Photo World Press Photo Exhibition (Kita-ku, Kyoto City, Ritsumeikan Onishi Sonji Memorial Hall) with works of social issues such as corona and conflict
Introducing the prize-winning works of the World Press Photo Contest Photo exhibition in Kyoto, including environmental destruction and conflict
If you write the contents roughly
Regarding the new corona, we will introduce the sight of elderly people and nurses hugging each other through a transparent curtain at a nursing care facility in Brazil, where the infection has spread rapidly, and the appearance of the body sealed with a sheet without anyone to snuggle up to prevent infection.
The "World Press Photo Exhibition", a collection of works by photojournalist from all over the world, will be held on the 18th at Ritsumeikan Onishizonoji in Kita-ku, Kyoto. → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Japanese long-term care
JapanThe word "long-term care" is legally confirmed in1892 Army soldierDisabled veteranThis is because of the difference in illness benefits, etc., and long-term care is not a measure.pensionIt was a concept as a benefit standard of. The word "long-term care" came to be used proactively.1970 eraThis is from the movement to demand public long-term care security by persons with disabilities from the latter half.Prior to that, people with disabilities had a social idea that "it is natural for parents to take care of people with disabilities."FacilitySuch a movement arose from the sense of crisis that "it will be driven to."
In response to the demand for public long-term care security, the long-term care dispatch business began to be institutionalized in the mid-1980s, but it was far from being called security for persons with disabilities.The home-visit nursing care and nursing business for the elderly by local governments began in the 1960s, but it is ideally a support for family care, and the idea is still being inherited.MedicalToQuality of lifeWhen the idea of (Quality of life / QOL) becomes widespread, it is also introduced into long-term care, and it is also the purpose of long-term care to improve the QOL of the sick and elderly by long-term care and to contribute to further improvement of QOL.
Long-term care insurance method,Support fee payment systemAs a result, people with disabilities provide home care and institutional care services, and also provide long-term care.care worker,Visiting caregiverCoordinating the use of long-term care workers and long-term care servicesCare support specialistIt is,Exclusive qualification OfProfessionHowever, the physical and mental load of work is heavy, and the difficulty of work and the size of the load are high.Low wagesTherefore, there is a constant labor shortage.
It is often reported that the long-term care business in Japan is difficult to manage and the treatment of staff is not good.On the other hand, foreign-affiliated acquisition funds have acquired major companies, greatly increasing their corporate value.Behind this is the fact that the nursing care industry is crowded with small and medium-sized enterprises.Among them, we are aiming for high profitability by expanding the scale through mergers and acquisitions, taking advantage of economies of scale, and controlling expenses.In addition, the number of elderly people is steadily increasing, the market is expected to grow, and the long-term care fee consisting of taxes and insurance premiums is official and there is no possibility of price collapse.Finally, the government decided on the Cabinet decision in June 2021 and included the notification of the income and expenditure of the long-term care business and the publication on the Internet.
"Long-term care" controversy
- While questioning the specialty and uniqueness of the act of "nursing care," the following controversies often occur.
- For that reason, some are "uniqueThe study of long-term care (or long-term care welfare)Should be established, which should raise the academic authority of the existence of long-term care and insist on the technical expertise of long-term care. ”(Long-term care is due to existing events and academics There is no idea that it will be established as an academic system by itself).To make this a reality 2004,Japanese Society of Nursing Care Japan Care Workers AssociationWas established in.
"Nursing" and "Nursing"
Some in the nursing world said that long-term care is part of nursing.NurseThere is also a voice that the word "" can be used as a substitute.In fact, meal assistance, bathing assistance, and excretion assistance, which are also called the three major nursing care, are also treated in nursing.Under Japanese law, there is no description of the specialty that distinguishes "long-term care" from nursing, the specific work content, and its position.
However, the word "long-term care" has become popular,care worker,Visiting caregiverAs it is more appropriate than the conventional "caregiving" to describe the work of (home helper)AssistanceSince it can be used in a slightly wider range than physical action support, its usage is becoming widespread as a useful item.Also, the word "long-term care" isnurseIn Japan, long-term care welfare workers have been nationally qualified, and specialization in nursing care methods different from nursing, such as observation, analysis, and finding needs, is being researched.
The word "long-term care" isCare productsIs a manufacturerFootmark Co., Ltd.(TokyoSumida-ku)'S representative director, Shigefumi Isobe, said, "I made it by combining" assistance "and" nursing "in consideration of mutual exchange of feelings between the caregiver and the caregiver.Coined wordThere is a theory, but as mentioned above, it is an idiom that appeared in the law in 1892.
Long-term care technology
Social workAbove, in the sense of technology provided for assistance to welfare service users Social welfare assistance technologyDirect assistance technology in There is also an opinion that it will be incorporated into, and when talking about the classification and specialty of long-term care from that point of view, the name corresponding to "casework (individual assistance technology)" and "group work (group assistance technology)" in the same technology. As,Care work (long-term care technology)Is used.However, when comparing these, the origins and techniques of long-term care are significantly different from those of the former two (the former two are basically techniques for "human relations". Care work is basically Technology for "impairment of behavior in daily life"), and in reality, "Social workerとcare workerSince a separate qualification has been established, there is a view that "long-term care technology is a technology (outside social welfare assistance technology) that has its own system that does not depend on anyone."
However, both social workers and long-term care workers are required to have three skills, "casework," "group work," and "care work" in their cases (alternative actions due to the absence of care work personnel in team care cases). Or vice versa, or cases that require mutual understanding between the caregiver and the counselor), so it is necessary to master them.Also,Faculty of Social WelfareMost of the universities that have these technologies actually use these three technologies as fields of social welfare.Set unique units that are equalIn addition, in both the qualification examinations for care workers and social workers, the examination subjects related to these three technologies are still different.Exists as an equal field within the examare doing.
View of long-term care
The traditional view of long-term care in Japan is "parents息 子(EspeciallyFirst son) And relatives take care of it. "Valueswas there.However, with the declining birthrate and aging population, the progress of nuclear families, and the progress of medical care.lifeFamily members who provide long-term care due to the fact that long-term care is no longer "March"spouseThe side of (Yako) is also an elderly person.Elderly careThe problem of "" has also emerged, which is a heavier burden on the family (in a prominent example,1999 At that timeTakatsuki OfMayor-Toshio EmuraHowever, he resigned from the mayor and had a discussion because he could not balance his wife's long-term care and public office).It is not possible to endure the hardships and burdens of long-term care, leading to crimes such as the child being cared for killing a parent (often reported as "care tired murder").
Nowadays, the hardships of families with long-term care recipients and the hardships of long-term care recipients are becoming widely known, and the value of being able to take care of the entire society is emerging.AlsoKantoWith the categoryKansaiDifferences in long-term care views have also been reported in the area..This is thought to be due to the diversification and complexity of society and culture.The complex diversification of long-term care views may be inevitable in a sense, but the social system that can respond to that diversity is not always in place..
Long-term care and inheritance
The person who cared for the family is a legacyinheritanceIn some cases, the inheritance amount should be determined in consideration of special beneficiaries and contributions.To avoid conflicts in heritage division, caregivers should keep a diary to keep track of care and keep receipts for care spending.When you receive a gift during your lifetime, it is important to record the amount and timing of the gift and keep the tax return properly..
Bilateral agreement between Japan and other countriesEconomic partnership agreementAccording to the (EPA), since 2008, nurses and care workers (candidates) have come to Japan to work in Japan. Target countries up to 2014Indonesia-フィリピン-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs. In 2014, the number of workers exceeded 2,000, and some workers are outside the EPA system.
However, on the other hand, since the management of foreign workers is left to the discretion of each care provider, many care providers abuse foreign workers with low salaries, and in some cases lawsuits are filed. Are.
- Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act(Immigration Control Law) Amendment (Effective October 2017, 10)) Adds "long-term care" to the status of residence.Those who have graduated from a Japanese long-term care welfare training facility (training school) and have acquired a long-term care welfare officer can apply for a status of residence with the status of residence "long-term care" when they are engaged in long-term care work or long-term care guidance. It will be possible to get a job at a nursing care facility in Japan.
- On the same day as the revision of the technical intern training system (enforced on November 2017, 11), "long-term care occupation" was added to the training occupation...The technical intern trainee is a system aimed at converting the skills of the technical intern training system, but the technical intern trainees who come to Japan are managed by the supervising organization in their staying life, and at the training facility, the employment relationship based on the Labor Standards Law is established. Conclude and become a worker who is treated and protected like a Japanese worker..As a worker, you will be subject to an industrial accident in the event of an industrial accident.Technical intern trainees acquire skills through OJT and OFF-JT through labor. Those who have failed the EPA candidate for nursing care welfare are being considered to return to Japan after a period of about one year and then return to Japan as technical intern trainees.In addition, technical intern trainees must pass the national examination for "long-term care welfare worker" during the technical intern training period, and those who have received a care welfare worker registration certificate must return to Japan and then switch their status of residence to "long-term care". Is also being considered to be possible.
"Nursing care" is for incontinenceDiapers・ Protective gloves ・futon-Pillow-Kaya, Shoehorn, shoehorn, shoelace,footwear, False eyelashes, earpicks,Cufflinks・ Bags ・ Makeup tools ・ Belts ・ Arm stoppers ・ Emblems ・ Armbands ・ Headdresses ・ Beards,Carabiner-Pickel・ Sleeping bag ・ Underwater knife ・ Weight belt ・ Swim bladder ・metronome-Musical instrument-Video games-horse ridingEquipment, cradle, walker for infants, gymnastics mat, toys,dolls-Magic trickEquipment, game equipment, exercise equipment,Fishing tackleFor etc.Foot markCo., Ltd. has rightsTrademark registration.
In addition, Hoken Co., Ltd., which publishes "Monthly Long-term Care Insurance"magazine,News (Chinese)Has trademark rights, Accommodation facilities, provision of food and drink, childcare for infants, nursing care for the elderly, rental of futons, etc.WatamiCo., Ltd. has trademark rights.
- ^ "Social Health View Study Group Research Achievements”. Social Health View Study Group. As of April 2016, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.NovemberBrowse.
- ^ References: ・ ・ "Regional difference study of long-term care-related workers regarding long-term care consciousness-through 3076 cases in Kanto and Kansai-"Japan Care Workers Association.Japanese Society of Nursing Care, P.89-98, 2004
- ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun morning edition dated November 2016, 8[Page number required]
- ^ “Over 2 foreigners come to Japan for long-term care”. Reuters (Reuters). (July 2014, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2014, 7. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Hard work A malicious contract with a long-term care worker ... Apologize to the facility and settle Mainichi Newspaper March 2017, 2
- ^ "Enforcement date: November XNUMX, XNUMX". NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "About the addition of nursing care occupations to the foreign technical training system". NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Law on proper implementation of technical intern training and protection of technical intern trainees". NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "To review the status of residence of long-term care workers It is now possible to work in Japan indefinitely". NovemberBrowse.
- ^ The above isRegistration number[Source required]No. 1652072, registered on January 1984, 1.
- ^ The above is registration number 1782616, registered on June 1985, 6.
- ^ The above is registration number 1794269, registered on June 1985, 7.
- ^ The above is registration number 1887948, registered on June 1986, 9.
- ^ Registration No. 4106101, registered on January 1998, 1.
- ^ Registration No. 5023028, registered on January 2007, 2.
- Single care
- Law concerning welfare of workers who take childcare or family care, such as childcare leave and family care leave(Childcare and Nursing Care Leave Law)
- Law Concerning Improvement of Employment Management of Care Workers
- Long-term care insurance
- Regional Comprehensive Support Center
- care worker/home helper/Care manager
- Care support specialist
- Elderly care
- Nursing care leave
- Day care
- Welfare (subject)
- Experience such as nursing care
- Net supermarket
- Online bank
- Powered suit
- Welfare facilities for the elderly
- Nursing care clinic
- Nursing home for the elderly
- Nursing care health facility
- Nursing care type medical facility
- group home
- Department of Nursing and Welfare
- Department of welfare
- Nursing robot
- Group home for the elderly with dementia
- Nursing murder
- Pressure ulcer
- Yoshinori Yoshihara"Hospitality managementChanges long-term care: from service-oriented to two-way involvement ”(XNUMX) Minerva Shobo・ Editor) ISBN 978-4-623-08945-1
- Yoshinori Yoshihara"MedicalHospitality Value in Management: Re-questioning the Relationship between Doctors and Patients from the Viewpoint of Business Administration ”(XNUMX) Hakuto Shobo・Single author ISBN 978-4-561-26674-7
Infection control(Kansenkanri), or medical epidemiology,Medical facilityWithininfectionRefers to efforts aimed at preventing epidemics, with an emphasis on practiceEpidemiologyIs a field.public healthActivities and infection control/medical epidemiology have a lot in common, the former is aimed at society as a whole, while the latter generally deals with problems limited to a specific medical institution (group). Also known as "infection control activities," "infection prevention and management activities," and "infection control activities."Infection control teamIt is counted as one of the basic medical safety management systems of hospitals as an activity that many occupations in the facility work together.
Infection control can be roughly divided into two.
- Preventive activity
- Trend measures
- Investigation activities and countermeasures (eg outbreak countermeasures) that are targeted at outbreaks that have occurred or are suspected to have occurred in a specific medical institution.
Infection control in medical institutions
Surveillance refers to grasping the occurrence status of infectious diseases on a daily basis. To facilitate comparison between facilities and regions,Bloodstream infection-Urinary-tract infection-Nosocomial pneumoniaThe criteria of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) are used to define the main nosocomial infections such as.
actually,Infection control teamPersonnelPatient chartInvestigate orpatientData is collected by directly observing and determining the presence or absence of symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious diseases. Bacterial laboratory data from the bacteriological laboratory is also an important source of information. In recent years, automation of bacterial laboratory data andElectronic medical recordAutomation is increasing the automation of data extraction, enabling staff to spend more time collecting clinical data. Nosocomial infectionAbout 1/3 of these are preventableInfection surveillance and prevention activities are becoming increasingly important by hospital staff. According to the CDC Nosocomial Infection Control Project (SENIC), by focusing on infection surveillance and prevention activities, the incidence rate of nosocomial infections could be reduced by about 32%.
Preventing the spread of infection
Nosocomial infectionOf each pathogen to prevent transmission and protect health care workers themselves from infectionTransmission routeAccording to(I.e.Stand upprocedureTheWell-knownThere is a need to.
Standard precautions centered on hand washing
Vienna OfSemmelweiss(1847 ) AndDuffel Bag OfOliver W. Holmes(1843 ), the unique research published byNosocomial infectionRelated to.Center for Disease Control and PreventionIn response, the (CDC) reported that "the most important way to prevent the spread of pathogens was effective hand washing"..
Handwashing is compulsory at most medical institutions, and in the United States it is not simply a matter of common sense, but is also compulsory by various local and local governments. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards in the United StatesRequires employers to have hand-washing equipment available at all times, and wash their hands and other skin with soap and water or run mucous membranes under running water if they come into contact with blood or other potentially infectious substances. We are asking you to guarantee that you can wash.
In Japan, “National University Hospital Hospital Infection Control Guidelines” by the National University Hospital Infection Control CouncilAnd other guidelines were formulated in 2002.
- It is recommended to wash your hands and wear gloves before and after touching the patient's blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, damaged skin and mucous membranes regardless of known infections. Depending on the procedure, masks, goggles, face shields, and gowns are also used.
- Calls for the prohibition of recaps to avoid punctures and cuts due to needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments, proper placement of medical waste containers for safe disposal immediately after use, and the adoption of needles with safety devices. ..
- When environmental surfaces such as floors and walls are contaminated, wear gloves and wipe with a paper towel and disinfectant. Store contaminated linen properly until cleaning to prevent contamination of the environment.
- Patients who may be contaminated with blood should be kept in a private room.
In addition, if the causative pathogen is known, it is unique to each.Transmission routeTake appropriate quarantine precautions accordingly.
Air (spray nucleus) infection isolation
- Healthcare workersN95 maskWear.
- In the patient's individual room environment, operating room, bronchoscopy room, and respiratory function testing room, forced more than 1 times per hourventilationKeeps negative pressure.To the outside of the hospitalHEPAExhaust through a filter.If structurally impossible, use a portable air purifier with a built-in HEPA filter and ventilate 12 times.
- Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients, or wear an exhalation filter during endotracheal intubation.
Isolation of droplet infection
- A surgical mask is worn for activities within a radius of 1 m from the patient.
- When separating individual rooms and groups, beds are placed 2m apart.
- Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients.
Contact infection isolation
- Wash hands and wear gloves before and after contact with the patient and contaminated surfaces.
- Wear gowns where there is potential for full body contact with the patient or contaminated surfaces.
- Medical equipment used in private rooms should be dedicated as much as possible.
The contact surface of the patient's room and common areas touched by the patient's hands is cleaned by daily wiping. Clean walls and floors that are not touched once a day. In areas where MRSA, VRE, and Clostridium difficile carriers come into contact, daily sterilization is performed by wiping with a quaternary ammonium salt or alcohol. Of reusable medical equipmentdisinfection-SterilizationThe method must be selected according to each possible pathogen.
Personal protective equipment
(Personal protective equipment, PPE) is clothing and equipment worn by medical personnel to protect themselves from danger. What is the danger in the medical field?Viral hepatitis,HIVBlood, saliva, and other body fluids that may contain pathogens such asaerosolExposure to. Personal protective equipment aims to prevent exposure by creating a physical barrier between those infectious agents and health care workers.
In the United States, OSHA standards require health workers to wear protective equipment to protect themselves from bloodborne pathogens when their exposure to blood and other infectious agents is adequately predicted.
Protective equipment: hats, shoe covers, face shields (for mouth-to-mouth breathing)MASKS-goggles・There are types such as. Which combination and how to use is usually determined by the rules set for each medical institution. Most instruments are completelydisinfection-SterilizationConsidering the high cost of doing so, it is designed to be disposable. OSHA standards require that protective equipment be immediately removed and disinfected or disposed of upon leaving a site exposed to infectious agents.
Vaccination of medical staff
Healthcare workers who may be exposed to infectious diseases during work should:vaccineCan be used to protect yourself from infection. Usually usedHepatitis B-influenza-Mixed three(Measles/varicella/rubella)New three kinds of mixture(Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis)Meningococcus-Shingles virusWith vaccines such as these, medical staff and emergency personnel are vaccinated according to facility rules, recommendations, occupations, and individual wishes.In general, the preventive effect of vaccines is not perfect, but side effects are also seen, so vaccination decisions should be made based on sufficient information.
Survey during an epidemic
When infection monitoring finds that the incidence of infections is higher than normal, the infection control team will investigate to determine (1) whether it is a real epidemic or (2) a false epidemic due to contamination of the bacterial testing process. Or (3) determine whether the normal incidence just happened to rise randomly. If it is (1), it will be necessary to investigate the factor that triggered the fashion and eliminate it in order to stop the fashion. It is usually due to lack of correct procedures, but sometimes other factors such as construction work are involved.
Infection control and medical epidemiology training system
There are several educational systems to acquire infection control. The occupational background is often nurses, sometimes clinical laboratory technicians (especially clinical microbiology), and doctors (usually infectious disease physicians). Training courses specialized in infection control and medical epidemiology are offered by the following professional organizations: Those who want to be involved in infection control as a doctor often go through clinical training in the department of infectious diseases.
In the United States,CBIC) Examines the professional background and work experience of health care workers, checks the level of knowledge through standardized departmental examinations, and then licenses infection control personnel. Two years of activity experience is required for application, and renewal of qualification is required every five years.
In the United States, CDC and the American Society for Medical Epidemiology (SHEA) have jointly conducted hospital epidemiology (infection control in hospitals).Our Courses Is held every year, and there is also a course from the Association of Infectious Control Practitioners (APIC).
Infection Control Team and Infection Control Committee
- The infection control team is the actual work force in a medical institution, and the infection control committee is in charge of managing the infection control team (Fig. 1).
Infection control profession
- Infectious disease specialist
- Infection control doctor(ICD)
- Infection control nurse(Infectious disease control nurse) (ICN)
- Infection control pharmacist(ICPH)
- Infection control certified clinical microbiological technologist(ICMT)
- (Type XNUMX/Type XNUMX)
- Medical environment manager
- ^ Weinstein et al
- ^ CDC Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings
- ^ CDC General information on Hand Hygiene
- ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030
- ^ Guidelines for Nosocomial Infection Control at National University Hospitals (pdf 5.2MB)
- ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030 (d) (2) (i)
- ^ OSHA 1910.1030 (d) (3) (vii)
- ^ CDC Vaccine Site
- ^ Norihito Sato, Akari Watanabe, Susumu Kokoguchi, Kazuhiro Fukui “Infection Control Professional Qualification and Organizational Awareness Survey on Dental Clinical Trainees” INFECTION CONTROL (Medica publishing), Vol.16 (6), p.97,2007, XNUMX.
- Infection control
- Infection/Epidemic/Zoonosis/Infection control clothing/quarantine
- Nosocomial infection/Community infection(Ichii infection)
- Japan Society for Environmental Infections/Japanese Society of Infectious Diseases/Japanese Society for Oral Infections
- Public health/Epidemiology/Pharmacy
- Medical science/Dentistry/Pharmacy/Veterinary medicine/Bacteriology(Oral bacteriology)/Virology/Myciology/Microbiology
- Infection control doctor(Infection control doctor)
- Infection control team/Infection Control Committee
- American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)/National Institute of Infectious Diseases
- Biosafety level
- Avoid hospital,,Cordon sanitaire (medicine)
- Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, APIC Is a group of infection control activists led by nurses and medical technicians.
- The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, SHEAIs mainly conducted by doctors and doctoral level epidemiologists.