid Association, Designated City Employee Mutual Aid Association, Municipal Employee Mutual Aid Association, etc.) and National Municipal Employee Mutual Aid Association of Associations, Japan Private School Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation
Health insurance association and its associationHealth insurance union hospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (Health insurance association and its federation)
National Health Insurance SocietyGeneral Hospital Welfare Central HospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (National Health Insurance Society)
Public interest corporation
Public interest corporationPublic interest group corporation corporation,Public interest incorporated foundationStanding hospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (public interest corporations)
Medical Corporation
Medical CorporationSocial medical corporation,Specific medical corporationCategory: Japanese medical institutions (medical corporations)
Private school corporation
School corporationPrivate university hospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (private school corporations)
Social welfare corporation
Social welfare corporationCategory: Japanese medical institutions (social welfare corporation)
Medical co-op
Medical co-opMedical Co-op HospitalCategory: Japanese medical institutions (medical co-op)
CompanyLtd.Standing hospital (Corporate hospital)Category: Japanese medical institutions (company)
Other corporations
Other corporationsInstitute,General Foundation,Religious corporationStanding hospital, etc.Category: Japanese medical institutions (other corporations)
IndividualCategory: Japanese medical institutions (individuals)

Public medical institution

Medical lawThen prefectures, municipalities, etc.Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareThe hospital or clinic opened by the person (see below)Public medical institution(Article 31), Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare orPrefectural governorCan order the following matters to its creator or administrator: In addition, it is possible to give necessary instructions regarding the operation of the relevant medical institution (Article 35).

  • All or part of the building, equipment, instruments and appliances should be used by a doctor or dentist who does not work at the public medical institution.Medical treatmentorResearchTo be used for.
  • Doctor lawOrDentist lawOn-the-job training according to the provisions ofClinical trainingTo prepare the conditions necessary for the above.
  • Take necessary measures for securing medical care pertaining to emergency medical care securing business specified in the medical care plan of the prefecture in which the location is located.

In addition, "the person who the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare defines" among the establishments of the public medical institutions prescribed in Article 31 of the Medical LawnoticeAccording to the following (“Opener of public medical institution prescribed in Article 26 of the Medical Law” August 8, 22 Ministry of Health and Welfare Notification No. 167).CountryNote that is not included in the public medical institution if is the person who opened.

Medical institution bond

Medical institution bond TheMedical lawCan be issued by a medical corporation that establishes a medical institution prescribed in Article 39Evidence securities.Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareMedical bureau"Guidelines for issuing "medical institution bonds" etc. notified by the long name"[2]Then, according to the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act,Securities"Is not applicable,"Civil lawCreated for the purpose of proving that you borrowed money when borrowing money as a consumer loanEvidence securitiesIs defined as

Medical institution bonds are used because they can procure relatively small funds (about tens of millions of yen to XNUMX million yen) without any collateral or guarantee.[3].. The financing method is a method in which all financial institutions buy between "medical corporations" and "neighboring financial institutions" (total loan type), "medical corporations" and "neighbors with medical corporations" and "neighborhoods with transactions, etc." There is a method in which local people such as a "company" buy it (regional open type), and both are issued at interest rates below the normal loan rate of banks and welfare medical institutions.

However, around 23, the names of some medical corporations (or medical corporations in the dormant state) were abused and issued to a level (investors nationwide) that deviated from the regional open type. There was a problem with the solicitation of agency bonds (later this case was a fraud case).[4]Therefore, the financial council (prime minister・The "Investment Service Bill," in which the first subcommittee of the Financial Subcommittee is proceeding with deliberation on legislation, had a debate on the regulation of monetary consumption loan contracts including medical institution bonds.[5]There were things.

Regarding the consumer problem regarding medical institution bonds in September 24, the “Proposal on the consumer problem regarding medical institution bonds” was taken from the perspective of preventing the spread of damage.[6]As for "ascertaining the actual conditions of issuance of medical institution bonds," "promotion of cooperation between related institutions," and "consideration of reviewing guidelines from the perspective of consumer protection."

Overview of issuing medical institution bonds

Regarding medical institution bonds, the following is stipulated by the Medical Administration Bulletin 0420 No. 7 April 28, 4 Notification by the Director of the Medical Policy Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.

  • External audit required if the issue amount is large
  • Issuance purpose is limited to acquisition of assets
  • Notification of issuance requirements etc. to the supervisory agency before issuance
  • There are restrictions on information disclosure, interest rates, solicitation methods, etc. when issuing
  • Medical corporations can purchase medical institution bonds issued by other medical corporations, but in that case there are certain restrictions

Issue record of medical institution bonds

厚生労働省が実施した医療機関債 の発行状況を調査(平成25年3月8日公表)によると18 の医療法人が、計 41 件の医療機関債を発行しており、発行総額は43億900万円である(平成24年9月1日時点)。[7]

Examples of medical institution bond issuance since 23 include:[8]According to the number of news releases (the number of searches) in the first year of Reiwa, Kyushu Financial Group (Kagoshima Bank・Higo Bank),Joyo BankYou can check 15 cases of contracting/underwriting at Saga Bank.

Number of medical institution bonds issued each year[7]

Closed day

It is possible to set the days to be closed and the hours to be treated according to the policies of each medical institution.[9].. It should be noted that this is not something that the government can be involved in[10].

Many medical institutions are closed on Sundays. This is allegedly due to problems with coordination with other services and staff[11].

practitionerThere are some small-scale medical institutions (clinics, clinics) operated on Wednesdays or Thursdays that are closed for half a day or all days. This is due to the fact that there are many medical institutions to be examined on Saturdays, and there are also transfers, and some academic societies and study groups to which medical institutions belong are held on Wednesdays or Thursdays.[12].

However, to the doctorDuty to serveHas been defined (Doctor lawArticle 19,Dentist law(Article 19), it is said that it is not permissible to refuse medical treatment for emergency cases by limiting the medical treatment time (September 24, 9, Medical Departure No. 10). Regarding examinations outside the hours,Out-of-insurance combined medical expensesIt is possible to collect additional charges as a target.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ 2019 Medical Facility (Dynamics) Survey / Hospital Report Overview (Report). Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. (2019). https://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/saikin/hw/iryosd/19/. 
  2. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare homepage About guidelines such as "medical institution bond" issuance (final revision medical administration 0420 No. 7 April 28, 4)http://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-10800000-Iseikyoku/0000135213.pdf(Browsed on January 30, 1)
  3. ^ "Medical Facility Management Stabilization Business Survey Report for Financing at Medical Institutions”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. NovemberBrowse.
  4. ^ "A new profit story, a solicitation for selling medical institution bonds!". National Life Center. NovemberBrowse.
  5. ^ "JCR | Q & A". Japan Credit Rating Agency. NovemberBrowse.
  6. ^ Cabinet Office Homepage Recommendations on consumer issues related to medical institution bonds (September 2012, 9 Consumer Commission) https://www.cao.go.jp/consumer/iinkaikouhyou/2012/0904teigen.html(Browsed on January 30, 1)
  7. ^ a b Homepage of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare The results of a survey on the issuance status of medical institution bonds by medical corporations are published http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/houdou/2r9852000002wx91.html (read January 30, 1) 2 out of the 23 issued in FY25, which were reported in 20, are issued by a corporate name that was later prosecuted for medical bond fraud, and are not issued in the true sense.
  8. ^ Regional Banks Association of Japan http://www.chiginkyo.or.jp/(Browsed on January 30, 1)
  9. ^ Why is Thursday afternoon closed? -Okazora Pediatric Clinic
  10. ^ Main proposal sent from July, XNUMX to September and way of thinking of city -Hiratsuka
  11. ^ Why are there few hospitals open on Saturdays and Sundays? -Amoeba News
  12. ^ How often do dentists have regular holidays? We will answer your simple questions immediately! -Dokurabo

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