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🥾 | Volcanic eruption 18 active volcanoes in Tohoku


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Volcanic eruption Evacuation immediately due to fumaroles and shaking 18 active volcanoes in Tohoku

 
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Mt. Ontake, which straddles Nagano and Gifu prefectures, erupted at level 2014 in September 9.
 

Not only is the volcano looking up from the foot of the mountain beautiful, but the view from the top of the mountain is also exceptional.For this reason, mountaineering is one of the popular leisure activities ... → Continue reading

 Kahoku Shimpo


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Nagano

Nagano(Nagano,(British: Nagano Prefecture) IsJapan OfChubu regionに 位置 す るPrefecture.Prefectural office location TheNagano city.

Regulatory countryName ofShinano countryBy the way,ShinshuIt is also called.Not facingInland prefectureAndJapan AlpsBecause there are large-scale mountainous areas includingResidential areaThe rate is low.The catchphrase isHappy shinshu[2].

Nagano cityZenkoji Temple OfMonzen-choDeveloped as18th Winter OlympicsIt is also the venue for.

Overview

The current prefectural area of ​​Nagano Prefecture is a province of JapanShinano countryIs almost equivalent to.However, the oldKamisaka Village・OldYamaguchi Village GifuNakatsugawaToTransboundary transferAs it was done, there are slight differences, so "ShinshuIt is often called "Shinshu", especially in tourist guides.In ancient times, it was written as Shinano.[3]..Known as one of the top longevity prefectures in Japan, as of 2020, by prefectureHealthy life expectancySo both men and women were number one[4].

hills,MountainsThere are many,Three major metropolitan areasBecause it is easily accessible fromKaruizawa,KamikochiWas the firstplateauResort-Mountain resortIt is known that there are many. "Japan's three largest summer resortsWith Karuizawa counted asLake Nojiri,EnglishmanFound byJapan Alps,AustrianBecame famous for being introduced toSugadaira Kogen,internationalSkiEstablishing its position as a resortHakuba-muraEtc. from ancient timesWesternersIt has a history of becoming a base for leisure activities.In addition to the above, there are many areas called "Japan's XX (European area name)" (Shimoguri no Sato:"JapaneseTyrol"Suwa basin: "Oriental Switzerland"Such).

Geography

Nagano PrefectureHonshuLocated in the central part, it is adjacent to the surrounding 8 prefectures, and is a prefecture area that is short in the east and west and long in the north and south, with about 128 kilometers east and west and about 220 kilometers north and south.The southern half of the prefecture is close to the Pacific Ocean side,Minami Shinshu areaMany ofTokyoSouth of the prefecture, the northernmost tip of the prefectureNasushiobara,IwakiIt is almost the same latitude as.The area of ​​Nagano prefecture is 13,562.23square kilometerAnd this isSouth KantoIt is close to the total area of ​​1 metropolitan area and 3 prefectures, and in Japan's prefectures,Hokkaido,Iwate,FukushimaIt has the fourth largest area after.

This prefectureGunma-Saitama-Yamanashi-Shizuoka-Aichi-Gifu-Toyama-NiigataAnd 8 prefectures, and the number of adjacent prefectures is 8, which is the largest among 47 prefectures.[Annotation 1]..However, although it is connected to these prefectures by land, transportation between them is not always easy.For example, the length of the border between Saitama Prefecture and the prefecture is only about 10 kilometers, and Kawakami Village Road No. 192 Azusayama Line[Annotation 2]You can only go back and forth directly.In addition, although it is in contact with Toyama Prefecture by land, the Northern Alps of 3,000 meters class is blocked, it is topographically steep, and it is very deep in the mountains, so it is an air route.Kanden Tunnel Electric BusIt is only possible to come and go by private vehicle, and ordinary people cannot come and go by private vehicle.Another prefectural border where vehicles cannot come and go is the prefectural border between Gunma and Fukushima.Also, due to topographical problems, etc.IidaAnd Shizuoka PrefectureShizuoka City,MatsumotoShimosuwa Town,Otaki VillageOkuwaThere are many cities, towns and villages that are land-based but cannot come and go.

The reason why it is topographically difficult to cross the prefectural border is that Nagano Prefecture is not a mountainous terrain with highlands occupying the central part, but rather the northwestern prefectural border.Hida Mountains, Southeastern prefectural borderAkaishi MountainsHigh altitude, some basins betweenInatani,Matsumoto basin,Saku Basin,Nagano BasinEtc.), which is a region centered on.The mountains near the prefectural border are also called "Japanese roofs," and are lined with high mountains at an altitude of 2,000 to 3,000 meters.However, the central part of Nagano Prefecture is not flat, and it is a steep and complicated terrain with many mountains inside.This is not unrelated to the fact that the vicinity of Nagano Prefecture is close to the plate boundary between the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate, other than the fact that the Japanese archipelago is a new orogenic belt.In addition, it traverses HonshuItoigawa Shizuoka Structural Line(Itoigawa Line) runs north and south under the prefecture, and the Tertiary layer is distributed on the east side of the Itoigawa Line.Along the Itoigawa lineLake SuwaFromCentral structure lineIs running south.Because of this,Zenkoji earthquakeI have experienced many earthquakes.In addition, there are multiple active volcanoes in Nagano Prefecture.

Natural geographyIn the field of, near Nagano prefectureChubu region OfCentral highlandsClassified as.Although there are some inland prefectures with low rainfall in Honshu, Honshu is sandwiched between the Sea of ​​Japan and the Pacific Ocean, and there is sufficient precipitation to maintain the river in combination with the steep topography of Nagano Prefecture. , There are many water sources in the prefecture.There are many large and small rivers in the prefecture, and there are many terrains where each river has eroded the mountains.Has a basin in Nagano prefectureFirst-class riverAs for the Shinano River system, Tenryu River system, Kiso River system, Hime River system,Yahagi RiverWater systemFuji RiverWater systemSekigawaWater systemTone RiverThere is a water system.There are watersheds in the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of ​​Japan in the prefecture.For exampleTenryu River(Nanshin and Lake Suwa are water sources and pass through Inaya),Kiso River(Chuo Shinkin) goes south and pours into the Pacific Ocean.Also, for exampleChikuma River(Toshin, Kitashin),Saikawa(Nakanobu) merges in Nagano City and moves northward, crossing the prefectural borderShinano RiverChange the name and pour into the Sea of ​​Japan.Himekawa(Chuo Shinkin) is also flowing to the Sea of ​​Japan.

The city with the largest population in the prefecture is Nagano City with 38 people.[5], The largest municipality is Matsumoto City's 978.77 square kilometers[6], The municipality with the highest population density is 620.27 (people / kmXNUMX) in Okaya City.[7], The maximum daytime population ratio was 117.8% in Karuizawa Town[8].

Land use is 4 in Nagano City, Suzaka City, Obuse Town, Kamitakai District, Matsumoto City, and Shiojiri City.City planning areaArea divisionbyUrbanization control areaIs set.

terrain

Basin / valley

Mountain

(I.e.

Pass

river

Lake

nature Park

National park
Chubu Mountain National Park,Myoko Togakushi Mountains National Park,Joshinetsu Kogen National Park,Chichibu Tama Kai National Park,Southern Alps National Park
National park
Yatsugatake Chushin Kogen Quasi-National Park,Tenryu Oku Mikawa Quasi-National Park,Myogi Arafune Saku Kogen Quasi-National Park,Central Alps National Monument
National park
National Alps Azumino Park
Prefectural nature park
Mitake Prefectural Park,Mibine River Prefectural Park,Yasuragi Prefectural Natural Park,Holy Mountain Kogen Prefectural Park,Tenryu Small Aquifer System Prefectural Nature Park

climate

Since Nagano Prefecture is located inland, it is generally located inland.Inland climateAnd because there are some areas with high altitudeCentral highland climateIs said.However,Hokushin regionMost of theChushin region-Toshin regionPart ofSea of ​​Japan side climateIt also has the characteristics of.On the contrary, with a part of the Chushin regionNanshin district ThePacific climateIt also has the characteristics of.In addition, each city in Nagano Prefecture has different altitudes, and the climate is modified due to the shape of mountain ranges and basins, so there are differences in climate.

However, overall, the cold winter is more severe than inland prefectures near the same latitude in Japan.Above allKaruizawa,Shinano,Shiga Kogen,Sugadaira Kogen,Mt. Yatsugatake,Kaida Kogen,Nobeyama Plateau,KamikochiAreas with high altitudes such asKöppen climate classificationThen.Subarctic humid climate(Df), all year roundHokkaidoIt has a moderate climate.Also, especially at high altitudesArcticSome areas are moderately cold.

In summer, in basins such as Nagano and Matsumoto, daytime temperatures are almost the same as in Tokyo, and sometimesExtremely hot dayIs observed, but it is cool in the morning and evening,Tropical nightIs observed on almost none.

Precipitation amountHowever, there are large regional differences, from the Toshin region to the Hokushin region, which is as small as around 900 mm per year, but from the Chushin region to the Nanshin region, it reaches 1,500 mm per year.

Regarding snowfall, some areas of the Hokushin region, Chushin region, and Toshin regionHeavy snowfallOr it is a special heavy snowfall area.Snowfall conditions differ from north to south of the prefecture.In Nagano prefecture, there are snowfalls called "Kamiyuki" and "Shimoyuki". "Kamiyuki" should normally rain,South coast lowAs a result of the passage of water, the temperature drops and snow becomes snow, and the amount of snowfall increases in Chu-Nanshin and Toshin, which are close to low pressure systems.[9].. "Shimoyuki" is the snow that falls due to the strong monsoon in winter, and it is easy to snow in the northern part of Nagano prefecture in the case of winter-type pressure distribution near Japan in the high west and low east. So-called Sea of ​​Japan type snowfall[10]..In addition, in the Nanshin regionInataniIt is,IidaOldMinami Shinano VillageAlthough there is little snow except in the area, there is a big difference in temperature.

Normal values ​​in various places in Nagano prefecture (statistical period: 1971-2000, source:Meteorological Agency / Meteorological Statistics Information
Average price
(Monthly)
Hokushin regionToshin regionChushin region
Nozawa OnsenIiyamaShinanoNaganoNagano city
Shinshu Shinmachi
White horseUeda
Sugadaira
(I.e.TomiKaruizawaSakuStandingMinamimaki
Nobeyama
OmachiAzumino
Hotaka
average
temperature
(° C)
Warmest month23.6
(May)
24.4
(May)
21.9
(May)
24.9
(May)
23.9
(May)
22.5
(May)
19.3
(May)
24.9
(May)
21.6
(May)
20.3
(May)
23.2
(May)
22.6
(May)
19.0
(May)
22.0
(May)
24.2
(May)
Coldest month−1.4
(May)
−2.0
(May)
−3.2
(May)
−0.7
(May)
−1.1
(May)
−2.9
(May)
−6.1
(January and February)
−0.5
(May)
−2.5
(January and February)
−3.6
(May)
−1.8
(May)
−2.1
(May)
−5.2
(January and February)
−2.8
(January and February)
−1.0
(May)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
Most months296.7
(May)
188.7
(May)
182.2
(May)
137.1
(May)
161.0
(May)
295.8
(May)
147.1
(May)
144.1
(May)
159.5
(May)
185.5
(May)
165.5
(May)
170.0
(May)
227.6
(May)
187.3
(May)
52.5
(May)
Minimum month76.7
(May)
62.5
(May)
65.8
(May)
38.2
(May)
41.5
(May)
112.4
(May)
63.8
(May)
17.5
(May)
18.8
(May)
20.8
(May)
15.4
(May)
19.3
(May)
29.5
(May)
58.5
(May)
24.8
(May)
Average price
(Monthly)
Chushin regionNanshin district
AndMatsumoto
Matsumoto Imai
Matsumoto
Nagawa
Shiojiri
Kiso Hirasawa
Kiso
Kaida Kogen
Kiso
Kiso Fukushima
NagisoSuwaHaramuraTatsunoInaIijima(I.e.Iida
Minami Shinano
Achi
Nanai
average
temperature
(° C)
Warmest month24.3
(May)
20.3
(May)
22.3
(May)
19.8
(May)
22.6
(May)
23.2
(May)
23.5
(May)
21.4
(May)
23.2
(May)
23.1
(May)
22.9
(May)
24.7
(May)
24.2
(May)
20.9
(May)
Coldest month−0.6
(May)
−3.5
(January and February)
−2.1
(May)
−4.8
(May)
−1.7
(May)
−0.6
(May)
−1.5
(May)
−3.1
(May)
−1.3
(May)
−0.8
(May)
0.6
(May)
0.9
(May)
−2.4
(May)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
Most months155.9
(May)
275.9
(May)
260.7
(May)
293.4
(May)
273.0
(May)
385.3
(May)
203.8
(May)
208.8
(May)
151.1
(May)
280.5
(May)
232.9
(May)
267.8
(May)
378.6
(May)
Minimum month23.3
(May)
71.8
(May)
62.5
(May)
63.7
(May)
53.7
(May)
87.1
(May)
33.8
(May)
31.6
(May)
34.0
(May)
55.0
(May)
47.7
(May)
49.7
(May)
83.3
(May)

Classification by the Japan Meteorological Agency

Northern Nagano Prefecture (out of northern Koshin district)
  • Nakano Iiyama area-Iiyama City, Nakano City, Shimizu District, Shimotakai District
  • Nagano Area-Nagano City, Suzaka City, Chikuma City, Kamitakai District, Kamimizunai District, Hanashina District
  • Northern Alps Area-Omachi City, Kitaazumi District
Central Nagano Prefecture (in the northern part of Koshin district)
  • Ueda area-Ueda City / Tomi City / Ogi District
  • Saku Area-Saku CityKomoro・Kitasaku-gun, Minamisaku-gun
  • Matsumoto area-Matsumoto city (excluding former Azumi village and former Nagawa village), Shiojiri city (excluding former Narakawa village), Azumino city, Higashi Chikuma district
  • Suwa Area-Okaya City/Suwa City/Hadano・Suwa-gun
  • Norikura/Kamikochi area-Matsumoto city (former Azumi village and former Nagawa village)
Southern Nagano Prefecture (out of southern Koshin district)
  • Kamiina Area-Ina City, Komagane City, Kamiina District
  • Shimoina Area-Iida City/Shimoina District
  • Kiso area-Shiojiri city (former Narakawa village) / Kiso county

As a general rule, warnings and warnings issued by the local meteorological observatory are announced for each municipality.However, Matsumoto City will be announced separately for "Matsumoto" and "Norikura Kamikochi", and Shiojiri City will be announced separately for "Shiojiri" and "Narakawa".[11].

Heavy snow designated

All areas: Nakano City, Matsukawa Village, Iizuna Town, Ogawa Village
Part: Nagano City, Matsumoto City, Ueda City, Iida City, Suzaka City, Omachi City, Azumino City
  • Special heavy snowfall area
All areas: Iiyama City, Hakuba Village, Otari Village, Takayama Village, Yamanouchi Town, Kijimadaira Village, Nozawa Onsen Village, Shinano Town, Sakae Village
Part: Nagano City

Region

Positioning of Nagano Prefecture in Japan's regional divisions

Nagano Prefecture is located in the center of Japan, but according to the East-West classificationChubu Electric PowerAt some companies and groups such asWest JapanMay be classified as[Annotation 3]・From the historical/population ratio/area ratioEast JapanIt may be classified into. In the local classificationChubu region,Koshin region,Shinetsu region,Koshinetsu district,Kitashinetsu districtand so on.

Municipalities

  • There are a total of 77 local governments in the prefecture.Of these, 19 cities, 14 counties, 23 towns, and 35 villages, about half of which are "villages."77 cities, towns and villages are in all prefecturesHokkaidoSecond place aftercountyandvillageThe number of is the largest in 47 prefectures.Of these, in terms of populationTown system enforcement requirementsThere are 8,000 villages that meet the requirements (population of 5 or more, in bold), and no town meets the requirements for enforcement of the city system.[12].
  • DID Is set in Shimosuwa Town and Minowa Town in addition to the city area.
  • townIs read as "town" except for Anancho, and all villages are read as "mura".

The division by prefecture is subdivided into 10 areas according to the jurisdiction of local offices.

(Population is as of June 2021, 11)

Metropolitan area

Urban employment area(10% commuting area, central city DID is 1 or more)

Region1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
Hokushin regionNagano Metropolitan area
51Ten thousand4136
Nagano Metropolitan area
53Ten thousand6895
Nagano Metropolitan area
60Ten thousand8073
Nagano Metropolitan area
60Ten thousand9811
Nagano Metropolitan area
61Ten thousand0687
Nagano Metropolitan area
60Ten thousand2781
Nagano Metropolitan area
58Ten thousand9549
中 Metropolitan area
5Ten thousand8282
中 Metropolitan area
5Ten thousand8676
Nakano metropolitan area
Included in Nagano metropolitan area
Chushin regionAnd Metropolitan area
37Ten thousand1850
And Metropolitan area
41Ten thousand7666
And Metropolitan area
43Ten thousand1901
And Metropolitan area
44Ten thousand4926
And Metropolitan area
45Ten thousand5352
And Metropolitan area
45Ten thousand0869
And Metropolitan area
44Ten thousand7802
Toshin region(I.e. Metropolitan area
20Ten thousand5775
(I.e. Metropolitan area
21Ten thousand6017
(I.e. Metropolitan area
22Ten thousand1386
(I.e. Metropolitan area
22Ten thousand7062
(I.e. Metropolitan area
22Ten thousand3463
(I.e. Metropolitan area
21Ten thousand7421
(I.e. Metropolitan area
21Ten thousand2314
Saku Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand7797
Saku Metropolitan area
9Ten thousand8348
Saku Metropolitan area
10Ten thousand0597
Saku Metropolitan area
16Ten thousand2355
Saku Metropolitan area
18Ten thousand9058
Saku Metropolitan area
18Ten thousand6206
Saku Metropolitan area
18Ten thousand2007
Komoro Metropolitan area
4Ten thousand8346
Komoro Metropolitan area
4Ten thousand4888
Komoro Metropolitan area
4Ten thousand5711
Komoro metropolitan area
Included in the Saku metropolitan area
Nanshin district(I.e. Metropolitan area
14Ten thousand1286
(I.e. Metropolitan area
14Ten thousand6498
(I.e. Metropolitan area
16Ten thousand8439
(I.e. Metropolitan area
16Ten thousand9427
(I.e. Metropolitan area
17Ten thousand1491
(I.e. Metropolitan area
16Ten thousand6652
(I.e. Metropolitan area
15Ten thousand9632
Suwa Metropolitan area
11Ten thousand4705
Suwa Metropolitan area
10Ten thousand9028
Suwa Metropolitan area
12Ten thousand7278
Suwa Metropolitan area
13Ten thousand0616
Suwa Metropolitan area
13Ten thousand3323
Suwa Metropolitan area
20Ten thousand4875
Suwa Metropolitan area
19Ten thousand8475
Okaya Metropolitan area
11Ten thousand2678
Okaya Metropolitan area
10Ten thousand9260
Okaya Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand2591
Okaya Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand0325
Okaya Metropolitan area
7Ten thousand7562
Okaya metropolitan area
Included in the Suwa metropolitan area
Ina Metropolitan area
8Ten thousand4003
Ina Metropolitan area
11Ten thousand1759
Ina Metropolitan area
11Ten thousand6512
Ina Metropolitan area
14Ten thousand1715
Ina Metropolitan area
14Ten thousand2453
Ina Metropolitan area
19Ten thousand0402
Ina Metropolitan area
18Ten thousand4305

Regional characteristics

Heisei Municipal MergerIs not implemented as much as in other prefectures, and small and medium-sized local governments compare it.However,Wide area unionThe system is used in all municipalities in the prefecture, and wide-area administration by some office unions is also active.2005 From Nagano prefecture to Gifu prefecture in (17)NakatsugawaThere was also a case of a merger with Heetsu prefecture.

The number of mergers was small even during the Great Meiji Merger, but this isGround revisionThe reason is that the merger of small villages progressed during this period.[13]..With a serial number to the vast village created by the land tax reformLot numberIt is not uncommon for the lot number to be 5 digits in the prefecture.[13]..In addition, there are many addresses where the street address comes next to the name of the town or village.[13].

Hokushin(Hokushin area,Nagano area),Toshin(Saku area,Ueda area),CITIC(Matsumoto area,Kiso area,Northern Alps area),Nanshin(Kamiina area,Minami Shinshu area,Suwa area) 4 areas arePhysical geographyAnd historyTransportationThe characteristics are completely different on each side.

this is,"Shinano country"(Prefectural song)"And,Ina,Saku,Zenkoji TempleIt is also symbolized in 4 categories. Broadly speaking, Kitashin, Toshin, Chushin, and Nanshin are the northern, eastern, western, and southern regions of Nagano Prefecture, respectively.HokushinNanshinThe four regions are in contact with each other except.

Hokuriku Shinkansen-Shin-Etsu Main Line-Iiyama Line-Koumi Line,National Route 18-Joshinetsu ExpresswayAlong the lineHokushinToshinIt is,Chikuma RiverMainly in the basinNakasendoNorth country roadAlong the railway line.

HokushinIt is,Niigata-GunmaIs in contact withSengoku periodToMurakami-Mr. Takeda-Mr. Oda-UesugiHas been placed in the sphere of control of.Zenkoji KaidoHow it was alongHokuriku Shinkansen-Joshinetsu ExpresswayBecause it is connected withNiigata,Gunma,TokyoDeeply connected with.

In recent years, many tourists from the metropolitan area have also visited. Also,CITICAndNagano Expressway-Shinonoi LineConnected by.Hokushin TheNagano BasinBecause it is a region centered on the sea and is close to Niigata Prefecture, many people go to the Sea of ​​Japan by sea bathing.

OneToshinIt is,Gunma-Saitama-YamanashiIn the Warring States PeriodMr. Takeda-Mr. Oda-Tokugawa-Hojo-SanadaHas been put in control of.NakasendoAnd the historical background that was the confluence of the Kitakoku KaidoHokushinalikeHokuriku Shinkansen-Joshinetsu ExpresswayBecause it is connected withMt. Asamayama,Usui PassCrossedGunma,TokyoThere is also deep interaction with.

In addition,Nobeyama PlateauViaNational Route 141-Koumi LineConnected byYamanashiThere is also deep interaction with.YamanashiIs currently betweenChubu Crossing ExpresswayIs under maintenance.Mikuni Pass (Nagano Prefecture/Saitama Prefecture)It is also in contact with Saitama Prefecture via the route, but there are few physical distributions due to bad road conditions. On the roadKarizaka Pass OfNational Route 140Before the opening of the road, Usui Pass-Toshin- Yamanashi - ShizuokaOigawaThe eastern route isNational Route 16Without going through the areaKanto regionSince it was the shortest route to bypass the inside, it is the region with the strongest Kanto orientation.

Against these,Chuo Main Line-Iida Line-Oito line,Chuo Expressway-Nagano ExpresswayAlong the lineCITICNanshinIt is,Nakasendo,Koshu Highway, Chikuni Highway (Itoigawa Highway, Matsumoto Highway),North country west highway, Along the Sanshu Kaido.

CITICIt is,Niigata-Toyama-GifuIn the Warring States PeriodMr. Ogasawara-Nishina-Mr. KisoThroughMr. Takeda-Mr. OdaHas been put in control of.Nakasendo,Koshu HighwaySince it was along the Senkoku Highway (Itoigawa Highway, Matsumoto Highway) and Sanshu Highway,Niigata,Gifu,Yamanashi,Aichi,TokyoDeeply interact with.

North country west highwayAlong the lineNagano ExpresswayHas been maintained,Nagano areaConnected with. Located in the northern part of Chushin areaNorthern Alps areaIt is,Hida MountainsIt is located on the east side of the mountain, and is popular for climbing and skiing, making it one of the largest in Japan.Happoone Ski ResortAndTsugaike Kogen Ski ResortThere,Nagano OlympicsAlso became the venue. In terms of tourism, there are many tourists not only from the Kanto region but also from the Kansai region.

In addition,National Route 147-National Route 148Connect viaNiigataThere is also an exchange with the mountain sightseeing routeTateyama Kurobe Alpine RouteByToyamaI am in contact with him. Also located in the central part of the Chushin regionMatsumoto area(Chushin)Suwa areaWith (Nanshin)NakasendoKoshu HighwayIn the area that developed asYamanashi,Tokyo,GifuDeeply interact with (Tono, Hida). Located in the southern part of the Chushin regionKiso area(Chushin) is a wide-area Nagoya area (Chukyo area), and historically,Mino countryBelongs to the Edo periodOwari DomainThat it was a territory,National Route 19Through (Nakasendo),Gifu-AichiBecause it is connected with, it has a deep economic and cultural connection.

on the other hand,NanshinIt is,Yamanashi,Shizuoka,AichiIn the Warring States PeriodMr. Suwa-Mr. Takeda-Mr. Oda-TokugawaHas been placed in the sphere of control of.Nakasendo,Koshu Highway,Sanshu KaidoSince it was along the lineYamanashi,Tokyo,Shizuoka,AichiDeeply interact with.Suwa areaIt is,Matsumoto areaWith (Chushin)NakasendoKoshu HighwayIn the area that developed asYamanashi,Tokyo,Gifu(Tono) Is deeply interacting with.

In addition,Minami Shinshu area(Nanshin) is a wide area of ​​Nagoya (Nanshin)Chukyo area)Chuo Expressway-National Route 153(Sanshu Kaido,Ashikaga Highway) Through Gifu PrefectureTono region, Aichi PrefectureNagoya・ Owari ・NishimikawaLocal and evenMieBecause it is connected with, it has a deep economic and cultural connection.

さ ら に,Minami Shinshu areaThen,Shizuoka・ Aichi PrefectureHigashimikawa regionAlthough they are adjacent to each other, the logistics are not well developed due to bad road conditions. Current,San-en Nanshin Expressway(Iida City-Hamamatsu City) is under construction, but it is undecided whether it will pass all. Also, JRIida Line,National Highway 151so,Shinshiro-ToyokawaThroughToyohashiGo out to.

The water systemHokushin-CITIC(Matsumoto area,Northern Alps area)・Toshin(Excluding some) belongs to the Sea of ​​Japan side water system,Nanshin-CITIC(Kiso area)・Toshin(Saku-Tateshina-MinamimakiPart of) belongs to the Pacific side water system.

In general,Minami Shinshu area,Kiso areaHas a strong Nagoya orientation, and other areas have a strong Tokyo orientation[14].. Before modern timesNakasendoIn terms of being alongShinano countryThere were cohesiveness as a whole, but when Tokyo became the capital and traffic was improved in the Meiji era,

  1. Hokuriku Shinkansen(OldShin-Etsu Main Line) Has a deep connection with Tokyo via the Nobunobu, Nagano, Ueda, and Saku areas
  2. Chuo Main LineThe Northern Alps, Matsumoto, Suwa, and Kamiina regions are deeply connected to Tokyo via
  3. The Kiso/Minami Shinshu area, which has a deep connection with Nagoya

It is now possible to divide into 3 areas.

However,Nagano ShinkansenWith the opening, many residents in the Northern Alps region will take a busNagano StationIt has been replaced by using the Shinkansen.

History

original

Even in Nagano PrefecturePaleolithicSome ruins have been excavated. In itLake Nojiri RuinsSpear-shaped wooden instruments/bone instruments/Flaking stonewareRelics have been discovered. This ruinsNaumann Elephant,Bighorn deerIt is estimated that a large mammal such as The period is about 2 to 5000 years ago. Most of the 3 points, which is about one-fourth of those found all over the country, were excavated and the blade part was polished with a grindstone, making it the oldest in the world.Polished stonewareIs said to be[15].. In addition, Nakamachi (Shinanomachi), Hyugabayashi B (Shinanomachi), and Ishigohara (Iida City) remains have been discovered as ruins of this period.

In the first half of the 2000s, Takesanakahara remains (Iida) Is being excavated and investigated. About 4 points including stone tools from 800 points of stone toolsPaleolithicHas been excavated. Natural science analysis (volcanic ash analysis, phytosilicate analysis, carbon 14 dating, photoluminescence dating, etc.) of this stone tool inclusion layer was performed and the result was "older than 3 years and newer than 5 years". Until now, it was thought that people began to live in the Japanese archipelago after about 3 years before the late Paleolithic period, but excavations of this site revealed thatMiddle PaleolithicIt was proved that people started living in this prefecture at the end of the period (3 to 5 years ago).[16].

After 2 years ago, stone tools that are characterized by exfoliated stone tools will be discovered from all over the prefecture. By the end of the late Paleolithic period, the first in JapanFine stone blade Yadegawa RuinsFound in (Minamimaki Village)[17].

Before history, the prefectureJomon Period Of(I.e.Many were distributed, and it was one of the centers of this era.HadanoThere are two clay figurines excavated inNational treasureIt is said that. AlsoSmall prefectureNAGAWA OfWada PassIn JapanobsidianIs a typical production area ofSuwa-gunHaramura OfAku RuinsIs said to be the oldest ring aggregate.

ContinueYayoi cultureFirstTokai regionFrom the southwestern part of Nagano Prefecture, and then on the Sea of ​​Japan sideHokuriku regionIt is believed that it was transmitted from the north to the north. It is unclear whether the cause is the spread of these two routes,Nakano OfYanagisawa RuinsWas buried together with the only one in eastern JapanBronzeCopper rodIt has been excavated (there is only a few cases in Japan where copper and copper were excavated together, and it is extremely rare that Osaka Bay-type and Kyushu-type copper are mixed).

From the Ritsuryo era to the Edo era

After the Meiji Restoration

Prefectural Sanji system
Abandoned Domain

Modern times

population

Demography20000.svg
Population distribution by age in Nagano prefecture and Japan (2005)Nagano Prefecture Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)
Purple-Nagano Prefecture
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Changes in the population of Nagano prefecture
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

city

Nagano Prefecture City Population Ranking
Nagano Prefecture city population density ranking (2016 (28) present)
  1. Okaya(585 people / square kilometer)
  2. Chikuma(502 people / square kilometer)
  3. Suwa(453 people / square kilometer)
  4. Nagano city(450 people / square kilometer)
  5. Komoro(434 people / square kilometer)

Politics

Prefectural government

Prefectural governor / prefectural office

Enforcement agency
  • Governor : Moruichi Abe
  • Deputy Governor: Hiroshi Ota, Shoichiro Seki
    • Governor Department-Crisis Management Department, Planning Department, General Affairs Department, Health and Welfare Department (internal department to Hospital Business Department), Environment Department, Commerce and Industry Labor Department, Tourism Department, Agriculture Administration Department, Forestry Department, Construction Department, Accounting Department
  • Public company manager
  • Administrative committee
  • Office(Branch office
    • Saku Regional Development Bureau = Komoro City, Saku City, Minamisaku District, Kitasaku District
    • Ueda Regional Development Bureau = Ueda City, Tomi City, Ogi District
    • Suwa Regional Development Bureau = Okaya City, Suwa City, Chino City, Suwa County
    • Kamiina Regional Development Bureau = Ina City, Komagane City, Kamiina District
    • Minami Shinshu Regional Development Bureau = Iida City, Shimoina District
    • Kiso Regional Development Bureau = Kiso District
    • Matsumoto Regional Development Bureau = Matsumoto City, Shiojiri City, Azumino City, Higashi Chikuma District
    • Northern Alps Regional Development Bureau = Omachi City, Kitaazumi District
    • Nagano Regional Development Bureau = Nagano City, Suzaka City, Chikuma City, Kamimizunai District, Kamitakai District, Hanashina District
    • Hokushin Regional Development Bureau = Nakano City, Iiyama City, Shimotakai District, Shimizu District

Prefectural assembly

  • Number of people: 57 people
  • Term:2019 (31)May 4から2023 (5nd year of Reiwa)May 4Until
  • Chair: Hideo Kiyosawa
Voting body

Outer organization

The prefecture has contributed to or contributed to a total of 43 groups (2009 <As of April 21).

finance

2007 (19)
2006 (18)
Source:Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications 18 List of major public sector financial indicators
Within the prefectureLocal allocation taxUndelivered organization
2005 (17)
  • Fiscal strength index 0.40
    • Group III (financial power index 0.3 or more, less than 0.4) 14th out of 1 municipalities
2004 (16)
  • Fiscal strength index 0.40
    • Group III (financial power index 0.3 or more, less than 0.4) 13th out of 1 municipalities

Topics related to Nagano Prefecture since the 2000s

Yasuo Tanaka Prefectural government related
  • Departure/press club declaration
    2001 (13)May 5, Governor of the timeYasuo TanakaIs in the prefectural officePress clubAnnounced that it will abolish the press room used exclusively by and will set up a press center that anyone can use.2001 (13)May 7A "temporary expression dojo" was established in the area to spread the ripples.
    after that,2002 (14)May 4Was renamed "Expression Center" and was installed on the north side of the 5th floor of the prefectural office.2006 It was abolished in (18).
  • Escape from dam declaration
  • Nagano prefecture designation of origin management system(System summary
    See internal link for details
  • Rename concept
    The concept that Tanaka in the governor's era renamed "Nagano Prefecture" to "Shinshu Prefecture". Especially since it is often called "Shinshu" in terms of tourism, it was said to have an effect on the tourism industry. The root of this is that there is still a sense of confrontation between Nagano City and Matsumoto City. Initially it appeared on the newspaper, but it disappears without knowing if there was any actual movement.
  • Yamaguchi Murakoshi merger problem
    oldYamaguchi Village(CurrentGifuNakatsugawaYamaguchi area) was the opposite of the merger of Echi prefecture from the beginning of the merger notification. He continued to disagree with the approval of the merger council and said, "Yamaguchi should remain in Nagano." As a result, the merger was approved and the cross-border merger was realized, but Tanaka himself did not bend his will to the end.
    The conflict with the Yamaguchi-Murakoshi prefectural merger caused a conflict with the Yamaguchi-mura villagers, the village office, the village council, and the prefectural council, which led to the start of the successor governor, Murai Prefectural Government, on the tailwind of the “anti-Tanaka school”.

While there is a view that Tanaka prefectural government is self-righteous and dictatorship, the evils of Nagano prefectural government up to that point (for example, the LDP, which is the majority of prefectural council, ignores the opinions of minority groups and promotes overdevelopment). There is also a tendency to evaluate in that it has defeated, and the pros and cons are divided.

Hitoshi Murai Prefectural Government
  • Declaration of Tanaka prefectural government complete liquidation
    2006 Defeated Tanaka in the governor election (18)Murai HitoshiContinued to criticize Tanaka's political stance as "a dictator" since the election.[Annotation 4], After winningComplete denial and complete liquidation of all Tanaka policiesDeclared to do. What Murai had clearly stated was the abolition of the Governor's Office on the 1st floor of the prefectural office and the cancellation of the declaration of dam removal, which Tanaka moved to the first floor of the prefectural office to "aim for an open prefectural government."
  • Expulsion of "Dam Commissioner"
  • Dissolution of investigation committee suspected of uncertain use of money in the Winter Olympics
    1998 Dissolve the Uncertain Money Research Committee of the Winter Olympics held in (10) on the grounds that it is not constructive to expose the crime of a specific individual or a specific group. The investigative committee plans to investigate the causes of financial deterioration and third-sector railways in the future, which has hindered the discovery of possible administrative cohesion. This is one case that highlights that the prefectural government opened by Tanaka is being closed.
  • linearChuo ShinkansenRoute formulation problem
    While the adoption of "C route" that penetrates the Southern Alps is considered to be influential, "Because it is a large prefecture, it may be two or three (Linear prefecture stations). There must be a station north of route B." It doesn't make sense," he called the argument, "reminiscent of Gada Hikitetsu." After that, in response to growing demand for the realization of the C route in the Iida Shimo Ina region,2010 (22) In May 5, for the first time, a resolution was adopted that did not specify the adoption of route B. This issue was settled on May 2011, 5, when the successor, Governor Abe, announced that it was appropriate to adopt the Southern Alps Route.

Compared to Tanaka prefectural government, Murai prefectural government has been criticized for being “closed prefectural government” and “retrogression of prefectural government,” while at the same time avoiding conflicts with parliament and prefectural officials (most prefectural governors across the country are doing this. There is also a tendency to evaluate (the so-called “all ruling party system”), and the pros and cons are divided like Tanaka prefectural government.

Morio Abe Prefectural Government
  • Shinshu type business sorting
    Abe, the current governor2009 (21) Based on the experience involved in business sorting as Deputy Secretary General of the Cabinet Office Administrative Reform Council, discussions will be held on the occasion of public disclosure of streamlining prefectural businesses and sharing of roles with national and municipal governments. Sorting"2011 (平成23年)1月15日から16日の2日間にわたって実施した。これは県知事選挙での政権公約でもあった。取り扱われた計29件の事業のうち、インターネットを活用した生涯学習情報提供システム事業、信州「食」の魅力向上事業の一部、交通安全啓発活動事業、総合型地域スポーツクラブ育成支援事業の4件が「不要」と判定され、残す25件のうち全体の約7割となる21件が「要改善」と判定された[21].
  • Problems associated with the construction of the Linear Chuo Shinkansen
    Of the 795 million cubic meters of residual soil that will be generated due to the construction of the Linear Chuo Shinkansen, the destination of 350 million cubic meters has not been decided as of September 2019, and Governor Abe has been accepting information without setting a deadline. In addition, the temporary storage space until the place of utilization is decided is not sufficient at this moment, and we are accepting candidate sites. We are dealing with noise complaints from heavy machinery during the construction of the Linear Chuo Shinkansen and the construction of the remaining soil storage site.
    Governor Abe is also deeply concerned about the large-scale running water of the Oi River system that occurred in the construction area of ​​Shizuoka Prefecture, and has requested JR Central to conserve water resources.on the other handHeita KawakatsuGovernor of ShizuokaGovernor Abe is in a position to give up on the Governor of Shizuoka, saying, "I am forcing the residents to put up with it. I want them to open by 2027."

National politics

Economic and industrial

  • Nagano prefecture has a high employment rate, both (all) employment rate (61.3%) and elderly employment rate (29.9%) are the highest in Japan, and female employment rate (51.1%) is also the second highest in the nation.[22].
  • As of 2010, the gross product of the prefecture was nominally 8 billion yen.
  • Income inequalityNationwide100If you say,85.5.. In the municipalities of Karuizawa103.4Is only above the national level[8].

industry

For companies with headquartersCategory: Nagano Prefecture companiesSee.

Production by industry

Primary industry

  • Agricultural output (2018)[26]
    1. Matsumoto City 211.9 billion yen
    2. Nagano City 165.3 billion yen
    3. Kawakami Village ¥162.5 billion
    4. Nakano City ¥130.4 billion
    5. Shiojiri City ¥116.7 billion
    6. Azumino City 112.6 billion yen
    7. Saku City 113.1 billion yen
    8. Minamimaki Village 103.7 billion yen
    9. Ueda City ¥87.8 billion
    10. Suzaka City 86.6 billion yen

Primary industry

  • Shipment value of industrial products (2018)[27]
    1. Shiojiri City ¥7374 billion
    2. Nagano City 5884 billion yen
    3. Matsumoto City 5810 billion yen
    4. Ueda City ¥5572 billion
    5. Azumino City 5103 billion yen
    6. Iida City ¥2290 billion
    7. Chino City ¥2283 billion
    8. Saku City 2218 billion yen
    9. Chikuma City ¥2152 billion
    10. Ina City ¥1913 billion

Primary industry

  • Annual product sales(Wholesale / Retail, 2015)[28]
    1. Nagano City 1 billion yen
    2. Matsumoto City 1 billion yen
    3. Ueda City ¥4448 billion
    4. Iida City ¥2460 billion
    5. Saku City 1943 billion yen
    6. Azumino City 1786 billion yen
    7. Suwa City 1779 billion yen
    8. Shiojiri City ¥1533 billion
    9. Ina City ¥1205 billion 
    10. Okaya City 1111 billion yen

Listed companies

Part 1 listing

Part 2 listing

JASDAQListing

Life and transportation

Policemen

Fire

Currently, there are 13 fire department headquarters.

electricity

Chubu Electric PowerIncluding,TEPCO Renewable Power,Tohoku Electric Power,Kansai Electric Power,Power developmentSuch asHydropowerThere is a place.

Prefecture Enterprise BureauAs a power generation business, there are 14 power plants, the Nanshin Power Management Office in Ina City and the Hokushin Power Management Office in Nagano City.

Power transmission and distribution covers the entire area of ​​Nagano PrefectureChubu Electric Power Power Grid(The head office isNagoya city) Is the power transmission and distribution area. Although the area with a power frequency of 60Hz occupies most of the area,KomoroTakamine Plateau,OmachiPart ofOdani villagePart ofMatsumotoNagawa,MatsumotoAzumiPart ofAzuminoHotaka OfNakabo Onsen,IiyamaPart ofSakaemuraThere is a mixed area with 50Hz in some parts of.

gas

The city gas business in Nagano has been operated by Nagano so far.Tokyo GasAlthough it has been regarded as a large scale by2006 In 18, Nagano Prefecture's gas business (Nagano Prefecture Enterprise Bureau) was privatized and newly established.Nagano city gasBusiness was transferred to. afterwards,2006 As of July 18, 7, all the operations that Tokyo Gas was doing in Nagano Prefecture (including the operations of the company's Nagano branch) have been integrated into Nagano City Gas. Nagano City Gas belongs to the Tokyo Gas Group.

Including the above, the main city gas suppliers in Nagano Prefecture are as follows.

  • Nagano city gas -Head office: Nagano City, supply area: Nakano City, Suzaka City, Nagano City, Chikuma City, Ueda City, Tomi City, Komoro City, Saku City, Yamanouchi Town, Obuse Town, Miyoda Town
  • Ueda Gas --Headquarters: Ueda City, Supply Area: Ueda City, Tomi City
  • Enakis-Headquarters: Ueda City, Supply Area: Shiojiri City
  • Omachi Gas-Headquarters: Omachi City, Supply Area: Omachi City
  • Matsumoto gas -Headquarters: Matsumoto City, Supply Area: Matsumoto City
  • Suwa gas --Headquarters: Suwa City, Supply Area: Suwa City, Chino City, Okaya City, Shimosuwa Town
  • Shinshu Gas-Headquarters: Iida City, Supply Area: Iida City

Water supply

  • Nagano Prefectural Water Supply (Company Bureau)
    • Water supply business
      • Nagano City (Shinonoi, Kawanakajima, Sarahoku, part of Shinsara district), Ueda City (Shioda, part of Kawanishi district), Chikuma City (excluding Kuwabara and Hachiman districts), Sasaki Town
    • Water supply business for tap water
      • Matsumoto City, Shiojiri City, Yamagata Village

Excluding thatWater supply businessIs the relevant department or department of each municipality, or the Waterworks Bureau (Local public enterprise) And water companies (Some office associations) Etc.

Transportation

Nagano Prefecture is old,Nakasendo,North country road,Koshu HighwayIt is located at the intersection of traffic that connects the north, south, east, and west of the country, and the main trunk traffic still intersects from that flow.

In addition, in Nagano prefecture, which is a mountainous region, the transportation network that connects the prefectures plays an important role.Kanto region,KinkiIt is the only prefecture in Japan because it is a prefecture with a vast area and a distance fromJRThere are jurisdiction routes for all three Honshu companies. EspeciallyInataniKiso-gunIt is,Capital Area(Tokyo-Kamakura)WhenKinai(Osaka-京都-Nara) Is located equidistant from.

In the early 1990shighway(Chuo Expressway-Nagano Expressway-Joshinetsu Expressway) And Shinkansen (Hokuriku ShinkansenBefore the opening of ), it was called the "Land Islands" due to the difficulty of accessing other prefectures, the metropolitan area, and the Chukyo area due to geographical conditions.[29].

Car registration number sign

The Suwa number has a low penetration rate among the 20 local numbers nationwide, probably because it was introduced by a wide-area administrative entity despite the low approval rating in the local area (the collection rate of all household questionnaires regarding introduction is around 18%). Is 15th and the number of grants is 17th.The government is expecting the spread of natural switching by replacing vehicles.In addition, there is a movement to request the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism to introduce "Ina" number or "Minami Shinshu" number in Ina Valley and "Karuizawa" number or "Saku" number in Toshin region.[30].

Incidentally,Ueda,Matsukawa,KashiwamuraIs unique in the municipalityDesign license plateHas been adopted.

Train

Nagano PrefectureOld railwayThe railroadJRThe only company that was split into three Honshu companiesPrefecturesIs. MainlyEast Japan Railway(JR East) covers the areas of Hokushin, Toshin, and Nakashin (excluding the Kiso region and the northern part of the Northern Alps region) and the Suwa region.Tokai passenger railway(JR Tokai) has jurisdiction over Nanshin (excluding the Suwa area) and the Kiso region. Also,West Japan Railway Company(JR West Japan)Minamiotari StationNorth ofOito lineIt is responsible for non-electrified sections. The number of ordinary trains is very close to both Nagano and Matsumoto cities.[Annotation 5] And Toshin area[Annotation 6] No more than 1 hourly except.

East Japan Railway
Tokai passenger railway
West Japan Railway Company

道路

High standard highway
Regional high standard road
General national road
Main local road-General prefectural road

空港

The only inland prefecture has an airport.

Medical and welfare

Tertiary emergencyDesignated medical institution
Local independent administrative corporationPrefectural Hospital (Operating entity: "Nagano Prefectural Hospital Organization")
Local independent administrative corporationNot a prefectural hospital
Disaster base hospital
Licensed Nursery School

Education

Nagano Prefecture was formerly known as an “educational prefecture” because it was enthusiastic about education, but the image of Nagano Prefecture as an “educational prefecture” gradually faded as the Japanese education system shifted to deviation-valued education.

2002 (14) Under the Tanaka prefectural government, a class of 30 students in public elementary schools was promoted.2005 (17), a complete 1-person class spanning the 4th grade of elementary school 4st to 30th grade was realized for the first time in Japan at the full cost of the prefecture. In addition, the 5th and 6th grade elementary schools are held jointly with municipalities.

Regarding long-term holidays, some schools also offer "cold holidays" due to the climate of Nagano Prefecture,Winter vacation,Summer VacationDue to short short-term holidays, the number of holidays is smaller than in other prefectures, and the number of school days is increased accordingly.

The official name of the prefectural high school in Nagano Prefecture is “Nagano Prefecture ○○ High School” according to Article 39 of the High School Establishment Ordinance (December 12, 28, Nagano Prefecture Ordinance No. 64), and “Nagano PrefectureStandDo not use “prefectural” names such as “○ Senior High School”. this isHokkaido,MiyagiIs similar to. It is retroactive when the "Prefectural Ordinance No. 1920" was issued in 38 to remove the character "Ritsu" from the name of the old prefectural school.[32], In the case of Nagano prefectureSchool reformAt that time, even union and municipal high schools were not distinguished from prefectural high schools, and there were cases where they called themselves "Nagano Prefecture XX High School", and municipal and union high schools were gradually transferred to prefectural governments. There is a history.

Out of the four-year college students, the rate of going to a university in the prefecture was 1987% in 8.0 (nationwide worst 2)[33] However, since the 1990s, four-year colleges have opened one after another, and in 2013 16.4% (nationwide worst 5)[34] Has improved.

Remarks/others

Educational institution

University

National university

Public university

Private universities

Junior college
College of technology
Vocational school
Special school
high school
Junior high school
primary school
Kindergarten

Mass media

News (Chinese)

Japan Newspaper AssociationAccording to the number of subscriptions in the first half of 2007Shinano Mainichi Shimbun(About 48),Yomiuri Shimbun(About 6.9),Asahi Shimbun(About 6.1),Chunichi Shimbun(About 4.8),Nihon Keizai ShimbunThe order was (about 3.4).

National newspaper
Block paper
Local newspaper
  • Shinshu citizen newspaper group
    • Okaya citizen newspaper
    • Shimosuwa citizen newspaper
    • Suwa citizen newspaper
    • Chino citizen newspaper
    • Tatsuno newspaper
    • Minowa newspaper
    • Minami Minowa newspaper
  • Minami Shinshu newspaper
  • Sarah newspaper
  • Oito Times
  • Nagano Prefecture Commerce and Industry Newspaper
  • Shinken Shimbun
  • Medical time
  • Hokushin Times
  • Hokushin Local
  • Kita Shinano Shimbun
  • Suzaka newspaper
  • Suwa Every Evening Newspaper (closed in 2004)
  • Lake country newspaper(Closed in 2005)
  • Ina Mainichi Shimbun (closed in 2008)

Radio broadcast

AM radio
FM radio
Community FM
Hokushin
Toshin
CITIC
Nanshin

Television broadcasting

The fourth commercial TV station opened in Nagano Prefecture1991 .In 190 prefectures with a population of over 22 million[When?], Nagano Prefecture was the last time the 4th commercial TV station opened.After thatTelevision Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.-TXNAlthough there is no affiliated station,Cable TVTV TOKYO (Kiso area, Shimoina area) of the key station in Tokyo by rebroadcast outside the area byTV Aichi) Is available for viewing.All commercial broadcasters in Nagano Prefecture do not broadcast overnight except for disasters and specials.

Nagano Prefecture's terrestrial TV / FM radioPrefectural broadcast Ofmaster stationAnd the main transmission station of FM complementary relay station of SBC radioMigaharaIt is provided in.

Terrestrial wave
NHK Nagano Broadcasting Station(Nagano city) - NHK Matsumoto Branch(Matsumoto)
NHK Broadcast Center(Capital Area) Jurisdiction.Although it is in the Chubu regionNagoya base broadcasting stationIs not under the jurisdiction of.
  • 4 TV Shinshu(TSB) (Nagano City * Headquarters / Matsumoto City, Broadcasting Center / Nagano City until September 2007)
Nippon TV-NNN/NNSseries.
TV Asahi-ANNseries.
TBS-JNNseries.
Private Broadcast Education AssociationMember Bureau.
Fuji Television Network, Inc-FNN/FNSseries.
Cable TV

The number of cable TV stations in Nagano prefecture is higher than the average of all prefectures in Japan, and the number of subscribers exceeds half of all households in the prefecture.[38], There are more than 20 stations. It is considered that this has developed because there are many mountains in the prefecture and there are many difficult-to-view areas.

However, in the early days of cable television, the number of stations was small.Therefore, in addition to the purpose of eliminating difficult-to-view areas, each major cable TV station in the prefecture has retransmitted the Nagano prefecture commercial broadcasting station for the purpose of correcting the information gap inside and outside the prefecture.Key station(In some parts of the Shimoina areaResidents' General Administration Bureau) Re-transmission (so-calledRebroadcast outside the area) Was carried out.This out-of-area rebroadcast continued for a long time after the opening of four commercial broadcasters in the prefecture and the correction of the digital divide.2011 OfDigital terrestrial broadcastingDue to the complete transition, basically, except for TV Tokyo, in response to the policy that digital broadcasting will stop re-broadcasting outside the area2014 May 7It was abolished with.

Culture/Sport

dialect

Food culture:

local cuisine

Traditional crafts

Traditional crafts designated by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry
Traditional crafts

traditional culture

Sports

サ ッ カ ー
baseball
basketball
volleyball
Futsal
curling
Ice hockey
  • (Nagano city)
badminton
boxing
  • (Matsumoto)
karate
Tug of war
marathon-EkidenConvention
Golf
speed skate
Road race
wrestling
Disabled sports

Public competition

Nagano PrefectureOkinawaalike,Public competitionIt is a prefecture with no venues or outside ticket offices.Therefore, on TV etc., "Race guideIs rarely broadcast (but in NBS)Fuji TV series Sunday afternoon horse racing program(Everyone's KEIBA)・Fuji TV series Horse racing program before dawn on Sunday(Uzumaki!)ofCentral horse racingRelated programs are online).Also in the neighboring prefectureHorse racing-Bicycle race-Boat raceLocal commercials such as are played at each commercial broadcasting station in the prefecture.

Prefectural character

Shinshu people are generally proud, but at worst they are exclusive and have a lot of bias.In addition, many people are serious, sincere, and original, and are said to like theory.[39].

Dispositions that vary by region

Since Shinshu is long and expansive in the north and south, there is a difference in temperament depending on the area, such as the more it takes root toward the north.[39].

Hokushin

He is sincere and patient, but he is poor at socializing and often withdraws, and has little desire to reveal himself. In addition, it is unlikely that the opponent will bow down on their own. Introverted and closed-minded and will not show heart, but has a very strong sense of responsibility[39].

Toshin

It's the most rational in the prefecture, and never stops arguing until it makes sense. There are many hot-blooded people who show emotions and emotions, and they are generally poor at socializing and do not hurt people. Only Shinshu has the temperament of unity[39].

CITIC

  • Matsumoto/Azumi area

Rough, uncompromising, impatient and arguing. He is an emotionalist and his theory is thorough. It is exclusive and can harm others, but it is sensitive and lacks tenacity.[39].

  • Kiso area

Sincere, unsuspecting and will not hurt each other. Patience and well-preserving old traditions[39].

Nanshin

Generally moderate and progressive. There is unevenness in interpersonal feelings, and it is unlikely to show trust feelings once or twice, and easy compromises are not allowed. Also, if you don't fit your heartstrings, you often turn to the other side.[39].

  • Suwa area

It is rational and has a strong scientific and scientific aspect. There is a strong sense of responsibility[40].. Once decided, I dare to go on a steep road[41].

  • Iida/Ina area

People are very good and very warm, but lack the rigor of doing things thoroughly[40].. Each region of the prefecture has the impression that it is "quiet"[42].

Tourism

Tangible cultural property building

National treasure
Important traditional buildings preservation area
Country designated scenic spots

Main tourist destinations

Foreign relations

Sister/Friendship Alliance

Works set in Nagano Prefecture

People from Nagano Prefecture

Winners of Nagano Prefecture Honor Award

The Nagano Prefectural Citizens' Honor Award was established in 2015 (Heisei 27), and the prefecture commendation rule states that "a person or group is widely loved by the citizens of the prefecture, raises the name of the prefecture, and gives them a bright hope. Especially for those that have achieved particularly outstanding achievements."[43].

Name of winnerFieldAward dateAchievementSource
Seiji OzawaConductorNovemberSage Ozawa Matsumoto FestivalAchievements in[44]
Nao Kodairaspeed skateplayerNovember2018 Pyeongchang Olympicsspeed skateWomen's 500m gold medal[45]
Ayaka Kikuchispeed skateplayerNovember2018 Pyeongchang Olympicsspeed skateGirlsGroup pursuitgold medal[45]
Nana Takagispeed skateplayerNovember2018 Pyeongchang Olympicsspeed skateGirlsGroup pursuitMass startWith gold medal[45]

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Second place is Saitama prefecture, Gifu prefecture,Hyogo7 prefectures.However, Hyogo Prefecture includes the marine section.
  2. ^ Former Azusayama forest road.Saitama prefecture sideChichibu City Road Otaki Trunk Line No. 17It is known as the former Nakatsugawa Forest Road.It is unpaved and closed in winter and at night.
  3. ^ However, there are cases where Tohoku Shin is common to East Japan and Chunan Shin is common to West Japan (Takeo Ichikawa 2004 Shinshu Gakudaizen), and the prefecture is not uniform.
  4. ^ At the beginning of the candidacy, he said, "I was evaluating Mr. Tanaka's reform stance," and said, "Not Tanaka.TanakaMr.SuperThe catch phrase was "Super Tanaka".
  5. ^ Shinonoi Station --Nagano Station --Toyono Station, Shiojiri Station --Matsumoto Station 2-3 trains per hour.
  6. ^ Komoro Station-About 2 trains per hour at Nagano Station.
  7. ^ Regarding fornication punishment regulations and restrictions on children going out at night 2016May 11Was enforced on.
  8. ^ Excluding Sakae Village.

Source

  1. ^ Nagano prefectural office (elevation displayed at the bottom left of the screen) -Geographical Survey Institute map
  2. ^ Nagano homepage
  3. ^ Nagano Prefecture, "History of Nagano: History, Volume 1989," 287, p. XNUMX.
  4. ^ "Nagano Prefecture's "healthy life expectancy" ranked first in Japan for both men and women"Asahi Shimbun, January 2020, 8.NovemberBrowse.
  5. ^ Demographics of Nagano City (as of April 23, 4), Viewed May 2011, 10.
  6. ^ Homepage of Matsumoto City (area is as of March 22, 3) Retrieved November 2011, 10.
  7. ^ Population is 2010 of Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsCensusThan. Area is Okaya City Home Page Than. (Retrieved October 2011, 10)
  8. ^ a b 2010 Census
  9. ^ Nagano Astronomical Meteorological Education Research Group "Weather in Shinshu" Shinano Mainichi Shimbun, 1978, 213 pages.
  10. ^ Shinano Mainichi Shimbun "Nagano Encyclopedia" Shinano Mainichi Shimbun, 1974, 177 pages.
  11. ^ Japan Meteorological Agency (PDF)
  12. ^ Nagano ed. "25 Nagano Prefectural Statistics" Nagano Prefectural Planning and Promotion Department Information Policy Division Statistics Office, 2016, page 38.
  13. ^ a b c Keisuke Imao"Map of Japan that changed drastically due to the great merger of Meiji, Showa, and Heisei How to make names of cities, towns and villages"Japan Kayo Publishing, Nov. 2020, 11, p. 30.ISBN 978-4-8178-4693-8.
  14. ^ Is the range of "Tokaishu" up to you? (PDF)
  15. ^ Nagano Prefectural Cultural Promotion Agency Nagano Prefectural Buried Cultural Property Center "History of Shinshu through digging-Nagano Prefectural Buried Cultural Property Center 30th Anniversary Magazine-" Nagano Prefectural Cultural Promotion Agency Nagano Prefectural Buried Cultural Property Center 2013, page 7.
  16. ^ Takesakahara Ruins "5-3 years ago" Older than the late Paleolithic[Broken link] Shinano Mainichi Newspaper May 2010, 5
  17. ^ Masaki Fukushima "The Beginning of Shinano History" Sadao Furukawa, Masaki Fukushima, Asao Ihara, Toshiyuki Aoki, Chifumi Kodaira "History of Nagano Prefecture" Yamakawa Publishing Co. 2003, pages 10-12
  18. ^ The author's name "Nagano Prefecture History History Edition Separate Volume Chronology/Index Chronology", published by Nagano Prefectural History Publishing Association, 1992, 595 pages.
  19. ^ "" Prefectural Song Shinano no Kuni "Part 1 <5>". Yomiuri Shimbun. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2009, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20090618080129/http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/nagano/kikaku/092/7.htm NovemberBrowse. 
  20. ^ "Asahi ShimbunMarch 1980, 3 Tokyo morning edition Nagano Tohoku Shin edition, page 28 "The case of" adult "kidnapping 〇〇 who is impatient with eerie silence and deepens anxiety.Asahi Shimbun Tokyo Head Office・ Nagano branch office)
  21. ^ Completion of Shinshu-type business classification: 4 cases were "unnecessary" and 7% were "improved"
  22. ^ 2006 Census
  23. ^ Shinano Mainichi Shimbun "Nagano Prefecture Encyclopedia-Revised Edition", Shinano Mainichi Shimbun, 1981, 435 pages.
  24. ^ "47 prefectures encyclopediaPp. 153.
  25. ^ May 2004, 5 Shinano Mainichi Newspaper Economy 28rd page
  26. ^ Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, "Agricultural Income Statistics on Production," 2018
  27. ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry "Industrial Statistics Table Municipal Edition" June 2019, 6
  28. ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry "Commercial Statistics Table Industry Edition" June 2016, 6
  29. ^ August 1995, 8, Shinano Mainichi Shimbun, page 24, "Komakane on the Chuo Expressway-Nakatsu River opening 29 years Memorial lecture at Iida"
  30. ^ April 2006th, 4 Shinano Mainichi Shimbun, 13th page "To realize the Minami Shinshu number: Request for standard relaxation-wide area alliance acts, decision"
  31. ^ "Timetable". www.matsumoto-airport.co.jp. NovemberBrowse.
  32. ^ <Power of voice> Even though it is prefectural ... Why "Nagano Prefecture XX High School"? Shinano Mainichi Newspaper May 2021, 4
  33. ^ "Basic knowledge of modern Shinshu 1990"
  34. ^ Status of universities and junior colleges by prefecture in 25 Obunsha Educational Information Center
  35. ^ July 2016, 7 One page of Shinano Mainichi Shimbun
  36. ^ July 2016, 7 One page of Shinano Mainichi Shimbun
  37. ^ There is a program to send to Music Bird
  38. ^ September 2006, 9, Shinano Mainichi Shimbun, Economics 27rd page
  39. ^ a b c d e f g Keigo Hozuki, Hiroyoshi Kobayashi, Shozo Miyawaki (1986) "Nagano Prefecture Fudoki"
  40. ^ a b Mukaiyama Masashige (1988), Yamakuni Life Magazine Vol. XNUMX
  41. ^ Shinano Mainichi Shimbun Editorial Bureau (2003) "Suwa people and climate"
  42. ^ Hachijyo Foundation (1997) "Nagano Prefecture's Local Culture"
  43. ^ Nagano Prefecture Award Rules -Nagano Prefecture, browsed August 2019, 8.
  44. ^ Prefectural government main event 27 (2015) -Nagano Prefecture, browsed August 2019, 8.
  45. ^ a b c "Nao Kodaira & Nana Takagi presented with Nagano Prefecture Honor Award Sponichi March 2018, 3 Viewed August 27, 2019

References

  • Kendai Murayama + Team B "Basic Knowledge of Contemporary Shinshu 1990" Galaxy Shobo, 1990. 
  • Kazuo Yawata "47 Prefectural Unchiku Encyclopedia" PHP Institute, 2009.ISBN 978-4-569-67178-9. 

Related item

外部 リンク

Administration
Tourism
Predecessor:
Ina PrefecturePart of (Shinano countryNorth)
Tatsuoka DomainPart of (Shinano country)
Iwamurata-Komoro prefecture-Ueda-
Matsushiro-Suzaka-Iiyama Prefecture
Chikuma PrefecturePart of (Shinano country)
Changes in administrative districts
1870 - (Nakano prefecture → Nagano prefecture)
Next generation:
-----

Mt. Ontake

Mt. Ontake[6](Mt. Ontake)NaganoKiso-gunKiso-Otaki VillageGifuGero City-TakayamaStraddleNortheastern Japan ArcLocated at the western end ofelevation3,067 mCompositeStratovolcanoIs[5][7]..Widen the big baseIndependence peakIs[8][9].

September 2014, 9 for the first time in 27 yearseruption..Climbers near the summit were involved,1991 Pyroclastic flow of Mt. Fugen in UnzenThe number of victims was exceeded.[10][11].

Overview

Kiso Ontake Mountain,Chopsticks, Wang Tong[7], King Mitake[12]Also called.In additionFontTheNew fontNotated inMt. OntakeOr justMitake[8]It may be written as.Mountains over 3,000m above sea levelas,JapanLocated in the westernmost part of the country.in JapanMountains of the same name (Mt. Ontake / Mt. Mitake)There are many, and it is the highest peak[Annotation 1].. On the summitFirst-class triangular point(3,063.61 m, point name "Mt. Mitake")[13]Mitake ShrineThere is an inner shrine.

Since ancient timesMountain worshipOf the target(I.e.AsBelieversKyoho has been awe-inspiringpeakTowering in a rowactive volcano.Folk songof"Kisobushi"It's cold even in Kiso's Ontake summerI did it足 袋Along with ","Inabushi』," My heart and the ice on the chest of Mt. Ontake melts when the ice on the chest melts ", and it is a mountain of sacred faith.KisoIt is popular as a mountain that represents[14].Tokai regionIn particularOwariAs "Kiso Ontake-san", you can see the big mountain from most places in rural areas.Local FujiIt is a mountain that is familiar like[15].Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains)[8],New Japan XNUMX Famous Mountains[16],Hana no Hyakumeizan(One hundred mountains of flowers)[17],Gifu Hyakuzan[18]It has been selected as one of.OldKaita VillageHida summit, old as a mountain representingMitake VillageAs a mountain that representsKengamineHas been selected as one of the "Shinshu Furusato 120 Mountains"[19].1927 In (2),Osaka Mainichi NewspaperTokyo Nichini ShimbunBy etc.XNUMXth win in JapanIt has been selected as one of.

National parkIs specified inHida Mountains,Akaishi Mountains,National parkIs specified inKiso MountainsUnlike,National parkNot even specified.Nagano prefectureMitake Prefectural Park[20]And in Gifu prefectureOntakeyama Prefectural Natural Park[21]Kiso was not designated as a national / quasi-national park, although it was designated asCypressMainlyforestryThere is a situation that it is a thriving area.The hillside is covered with deep forest and manywaterfallThere,Kiso RiverWater systemIt is a mountain at the headwaters ofChukyo areaIt is a water tank.

PreviouslyDead volcano,dormant volcanoIt is a mountain that was thought to be1979 (Showa54 years)May 10Suddenly erupted[9].Japanese Meteorological Agency The2008 (Heisei20 years) April 3Eruption alert level1 (normal) andEruption forecastannounced[22]. 2014 (26)May 9Erupted on the south slopePyroclastic flowFlowed down, and the eruption alert level was raised to 3 (mountain entry restrictions)[23].. With this,craterA range of approximately 4km from the area was designated as an exclusion zone. In June 2015, although volcanic earthquakes continued, eruptions have not been observed since mid-October 6, so the eruption alert level was lowered to 2014 (crater area regulation).[24]..Along with this, the exclusion zone was changed to a range of approximately 1km from the crater. In August 2017, volcanic plume activity and seismic activity near the top of the mountain continued to decline gradually, and since no eruption occurred since mid-October 8, the eruption alert level is 2014 (note that it is an active volcano). Was lowered to[4]..However, even now, the area approximately 1km from the crater is an exclusion zone.

"Ordinance on Prevention of Mountain Accidents in Gifu Prefecture Northern Alps Area and Active Volcano Area[25]Within 4km from the crater area of ​​Mt. Ontake[26]When enteringMountain climbing reportIs obligatory to submit.

In Nagano Prefecture, "Nagano Prefecture Mountaineering Safety Ordinance"[27]Designated mountain trail[28]Notify the mountain climbing plan in advance when trying to pass[29]There must be.

In addition, an outdoor speaker evacuation shelter for climbers is installed near the summit in preparation for an eruption.[30].

Origin of Yamana

far awayMieIt was also called "King Onmitake"[31]..In the olden days, the god who sits down was King ZaoGongenTo be[32],ApprenticeTo this mountainHonorific titleAs "King's Utaki", it became "King's Utaki".[7][33][34][Annotation 2]..It is said that it changed to "Utaki" after that.[35].ApprenticeHeadquarters ofMt. KimIs honored as "Kane no Mitake" and follows the flow.Kai no Utaki,Musashi UtakiIt is called "Ontake" unlike the mountain called "Mitake".[36][37]..Among the many mountains in Japan, "Mountains areFuji, Utaki came to be called "Utaki"[34][38].

Volcano / terrain

Mt. OntakeJapanese mountain elevation orderIt is the 14th mountain in Japan, and as a volcanoMount FujiIt is the second highest mountain after[Annotation 3]..With Kengamine as the main peak, Marici Tenzan (2,959.2 m), Stepkodake (2,858.9 m), Stepmodake (2,867 m), etc.Outer ringThere is about 3.5 north and south kmBy the summit ofTrapezoidIt is a mountain of.Stepkodake at the northern end is a relatively new stratovolcano, and when viewed from the northern foot of the mountain, it is beautiful because other peaks are hidden and invisible.coneIt has a shapeLocal FujiAlso called "Hiwada Fuji"[39]..In addition, on the Nagano sideParasitic volcanoThere are Mt. Mikasa (2,256 m) and Mt. Komikasa (2,029 m).The highest point, Kengamine, is located in Nagano Prefecture, and the confluence with the outer ring of the Otakiguchi mountain trail is the "Otaki summit" (elevation point 2,936 m).[40], The confluence with Kosakaguchi is "Hida summit" (elevation 2,811 m).Volcanic ashThe foot of the mountain is wide, and the sloping land at the foot of Nagano Prefecture is covered with dark volcanic ash, which covers the cultivated land.Kaida Kogen TheJapanese buckwheat noodlesKnown as the origin of[7]..The terrain on the Gifu prefecture side is more complicated than that on the Nagano prefecture side, there is less flat land, and the ridge muscles are bent.[7].. 2007 (Heisei 19)May 5In addition, by the XNUMX Japanese Geological Selection Committee, "Top XNUMX geological features in JapanWas selected as one of the first selection (1 locations nationwide)[41].

MountainYamanaelevation
(m)[1][13][Annotation 4]
Triangular pointgrade
Reference point name[13]
From Kengamine
Direction距離(km)
Address
Gonoike and Gonoike huts in the foreground, Mt. Norikura on the left side of the distant view (July 2013, 7)Mamakodake2,859. 14Third class
"Mamakodake"
16 cardinal points N.pngNorth 2.7Takayama
Kiso
Marici Tenzan and Sainogawara seen from the south side (September 2014, 9)Marici Tenzan2,959. 45Third class
"Mitake"
16 cardinal points NNW.pngNorth-northwest 1.4Gero City
Kiso
Kengamine seen from the top of Otaki, Otaki Ontake Shrine top Okumiya Hongu and mountain hut at the top of the mountain (August 2010, 8)Kengamine
(highscore)
3,067(First prize)
"Mt. Mitake"
(3,063.61m)
16 cardinal points O.png 0Kiso
Otaki Village
Stepmodake seen from the east (July 2013, 7)Stepmodake2,867 16 cardinal points W.pngWest 1.4Gero City
Otaki Village
Mikasayama, a parking lot and Tanohara mountain lodge in Tanohara at the trailhead, and a distant view of Lake Ontake of Makio Dam (September 2011, 9)Mikasa2,256. 1Third class
"Mt. Mikasa"
16 cardinal points SE.pngSoutheast 3.2Otaki Village

Volcanic activity

Mt. Ontake is the western end of the Northeastern Japan Arc (according to the old division)Norikura volcanic beltLocated in the southernmost part ofMesozoicNobuhiRhyoliteThe base is a base (the base is 17 km square), and the height from the base is 1,400-1,900 m.Olivine, Double pyroxene,AndesiteIt is a stratovolcano composed of[5][9][42]..In each directionLava flowThe Marici Tenzan No. 6 lava flow, which flows to the west, has the longest length of about 17 km.Andesite large rock wall at the endIwanateThere is[43]..Centering on Ichinoike, connecting Marici Tenzan, Mt. Stepmo, and the summit of OtakiOuter ringInsidecalderaIt is presumed that the appearance before the formation of the caldera isMount FujiIt is presumed that it was a stratovolcano with a height comparable to that of.The earth and sand that collapsed due to the big explosionEarth and stone flowGifu prefecture that flowed down the riverKakamigahara CityNearKakamigahara PlateauSediment of Mt. Ontake is deposited on the mountain, and it was created by the water current.Volcanic ashSediment StrataIt has become.This great explosion formed the peaks of Kengamine, Marici Tenzan, and Mt.Compound volcanoAnd the mountain isAfrica OfMount KilimanjaroIt's similar to[44][45].

The last recognition before the 1970smagmaThe eruption was about 2 years ago and since thenSteam explosionWas thought to be2006 A survey of Gifu Prefecture conducted in (18) and a survey conducted in 2008 (20)Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismTajimi Sabo National Highway OfficeNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyAccording to a survey by (AIST), about 5200 years agoPyroclastic flowMagma eruptions occur four times in 2 years (about 4 years ago, about 1 years ago, about 1 years ago, about 9000 years ago, about 5200 years ago), including eruptions accompanied by[42][46][47].. 『Shinano Mainichi Shimbun"of2007 (19)May 4According to an article published in the paper of, Gero City, 6 km northwest of Kengamine, was surveyed by Gifu Prefecture.Kosaka TownIn the pyroclastic flow about 5200-6000 years agoAccumulationThe formation was discovered, and traces of pyroclastic flow, which is thought to be a ejecta from the Gonoike crater, were confirmed.Activities since the last 2 yearsSteam explosionIn each of Gifu and Nagano prefectures, which were limited to Pyroclastic flow,Hazard mapA review of disaster prevention was carried out.

Small-scale fumarolic activity has continued intermittently (1979, 1991) since 2007.[48][49].. As of 2014, it has been designated by the Japan Meteorological Agency as "a volcano that requires enhanced monitoring and observation systems for volcano disaster prevention".[50], For observing volcanic activity around the summitSeismograph, Air vibration meter,Tiltmeter, Volcanic gas detector,GPSObservation device,Surveillance cameraSuch asObservation equipmentIs installed[51][52].. Since 2001Nagoya UniversityThe Graduate School of Environmental Studies is conducting Mitake volcanic disaster observation with a seismograph that observes precursory phenomena of eruptions as a "volcanic eruption warning and evacuation measure project in both Gifu and Nagano prefectures".[53].. The phenomenon that Mino Pond became cloudy 1979 months before the phreatic eruption in 6 and the sound of bubbles spouting from the pond and the earthquake just below the crater 6 hours agoPrecursor phenomenonIs believed to have been[54].2011 (23) On July 7, "Mt. Ontake volcano eruption emergencyDisaster reduction(I.e.Sabo"Plan Study Group" was held, and the sabo plan for emergency disaster mitigation measures for the eruption of Mt. Ontake was formulated.[46]..From the west side just below the summit of Otaki (near Hatcho Dalmi) and the fumaroles of JigokudaniHydrogen sulfideContinues to eject volcanic gas such as[55], You may hear the roar of volcanic gas generated from fumaroles.

A steam explosion since recorded history that triggered a review of the definition of an active volcano

Before the phreatic eruption in 1979 (Showa 54), Mt. Ontake was recognized as an extinct volcano by many volcanologists and the general public.In fact, the newspaper headline that tells the explosion is also "Extinct volcano explosionWas reported[56]..From this, it was generally recognized that Mt. Ontake was an extinct volcano at this time.However, this only shows that inaccurate recognition was common.For example, literature in the first half of the 19th century records phenomena that actually show evidence of fumarolic activity.[49]..Also, the Japan Meteorological Agency1968 In the "Volcano Observation Guidelines" published (43), Mt. Ontake is listed as "Mt. Mitake" as one of the 63 active volcanoes.1975 It was also included in the 50 active volcanoes of the "Japanese Active Volcano Handbook" published (77).[57].

At the time of 1979, a clear precursor phenomenon was not observed because a regular observation system was not established, and a steam explosion occurred on October 10 of the same year without the activity itself being on a scale where fumaroles could be observed from the foot of the mountain. A fumarole was ejected to a height of about 28 m.[48][58]..The eruption that occurred around 5 o'clock on the same day peaked at 14:XNUMX and then declined.The total amount of ejecta is about XNUMX tons.The volcanic plume flows northeast, Nagano PrefectureKaruizawaAnd Gunma prefectureMaebashiAsh fall was observed up to[9][55][58][59].

This eruption has led to a review of the classification of volcanoes in Japan (definition of extinct volcanoes, dormant volcanoes, and active volcanoes).[9][49]..No terms other than "active volcano" are used today[60].

Volcanic history

The activity history of Mt. Ontake has two active periods, the old period and the new period, with a rest period in between.[61][62]It can be divided into three periods, from the new period to the present.[9]..There is a difference of about 5 years depending on the researcher regarding the age of each beginning and end.The last magma eruption was at Gonoike, which filled Minoike.ScoriaIt is thought to be an eruption, but the date of the eruption is unknown.[63].

Ancient Ontake volcano (from 78 years ago to 39 years ago)

The ancient Ontake volcano was formed by a central volcano with an eruption crater at the same position as it is today, at an altitude of about 3,200-3,400 m.basalt,Andesite,Day sightComposed byCompound volcanogroup[64]..Due to the age and petrological characteristics of the lava layer, the ancient Ontake volcano descended from about 78 years ago to 64 years ago.TephraIs roughly divided into a stage where is predominant and a stage where lava flows from about 64 to 39 years ago are predominant.[65]..The stage where the descent tephra excels is further subdivided into three substages[62]..In addition, four volcanic bodies are estimated from the age and distribution of the lava layer.[66]..Yukawa tephra 5 and Ueurazawa tephra are wide area tephras, respectively.Kazusa GroupInside Shirao Tephra (about 77 years ago[67]) And Kasamori 12 tephra (60-58 years ago)[68][69]..Of these, the Shirao tephraMatsuyama-Brune reversalExists directly underGeomagnetic reversalHelps to determine the age of[67],Chibanian To sayGeological eraContributed greatly to the naming of.

  • 78 to 65 years ago-Eastern volcanic groups
  • 68 to 57 years ago-Tsuchiurazawa Volcano
    • 64 years ago-Kurakoshi lava erupted on the hillside.The surrounding strata are eroded, and hard lava remains in relief to form the current Kurakoshi Plateau.
  • 54 to 52 years ago-Kamiwarayama volcano
  • 44 to 42 years ago-Mt. Wakakusa Volcano
    • Mt. Mikasa lava, an andesitic lava, is ejected on the eastern flank.
Rest period (about 39 to 10 years ago)

The suspension period of about 10 years continues until about 30 years ago.The mountain bodyerosionIn response, a deep valley and a Wamura mud flow are formed.

New period Ontake volcano (about 10 to 2 years ago)

From the active area, it is classified into the Marici volcanic group and the west side of the stepmadake volcanic group.[70][71].

  • Mt. Ontake Volcanic Group-The explosive eruption about 9 years ago erupted the Ontake No. 1 Pumice Formation, the Shiojiri Pumice Formation, and the Pm-I Tephra, creating a wide-area tephra.Kanto regionDropped up to[72]..This activityPliny eruptionIt is an activity to form a caldera with a diameter of 5-6 km in the central part of the ancient Ontake volcano.RhyoliteFormed dacite Shintani lava layer, Yunotani lava layer, Nigori Falls pyroclastic flow deposit, Miurayama lava layer, etc.Total apparent eruption volume 50 km3(30 km3 DRE).
  • Marishiten Volcanoes-About 8 to 2 years ago after the formation of the caldera, the Marishiten Volcanoes were muddy river volcanoes, Kongodo volcanoes, Okunoin volcanoes, Kusagiya volcanoes, and Stepkodake volcanoes. , And as a group of small volcanoes lined up in the north-south direction, Yasuyama rocky lava and pyroclastic materials are ejected from craters such as Shinoike volcano, Ichinoike volcano, and Sannoike volcano.[73]..The largest amount of eruption originated from the Shinoike crater, and the Ichinoike crater and Ninoike crater were formed in a small caldera on the summit.In addition, the crater hill of Kengamine, the highest point of Mt. Ontake, and the summits lined up north and south were formed.
  • About 6 years ago-Marici lava erupted.Marici No. 6 lava was formed by flowing down along the Omata River, a tributary of the Nigorigo River.Columnar jointIsIwanate(Location is Gero CityKosaka TownSakihira during Ochiai)1957 (Showa 32) in Gifu prefectureNatural treasureHas been designated[43].
  • Approximately 5 years ago-The landslides that caused a large-scale collapse of the mountain body filled the Otakigawa and Kisogawa basins from the Nishino River at the foot of the eastern mountain, and Aichi Prefecture, about 200 km downstream.InuyamaThe mudflow deposits were also left behind.
Quiet period from about 2 years ago to the present

Before the 2000s, it was thought that the activity that did not erupt magma was the main activity from about 2 years ago, and it was a quiet period, but recent research has shown that four magma eruptions and more than ten steam vapors have occurred in the last 1 years. It is believed that an explosion occurred, and a hillside rift eruption also occurred on the eastern hillside.[74].

  • About 1 years ago-1740 million in the Karatani pyroclastic flow m3 OfpumiceDescent to medium scale[46][75].
  • Approximately 9,000 years ago-5 million m in Minoike lava3Made a large eruption of[46][73].
  • About 6,000 years ago-Gonoike crater was formed[75].
  • About 5,200 years ago-140 million m at the Women's Hall Scoria3Made a small eruption of[46].
  • About 5,000 years ago-35-75 m at Nigori Falls Scoria3Made a small eruption of[46].
Since history

According to "Record of Geology and Eruption of Mt. Ontake" Chimura Publishing774 1892 It is said that there was eruptive activity in the area, but later research revealed that these two eruptions did not occur.[49][76]..The most active activity since recorded history began in 1979.

  • Early 19th century Records showing small fumarolic activity remain.
  • 1968 Published in 63 active volcanoes of the Japan Meteorological Agency "Volcano Observation Guidelines".
  • 1975 Published in 77 active volcanoes of the Japan Meteorological Agency "Japanese Active Volcano Handbook".
  • 1979
    A group of 2,700 craters lined up in the east-southeast with the west end at an altitude of 10 m above Jigokudani was formed.[9][48]The eruption volume was a small eruption volume of 18 to 20 tons.[46][77]..The maximum ash fall depth was reported to be 3 cm in Tahara.[78]..The volcanic ash at the beginning of the eruption was moist and moist.Kaolinite,MontmorilloniteIt was a 2-3 mmk grain with the main components such as.Also, since it contains montmorillonite, it is located in a shallow place below the surface of the summit.SlurryIt is believed that there was a puddle, and that the slurry puddle was heated by high-temperature gas from a deep place and spouted explosively.[79][80]..There were about 50 climbers, but one was injured.[9].
    • Whitening of water in Minoike from around April[54].
    • May 10
      • An increase in earthquakes just below the summit from about 6 hours before the eruption[54].
      • Around 5 o'clock-A steam explosion occurred, and Otaki Village officials confirmed a plume with a height of 150 m near the summit.[9][58].
      • Around 5:15 --A climber heading from the summit of Otaki to the summitsulfurI noticed the odor and received ash fall after 15 minutes[9].
      • Around 6 o'clock-Climbers at the 7th station of Otakiguchi (Tahara), witnessed black smoke rising near the summit, and the climbers at the summitJetI noticed a sound similar to[9].
      • Around 9 o'clock- Mitake VillageIt was confirmed that white smoke was rising from one place, and that white smoke turned brown in Tahara.
      • 9:30- airplaneIt was confirmed that the mountain hut on the summit was covered with black volcanic ash, and a plume with a height of 1,000 m was flowing east-northeast.
      • 11:1,800-Regular airmail witnessed a plume of XNUMX m in height and gray volcanic ash rising at the bottom, and it became dark due to ash fall in Mitake Village.
      • 12:XNUMX - Nagano Local Meteorological Observatory, Announcement of the first temporary volcano information.
      • Around 12:30- Mushroom cloudA volcanic plume was confirmed.A volcanic bomb flies to the vicinity of the 1th station.A rock with a diameter of about 4000 m was confirmed to fly near the crater.The plume is from 5000m to XNUMXm.
      • Around 15:XNUMX-Ashes fall is popular in Mitake Village.Kaita VillageThen, the visibility becomes about 10-20 m due to ash fall, and the road lighting is automatically turned on.
      • Around 16:XNUMX-Ashes fall in Kaida Village gradually weakens.
      • Around 17:XNUMX-A large amount of black smoke was confirmed from Otaki Village, and a white plume was confirmed behind the mountain lodge at the top of Otaki.A large amount of ash fell in Otakiguchi Village.
      • 18:45 --Nagano Local Meteorological Observatory announces the second temporary volcano information.
    • October 10-The amount of volcanic plume has decreased and turned white, and less volcanic ash has fallen.[9][58].
    • October 10-The plume no longer contains volcanic ash.
    • November 11-White plume 4m, activity lull continues.
    • December 12-Observed microearthquakes and rumblings near the summit from midnight.Microearthquakes last for several days.
    • End of December-Very small amount of plume.
  • 1984 Published in 77 active volcanoes of the Japan Meteorological Agency "Japan Active Volcano Directory".
  • 1991 (3) Mid-May --- 5-79 A very small eruption occurred at the crater, ejecting about 7 tons of volcanic ash.[48]..Volcanic earthquake from about a month ago[81].. Fumarole activity continues from the fumaroles at the top of Jigokudani on the south side of Haccho Dalmi and the south side of the summit, which is part of the 79 crater group.There is a report that a powder flow (pyroclastic flow) was generated.[77].
  • 2004 Weak earthquake and fumarolic activity[82].
  • 2007 (19) Around March 3[83] --79-7 A very small eruption occurred at the crater[84][48]..Volcanic earthquakes and volcanic expansion from about 4 months ago, low frequency earthquakes and volcanic tremors from about 2 months ago[54][85].
  • 2008 (20) March 3-The Japan Meteorological AgencyEruption alert levelAnnounced eruption forecast (eruption alert level 1, normal) with the introduction of[22].
  • 2014 (26)
    • Volcanic earthquakes have been observed since the end of August.
    • September 9-Eruption at 27:11[86].

Large-scale collapse due to the western Nagano earthquake

1984 (59) The western Nagano prefecture earthquake that occurred at the foot of the south mountain at 9:14:8 on September 48 (Showa 49)MDue to 6.8), a large scale on the southern slope of Mt. MitakeMountain collapseThere has occurred[42]..A large amount of earth and sand that collapsed due to the earthquake ran down the tributary Kamikawa in the upper reaches of the Kiso River system and reached the Otaki River in 8 minutes.[42][70][87]..Average 80-100 km / h, With an extension distance of about 3 km, it is sometimes called "Mt. Ontake"[88].Muddy river hot spring, Housing,Forestry officeThe building was washed away, killing 15 people[42].

5 craters

1929 (Showa 4)Kyoto UniversityGeographerToAkamaro Tanaka LakeConducted a survey[89][90]..There are five on Mt. OntakeCrater lakeIt is named after Ichinoike to Gonoike.It ’s always wateringエ メ ラ ル ドColored Ninoike and Sannoike.Ninoike is at the highest point in Japan (2,905 m)ObonShaped water depth 3.5 mLake[91], The catchment area is several times larger than the lake surface,Mikuriga PondDiurnal change in water level is 40 compared to the crater lake of the Hida Mountains cmIt is characterized by being moderately large[44]..The cause is the difference in the amount of thaw due to the difference in temperature between day and night.Even in summerYukieRemains, thaw water, rainwater, in the snowy valley on the northwestern slopeUnderground waterIf the water level rises extremely, it will be drained northeast from the vicinity of the Ninoike hut at the eastern end. During the 1979 eruption activity, a large amount of sulfur flowed into Nino Pond and the water in the pondAcidicThe degree became stronger.In the surrounding mountain lodges, there was a time when this lake water was pumped and used as bath water for guests.[92]..Minoike is the largest pond on Mt. Ontake[93], The average slope of the lake basin is 14.4 degrees, the water depth is 13.3 m, and the average water temperature in early August is 8 on the surface. ° C9.5 in the low rise ° CIs[44]..On the shore of MinoikeKojinAnd gods such as White Dragon King Early Spring Princess Okami are enshrined[94], The lake water of Minoike is said to be the goshinsui of the believers.[95][96]..Otaki Village Ontake Shrine Satomiya Mikami Water has been selected as one of the "Shinshu Famous Waters and Secret Waters"[97]..ShinoikeHigh moorAnd a stream is flowing,Alpine plantIt is a colony of.In addition, under the slope northwest of Ninoike, there is a small depression between the riverbank of Sagami, and water collects during the heavy rainy season.This is sometimes called Rokunoike.At the western end of the Sanzu River, where you fall into the Shin Valley, the highest point in Japanwaterfall There is (2,800 m).This valley becomes Bei Valley and merges with the Nigorigo River to become the Kosaka River.Hida RiverPouring into[Annotation 5]..Ondake only in MinoikeCaddisfly(Scientific name:Pseudostenophylax sp.) larvae inhabit[44].

imageNameelevation
(M)
Water depth[44]
(M)
RemarksCoordinate
Ichinoike and Kengamine seen from the west (September 2011, 9)Ichinoike2,990 Often drowned(North Latitude 35 Degrees 53 Minutes 42.9 Seconds East longitude 137 degree 28 min 42.4 sec /35.895250 degrees north latitude 137.478444 degrees east longitude / 35.895250; 137.478444 (Ichinoike)
Ninoike seen from the summit and Ninoike Main Building on the shore (September 2014, 9)Ninoike2,9053.5Japan's highest lake
Ninoike hut on the northeast coast
(North Latitude 35 Degrees 53 Minutes 51.4 Seconds East longitude 137 degree 28 min 52.0 sec /35.897611 degrees north latitude 137.481111 degrees east longitude / 35.897611; 137.481111 (Nino Pond)
Minoike seen from the direction of Marici Tenzan (September 2014, 9)Minoike2,72013.3The length of the shoreline is 705 m
Lake basin average slope 14.4 degrees
(North Latitude 35 Degrees 54 Minutes 27.1 Seconds East longitude 137 degree 29 min 11.3 sec /35.907528 degrees north latitude 137.486472 degrees east longitude / 35.907528; 137.486472 (Minoike)
Shinoike and Stepkodake seen from the direction of Sannoike (July 2013, 7)Shinoike2,690 From the high moor to the eastSawaFlows(North Latitude 35 Degrees 54 Minutes 41.8 Seconds East longitude 137 degree 29 min 14.8 sec /35.911611 degrees north latitude 137.487444 degrees east longitude / 35.911611; 137.487444 (Shinoike)
Gonoike and Gonoike huts seen from Marici Tenzan (September 2014, 9)Gonoike2,790 There is water during the snowy season and after precipitation
On the north side of the pondGonoikegoya
(North Latitude 35 Degrees 54 Minutes 32.5 Seconds East longitude 137 degree 29 min 1.3 sec /35.909028 degrees north latitude 137.483694 degrees east longitude / 35.909028; 137.483694 (Gonoike)

Mountain with many waterfalls

There are so many waterfalls in the rivers that originate from Mt. Ontake that it is said that Mt. Ontake is a mountain of waterfalls.[98]..The terrain is steep and the height difference is large, the mountain body is large at the independent peak,Precipitation amountLots of things, rich森林The reason for this is that the water does not run out while nurturing.Many of them are difficult for people to approach, but Hyakuma Waterfall (Minamimata River, a tributary of Nishino River) along the promenade from Kurosawaguchi to Yuuki Ridge, Onoshima Waterfall on Kaida Kogen, Otakiguchi Waterfall / Kiyotaki,Turbid hot springNearby Sennin Waterfall / Scarlet Waterfall,Top XNUMX waterfalls in JapanWas chosenNeo FallsThere are also some waterfalls that are relatively easy to see.Shintaki and Kiyotaki are places for Mitakekyo, and ShintakicaveThere is and stay herefastingIt is a place to go and be hit by a waterfall[94]..Shintaki (about 30 m in height) and Kiyotaki become icicles in winter[99]..There are Hinode Waterfall, Meiei Waterfall, Oharae Waterfall, Matsuo Waterfall, etc. around the XNUMXth station of Kurosawaguchi.Fudo FudoIt is a place where the spirits such as[100]..Gero CityKosaka TownHas more than 5 waterfalls with a head of 200 m or more[54], Many Kosaka waterfall tour courses are introduced[101].

Is Mt. Ontake included in the Hida Mountains?

Mt. Ontake is in the Northern Alps (Hida Mountains) Is on the extension line, and there is a theory that it is included in the Northern Alps, but on the north sideMt. NorikuraSince there are few ridge-like peaks between and, it is generally accepted that Mt. Ontake is not included in the Hida Mountains (however, it is included in the former Norikura volcanic belt).However, it is a fact that there is no river that crosses between them, and no clear conclusion has been reached.Opinions are divided even among well-known mountaineers.In addition, in guidebooks etc.Japan AlpsWhen introducing in three partsJapan Central AlpsSince the number of mountains is small, there are many cases where Mt. Ontake is listed together with the Central Alps.[102]..For this reason, many people think that Mt. Ontake is a mountain in the Central Alps, but the Kiso River runs between it and the Central Alps, and it clearly does not belong to the Central Alps.Geographical Survey InstituteIn the list of major mountain elevations in Japan,ShogamineUp to "Southern Hida Mountains" and Mt. Ontake are said to be "Mt. Ontake and its surroundings"[1]..There is Nagamine Pass (elevation about 1,350 m) in the saddle between Mt. Ontake and Kamagamine.[6].

History / faith

Mt. OntakeMountain worshipIt is a mountain of.NormallyMount Fuji,Hakusan,TateyamaThree sacred mountains in JapanIt is said that there is a theory that Hakusan or Tateyama is replaced with Mt. Ontake to make it Sanreizan.Mt. Fuji in the history of mountain worship in JapanFuji lecture)KoshaIt is a sacred mountain that gathered the faith of the common people as[103][104].Denominational Shintoone ofReligion OfReligious FaithIs the target of.For the highest point, KengamineTakataka OmiEbisuEnshrinedMitake ShrineThere is an inner shrine.Kamakura PeriodThe area around Mt. OntakeApprenticeIt was a place to go[7], And then declined[105].Muromachi PeriodKanzawa Toko in the middle termessay"Okusa』Volume 162

OyamaZen stipulationCan't go up without devoting himself to XNUMX days, and during that time he goes into the hall and practices, reciting the Mantra of Light day and night,Water stainAs soon as you take.The charge threeBothIt is for half a hundred days.If this happens, the lightly-paid person will not be able to climb, and he will have to keep his wish for life. — Kanzawa Toko "Ogusa" Vol. 162 (Muromachi period)

It is stated that, when visiting the inner shrine of Mitake Shrine on the summit, strict training of Seishin Kisai is required for 75 days or 100 days at the foot of the mountain, and only those who have performed this strict training are allowed to visit once a year It had been[14][31]..This is called a "wayman"Kiso ValleyWorship by the people of[105].1560 (Eiroku3 years)May 6ToYoshimasa KisoHowever, he worshiped at the village shrine of Mitake Shrine after finishing 100 days of devotion to pray for luck with his servants.[106].Edo PeriodEarly pilgrimage monkYen skyAlso worship and aroundTempleIn manyWood carving OfBuddha statueLeaving[107].. In 1785 (Tenmei 5)OwariKasugai districtA graduate from the former cult rejects the persecution of the old cult and borrows local believers to build a worship road at Kurosawaguchi.[12]Succeeded in popularizing light devoted mountaineering, without rigorous trainingWater lineYou can now worship just by[14][108]..After that, a pilgrim opened Otakiguchi.In the Edo period, Owari and Owari were opened by opening three roads, Otakiguchi, Kurosawaguchi, and Kosakaguchi.KantoAnd so on nationwideDuring the course(General lectureOthers) were formed, Mitakekyo spread, and it was popularized as a mountain of worship.[14][109]..From the end of the Edo period to the beginning of the Meiji era, hundreds of thousands of people worshiped at Ontake every year and were crowded.[91].."" At the end of the Edo periodShinano Kisatsuroku"so,

ShinshuOne Mt. Ooyama, usually in the shape of a ridgeAsamaSimilar to Kiyotaka, every June, every June, people climb up, ten from Fukushimain, At allMount FujiLike climbing to. — Shinano Kisatsuroku (late Edo period)

Is described[91].. In 1868 (the first year of the Meiji era), at the 8th station of Kurosawaguchi, "Women's Hall" first started operations as a mountain lodge on Mt. Ontake, and women were prohibited from entering the upper part.[109], 1872 Daijo-kan notification earlier than other domestic mountainsFemale ProhibitionWas solved[7].

There are many sacred sites and training grounds on the approach to Otakiguchi and Kurosawaguchi.[5]..In the Ontake faith, it is customary to build a "religious monument" with the name of the spirit god engraved on a natural stone.[110]..There are about 5,000 sacred monuments enshrining worshipers on the approach to Kurosawaguchi, and many sacred monuments are lined up on the approach to Otakiguchi.[45]..At Mitake ShrineZao GongenIs enshrined and far awayTorii Pass,Wada PassOntake worship place such asStone monument,ShrineIs installed[7]..Painter in the late Edo periodTani BunchoDraws this mountain and introduced it as a famous mountain[12]..Forest road Kuroishi line and white collapse forest roadtoll road,Mitake RopewayWith the opening of the cypress hat and Kongo-zueWhite clothesThe worship road, which was filled with believers, is now mixed with ordinary climbers.[111].. Four on the hillside since 1985 (Showa 60)Ski resortWas built.

Mitake Shrine

Called Mitake OgamiKuni-no-Tsuneson,Takami Omi,ShokoIs the deity[112]..There are Satomiya and Wakamiya at Otakiguchi and Kurosawaguchi.Kiso Ontake Shrine King TakiguchiThe inner shrine is at the top of Otaki, and the inner shrine of Kiso Ontake Shrine Kurosawaguchi is at Kengamine on the summit.[113].1882 In June (Meiji 15), Bunki Kotani published "Mitake Shrine Abbreviation Engi".[114].. In 1944 (Showa 22), cults such as Mitake-kyo and Mitake Shrine established the "Kiso Ontakeyama Supporters'Association" and later renamed it "Ontakeyama Supporters' Association".ShrineIs operating[115].. On September 1984, 59 (Showa 9), the worship hall and the end shrine of the first Satomiya were partially destroyed by the western Nagano prefecture earthquake with the epicenter directly below Mt. Ontake, and the waterfall basin of Kiyotaki was buried in earth and sand.[116]..At Mitake Shrine KurosawaguchiFat KaguraIs dedicated.

  • Kiso Ontake Shrine Kurosawaguchi
    • Satomiya-Kurosawaguchi, located at 6687 Mitake, Kiso-cho, with Sukunahikona Shrine as the deity.
    • Wakamiya- 1385 (Virtue(Year) Revived in Kurosawaguchi[117]..Takami Omi is the deity.
    • Summit Okusha Hongu-The summit of Mt. Ontake (Kengamine), with Takashi Omi and Sukunahikona as deities[118].
  • Kiso Ontake Shrine King Takiguchi
    • Satomiya-Located at the 1st station of Otakiguchi, 1484 (XNUMX)文明It was rebuilt in 16) and was a place for visiting Seishin Kiyosai before visiting Mt. Ontake.In ancient times, it was called "Iwato Gongen"[119][109]Before the Meiji era, King Ontake Iwatoza King Gongen was enshrined.[118]Currently, Kuni-no-Tsuneson, Takami Omi, and Sukuna Bi Kona are deities.
    • Summit Okusha Hongu-Kengamine at the summit, which used to enshrine Hino Gongen, is now enshrined as Kuni-no-Tsuneson, Takami Omi, and Shohiko.[120].
  • Hakkaisan Shrine-Otakiguchi 5th Station, Healing Eye Diseases
  • Mikasayama Shrine-The summit of Mikasayama at the 7th station of Otakiguchi, safe on the way,Traffic safety
  • Tanohara Daikokuten --Tanohara at the 5th station of Otakiguchi, prosperous business, good luck
  • Mitake Shrine Hida Kuchiri Shrine --Nigorigo Onsen Trailhead

The four gates of Mitake

The place where you can see Mt. Ontake first when you come to worship Mt. Ontake from afar is "The four gates of MitakeIs called[121],toriiThere is a place of worship on Mt. Ontake where[122][123].. They areBuddhismIwagomura Kobe was likened to Hosshinmon, Nagamine Pass was likened to Bodhisattva, Miura Yamanaka was likened to training gate, and Torii Pass was likened to Nirvana.[124]..There was also a place of worship at Mitake on the old roads from Kiso Fukushima to Kurosawaguchi, such as Aido Pass and Majin Pass.[125][126].

  • Iwagomura Kobe- NakasendoTheKyotoThe place where you can see Mt. Ontake first from the direction[123], Current Kiso Town, 19.8 km east-southeast of the summit.
  • Nagamine Pass --Saddle with Kamagamine --The monument of Ontake Daigongen, which was revived by the Kakumyo scholars, is installed.[121][123]..10.4 km north-northeast of the summit.
  • Miura Yamanaka-Recorded to have been burned down in the war[123]..Haidenyama in the Atera Mountains, 17.2 km southwest of the summit.
  • Torii Pass --Nakasendo, 29.2 km east-northeast of the summit.Yoshimoto KisoBuilt a torii gate for Utaki Haruka to pray for victory.There is a stone statue of a single-minded person of the general public.

The person who spread the Ontake faith

Awakened person

Awakened person(Kakumei Gyoja) is1718 (Kyoho3 years)May 3Born in Bancho Sarayashi, Kasugai-gun, Owari Province, as a farmer, Seibei Niwa (Saemon) and Chiyo's child.ChildhoodWas later renamed Niemon Goemon by Gensuke, and was cultivated by a farmer in Shinkawamura Dokino Nitta during his childhood.[127][128]..Aichi prefecture of originKasugai City Ushiyama Elementary School Ofschool songThen, it is sung, "To the north, Mt. Ontake, in the town of the awakened hot springs."1818 (BunseiIn October, "Renjotei Essay"DoctorMarried to Ume after holding a boxMochiI opened a shop and was doing business. "[128][Annotation 6]..At one point, an unexpected event (there is a theory that it was suspected of stealing) occurred in various places.pilgrimageDo trainingWalkerBecame[128]..Increased the number of believers by conducting missionary activities in the villages of Kiso Valley[129].1782 (Tenmei2 years) Jurisdiction over Mt. OntakePriesthoodTakei family and Owari clan KisoDeputy officialA petition for mountain climbing permission was made to Mr. Yamamura, but it was rejected because it would break the traditional worship style (Seishin Kiyosai) for hundreds of years.[130]。しかし登山許可がないまま1785年(天明5年)6月8日に地元住民8名と、6月14日には尾張の38名の信者らと、6月28日には約80名を引き連れて強引に登拝を行った[130]..Those who worshiped were guilty and the worshipers were allegedly detained for 21 days.[130].1786 In (Tenmei 6th year), he took a lot of comrades and forced him to worship and repaired the mountain trail in Kurosawa, but on June 6th during that time.[Annotation 7]He fell ill on the shore of Nino Pond and was buried in the rocky area above the Kakumei-do dormitory at the XNUMXth station of Kurosawaguchi.[130][131]..Next to the mountain lodge "Kakumyo-do"Sacred placeExists.After that, the renovation of the mountain trail at Kurosawaguchi was completed by the believers who inherited the aspirations of the Kakumyo, and the ban on worship by light devotion was virtually lifted by the forced worship of the Kakumyo.[130]..The number of believers has increasedFukushima innToEconomic effectsHas come to be born1791 (Kansei 3rd year) At the foot of the mountain in JuneShoyaSubmitted a petition for light devotion to the Takei family under the joint name,1792 (Kansei 4th year) Permission was given on January 1st[130][131][129].. From June 6th to June 14th, a provision was made to collect 6 sentences of entrance fee and allow worship by light devotion.[130].1850 (KaeiIn 3rd year), the Bodhisattva was awarded by the lord of Nikko, Uenohigashi.[132]..The awakened person told the villagers at the foot of Kaidakogen Nishino.Red pineWhenever the seedlings growRiceThe place name of Kaida was born from the fact that the villagers grew up after planting seedlings.1806 Engraved on the Hieda monument set up in (3rd year of culture)[129]..Mt. OntakeZTEIt is said to be the pioneer who opened the mountain[133].

General

General(Fukangyoja) is1731 (Kyoho 16 years) Musashi ProvinceChichibuOtaki VillageBorn in Ochiai (real name is Fuhiro Honmeiin), in adolescenceEdoGo out toFencingLearnSakai clanIs reported to have served[134].1764 (MeiwaFirst year)Mitaka ShrineBecame an introductory student of the Motoyama school[134].1792 (Kansei 4th year) In May, he took a believer such as Edo and set out to open the mountain, and from June 5th, he entered the mountain and went to various places.[Annotation 8]We worshiped on June 6 and opened Otakiguchi.[134]..After that, he organized the Ontake lecture in the Edo area and spread the Ontake faith.[134].1794 (Kansei6 years)Joshu OfMt.,1795 (Kansei 7th year)Mt. HakaiAfter opening the mountain and continuing the activity of opening Mt. Ryozen1801 (Enjoyment9st year) September, during the tourBushuHonjoI fell ill[135][117]..The general public

Ariake's moon in Utaki, even if it is buried in the village of Itsuki — The phrase of the death poem of a generalist

I have left the phrase of death poem.At the flower door on Kiyotaki, the 3rd station of Otakiguchi, there is a tomb of a general pilgrim.[136].. 1850 (Kaei3 years)Ueno ToeizanBodhisattva was awarded by the lord of Nikko[132].1890 (Meiji 23) A monument was erected at the Centennial Festival of Fukanko in Otaki Village.[90]..Directly from the general publicDiscipleThere were Hiroyama, Taiken, and Shunmei, and then influential people appeared one after another and the Ontake lecture spread.[137].

Ontake Ko

The worship of Mt. Ontake is a trip in which worshipers and believers pilgrimage the sacred place together (Mt. Ontake)[138]) Is also[139]..In many cases, each lecturer is led by a predecessor to worship in a group.After the death of the pilgrims, influential pilgrims appeared one after another, and it was trusted that this belief would save their illness.[37]..After that, a ritualist who is a disciple of a bishop (Kikakugyoja,1769-1841 ) Held the Miyamaru Ko for the first time in the Tokai region, and a Kakumyo-type KoshaAichiSpread to western Japan[140].Nobi PlainFarmers on Mt. Ontake, the source of the Kiso RiverMikumariWas revered as a mountain of[141]..Even in the Kiso Valley area, a series of lecturers of the general public were formed.[142]..The souls of the predecessors of each lecture are spiritual godsMonumentIs calmed down on the worship road of Mt. Ontake[34]..One of the characteristics of the Ontakeyama belief is the sacred monument based on the belief that "My spirit will return to the mountain after death."[143]..From Kanto and Owari from the Edo periodNakasendoWas used,1919 (8th year of Taisho)Chuo Main LineWhen the whole line opensKiso Fukushima StationI started walking to Mt. Ontake[144].1923 (Taisho12 years)Kiso Forest RailwayAfter being laidKiso Fukushima StationTo Kurosawa and OtakiOntake Kotsu OfShared busHas come to be used[144].1966 When the toll road forest road Kuroishi line opens in 41Charter BusYou can now enter the rice fields of Otakiguchi directly at1971 (Showa 46) When the toll road Shirakure Forest Road was fully opened, it became possible to directly enter the hot springs in Kurosawaguchi by chartered bus.[145]..Currently, the weather is stable from late July to mid-August, and worship is often held for 7 days or 8 nights and 1 days.[146]..From Kurosawaguchi to the 8th station via the women's hall, go back and forth to the summit, go from Kurosawaguchi to the summit and go down to Otakiguchi, go back and forth from Otakiguchi to the summit, or go from Otakiguchi to the summit. It is often worshiped on the route that goes down to Kurosawaguchi via the 8th station women's hall.[146].

Religious cult

Religion,,,Shinrikyo,Sakaki,Shinto training school,Maruyama,, in the old daysKoshaThere are denominations of the Ontake faith such as the former sect Shinto cult that was called[147].

Religion

Religion(Ontakekyo) is in Nara prefectureNaraThe cult headquarters (Ontakesanyamatohongu) is set up inDenominational Shintoso,Shinto XNUMX factionsone of[148]..The Kiso Daikyoden, the headquarters of the Mitakekyo Mountains, is located in Fukushima Shinman-gun, Kiso Town, Nagano Prefecture.1984 In April (59), there were about 4 Mitake-kyo churches, branch churches, and missions throughout Japan (978 in Aichi prefecture, 263 in Gifu prefecture, 98 in Saitama prefecture, 47 in Nagano prefecture, etc.).[149].

Kiso Ontake

Kiso Ontake(Kisoontakehonkyo) is1946 A religious cult of the Ontake religion that was established in (Showa 21) by a group of Kakumyo-type lecturers.The main office and Tenshoden office are located in Mitake, Kiso-cho.[144]..The Mitake Shrine is the shrine, and the first president is Kurosawa Mitake Shrine.chief priestTakei Makoto[144].

Human history of Mt. Ontake

  • 702 (Great treasure2) December- Small angleOpened[5], Takane Michimoto at Kengamine on the summitMitake ShrineIt is said that the back shrine was built[34][109].
  • 774 (Houki5 years) --ShinanoKokujiIshikawa Nozomi (Ason Ishikawa)RoyalAfter receiving the summit, he worshiped the two gods, Takashi Omi and Sukuna Bi Kona, and prayed for the extinction of the plague.[34][117].
  • 925 (Extension3 years) --Major General Shigeyori Shirakawa is said to have worshiped and built the temple at the back of Mitake Shrine.[109].

Environment of Mt. Ontake

1757 (Treasure calendarIn 7 years), Matsudaira Kunzan published "Kissou Shiba" about Mt. Ontake.

There are three ponds on the eastern peak, one pond is drained, one pond is a little water, one pond is full, and the water flows to the west.This north is called Jigokudani, which has a lot of sulfur, and its water flows to Otaki. — Matsudaira Kunzan "Kisou Shibu"

And describeHimatsu,Cumkusa,Ontade,StoatWith commentary such asSpotted nutcracker,GrouseSuch asbirdsI have left a detailed sketch of[159]..It is an alpine mountain with an altitude of over 3,000 m, and in "Kisobushi", "Kiso's Ontake was cold even in the summer.足 袋"Attach" is sung.1979 The high pine trees around Ishimuro Sanso at the 54th station of the Kurosawaguchi mountain trail died due to the devastation caused by the eruption in (XNUMX).21st centuryEarly2002 -2003 Young shoots have been confirmed since around[52]..Dicentra peregrina on Mt. OntakeOld taleThere is[160]..Approximately 830 centered on Tahara Natural Park on the Otakiguchi mountain trail haIs designated as a Kiso Ontake Natural Recreation Forest[161].Sumie TanakaIs one of the representative flowers in the book "Hundred Famous Mountains of Flowers"LinneseIntroduced[17]..At the foot of the mountain below 1,500 m above sea levelCypress,AsunaroSuch asKiso GokiCan be seen[7].1836 (TempoIn 7 (Heisei 1993), an artificial cypress forest planted in Akanumada, Osaka-cho, Gero City at the foot of NishiyamaForestry AgencyReceived the designation of "Akanumada Tenpo Hinoki Plant Community Conservation Forest"[162]..Andesite called "Ontake Kurokomaseki" was produced in Mitake, Kiso Town, and was also used as a sacred monument for the Ontake faith.Stone processing is still being carried out at the Tanaka stone store at the foot of the mountain.

Animals on Mt. Ontake

3 years agoPaleolithicToBig boar deerWas inhabited, and the Kaida Plateau at the foot of the eastern mountain was the hunting ground.[163]..From the Yanagimata ruinsstone tool,EarthenwareHas been excavated[163]..Spotted nutcrackers, grouse, inhabiting the alpine zone of the mountain trail near the summitPeacock butterflyEtc. can be seen.Grouse (thunderbird) in JapanSpecial Natural MonumentSpecified to[164],Ministry of the EnvironmentByRed listEndangered IA[165], Gifu Prefecture is designated as Endangered Species I, Nagano Prefecture is designated as Endangered Species II, and is threatened with extinction.[166].. The grouse territory, which was 1981 in the 50 survey, has been reduced to 2008 in the 28 survey.[167].. In December 2012, it was the western avant-garde peak.Mitake MountainsOne grouse (female winter feather) was confirmed at an altitude of 1,500 m in Mt. Gozenyama, and it is believed that it moved from the alpine zone along the ridge in winter.[168]..In the mountainsWeasel,boar,Raccoon dog,Asiatic black bear,Japanese macaque,FoxEtc. inhabitAtli,Ikar,pheasant,Treecreeper[169],Coal tit,DollarbirdSuch asbirdsIs also abundant[5].."Mitake's dollarbird breeding ground" in Kiso-cho, Kiso-gun, Nagano Prefecture at the foot of the southeastern mountain has been designated as a national natural monument.[170]..It was the production area in Kaida KogenKiso horseIs bred and has been designated as a natural monument in Nagano Prefecture.[171].LepidopteraNoctuidaeOntake Kuroyoto (scientific name:Apamea ontakensis Sugi) alpine moths inhabit only the alpine zone of Mt. Ontake[Annotation 10][172].HonshuLepidoptera distributed in the limited mountainous areas ofShakuga familyUchijiro Namishaku (scientific name:Dysstroma truncata fuscone bulosa Inoue) has been confirmed to be distributed only on Mt. Ontake in Gifu Prefecture.[Annotation 11][173].

Mt. Ontake plants

Mt. Ontake at the end of the Edo periodAlpine plantWas prized as "God grass", and Dicentra peregrina that grows naturally in the alpine zone at the top of the mountain was collected as a medicinal herb, and many of the native ones disappeared.[174][Annotation 12]..Dicentra peregrina communities on the summit are being regenerated. In July 1887 (Meiji 20)Botanist OfMitsutaro ShiraiClimbed to the summit and collected alpine plants, and in 1889 (Meiji 22)MiyoshiCollected[114], 1933 (Showa 8), botanist Harufusa Nakano investigated the plant ecology of Mt. Ontake.[89][90]..At the top of the mountainForest limitIn the alpine zone ofAototsu Gazakura,Iwame,Sorbus matsumura,Lonicera tschonoskii,Gankouran,Kyanana,Black tree,Cowberry,Arcterica nana,Takane Nanakamado,Chingruma, Pinus pumila,Minezuo, Etc. with treesIwagi Kyou,Stellaria nipponica,Ontade,Spider magsa[Annotation 13][175],Black lily, Dicentra,Gaultheria pyroloid,Chishimagikyo,Toya Kurindou,Hakusanichichie,Miyama Akinokirinsou,Potentilla matsumura,Miyama Daikonsou,MomijikaramatsuMany asAlpine plantIs growing naturally[176][177][178]. JapaneseEndemic speciesOntade (Tate)Japanese nameIs due to being first discovered on this mountain[179][180]..With Vladiro Nanakamado and Takane NanakamadohybridOntake Nanakamado (scientific name:Sorbus x yokouchii M.Mizush. ex T.Shimizu) Is growing naturally[181]..On the hillsideSubalpine zoneThen,Abies mariesii,Acer caudatum,Tsuga diversifolia,Silabiso,Betula birch,Spruce,Rowan,Haribuki,MiyamazakuraWith trees such asOsabagusa,Bat,,,Gozenta Chibana,Veratrum stamineum,Skeleton flower,Pedicularis keiskei,Takeshimaran,Clintonia udensis,Coptis quinque,My sweet potato,Butterwort,YukizasaSuch flowers grow naturally[5][7][176][177]..In the lower mountainsFagus japonica,Maples,Wig,Chestnut,White birch,Linden,MizunaraWith deciduous broad-leaved trees such asHorse chestnut,Kurobe,Japanese Spanish mackerel,CypressSuch asNatural forestWith conifersLarch,Cedar, Hinoki, etc.Plantation,Iwakagami,Veronicastrum japonicum,Sasayuri,Susuki,Climbing hydrangea,Firefly,Pincushion flower,YanagiranFlowers such as are distributed[176][177].. "Ontake Osabagusa" (area 18.39 ha) and "Pinus pumila, etc." have been designated as plant community protection forests by the Forestry Agency.[182].. "Kiso Hinoki" is "Akita Sugi" and "Tsugaru"HivaAnd "Japan's three majorSelected as "Mibayashi"[5]..The south side is still active as a volcanoFloraIs poor, and the north side has abundant flora such as Dicentra peregrina colonies.[93].1910 ToBotanistGen-ichi KoidzumiIs in this mountainAconitumOntakebushi (scientific name:Aconitum metajaponicum Nakai) Is collected and is the origin of its Japanese name[183]..Ontakechibushi is endangered and has been designated as Endangered IA by the Ministry of the Environment.[184].

Mt. Ontake crude drug "Hyakusomaru"

manyMedicinal plantIs distributed in the Edo periodHerbalismWas actively researched and occupied this areaOwari DomainWas collecting herbs[150].. From 1716 to 1735 (Kyoho year), Honzogaku scholar Masaaki Niwa and others collected and investigated crude drugs in the mountains.1804 -1818 (cultureIn the year), Toyobumi Mizutani published "Kiso Yakuki" centered on the foot of the mountain.[150], It is stated that Dicentra peregrina grows naturally near the summit.[185].. Plants collected in the surrounding mountains of Kiso Valley in 1844 (Tenpo 15)Mutism book"Kiso flower root bark" was published, and Phyllodoce aureus,Gentiana makinoi, Black lily,Violet, Geum pentapetalum,Misbasa50 kinds etc.Picture bookIt was summarized in the model[186]..24 of them are nowJapanese nameWas described in[186].HerbalismIt belonged to the Owari clan, which had been advancing, and the herbs were investigated, cultivated, and managed by Daikan Yashimura. [186]..According to the general practitioner who opened Otakiguchi, "If you collect XNUMX kinds of Mt. Ontake's spiritual medicine and decoct it well to make the medicine, you can make it like a spiritual god and save people. Was taught to villagers, etc.[187].. It is said that Kotobuki, a disciple of Fuhiro who opened Otakiguchi in 1849 (Kaei 2), collected and decocted XNUMX kinds of Mt. Ontake's sacred grasses and used them as crude drugs.[154]In Otaki Village, the "Hyakuso Motoyuki Monument" states that Yasushi Kotozawa and Bunshichi Kotani of the village manufactured Hyakuso based on the law of the pilgrims.[188]..With the spread of the Ontake faith, the XNUMX herbs of Kiso Ontake's "God medicine" spread all over the place.[150]..Hyakuso is a visit to MitakeSouvenirWas supposed to be[189]..At the foot of the south mountainNagano Prefectural Pharmaceutical(Mt. Ontake Hyakusomaru)Hino Seiyaku(Mt. Ontake Hino Hyakusomaru)KihadaThe main component is "Oubaku", which is the layer of the tree inside the bark ofMomakusamaru"(Gastrointestinal drug) Is manufactured[150][154][188]..This medicine box is printed with a mark called the "Yamasanmaru mark" that symbolizes the Ontake faith (also used in the markings of the Ontake Shrine and the sacred monument on the mountain trail).Use this Yamasanmaru markTrademarkThe proceeding "9 (Gyo-ke) No. 213 request for cancellation of trial decision" was filed between pharmaceutical companies.[190].MeijiLaterSoldierDemand for yellowfin tuna has increased in the early Showa period, and the yellowfin tuna in the mountains have been cut down and imported from other regions and overseas.ChugokuRelying on imports[188]..Dicentra peregrina, Ontake carrot, which are "Mt. Ontake's five dream grasses"Coptis,TouyakuIncludes Tengnohige[150],TakatogusaGennoshokoEtc. were also reportedly used[187].

Mt. Ontake National Forest

From the Kamakura period to the early Showa period, Kiso Goki and other trees were cut down in the forest from the hillside to the foot of the mountain, and the felled wood was drained using the Kiso River.[138]..Forests in the mountain area were managed by the Owari clan during the Edo period, and became a royal forest in the Meiji era.National forestHas become[138]..Most of themWater source conservation forestIs specified in[191]..In the Mitake Specified Geographical Conservation Forest (former Mitake Vertical Forest Zone Plant Community Conservation Forest, area 1,540 ha), the national forest is protected and managed to maintain the natural environment and protect animals and plants.[191]..A part of the Sengen barrel national forest and the Kotoshima national forest are designated as "Ontake Natural Recreation Forest".[192].

  • Gero district (under the jurisdiction of Gifu Forest Management Office)
  • Takayama district (Gifu Forest Management Office jurisdiction)
    • Maku Iwashita National Forest
    • Sengen barrel national forest
    • Kotoshima National Forest-There is a plant community protection forest such as Kotoshima Pinus pumila.
    • Maku Iwashita National Forest
  • Kiso Valley area (Kiso Forest Management Office jurisdiction)
    • Miura National Forest-Known as a mountainous area of ​​cypress for a long time, it was cut down in the early Edo period, and the site is Sasa palmata (scientific name::Sasa palmata) Etc. are distributed.Atera MountainsAt the topUplifted quasi-plainIn the darkRhyoliteConsists of[194].
    • Otaki Ontake National Forest
    • Taruzawa National Forest
    • Urasawa National Forest
    • Shojizawa National Forest
    • Mitake National Forest
    • Kurosawa Mitake National Forest --The Hyakuma Waterfall Road along the Yuki Ridge at Kurosawaguchi is known as the "Yuki Birin", a beautiful forest of hinoki cypress trees planted by the Owari clan during the Edo period.[100][195].
    • New high national forest
    • Yakeno National Forest
    • Nukane National Forest
    • Nagau original national forest

Climbing

Since ancient times, it has been climbed by a small number of practitioners as an object of worship, and in the Edo period, Kakumyo practitioners opened Kurosawaguchi, Fuhiro practitioners opened Otakiguchi, and Mt. We are stillWhite clothesIt is a mountain where worshipers can be seen.There are many records of deaths due to illness and freezing death of Mt. Ontake climbers in the Edo period (such as the certificate of the bereaved family of Mt. Ontake).1847 (Hiroka4 years)May 77 out of 5 people freeze to death due to strong wind and rain on the summitMountain accidentHappened[196].. In 1868 (the first year of the Meiji era), the 8th station of Kurosawaguchi, "Women's Hall," first started operations as a mountain lodge on Mt. Ontake.[197].. Until the ban on women was lifted in 1872 (Meiji 5), women were prohibited from entering the upper part of the women's hall, which was used by worshipers as an evacuation shed.[197][198]..Modern mountain climbing began with the climbing of foreigners in the early Meiji era[199]. In 1894Walter WestonSince the summit, it has become possible for ordinary climbers to climb.[14]..At the same time as WestonAmerica OfAstronomerPercival LowellClimbed when he visited, and described the situation at that time in "Occult Japan" (Chapter 1 "Mitake").[200].1907 (40th year of Meiji)(I.e.,BasketThere is a photo of a climber on Mt. Ontake.[201]..The trailhead of Mt. OntakeKisoThree from the side (Otakiguchi, Kurosawaguchi, Kaidaguchi),HidaOne from the side (Kosakaguchi) has been used for a long time, but after that, Hiwadaguchi was opened relatively newly.

Due to the eruption in October 1979, entry was restricted from the summit to the 10th station. In 4, entry restrictions were lifted except near the crater on the summit.[89]..Mountain entry may be restricted by the eruption alert level announced by the Japan Meteorological Agency.[202]..The stepped mountain trail, which was constructed with wooden logs, has been restored and maintained by local volunteers and people involved in the Ontake faith, such as the "Kiso Ontake Service Association".[35][203].. Although it is a high peak over 3,000 m, it may be climbed on a day trip due to the high altitude of the mountain climbing entrance.[204]..School climbing is carried out at Kaida Junior High School, Otaki Junior High School, and elementary schools in Gero City at the foot of the mountain.[205]..At Kurosawaguchi, etc., carry the predecessors of the Ontake class, carry the luggage of believers, and the supplies of the mountain lodge.StrongThere is a person who is responsible for[96][206].. From 1954 (Showa 29) to August 8th, the Mitakeyama Okami Fire Festival of Mitakekyo is held at Haccho Dalmi just below the summit (between Kengamine and Otaki summit).[5][148]..The Kurosawaguchi and Otakiguchi worship trails used by the majority of religious climbers are also used as general mountain trails.[95]..Although there are no difficulties in climbing during the snowy season, there are strong winds near the summit due to the independent peak.ice burnTherefore, it is a mountain that requires attention to slip down and makes it difficult to determine the route when visibility is poor.[207][208]..With the XNUMX famous mountain boom,Travel clubMany mountaineering tours were held by.

Due to the eruption in September 2014, the eruption alert level was raised to 9 (mountain entry restrictions), and the area approximately 3 km from the crater was designated as an exclusion zone.[23].. In June 2015, the exclusion zone was reduced to approximately 6km from the crater as the eruption alert level was lowered to 2 (regulation around the crater).[4].. The eruption alert level was lowered to 2017 (note that it is an active volcano) in August 8, but the area approximately 1 km from the crater is still an exclusion zone.On the Kurosawaguchi mountain trail, deregulation of access restrictions only on the mountain trail is relaxed only during the mountain climbing season from July to October.[209]You can go to Kengamine.

"Ordinance on Prevention of Mountain Accidents in Gifu Prefecture Northern Alps Area and Active Volcano Area[25]Within 4km from the crater area of ​​Mt. Ontake[26]You are obliged to submit a mountain climbing notification when you enter.

In Nagano Prefecture, "Nagano Prefecture Mountaineering Safety Ordinance"[27]Designated mountain trail[28]When you try to pass, report the mountain climbing plan in advance[29]There must be.

Modern mountaineering history

Trail

From all directionsTrailHas been opened[6][87][215][216]..Many Kosakaguchi and Hiwataguchi users aim to climb the summit of Hida, Mt. Stepko, or Mt. Marici without climbing to Kengamine.There is a mountain trail on the west ridge that surrounds Ichinoike, which is one of the routes from Kengamine to Ninoike hut.Previously, there was Matsubara Shindo, which climbs the saddle of Kengamine and Mt. Tsugemo via the Murakawa Onsen (which does not exist) along the tributary of Murakawa.1984 The road was abandoned due to the collapse of the Denjo River caused by the Nagano Prefecture Western Earthquake.[87].

Otakiguchi

The trailhead that can be reached by road is the highest point on Mt. Ontake (Tahara, 2,160 m above sea level), and is the shortest route to Kengamine on the summit.The view along the way is excellent, and you can always see the course from the trailhead to the summit of Otaki from top to bottom.There are evacuation sheds at the 8th and 9th stations between Tahara at the trailhead and the summit of Otaki.Mountain differenceThe opening festival equivalent to is held on July 7st.The road to the rice paddies at the start of the mountain climbing is closed during the snowy season, but there are examples of climbing snowy mountains in early spring using the gondola of the Ontake 1 ski resort. At the 2240st station, there is the Ontake Shrine Satomiya, which enshrines Kuni-no-Tsuneson, Takashi Omi, and Shohiko.[136].. There are Kiyotaki and Shintaki at the 3rd station, and Kiyotaki Fudo Myo is enshrined in Kiyotaki, which is a place for worshipers to go water.[136].. At the 5th station, there is the 6th Gongen, the spirit of giving children, and at the XNUMXth station, there is the god of the eyes, Hakkaisan Okami.[136]..At an altitude of about 2,190 m, there are Tanohara Sanso and Kiso Ontake Natural Recreation Forest Tanohara Natural Park, which can be reached by car during the mountain climbing season.[125].

  • Tahara ―― 7th station Oe Gongen ―― Kongo Doji (8th station below) ―― 9th station Ishimuro ―― Otaki summit ―― Kengamine[217]

Kurosawaguchi

The oldest mountain trail opened by a wake-up person.ReligionIt is also the mountain trail that is most closely related to.In the summer, "Repentance,Rokune cleanYou can see worshipers in white coats chanting[91][218]..There is a manned mountain hut at each station.Currently near the 7th stationRopewayIimori Station (elevation 2,150 m) was built, and it became possible to climb to almost the same altitude as Tahara at the Otakiguchi mountain climbing entrance, so most climbers began to use the ropeway. , There are still many climbers walking from the 6th station.The opening festival, which is equivalent to the opening of the mountain, is held on July 7, the same as Otakiguchi. At the 1st station, there are Ontake Shrine Wakamiya, which enshrines Takashi Omi, and Satomiya, Ontake Shrine, which enshrines Sukunahikona's name.[100]..Many sacred monuments are lined up in the worship dojo, and at the 4th station, there is the largest sacred monument on Mt. Ontake, and there are many sacred monuments built on a per-company basis.[100]..The route from Matsuo Falls via Yuki Ridge to Hyakuken Falls to the 8th station is called Hyakuken Falls Road.[125]..There is a Hyakuken Falls hut in Hyakuken Falls, which is a place to go.[100].

  • Nakanoyu (6th station) or Ropeway Iimori Station --Gyoba Sanso (7th station) --Women's Hall (8th Station) --Ishimuro Sanso (9th Station) --Kakumeidou --Kengamine[219]

Kaidaguchi

Of the three trails on the Kiso side, the only trail that was created not for faith.It was opened as a work road for the forestry office (currently the forest management office).Although the distance is long, you can enjoy the great outdoors.There is spring water near the 3th station, and there is no other pond up to Sannoike.The altitude of the trailhead is low (4 m) and the altitude difference is large, so it is suitable for healthy legs.

  • Kaidaguchi 4th Station ―― 7th Station Evacuation Hut Remains ――Sanzuike Evacuation Hut ――Sainogawara ――Ninoike ――Kengamine

Kosakaguchi

Perhaps because of the long approach to Kengamine, there are few religious climbers at present, and there are many general climbers.Of this routeMountain differenceEvery yearMay 6Held at Mitake Shrine Hida Kuchiri Shrine[220]..When descending the mountainSpaThe attractive course is that you can enjoy.In addition, there is a course where the trailhead is Kotoshima and joins the road from Nigorigo Onsen under the peep rock evacuation hut, but this course is sometimes called the Kotoshima course in particular.Gonoikegoya on the summit of Hida has a new building expanded in 2010, and the capacity has doubled to 100 people.[221]..In addition, although the mountain trail collapsed due to the heavy rain in June 30, a detour route was established and it became possible to pass from September 6.[222]

Hiwataguchi

One of the courses that does not originate from religious mountain climbing and is a course that climbs toward the summit of Mt.1998 OfCiao Ontake Ski ResortOperates all year round with the development ofGondola lift"Flying Chao" has been used more often, and the number of climbers from the old climbing entrance has decreased.If you use a gondola lift, you can climb to almost the same altitude as Otakiguchi (2,190 m), but the distance from Mt. Stepko to the highest peak, Kengamine, is long.Also, the route is less well maintained than the other courses. As of 2010, Flying Chao operates only during the ski season (early December-early May) and is no longer available for spring-autumn mountaineering.

  • Hiwata Exit or Gondola Lift Summit Station --Mt. Stepko--Hida Summit (Gonoikegoya) --Sanzugawara --Ninoike--Kengamine

Mountain hut

Because Mt. Ontake is popular for religious mountaineeringMountain hutThere are many mountain lodges that have an aspect as a religious facility.Gonoikegoya is a modern alpine-style mountain hut[93]..There are many huts and evacuation huts on each worship road and summit[109][223]..On the mountain trailキャンプThere is no designated place, but there is a "Komoshima campsite" at the trailhead of the Komoshima exit.[109]..The hanging scrolls of Mitake Shrine are enshrined in the halls and guest rooms of these mountain lodges.In addition, many huts will be open after July 7st at the opening festival of Otakiguchi and Kurosawaguchi, and although the closing of business varies depending on the hut, it is often from the end of August to the end of September.Mitake Shrine, Mitakekyo, and Kiso Mitake Honkyo open the mountain from July 1th to September 8th, so during that time, religious climbers in white costumes often stay and stop by.The Gonoikegoya is exceptionally open from June 9st to October 7th, and is open for a long time. The 10th and 9th mountain lodges are also open during the autumn leaves season.

There are many manned mountain lodges in the mountaintop area, but at Kurosawaguchi, manned mountain lodges are open at each station along the way. Before the 2014 eruption, there were many mountain lodges that used the water of Ninoike as a water source for drinking water, and mountain lodges other than the "Gonoikegoya" far from Ninoike and the mountain lodges below the 7th station were called "Ninoike Water Association". It was established and jointly installed, maintained, and removed water supply facilities.In addition, the staff of "Ninoike Main Building (currently Ninoike Sanso)" operates the water source pump facility on a daily basis, and "Ninoike Main Building (currently Ninoike Sanso)" and "Ninoike New Building (currently Ninoike Sanso)" use abundant lake water. Currently: Ninoike Hutte), Ishimuro Sanso, and Kakumei-do (currently unmanned), in addition to preparing baths for guests every day, a mountain lodge that provides guests with baths for staff only when there are few guests. However, due to the acidification of the lake water, which is thought to be due to the ash fall of the 2014 eruption, water intake from the lake water is not currently being used.

In the past, the toilets in the mountain lodge were almost completely drained, but with the growing interest in environmental issues, the manned mountain lodge is being renovated to a pit latrine.The collected human waste is transported to the foot of the mountain by a helicopter and handed over to a processor.Since the maintenance cost is high, we ask the toilet users to pay a cooperation fee of XNUMX yen per use.

Manned mountain lodge

  • Otakiguchi: Two Tahara mountain climbing entrances (Tahara Sanso and Ontake Tourist Center, but often not considered as mountain lodges), Otaki summit (Otaki summit mountain lodge), Kengamine summit (Ontake Kengamine Sanso, formerly known as "Kengamine Asahikan" )
  • Kurosawaguchi: 7th station (Gyoba Sanso, formerly known as "Ichinomata Gyosha Hut" or "Kakumyo Gyoba Hut"), 8th Station (Women's Hall, also known as "Kongodo"), 9th Station (Ishimuro Sanso)
  • Kosakaguchi ... Hida summit (Gonoikegoya
  • Around Ninoike ... Ikebe (Ninoike Sanso), Hida side (Ninoike Hutte) (Ninoike Sanso and Ninoike Hutte are completely separate management)
imageNameAddresselevation
(m)
From Mt. Ontake
Direction距離 (km)
[Annotation 14]
Accommodation
of people
Remarks
Gonoike huts in Mount Ontake.jpgGonoikegoyaKosakaguchi Hida summit
North bank of Gonoike
2,78016 cardinal points N.pngNorth 1.81002010 extension
Nyonindo in Mount Ontake (2014-09-06) .JPGNyonindoKurosawaguchi 8th Station2,47016 cardinal points E.pngEast 1.6120Another name is Kongodo
Ishimuro hut in Mount Ontake.jpgIshimuro SansoKurosawaguchi 9th Station2,80016 cardinal points ENE.pngEast-northeast 0.780
Ninoike shinkan.JPGNinoike HutteNorthwest side of Ninoike2,90016 cardinal points N.pngNorth 0.7250There was a bathing facility before the September 2014 eruption
Ninoike honkan in Mount Ontake.jpgNinoike Sanso[224]East bank of Ninoike2,90016 cardinal points NNE.pngNortheast 0.6100There was a bathing facility before the September 2014 eruption


The following is a mountain lodge that was open before the September 2014 eruption.

imageNameAddresselevation
(m)
From Mt. Ontake
Direction距離 (km)
[Annotation 14]
Accommodation
of people
Remarks
Kakumeido in Mount Ontake (2014-09-06) .JPGKakumei-doKurosawaguchi 9 and a half3,00016 cardinal points ENE.pngEast-northeast 0.6100Beside the sacred place of the awakened person
Mount Ontake top huts.jpgOntake Chojo SansoSoutheast just below the summit3,04016 cardinal points SE.pngSoutheast 0.0370
Mount Ontake Kengamine huts.jpgOntake Kengamine SansoSoutheast just below the summit3,04016 cardinal points SE.pngSoutheast 0.03150
Mount Otaki huts.jpgOtaki summit mountain cottageThe summit of Otakiguchi2,93016 cardinal points SSE.pngSouth-southeast 0.5100Adjacent to Otaki Ontake Shrine Okusha
Tanohara sanso.JPGTanohara SansoKing Takiguchi 7th Station2,20016 cardinal points SE.pngSoutheast 3.0136Adjacent to Mitake Tourist Center

Shelter hut

  • Otakiguchi ... 8th station evacuation hut, 9th station evacuation hut
  • Kaidaguchi ... 7th station evacuation hut (desolated and collapsed), Minoike evacuation hut, Hakuryu evacuation hut

Branding

In many manned mountain lodges and mountaintop shrine offices, Kongo-zue used for religious mountaineeringBrandingThere is a charge for the service of stamping. In 1891 (Meiji 24), a signboard "I will stamp a commemorative mark on a mountain trail" was installed at a shrine on a mountain trail, and this branding was done.[225].Mount FujiAlthough it is a particularly popular service, it is still a valuable existence, although the number of mountain lodges to be implemented on Mt. Ontake has been reduced a little.However, there are not as many people who want to brand as Mt. Fuji, and there are many places where the brand is heated after the applicant appears, so it often takes time to brand.In addition, the stamping fee is also higher than that of Mt. Fuji.

Estimating the number of climbers

The number of climbers on Mt. Ontake from the Kiso side until the middle of the Showa period is estimated as shown in the table below.[226].. The number of people entering the mountain from Kurosawaguchi around 2010 was about 3 a year.[227].

年度Number of climbersRemarks
1887 (20th year of Meiji)8,000According to the discourse of the late
1914 (Taisho 3)30,000According to "Kiso Guide"
1917 (Taisho 6)50,000By Azusa Maruyama "Kiso"
1929 (4)37,900According to Kiso Fukushima station survey
1936 (11)41,999
1939 (14)63,020
1951 (26)26,900
1955 (30)31,458

Geography

It is the headwaters of the Kiso River system, from the west.Hida River, From the east and south to the main stream such as OtakigawaThe Pacific OceanOn the sideIse bayFlow to.On the summit of KengamineFirst-class triangular point(The point name is "Mt. Mitake", altitude 3,063.41 m) is installed[13],First-class triangular point XNUMX famous mountainsHas been selected as one of[228]..The highest point is the elevation point of the rock on the west side of Mitake Shrine[1].14 highest mountain in Japan[229]..The area of ​​Otaki Village on the southeastern side is called "Mitake Kogen".

Surrounding mountains

Since it is an independent peak, you can see the mountain from many surrounding mountains.The summit is wide and consists of multiple peaks[215].Nobi PlainYou can see the big mountain from the northeast.On the Gifu side, there are Mt. Gozenyama (1,646 m), which is one of the 1,412 mountains of Gifu, and Gero Mt. Gozenyama (XNUMX m), which is one of the XNUMX mountains of Gifu, as avant-garde mountains.

MountainYamanaelevation
(M)[1][13][Annotation 4]
Triangular point grade
Reference point name[13]
From Mt. Ontake
Direction and distance (km)
Remarks
Mt. Haku seen from the top of Otaki on Mt. Ontake (July 2013, 7)Hakusan2,702. 14First class
"Hakusan"
16 cardinal points WNW.pngWNW 70.2Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains)
Mt. Norikura and Mt. Yarigatake seen from Mt. Ontake (September 2014, 9)Mt. Norikura3,025. 73First class
"Norikuradake"
16 cardinal points NNE.pngNortheast 24.6Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains)
Kamagamine seen from Nomugitoge Ski Resort (April 2009, 4)Shogamine2,121. 25Second class
"Kamagadake"
16 cardinal points NE.pngNortheast 18.3 
Mt. Ontake seen from Mt. Hachimoriyama, Mt. Stepko (Hiwada Fuji) on the right (April 2008, 4)Mt. Ontake3,067(First prize)
"Mt. Mitake"
(3,063.61m)
16 cardinal points O.png 0Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains)
Mountain range of Atera Mountains around Mt. Kohideyama seen from Mt. Ontake (September 2014, 9)Mt. Kohideyama1,981. 86Second class
"Mt. Kohideyama"
16 cardinal points SSW.pngSouth-southwest 14.1Nihon Nihyaku Meizan(Japan's two hundred famous mountains)
Mt. Kiso Komagatake and Mt. Hoken in the Central Alps seen from the Otakiguchi mountain trail on Mt. Ontake (May 2014, 5)Mt. Kiso Komagatake2,956. 14First class
"Shinkomagatake"
16 cardinal points ESE.pngSoutheast 31.4Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains)
Mt. Enasan floating in the sea of ​​clouds seen from Mt. Ontake (October 2012, 10)Mt. Enasan2,191(First prize)
"Mt. Enasan"
(2,190.28m)
16 cardinal points SSE.pngSouth-southeast 51.0Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains)

Source river

The following sourcesRiverIs in the Kiso River systemIse bayFlow to[6]..Makio Dam on the Otaki River, 13.4 km southeast of the summitLake OntakeThe water stored in Aichi Prefecture, etc.Drinking water, Used for industrial water and agricultural water, and in the upstream partKansai Electric PowerFor hydropowerMiura Dam(11.0 km southwest of the summit).Of OtakigawaTributaryIn the Aka River in the upper reaches of the Muddy River, erosion and collapse are severe and it is called "Jigokudani".[215][230]..The tributary of the Otaki River on the south side became cloudy with a large amount of hot spring water that turned black due to white gas and volcanic ash from the crater at the top of Jigokudani after the volcanic plume on October 1979, 10.[9].

  • Nishino River, Shirakawa, Otaki River (tributary of Kiso River)
  • Hida River
  • Akigami River, Kosaka River (a tributary of the Hida River)

Main pass

  • Wild wheat --The movie "Mt. Norikura"Ah! Nomugi Pass』And became famousPassThere is.At an altitude of 1,672 mNagano Prefectural Road / Gifu Prefectural Road 39 Nagawano Mugitakane LinePasses through.
  • Nagamine Pass- National Route 361At the border between Gifu and Nagano prefectures, the Kureiwa River (a tributary of the Hida River) and the Nishino River (a tributary of the Kiso River)watershedIt has become.
  • Kuzo Pass-National Route 361Kaida KogenFrom the Kyuzo Pass Observatory, you can see Mt. Ontake in the west-southwest.
  • Nigorigo Pass-It is a watershed between the Akigami River and the Nigorigo River (a tributary of the Kosaka River).
  • Shirasu Pass-with Shirakawa (a tributary of Otakigawa)Tsukechi RiverIt is a watershed with a forest road.
  • Kurakake Pass-It is a watershed between the Mizunashi River (a tributary of the Otaki River) and the Takehara River (a tributary of the Hida River), and a forest road passes through it.

Traffic access

Along the Otaki River at the foot of the south mountain1923 Completed in (Taisho 12)Kiso Forest RailwayOtaki Forest Railway was laid,1975 (Showa 50) Until April 5National forestWas used to transport timber[231].. Ontake Motor Co., Ltd. (currently Ontake Transportation) opened in 1925 (Taisho 14), and Ontake Transportation extends to the foot of the mountain and the trailhead of Mt. Ontake.Transit BusIs operating. Operated by Kosaka Forestry Office, Nagoya Forestry Bureau on the hillside of Nishiyama in 1963 (Showa 38)Kosaka Forest RailwayThe Nigorigo Onsen Line was opened and used to transport felled timber, but it was abolished in 1971 (Showa 46) due to the construction of a forest road and the switch to truck transportation. In 1966 (Showa 41), in Otaki Village at the foot of the mountainNagano Prefectural Road 256 Mitake Otaki Kurosawa LineThe "Toll Road Forest Road Kuroishi Line" from to Tahara was fully opened, and on April 1997, 9, it was opened for free as Village Road 4 (Ontake Skyline), and ontake 1 ski resort users. , Used by climbers, tourists, etc.[87].Nagano Prefectural Road 473 Uematsu Mitake LineLeads from the foot of the mountain in the southeast to the hot spring in the middle of the mountain via the free white collapse forest road.[87]..At the foot of HigashiyamaNagano Prefectural Road No. 20 Kaida Mitake Fukushima LineThe "Mitake Blue Line" runs on the eastern flank from the vicinity of Kiso Onsen in Mitake, Kiso Town to the Ontake Ropeway Ski Resort.The upper part from the Kanose Onsen is closed in winter[232]..Along the Kaida Mitake Fukushima Line on Prefectural Road No. 20 at the foot of the southeastern mountainRoad Station MitakeThere is.At the foot of the northeastNational Route 361On the side of KitayamaGifu Prefectural Road 463 Asahi Takane Line, On the northwestern hillsideGifu Prefectural Road 435 Mitakeyama Asahi LinePasses through.From Osaka-cho, Gero City at the foot of Nishiyama to Nigorigo OnsenGifu Prefectural Road 441 Nigorigo Onsen LineIs called the "Mitake Panorama Line".The Mitake Forest Road and the Otaki Forest Road pass on the south side of Mt. Komikasa (elevation 2,029 m).

Main transportation

Transit Bus

JR Tokai Takayama Main Line Hida-Osaka Station on the Gifu side andTakayama StationTo Nigorigo Ontake, the starting point for Mt. OntakeNohi BusThe line was abolished on November 2007, 19 (Heisei 11).

  • Otaki / Tahara Line (Kurosawa / Otaki Line) --In front of Kiso Joint Government Building in Nagano Prefecture --In front of Kiso Fukushima Station --Otaki --Tahara (Mt. Ontake Trailhead), from Ontake Transportation from July 2006Otaki Village BusWas transferred to.
  • Ontake Ropeway Line-Section from Kiso Fukushima Station to Ontake Ropeway, from Ontake Kotsu from June 2006, 18Kiso Town Life Transport SystemWas transferred to.
  • Ciao Snow Resort Line (Ontake Transportation) --In front of Kiso Fukushima Station --Ciao Ontake Snow Resort --Nigorigo Ontake

Tourism

Main tourist attractions

  • Mt. Ontake Museum-Located in Omata, Otaki-mura, Kiso-gun, the second station of Otakiguchi.
  • Tahara Natural Park-Otakiguchi, a mountain trail on Mt. Ontake A natural park that stretches around 2,200 m above sea level, and is a marshland and short.Coniferous forestOn the obiPromenadeAnd an observatory are maintained[161].
  • Mitake Ropeway-The Mitake Ropeway ski resort was closed in 2013 and is not in service in winter.[233].
  • Kaida Kogen- Japanese buckwheat noodlesOrigin andKiso horseAlso known as the village ofhorse ridingThere is a facility where you can experience it.
  • Natural Lake-A lake upstream of the Otaki River, a tributary of the Kiso River dammed by the Western Nagano Earthquake, with dead trees lined up in the lake during the summer season.CanoeHas become popular[234].
  • Lake Ontake --Makio Dam of Otakigawa(I.e..
  • Ontake Kyukamura-Insurance rest area in Nagoya City on the Ontake Plateau, around Kiso Ontake Country Clubゴ ル フ 場There is.
  • Turbid hot spring --A hot spring at the mouth of the muddy estuary of Mt. Ontake
  • Tokyo UniversityobservatoryKiso Observatory-The Kiso Observatory of the Astronomical Education and Research Center, Graduate School of Science, the University of Tokyo is located at 10762-30 Mitake, Kiso-cho, Kiso-gun.1977 (Showa 55) In MarchIncense treeKiichiro FurukawaDiscovered by小 惑星Is named after that placeChopsticksIt was named.
  • Hida Ontake Kogen Highlands Training Area --A highland training facility on the northwestern hillside. In 2007 (Heisei 19), Gero City opened the "Mitake Panorama Grand" near Nigorigo Onsen."Hida Ontake" connecting Nigorigo Onsen and Ciao Ontake ResortNaoko"Boulder Road" is in place[235].
  • Kosaka Waterfall Tour Course --There are more than 5 waterfalls with a head of 200 m or more in the Kosaka River, which is a tributary of the Hida River in Kosaka Town, Gero City on the hillside.[6][54], Many waterfall tour courses are introduced[101]..Some waterfalls require a guide[101].
  • Mitsutaki Course (Sakuya) --Mitsutaki (upper 5 m, middle 11 m, lower 6 m), Akane Toyo (14 m), Karatani Waterfall (15 m)
  • Sennin Waterfall Course (Upstream of Nigorigo River) --Sennin Waterfall (30 m head), Anonymous Waterfall (15 m head)Shiraito Falls(Head 15 m), Scarlet Waterfall (Head 20 m)
  • One Falls Course (Muddy River) --One Falls (Head 63 m, XNUMX Best Waterfalls in Japan)
  • Zaimoku Falls Course (Hieiya) --Zaimoku Falls (23 m in height), Jade Falls (10 m in upper row, 8 m in lower row)
  • Amatsuba Waterfall Course (Sakuya) --Amatsuba Waterfall (17 m), Two-tiered Waterfall (Upper 10 m, Lower 3 m), Sonpachi Waterfall (15 m), Yakikoya Waterfall (17 m) m)
  • Kannon Waterfall Course (Otogawa) --Kannon Waterfall (Head 9 m), Tateiwa Waterfall (Head 45 m), Shio Waterfall (Head 15 m)
  • Nigori Falls Course (Nigorigo River) --Two-tiered waterfall (upper tier 10 m, lower tier 10 m), Kunotaki (head 15 m), Nigori Falls (head 27 m)
  • Iwaori Waterfall Course (Hieiya) --Iwaori Waterfall (21 m head), Folding Screen Waterfall (28 m head), Fukiware Falls (25 m head)
  • Senjo no Taki Course (Maya) --Senjo no Taki (Head 50 m)
  • Shoke Waterfall Course (Hieiya) --Shoke Waterfall (head 23 m), Sentaki (head 6 m)
  • Ryumon Waterfall Course (Hieiya) --Ryumon Waterfall (15 m), Hakama Waterfall (20 m)
  • Corridor Waterfall Course (Sakuya)-Corridor Waterfall (Head 40 m), Kaimon Waterfall (Head 40 m)
  • Hyakuken Falls Course (Hieidani) --Panorama Falls (upper 50 m, lower 10 m), Hyakuken Falls (60 m)

Ski resort

The following are on the hillsides on the north and east sidesSki resortThere,elevationIt is located at a high position (the upper part is above 2,000 m above sea level) and the snow quality is good.Golden weekIt is possible to glide until late in the day.Otaki Village is a village-run former Ontake ski resortliabilitiesIs in a more difficult financial situation[236].

View spot

Although it is a high mountain over 3,000m, there are surprisingly few places where you can see the entire mountain body because it is located in the deep mountains."Mt. Mitake seen from the mountains near Nakagirimachi" in Nakagirimachi, Takayama City, "Mt. Mitake seen from the mountaintop road in Kugunocho, Takayama City", "Mt. , "Mt. Mitake seen from the observatory near the Kugunoshima campground" and "Mamakodake seen from the Akigami area" in Kugunoshima, Asahi-machi, Takayama City have been selected as one of the "100 views of Takayama City".[237].

Scenery of Mt. Ontake

The large mountain of Mt. Ontake, which is an independent peak,Nagoya cityIncludingNobi Plain(Owari,Mino) And distant mountains[Annotation 15]Can be desired from various directions such as[141]..Many in the Tokai region Smallhigh schoolYamana is sung in the school song of[Annotation 16][238]..In Kiso Valley, there are few places where you can see Mt. Ontake from the foot of the mountain other than the Kaida Plateau.[141].. Around mid-May, the figure of an old man sowing black seeds on a white background of residual snow near the 5th station on the east side.Snow shape(Negative type) can be seen[239].Fukada HisayaIs the 1965th in 39 (Showa 16)Yomiuri Literature AwardIn the book of "One Hundred Mountains of Japan", which won the (Critique / Biography Award)

This slope is wonderful.With enough roots to support the vast summit, the entire Mitake is a well-proportioned and beautiful mountain. — Kyuya Fukada “One Hundred Mountains of Japan”

Is expressed as[8].

Mountains from all directions

14 Ontakesan from kazakoshiyama 2002-5-6.jpgOntakesan from kohideyama 2002 10 30.jpgOntakesan from Kuraiyama 2005-3-21.JPGKiso Ontake.jpgMt. Ontake from Kaida Kogen.jpg
EasternKukoisanThanSouthernMt. KohideyamaThanWestMt. KuraiyamaThanNorthNational Route 361ThanKaida KogenMt. Ontake from

View from Mt. Ontake

To the east from the top of the mountainYatsugatake,Japan Central Alps,Japan Southern Alps,Mount FujiTo the southMt. KohideyamaSuch asAtera Mountains, Nobi Plain, to the westHakusanSuch asRyohaku mountains, You can see the Northern Alps such as Nino Pond and Mt. Norikura in the north[240].

Lenticular clouds on Mount Fuji from Mount Ontake.jpgYatsugatake and sunrise.JPGMount Mamahaha and Mount Haku from Okunoin.jpgHida Mountains and Ninoike from Mount Ontake (wide) .jpgMinoike from the vicinity of the Sinogawara evacuation hut.jpg
Japan Central AlpsOverMount FujiYatsugatakeAnd sunriseWith stepmotherHakusanWith Nino PondHida Mountains(Northern Alps)Minoike from the vicinity of the Sinogawara evacuation hut

Media

Ancient document

  • "Mt. Ontake Mountaineering Company Religious Norito Volume"- 1576 (Tensho4 years)
  • "Mitake Engi" --- Mid-Muromachi period1592 Enshrines the god of Mitake, which was copied in (Tensho 20)Congratulatory, Festival,OmenSuch asScroll
  • "Depending on the current climb of Zao Gongen" - 1704 -1710 (HoeiThe year's handwritten copy describes how to worship at Otakiguchi, the lord of the road.[241].
  • "Mountain climbing ancient events" --- Describes how to worship at Kurosawaguchi[241].
  • "Biography from Mitake"
  • "Mt. Ontake Mountaineering Guide"
  • "Ichiyama Mitake Record"
  • "Kiso Yakuki" --Published by Toyobumi Mizutani in 1804-1818 (cultural year)[185].

News (Chinese)

  • Large-scale photo project "Mt. Mitake" --- Serialized 2009 times from July 21 to April 7 in the Shinano Mainichi Shimbun[243]

Photo album

  • Takuji Miyahara "Shinshu Kiso Ontake Sanroku Haruka" Yu Kobo, December 2001.ISBN 4946562346.

Related books

TV program

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Strictly speaking, there is a small peak of 3,053.4m on Mt. Sotowa, which is located northwest of Kengamine, the highest point of Mt.
  2. ^ Muromachi PeriodThere is a theory that "Otaki" changed to "Ontake" in the middle period.
  3. ^ The third highest volcanoMt. Norikura(3,026m), the second highest mountain including non-volcanoesMt. Kitadake(3,193m).The three active volcanoes in Japan that exceed 3,000 m are Mt. Fuji, Mt. Ontake, and Mt. Norikura.
  4. ^ a b The altitude of the reference point reflects the value revised by the Geographical Survey Institute in March 2014.
  5. ^ It is often said that the waterfall that falls from Shinoike is the highest waterfall in Japan, but it is incorrect because the altitude of Shinoike is 2,690 m.
  6. ^ 魚 のPeddlerThere is also a theory that he was doing.
  7. ^ There is also a theory that it will be July 7.
  8. ^ "Goza" was popularized by the general publicShrineWith the ritual of haunting by artprayer.
  9. ^ It is recorded as "Yoshimasa Noboru Honjou" under the Kisoyama line.
    Eiroku XNUMXrd year Kiso Nagamasa Ontake Nozomi To celebrate the mountain god, he went to Kurosawa for XNUMX days and climbed on the XNUMXth of the same month. — Under the Kisoyama line winding, "Yoshimasa Noboru Honjou"
  10. ^ It has been designated as Endangered Species in Gifu Prefecture.
  11. ^ It has been designated as Near Threatened in Gifu Prefecture.
  12. ^ Next to the eastMt. Kiso KomagatakeThen, due to the similar collection, the ones that grew naturally disappeared.
  13. ^ With Mt. OntakeMt. ShiroumadakeA rare plant that is distributed in.
  14. ^ a b The distance from Mt. Ontake to the hut is not the distance on the mountain climbing route, but the straight line distance between the two points.
  15. ^ If the conditions are goodRuyigatake(Commonly known as Okuribi)Mt. HieiSuch,Kyoto CityIt is said that it can be seen from the mountain in.A distant view of Mt. Ontake in Nagano from Mt. Nyoigatake (Mt.
  16. ^ As an example, "Miharusu Owari Plains Standing Alone Mitake" (Aichi Prefectural Ichinomiya Kita High School), "Haruka Mitake as long as the sky crosses the mountains in the morning" (Aichi Prefectural Komaki Minami High School), "Clouds fluttering over the peak of Mitake" (Kitanagoya Municipal Shikatsu Junior High School), "Snow MitakeIbuki,OftenWhen you want to see the mountains in the distance "(Inazawa City Osato Higashi Elementary School

Source

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