If Mt. Fuji erupts, residents and the Self-Defense Forces will conduct evacuation drills in Shizuoka and Susono City.
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After that, the person in charge of the city and prefecture explained the contents of the hazard map revised in March, such as the amount of lava ejected doubled, and renewed the awareness of the crisis.
How should we evacuate when the eruption of Mt. Fuji is imminent?Residents participated in practical training in Susono City. ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Hazard mapIsNatural disastersPredict the damage caused byMapWhat has become.It may be created with names such as disaster prevention map, damage prediction map, damage estimation map, avoid map, risk map, etc...Hazard maps show disaster prevention geographic information such as estimated damage areas, evacuation routes and evacuation sites, and locations of disaster prevention related facilities based on the origin of the land or the characteristics of the topography and ground..
By using the damage prediction map, residents and others can evacuate quickly and accurately in the event of a disaster, and it is possible to avoid locations where secondary disasters are expected to occur, which is extremely effective in reducing damage from disasters. is there.
However, it is difficult to take measures against unexpected situations against disasters only with basic information such as topography and land conditions used to create existing hazard maps.Therefore, in Japan, there are cases where evacuation areas designated by hazard maps are hit by natural disasters.It is necessary to create a new hazard map and make a major review of the conventional hazard map so that such unexpected things do not occur..
Hazard map in Japan
In Japan, it has been created as a soft measure in terms of disaster prevention since the 1990s, but there are many things that do not reach the identification of the location and scale of occurrence only for natural disaster partners, and in the event of a disaster that exceeds expectations. May not always be possible.Trial and error continues, including issues such as the selection of posted information, ease of viewing, and the risk of information becoming rigid.
It also occurred on March 2011, 3Great East Japan EarthquakeAt that time, we received the result that even a structure that was supposed to withstand a major disaster once in 100 years could not be prevented., National and local governments take evacuation measures to secure human life first, rather than prevent damage from structuresI am paying attention to the hazard map. Then, by creating a new hazard map and revising the existing hazard map, and having the local residents participate in the process of formulating the hazard map, it is possible to reflect the local characteristics, to inform the residents, and to promote the utilization of them. We anticipate improvement of local disaster prevention capabilities.
Main types of damage forecast maps and display contents
- River inundation flood (rivers such as leveeflood-Flood damage-Water control）
- It is often referred to as a "flood hazard map," which mainly assumes flooding of rivers. This map is a map in which the local governments added evacuation sites, etc. to the inundation area map below.
- Flood control(Revised in July 13), "Inundation area mapIs created.
- Expansion of designated rivers in designated inundation areas by the Law for Revising a Part of the Law Concerning the Promotion of Sediment Disaster Prevention Measures in the Flood Prevention Act and Sediment Disaster Warning Areas (Law No. 37 (May 17)) Improvement of the warning and evacuation system in the inundation expected area has been implemented.Small and medium riversExpand to and publicize the arrival information of. For facilities mainly used by elderly people in the flooded areaFlood forecastThe warning and evacuation system has been enhanced by transmitting such information and creating a plan for evacuation in underground facilities.)
- Generated because a large amount of rainwater exceeds the treatment capacity of the sewer systemInland floodExpected range of floods by.
- Sediment disaster
- Earth and stone flowMountain stream, landslide danger area, etc.
- Sediment disaster prevention lawBased on (Article 7: Development of warning and evacuation system, etc.), the prefectural governor designates a sediment-related disaster warning area, and a "earth-and-sand disaster caution area map" is created in a plan view on the map. ..
- According to the “Act on the Prevention of Landslides and the Prevention of Sediment Disasters in Landslide Warning Areas” (Law No. 37 (May 17))Disaster victims) To the facilities used by ()Regional disaster prevention plan)) and the distribution of sediment-related disaster hazard maps are obligatory (the communication method of sediment-related disaster information, evacuation sites, etc. are thoroughly known).
- Liquefaction phenomenonRange of fire, range of large-scale fire, etc.
- VolcanoDisaster prevention
- craterThe point (range) whereLava flow-Pyroclastic flow-Pyroclastic surgeReach of,Volcanic ashRange of descent, reach of (Volcanic disaster forecast mapreference)
- There are special precautions for using the volcano hazard map. The volcanic phenomena shown on the map do not occur instantaneously (short time), but occur while changing with time. The location of the crater is also a prediction, and therefore the range of mudflow is also a prediction.
- Flooded areas, closed areas during high waves, etc.
In addition, we do not target specific disasters,EvacuationA map showing information on routes, evacuation sites, disaster prevention organizations, etc.Disaster prevention mapSometimes called.
Example of damage forecast map
Usu Volcano disaster prevention map
January 2000Mt. Usu OferuptionThere has occurred. The eruption was announced on March 3 by the Japan Meteorological Agency.Emergency volcano informationWas announced and received the municipality (Date City,Sobetsu Town,Abuta Town) Is "Evacuation instructionsWas announced.
In this eruption,KinpirasanThere was a great deal of damage, such as the spillage of water from the river and filling the hot spring town. However, no one was killed or injured. This is because first of all, it was the first successful advance prediction in Japan, secondly the "Usuzan Volcano Disaster Prevention Map" (7 version) was prepared and published, and thirdly, each municipality based on this disaster prevention map. It is said that this was due to the prompt action of the residents. At this eruption, a maximum of 15,815 people were subject to evacuation advisories and instructions.
In March 2002, the Usu Volcano Disaster Prevention Council Council (based on Article 3 of the Basic Act on Disaster Countermeasures. Date City (Secretariat), Abuta Town, Sobetsu Town) and the 17 municipalities of Toyoura Town and Toya Village "Usuzan Volcano Disaster Prevention Map" was revised. This is because the crater topography changed due to the 5 eruption, and the dangerous areas such as the pyroclastic flow reach have changed. This map was distributed to most households in the five municipalities.
Mount Fuji volcano disaster prevention map
If Mt. Fuji in the middle of Honshu erupts, it will have a great impact on society. Therefore, a group of academic experts, mainly from national disaster prevention agencies and local governments, gathered together to establish the "Mt. Fuji Hazard Map Study Committee", which was used as a guideline for evacuation/guidance assuming the damage situation in case of emergency. This "Mt. Fuji volcano disaster prevention map" predicts various volcanic disasters, referring to past eruptions of Mt. Fuji. Among them, as an example of volcanic ash damageHoei eruption,Jogan eruptionThe damage record of is being examined in detail. Regarding the hazard map, an interim report (June 2002) and a study report (June 6) were issued twice, a report summarizing the survey results,Cabinet OfficeIt is published on the website of the disaster prevention department.
Hazard map considered dangerous
According to a survey by the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, about 4% of major municipalities nationwide have not completed revisions to flood hazard maps that need to be reviewed in the event of a heavy rain disaster.Hazard maps are required to be improved so that they can evacuate quickly in the event of severe flood damage.
Hazard map in Europe and America
The United States of America
In the United States,United States Federal Crisis Management AgencyUnder the initiative of (FEMA), an assumed inundation area map is being developed that shows the inundation area with a probability of once in 100 years and the inundation area with a probability of once in 1 years on the map..
European UnionThe (EU) promulgated the "Directive on Flood Risk Assessment and Management" in October 2007, which requires member countries to create flood hazard maps, etc...This obliged Member States to create hazard maps for multiple probabilities (low or severe events, medium and high frequencies) by 2015..
Hazard maps have been created in the Netherlands for inland floods with a probability of occurring once every 10 to 100 years..
The United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, a map of the estimated inundation area with a probability of occurrence once in 100 years (a probability of occurrence once in 1 years in a storm surge inundation area) and a map of an estimated inundation area with a probability of occurrence once in 200 have been created. Inundation area map is published on the Internet.
- Yukihiro Hirai "For practical use of hazard maps: -Significance and issues of referring to topographical classification maps as basic information-"Abstracts of the Association of Japanese Geographers" 2021 Spring Meeting of the Association of Japanese Geographers Session ID: S107, The Association of Japanese Geographers, 2021, p. 80, two:10.14866 / ajg.2021s.0_80, NOT 130008006725.
- Yoshiyuki Murayama, Takashi Oda "Significance of Okawa Otsunami Proceedings"Abstracts of the Association of Japanese Geographers" 2021 Spring Meeting of the Association of Japanese Geographers Session ID: S103, The Association of Japanese Geographers, 2021, p. 59, two:10.14866 / ajg.2021s.0_59, NOT 130008006710.
- ^ a b Hazard map Geospatial Information Authority of Japan Hokkaido Survey Department, viewed December 2020, 12.
- ^ Yoshiyuki Murayama & Takashi Oda 2021.
- ^ Sanriku Coast Tsunami-stricken area field survey ⑪ Huge embankment of Kamaishi that was destroyed Sadaichi Aoyama Tokyo City University Komichi Ikeda Institute for Environmental Studies, Posted on: August 2011, 8
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ Relationship between information and evacuation behavior-Cabinet Office Disaster Prevention
- ^ "Heavy rain hazard map, 4% of major cities and wards have not been revised" Nihon Keizai Shimbun, July 2020, 7
- ^ a b c d e (PDF) Cabinet Office disaster prevention information, viewed December 2020, 12.
- Disaster memorial
- Timeline (disaster prevention) -Time series of how things move in response to possible events
- Terrain classification -Various topographic classification maps have been created as basic materials for hazard maps.
- Electronic land basic map