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👩‍🎤 | Conducted a survey on the “otaku” market (2021) 13 cities in 2020 major areas of “otaku”…


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Conducted a survey on the "otaku" market (2021) 13 cities in 2020 major areas of "otaku" ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
In 2020, which was hit by the corona wreck, of the 13 major fields in the otaku market, 4 hobby-related fields (plastic models, figures, railroad models (including peripheral products such as dioramas), and toy guns) achieved market growth.
 

Yano Research Institute Co., Ltd. (President: Takashi Mizukoshi) surveyed the domestic "otaku" market in 2020, and mainly ... → Continue reading

 Yano Research Institute

In 1958, Yano Research Institute was founded by Masao Yano as a pioneer of Japanese market research company. Since then, we have always walked with the development of the Japanese economy. Live market information, marketing know-how that has been refined on-site, and the basis of our competitive advantage are here. As a unique business solution provider based on research capabilities, we want to participate in creating a prosperous future for our customers.


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4 hobby-related fields

Railway model

Railway model(Tetsudo Mokei) is a certainScale-GaugebyRailway car-line OfmodelSay

Overview

From objects that are sized to be pinched with your fingertips to objects that are a fraction of the actual size and can be towed and straddled by a passenger trolley, general train models that operate like the real thing and the surrounding scenes It is called a "model train".Of course, besides the size, there are also differences between the actual railway and the model railroad.For example, the difference from the actual railway line is that while the curves of many tracks in the model railroad are monocentric curves, in the actual railway lines, transition curves are often inserted before and after the curve.[1]..In addition, in the case of train models, there are differences in the power supply method.

Initially it was an expensive hobby, but as it becomes more popular, small-sized models tend to become more popular, reflecting the housing situation of the common people.Long time agoTinplateMade oftoyAlthough the boundary with was ambiguous, the vehicle and gauge were gradually determined by the scale and gauge.Layout-DioramaThe standard for collecting and running on the railroad tracks to enjoy the scenery of the railroad has come to be set.

A product that is manufactured in 1/3 the size of a real railway at amusement facilities and can be used inside a passenger car (UK:Romney Hythe & Dim Church Railroad, Japan: Shuzenji, IzuRainbow Town) And full-scale prototype mockups of railway vehicles are also models, but these are not generally called railway models.Also,Plastic modelTrain models that cannot run, such as railroad models and figurines, are also distinguished from model railroads.

Unlike other types of models, the special feature of model railroads is that they arelineBecause it is a thing that runs on, it is with a vehicleGaugeIs always paired.ScaleThe size varies depending on the type, but it is summarized to a certain number of scales.This is to make it possible to use ready-made products by setting standards on a scale.

History

The United Kingdom

EnglandIn19st centuryIt was produced from the beginning.Initially they were made for physical promotion.

1862 ToUKMayers in the catalogsteam locomotiveWas posted.1898 ToBassett-LowkeWas foundedGermany OfBingSubcontractingScale modelBegan to supply.Bassett-Lowke1921 ToOO gaugeWas released.

Germany

1835 ToAdlerIssue andzincMade of dollsPassenger carWas sold.1840 The first made in Germanysheet metalThere is a record of the production of model railroads by.1886 ,BingLaunched the first product.1887 , Schonner has released steam locomotives, passenger cars and railroad tracks with a scale of about 1/22 and a gauge of 65 mm and a scale of about 1/12 and a gauge of 115 mm.

1891 ,Märklin Leipzig MesseThe first model railroad was exhibited at.Märklin first produced model railroads named 0, 1, 2 and 3.1901 For the first time in a magazinestandardization-specificationIt was decided that it would be based on the 1891 Märklin standard.

1922 OO number (OO number) which is half the size of the 0 standard from BingOO gauge) Was released and was developed under the name of Bing-Tischeisenbahn (Bing desktop railway).at firstspringIt was a ceremony,1924 Became electric.1935 in springTricksFrom autumnMärklinOO gauge products have been released by.

Japan

At the end of the Edo periodImperial Russia OfPuchachinCame to JapanModel running on steamThere is a record that he showed off.Also,Perry Black shipUragaWhen I came to JapanEdo ShogunateIt is said that he presented a model of a steam locomotive to[2]..Kaei 6 (1853)How to refine the Saga domainMetHisashige TanakaMade a model of a steam car.Kogoro KatsuraIs the Napoleon (Yamaguchi Prefectural Yamaguchi MuseumThere is also a record of bringing back the warehouse.Also,Kaga OfBenkichi OhnoHas a record of making a model of a steam locomotive.These locomotives2003 ToNational Science MuseumExhibited at the Edo Grand Exposition held in[3]..In this way, in Japan, the model was completed before the real thing.This deepened my understanding of the steam engine.afterwards,Ministry of RailwaysIt was made as a teaching material in.The model railroad powered by electricity was in Ueno in 1890.Tokyo Electric Light Sprague TrainWas driven 3rdNational Business ExpositionIt seems that it was exhibited at.This model was designed to run on a track laid on a circular table with a hand-cranked dynamo.Later, this model was the father of Takejiro Taguchi, a pioneer of Japanese live steam.Taguchi UkichiGot it[4]..This model was donated to the city of Tokyo[5].

In the latter half of the Meiji era, Kikuya in Ueno and GinzaItoyaModel locomotives from Japan can now be lined up in[6], From Germany or America2,1,O gaugeEtc. were imported and gradually spread mainly to enthusiasts.Department stores in the Kanto and Kansai regions began to focus on model railroads, and the transformer (manufacturing Kanden Electric Mfg. Co., Ltd.) included in the domestic model railroad set sold at Mitsukoshi was painted with the Mitsukoshi logo mark.[7]..As a manufacturer before World War IIAsahiya (Osaka),Seki Denki Seisakusho,Nishio Otokichi Model Factory,Chiyoda Keiki KosakushoAnd so on, and is still openKawai modelIs.However, the model at that time was a luxury item and an expensive toy for the wealthy children.[Annotation 1][Annotation 2]..Seki Denki Seisakusho was exporting to the United States and the United Kingdom.[10].

First published in 1924, "Children's science』To Kiyoto Homma[Annotation 3][Annotation 4]Serialized model making articles such as how to make an electric locomotive and the layout of a garden railway.Then Ichiro Yamakita[12][Annotation 5]Serialized articles on electric locomotives and electricity-related productions.And the Children's Science Agency (laterScience teaching materials company[13]) Started selling parts of model railroads such as motors, wheels, rails, transformers, and held a children's science exhibition to contribute to the development of model railroads.[4]..Kiyoto Homma advocates "50mm gauge" in "Children's Science" magazine[Annotation 6]This was the forerunner of the standard gauge of model railroads in Japan.Although it is a scale of this era, the products released are about 1/40 of the suspension and pantograph,CouplerWas 1/20, and the car body was not unified from 1/21 to 1/30 according to each person's preference. "Scientific pictorial"How to make a model electric locomotive" was written by Ken Kasai on 1/30.35mm gaugeIs adopted. The electric locomotive of this standard won the highest award at the 1927st Model Country Exhibition hosted by Children's Science held at Nihonbashi Mitsukoshi in 1, and attracted attention.Railroad (magazine)』Promoted this gauge[4]..Manufacturers have come to follow suit and release products[16], 35mm gauge became the mainstream of Japanese model railroad standard before the war.A model club called Mitoikai (played 35) was founded, and the venue was rented for frequent public driving.News movieWas taken up by[17].. on the other handO gaugeSome enthusiasts enjoyed producing the 32mm gauge of origin at a scale of 1 / 40-1 / 42, and the finished product was also on sale from Chiyoda Keiki Kosakusho. 1938 "Model Railroad"[Annotation 7]Ichiro Yuyama in the magazine[Annotation 8]Announced "Standard Gauge of Model Railway".In this article, if you use an O gauge with a gauge of 35 mm compared to the 32 mm gauge that goes on a road unique to Japan, you can run on the same track for the American type, British type, and Japanese type (although the scale is adjusted).[Annotation 9]He explained the advantages of the O gauge and recommended 1/45 for the Japanese scale.However, the backlash from 35mm gauge advocates created a conflict between the two, which continued until Japan lost World War II.[18][Annotation 10].. Also"Science and model] To "16 gaugeRegarding Japanese standards "Yoshiyo YamazakiWas also under attack with non-national thieves[20].

At the end of World War II, American officers who loved model railroads came to the model stores to order elaborate and expensive models, and the model stores became booming.EventuallyO gauge,HO gaugeBegan to export and tried to earn foreign currency[21].Tenshodo,Katsumi model storeHas been highly acclaimed for its high-end brass products for the United States.In addition, Toby model stores' products for Europe had a good reputation for details, running performance, and beautiful painting compared to the plastic products that were mass-produced in Europe at that time.OtherFujiyama, United = Joint,Kumada Trading, Orion and other foreign-type specialized manufacturers[22].1960 eraTo become and16 gaugeBecame popular mainly among enthusiasts[Annotation 11], Japanese-style vehicle products are mainly exported by manufacturers. For example, Tenshodo was as of 1968.[23]Steam locomotive is 9600 type only Electric locomotive is as of 1966[24]The situation was EB10 type, ED42 type, EF15 type, EF30 type, EF62 type.In addition, the superiority and inferiority of the product was severe, and in the product introduction of the magazine, "I had a hard time not to speak badly.[25]Was in a state of[Annotation 12]..The times are downAn era when exports are difficult due to exchange ratesAfter the arrival of the Japanese model, it shifted to the domestic market, and both the Japanese model and the mass were enhanced.[27].1980 eraOr later,N gaugeDue to the spread of[Annotation 13], The enthusiasts have expanded to the present.Also, the real thingLight railAnd some enthusiasts enjoy the narrow gauge model that reproduces the industrial trajectory.

miniaturization

1945 A model railroad with a scale of 1/120 and a gauge of 12 mm from HP Products in the United States (TT gauge) Has been released.laterThe United Kingdom,West GermanyBut it was deployed.1960 In England at the beginning ofLone starAnd West GermanyArnoldRailroad models with a gauge of 9 mm were released one after another fromN gaugeIt developed as.1972 , 1/220 scale, 6.5 mm gauge from Märklin, West GermanyZ gaugeHas appeared.At that time, it was named Z because there was no smaller model.2008 In JapanEishindoEven smaller scale 1/450, gauge 3 mmT gaugeHas been released.In addition, there is a record that Australian enthusiasts made 1/480 scale for self-propelled vehicles with internal power made by individuals, not mass-produced products.[29].

specification

For model railroads, scales, gauges, and electric ones電流-VoltageThere are various standards such as, and they are commercialized based on those standards.Also, if you make your own, it is often made to meet those standards.

The standard of the model railroad is the manufacturer and the group of lovers of the model railroad (NMRA,MOROPSince it is decided by (etc.), there are differences depending on the country / region, manufacturer, etc., and although there is commonality, they are not completely the same.The standards of each region are generally the same except for the difference between the metric system and the imperial system, but the names and scales may differ from each other.In this paper, we mainly use the names, gauges, and scales that are commonly used in Japan.

The name of the standard is called gauge in Japan and the United Kingdom, and scale in the United States (NMRA standard, etc.).

As a general rule, each standard is realStandard gaugeIt is a reduced gauge of 1435 mm (standard gauge model).In addition, there are narrow gauges that reproduce narrow gauges narrower than standard gauges and broad gauges that reproduce wide gauges.

Outline of model railroad standard
GaugespecificationScale (main ones)Overview
190.5 mm7.5-inch gauge1 / 7.5, 1 / 5.6Mainly used in live steam.
184.15 mm7-1 / 4 inch gauge
7.25-inch gauge
1/7.8Mainly used in Western live steam.
127 mm5-inch gauge
5 gauge
1 / 12, 1 / 8.4Mainly used in live steam.
89 mm3.5-inch gauge
No. 3 gauge (III)
1 / 16, 1 / 12Mainly used in live steam. It should be noted that the No. 20 (III) gauge [scale 3/1, gauge 24 mm] established in the United Kingdom at the beginning of the 64th century is a standard equivalent to the current No. 2 (II) gauge.
64 mm2 gauge(II)1/22.5現在の2番(II)ゲージは、20世紀初頭にイギリスで制定された3番(III)ゲージ〔縮尺1/24・軌間64 mm〕を起源とする規格である。20世紀初頭にイギリスで制定された2番(II)ゲージ〔縮尺1/27・軌間51 mm〕は廃れて、現在ではNMRA規格、NEM規格のどちらにも記載されていない。
50 mm50 mm gaugeUnspecifiedIn prewar Japan, Kiyoto Homma wrote a production article in a children's scientific journal and spread it.Later, when the 35 mm gauge became widespread, it became obsolete.
45 mm1 gauge(I)1 / 30.5, 1 / 32Used for ornamental purposes and live steam. 1 / 30.5 (10 mm scale) is mainly used in the United Kingdom.
G gauge1/22.5, 1/24, 1/29Gauges for garden railways, starting with German Lehmann products.Originally it is a 2 gauge narrow gauge.It is generally deformed (shorty) and a little toy-like, but there are deep-rooted enthusiasts.
35 mm35 mm gauge1/30Before the war in JapanScientific pictorialAdvocated by Ken Kasai in the magazine.After the war, it declined due to the miniaturization of motors and the spread of O gauge and HO gauge.
32 mm[Annotation 14]O gauge
0, 0, XNUMX
1/43, 1/45, 1/48
29.9 mm
Proto48
1/48Since the standard gauge is 1 mm at the scale of 48/29.9 of the American O gauge (O scale), it is a standard derived from the O gauge.
24 mmOJ gauge1/45Derived from the O-gauge in Japan among enthusiasts seeking precision.
22.5 mm[Annotation 15]S gauge1/64It is used in American flyers in the United States. It was also called H1 (Half 1) because it was half the size of No. 1.
19 mmOO gauge1/76Also with American OO.The American OO gauge adopted a gauge of 16.5 mm calculated from a scale of 1/76 instead of a gauge of 19 mm.It is now obsolete.
18.83 mmP4 gauge1/76It is one of the derivative standards of OO gauge and is called P1 gauge or Proto4. The relationship between scale and gauge is more accurate than OO gauge and EM gauge.
18.2 mmEM gauge1/76One of the derivative standards of OO gauge. The relationship between scale and gauge is more accurate than the OO gauge.Eighteen MThe origin of the name illimetres[1].
16.5 mmHO gauge1 / 80, 1 / 87Most popular in North America and the European continent.The Japanese model is mainly manufactured at 1/80, and has been adopted in Europe in the 1950s due to technical problems.
OO gauge1/76Popular mainly in the United Kingdom. It may be written together with HO such as OO / HO.
12 mmTT gauge1 / 101.6, 1 / 120Eastern EuropeIt is widely used in Japan.In the UK, a 1mm scale with a scale of 101.6 / 3 is used.
9 mmN gauge1 / 150, 1 / 160
6.5 mmZ gauge1/220
3 mmT gauge1/450The smallest model railroad model mass-produced and marketed in Japan as of 2010.

Scale

The scale is a "measure" and "scale", and the size is a dimension.in JapanMetric systemAlthough fractional display is the mainstream because is adopted,Imperial systemIn the United States, which employs 1フ ィ ー ト What is (304.8 mm)inchThe notation method of whether to make is used.

  • 例えば、1フィートを1インチとすれば、それは1/12サイズ(1インチスケール)であり、1/2インチとすれば1/24サイズ(1/2インチスケール)である。同じように3/8、1/4、3/16、1/8とすれば、それぞれ1/32サイズ、1/48サイズ、1/64サイズ、1/96サイズと表示される。

In the United Kingdom, the mm scale, which is a combination of the imperial system and the metric system, is used to indicate how many millimeters a foot should be.The scale of British model railroads is often based on the mm scale.

10mm scale = 1 / 30.5 ・ ・ ・ Scale of 1 gauge in England
7mm scale = 1 / 43.5 ・ ・ ・ Scale of O gauge in England
4mm scale = 1 / 76.2 ・ ・ ・ OO gauge scale
3.5mm scale = 1/87 ・ ・ ・ HO gauge scale (early OO gauge was also this scale)
3mm scale = 1 / 101.6 ... TT gauge scale in the UK
2mm scale = 1/152 ・ ・ ・ OOO gauge scale, and there is also a model standard with 9.42mm gauge at this scale.

Gauge

Initially, it was represented by the distance between the centers of the two rails that make up the railroad track, but now it represents the distance inside the head of the rail.

If you shrink the real thing, you can decide the gauge as you like, but in reality there are a certain numberGaugeIs aggregated in.

Standard gauge and narrow gauge / broad gauge

As a general rule, the standard gauge of the model is the one that is reduced based on the actual standard gauge (1435 mm).Although many narrow gauges are found in the actual products in Japan and South Africa, the models on the market often have standard gauge specifications.In Finland and Ireland, the actual product has a broad gauge, but the models on the market often have standard gauge specifications.

  • Narrow gauge: A general term for standards that model the actual narrow gauge railway (narrow gauge).There are relatively many railroad tracks and vehicles on the market.
  • Broad gauge: A general term for standards that model the actual broad gauge railway (broad gauge).There are only a few railroad tracks and vehicles on the market, and very few enthusiasts adopt it.In addition, the European NEM standard treats broad gauges up to 1700 mm as the same standard as standard gauge.
  • Narrow gauge and broad gauge standard notation
In European style, "XXm","twentieth","XXi (XXf)","XXp".The correspondence between these names and the actual gauge is as shown in the table below, and there is no one-to-one correspondence with the actual gauge.
Real gauge
1250 mm or more and 1700 mm or less850 mm or more and less than 1250 mm650 mm or more and less than 850 mm400 mm or more and less than 650 mm300 mm or more and less than 400 mm
Standard nameXX
(Standard gauge model)
XXmtwentiethXXi (XXf)XXp
In the American style, the actual gauge is made to correspond to the model standard, and the actual gauge is a narrow gauge standard with a 3-foot gauge.XXn3", Narrow gauge standard of 2 feet and half gauge"XXn2 1/2It is written as.
In the UK, like OO9 "XXYOr "XX-Y"(Y is the gauge of the model) is also used.

Course and fine

Course
Meaning "coarse".Since the model railroad was developed from toys, it was one of the indispensable conditions that it was difficult to derail.Therefore, it is expensive compared to the real thingFlangeWith thick tiresTurnoutNeeded a flog with a wide flange way. Since the "course" is not a toy, but emphasizes running performance (practicality), it often becomes the standard for model railroads.
Fine
Meaning "fine".After that, some people wanted a "fine" model.A group of models made of wheels and railroad tracks, especially points, as if they were made smaller, is called a fine gauge.A term used in all scale and gauge model railroads.Although it involves precision work, it often comes at the expense of driving performance in lightweight model railroads.It may include work to bring the gauge that is too wide closer to the scale.O gaugeIn the above, groups such as Proto48 are active.HO gaugeThe following is quite difficult, but groups such as Proto87 are studying.

Toy train tin plate

In one field of model railroad,Scale modelIs a term for.Many of the early model railroads were of this type, especially in the United States.Originally a high-class model, around 1936, when the era of mass consumption for Christmas gifts arrived.LionelAfter presenting a system that could be developed, it was popularized as an American standard model at once.Literally "tin plate" is a term that refers to a tin plate model railroad and is synonymous with the word hi-rail.It is a toy model railroad that uses tall hollow rails, and is designed to run high-flange vehicles, and the central three-wire current collection method is the mainstream.Recognized as a hobby not only for young people but also for adults, a large-scale exchange meeting and swap meet will be held for several days.

In the case of O gauge, the scale is about 1/64 to 1/48, but it is not constant.If you make it small, even a large machine can run with a small radius, so some products have a scale of 1/58.Although the tin plate has many O gauges,American flyerThen there is also an S gauge.This has adopted a two-wire system from the beginning.

Similar products in Europe and Japan are sometimes called toy trains or tin plates.In Japan, O gauge and 16 gaugeShortened type (shorty)The product is considered to be applicable.

方式 御 方式

AC method

Märklin,LionelThe central three-wire system is adopted, but the AC system does not necessarily mean that it is a three-wire system, and although it is a small number, it is an AC two-wire system or a DC three-wire system (described later). There is also a model railroad.1930 eraIs efficientrectifierAnd powerfulpermanent magnet For consumerIt wasn't on the market, soSeries winding motorelectromagnetThe combination with the direction change device (reversing machine) was adopted.InsulationWheelIt is still very popular because you don't have to use.

With the progress of electronics, the number of users who prefer the multiple control method (described later) has increased.Alternating currentThat saidSine waveThe number of AC-driven models that are not is increasing.

DC method

To get direct currentStorage batteryOr smallrectifierNeeded.automotive industryIn the developed United States,Selenium rectifierHas begun to be marketed for consumer use, so the standard "DC 12 V" was established by diverting this.Normally, a DC two-wire system that collects electricity only from the left and right rails is used, but there are a few DC three-wire model railroad models.TricksThen, there is a DC three-wire system "Trix Express" as opposed to a DC two-wire system "Trix International".

In the DC two-wire system, there are many products that move forward mainly when positive electricity is flowing through the rail on the right side when viewed from the vehicle.[30].

The advantage of the DC method was that it was possible to freely choose forward and backward without a mechanical reversing device.AC methodSeries winding motor OfFieldIf the magnetic field was set to a unidirectional magnetic field with an in-vehicle rectifier (this is called Polarized), the direction of travel could be switched with a single switch at hand.Second World WarLater Thepermanent magnet OfFieldAnd this isSequel motorAlthough it is not the most suitable type of motor for driving model vehicles, it has become widely used.

  • Series winding motorAt the start of the motor vehicle電流In proportion to the square oftorqueIs generated, it is easy to reproduce the actual departure (starting) situation, the current value decreases when cruising, the rotation drops on the uphill, the current value rises, and the traction force increases.On the other hand, with a permanent magnetFieldIn the motor with, the magnetArmatureBy sucking, even if you turn the wheelgearBecause the motor does not rotate through, the actual railroad vehicleCoastingI can't reproduce how I do[Annotation 16].

In the current most advanced drive system, the rotation speed of the motor is driven by an acceleration / deceleration curve that imitates the real thing by electronic control, and Bemf (back electromotive force) is measured to keep the rotation speed constant.Also, it is not attracted to permanent magnets.Ironless core type motor (coreless motor)AdoptReverse drive worm gearPush and move in combination with (Free-rolling mechanism ) Motor vehicles have been put into practical use.

The voltage of 12 V is as mentioned above.automotive industryIt was a standard derived from, but when the track becomes longElectric resistanceCan no longer be ignored, and there is a debate about increasing the voltage, which can reduce the current value and reduce the voltage drop.1980 eraIt started in. There was also a move to boost to 24 V, but with the adoption of an efficient motor, that voice disappeared.O gauge,G gaugeThen.LayoutDue to the large scale of the 12 V car, 16-18 V may be adopted in some cases.

Multiple control method

It is a general term for a method of individually controlling a plurality of vehicles on the same track.Not only driving a vehiclehorn,Headlight-taillightBlinking of is also included in this concept.1960 eraFrom around that time, direct current was mixed with alternating current and flowed.frequencyAs a method of identifying byGeneral ElectricAstrack (Automatic Simultaneous Train Controls ,ASTRAC), And although there was a method of flowing alternating current and direct current at the same time,analogThe method was limited to controlling several units at most.There was also a Märklin delta system that used three-wire tracks.デ ジ タ ルIn the formulaHornbyThere were ZERO-1 of Märklin and Märklin Digital of Märklin.There was also a digital type called CTC-16.Both are dedicateddecoderIt was not possible to run on the same track as a conventional vehicle except for some parts.

2000 eraLaterDigital command control(DCC) has become a global standard, and vehicles equipped with connectors that are presumed to be equipped with DCC are becoming widespread in Europe and the United States. In theory, DCC can issue commands to 10 units at the same time when the address length is 1024 bits.

Drive system

When the model railroad appeared, it was designed to be pushed by hand.With the progress of the times, it became possible to drive the royal fern and run on its own by steam, and finally it became possible to control it from the outside by electricity.

It was an evolution to a smaller electric model that could be enjoyed indoors, rather than steam-driven, which had to be left unattended when humans had to ride and control it or start moving.Of course steam driveLive steamAlthough it has evolved specially as a model, the electric model has moved to a smaller size.

Wind-up drive

In the early model railroadMainspringThere was a power thing of the formula.They were called spring motors.It is still used in some tin railroad toys.

Method using steam engine

Initially, there were many things that combined a simple boiler and a single-acting oscillating engine, and once they started running, they continued to run until they ran out of water or fuel.In the meantime, a model that had a structure exactly the same as the real thing and was driven by a vehicle carrying a human became the mainstream.This is the same as the real thing in water supply, bonfire, operation, turbine generator andInjectorSomething to equip has appeared.In addition, a model has also appeared in which an articulated locomotive put into practical use in the United States is connected by the same ball joint air supply / exhaust pipe as the actual one.In addition, a model that uses a steam turbine to generate electricity and runs on an electric motor has also been prototyped.

It was temporarily obsolete due to the spread of electric models that can be easily driven, but the hurdles for realization are lower than before due to the entry of some enthusiastic enthusiasts and new manufacturers supported by them from the mid-1970s. It has become to.In addition, driving events have been held in various places where enthusiasts gather.

In addition,MärklinExisting manufacturers such as are also releasing new products.Advances in electronics have made it possible to radio control small models.1 gaugeThen many people have come to enjoy it. In the 2000sHornbyからOO gaugeThe electric steam locomotive was released, and the finished product that can control the whistle from the outside was also released.They areLive steamCalled,Garden railwayIt is enjoyed as one of the fields.

Method using an electric motor

The electric model started at the same time as the power distribution to the home.At the timePower InputIs because the performance was low for the high price.Alternating currentIn some areas before the start of power distribution to homesDCIt was distributed at.

Electrification was realized by adding a third rail for current collection to the steam engine or spring-type two-wire track that was initially adopted.To adopt the two-wire systemWheels and axlesTheInsulationSince I had to do it, I had to modify the vehicles that I had sold so far, but if I learned from the real thing and collected electricity from the third rail in the center, there would be no inconsistency with the previous products.In Japan, there was no real central three-line railway, so this type of current collection method was disliked as a toy, but in Europe and the United States, it was accepted as being the same as the real one.

at firstSeries winding motorMade by myselfTransformerorResistorWas controlled by.Some resistors used saline solution.SmallmotorAfter it was released as a model, the size of the motor vehicle that houses the motor was decided.In other words, the miniaturization of the model size was also the history of the miniaturization of the motor size.FieldMove the coil to the extension of the shaft, make a double-axis motor and make an axleTrolleyThe ingenuity at this time is remarkable.

The field iselectromagnetThe series-wound motor rotates with both AC and DC, just like the real thing.Locomotive,Electric trainIt had characteristics suitable for driving.At startup電流Starts in proportion to the square oftorqueIs generated, and the current decreases at the same time as the rotation increases.speedGradually according toVoltageIf you raise the value, you will be able to drive realistically.However, in order to reverse the direction of travel, the polarity of the field had to be reversed.Lionel,MärklinEt al. Operate by momentarily interrupting the currentrelayEtc. were developed and put on the market.HoweverTurnoutMay malfunction when passing through, due to the rotation of the motorCentrifugal forceA malfunction prevention device using the above has been developed by some enthusiasts.

1930 eraAt that time, an attempt to drive DC began.In some areas it was distributed by direct current, but in most areas it was distributed by alternating current.The United States of AmericaThen.motorizationByAutomobileSmall forrectifierWas released for consumer use, and the field current was changed.Selenium rectifierIt was devised to rectify with and reverse the polarity of the traveling current to reverse it.In addition, 12 V for automobiles was adopted as the standard voltage.

1940 eraTo become andpermanent magnetWas made into a fieldMagnet motorIs now on the market.It's small and lightweightpower consumptionThere were few, butMinute winding characteristicsIt was a thing that had a given voltage and the number of revolutions was directly proportional.Then, control by voltage control by electronic components is preferable to current control by resistance.this isTransistor controllerPromotes the development ofLeostatWas expelled.

In the magnet motor, cogging (called teething in English), in which the field attracts the armature and makes it difficult to move when stopped, was unavoidable, and the locomotive could not be pushed and moved by hand.If you turn the shaft of the magnet motor by hand, you will feel that it is caught in a specific position as if you were rolling a dice, but if you press the locomotives of Lionel and Märklin that used a series-wound motor by hand, you can press it against the rail. The motor rotates.Also, recently, there is no cogging and you can get more torque with smooth running.Coreless motorAnd cogging, but can produce stronger torqueBrushless motorIs also becoming widespread.

For power transmission from the motor to the wheelsWorm gearIs often used.Spur gear,Bevel gearIs rarely used, but some high-end models are a type of worm gear.Coasting gearThe use of is also permitted.That is one step (less) in the formerpartsIn) bigGear ratioThis is because it is very convenient in terms of space saving and motor arrangement that the motor shaft and the drive shaft are orthogonal to each other.HoweverBraking deviceSince many worm gears used in model railroads cannot be driven in reverse from the viewpoint of safety, they are special.clutchA method of automatically disconnecting gears using the method has also appeared.However, this method was transient and was not a specification of the character reflected in the product.on the other hand,Coasting gearThe problem of reverse drive has been solved in the model using.

A coreless motor, a type of magnet motor, does not have an iron coreMoving coilWith a type motor, if you decelerate it with a spur gear, you can create a motor vehicle that pushes and moves.However, the gears that can be stored in the limited space had a gear ratio of about 1: 4, the traction force was too weak, and the maximum speed was too fast.1984 The coasting gear was developed in Japan, and a motor vehicle with both high efficiency and quietness was realized.

In these electric models, all motor vehicles move in the same way on the same track.[Annotation 17]..But then unsatisfied enthusiasts head for multiple control, which isDigital command controlWas realized as.

Method using internal combustion engine

By some enthusiasts and manufacturersInternal combustion engineA model railroad equipped with is manufactured.It is produced in small numbers but has been handed down by enthusiastic enthusiasts.For internal combustion enginesgasoline engine,Glow engineLike a real gas-electric transmissionGeneratorThings that are driven by an electric motor and propelled by an electric motor,DeceleratorThroughDriving wheelThere is something that drives.AlsoReciprocating enginenot onlygas turbineSome enthusiasts also make things that are powered by.

Sound system

1940 eraMore electricgramophoneConnected to the rail and mounted on the vehiclespeakerThere was a structure that made a sound from.Then improved,1970 eraOf steam locomotivesrodMakes a blast sound in synchronization with the movement ofPFM soundHas appeared.Also, the audio signal from an external sound sourcewirelessIn-vehicleReceiving machineThere was also something that was received by and played back from the speaker.1990 eraThe ones equipped with digital sound sources became widespread. Since the 2000s, in addition to the DCC decoder with sound function, there are also things that use conventional analog controllers such as Quantum Sound and MRC Synchro Sound Box, and output sound from the in-vehicle digital sound source according to the voltage change of the vehicle. It became so.

how to play

drive
There is a way to enjoy putting a train model on a railroad track and running it like a real railroad car.Small models can be easily handled on a table or floor, and these are called "zashiki layout" or "floor layout".Large models can be enjoyed by laying them in the garden like a "garden railway".
Also with a sceneLayout・ Vehicles may be run on the diorama.Although layouts are often produced and owned by enthusiasts themselves, some model stores open the layout diorama provided as part of the service to customers, and the layout is rented for an hour for a fee. To doRental layoutThere is also.
Furthermore, in recent years, it has become possible to enjoy driving while watching the scene from the driver's seat by installing an ultra-small TV camera in the leading vehicle and combining a monitor TV and a controller that receive the video wirelessly. It was.In this case, you can enjoy the scene from inside the layout diorama tunnel.
collect
There are many commercialized vehicles, even if they are Japanese models.There is also a way to enjoy collecting this.There are various ways to collect vehicles depending on the person, and collect vehicles by deciding the theme such as your favorite country, region, age, railway company, model maker, vehicle type, train, type.However, in addition to simply purchasing the finished product and viewing it, in the case of a model railroad, there are cases where the desired vehicle is modified or made by yourself, and there is also a way to enjoy running the collection by creating a layout diorama that matches the theme.
Build a vehicle
Model work is one of the basic ways to enjoy model hobbies, including model railroads.There are many different types of vehicles that can be manufactured in one bite, but the finished vehicle is meticulously processed to make it more suitable for the actual vehicle, vehicle modifications that create different formats and specifications from the original vehicle, brass, etc. It is roughly divided into scratch builds (all self-made) that build vehicles from materials such as plastic and parts.
Make a layout diorama
Another model work for model railroads is the production of a layout diorama with a scene.A group ceremony with members in the model railroad club (Module layout) And split layout diorama.Even long trains, which are difficult for individuals to realize, are relatively easy to realize with this method.
participate to the event
There are ways to enjoy it, such as observing events held by manufacturers and clubs, exchanging impressions about products such as workmanship and usability, and participating in exchange meetings and second-hand markets called swap meet.
Major events in Japan and abroad- International Model Train Convention,Model train show,O scale waistな ど

Major manufacturers and brands

America

Europe

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footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ There is a picture of a child running a model with railroad tracks all over the room.This child is a later Kabuki actorHitoshi Kataoka (13th generation)And this price seems to be on par with live steam[8].
  2. ^ Shintaro HaraLionel's electric locomotive and passenger car set that my grandmother boughtYuki HamaguchiIt was 450 yen, which is higher than the prime minister's monthly salary of 495 yen.[9].
  3. ^ Boy Engineer HandbookWriting a series
  4. ^ Was an assistant at the Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Imperial University[11]
  5. ^ I was working at Shibaura Works.
  6. ^ Homma is called "our standard 5 cm" and "the width of the gauge is neither too large nor too small, and the number is easy to remember."[14]And Kibo Sakai is also in JapanMetric systemIt was a time when there was a momentum to adopt, and I think that it is a simple reason that it is easy to understand by the round number.[15].
  7. ^ Kawai modelIs a model railroad magazine that was first published in 1936.The magazine distributed blueprint blueprints and toured with monthly readers as members, and the number of members exceeded 500 at its peak.
  8. ^ 1942 Kawasaki vehicleJoined the company and was involved in the design of C62.
  9. ^ This idea leads to number 16.
  10. ^ From the 35mm gauge advocates, "Japanese people should use the gauge of 35mm / 1/30 according to the scale of the Japanese National Railways, and fans who adopt foreign gauges such as 32mm / 1/45 are non-national" models at that time. Was arguing with the backing of the national trend toward[19].
  11. ^ Published in the January 1963 issue of "Children's Science"Science teaching materials companyO-gauge products have disappeared from the mail-order catalog of.
  12. ^ The Japanese model is inferior to the exported products in 1962 when the starting salary of the university graduate was 17,815 yen.Big boyWas 336 dollars (Japanese yen 120,960 yen)[26].
  13. ^ Around 1983, the annual sales of model railroads of leading wholesalers were 1-110 billion yen, of which 120-80% were related to N gauge.[28].
  14. ^ 31.75 mm (1-1 / 4 inch) in the United States
  15. ^ The gauge is 22.5 mm in Europe and 22.42 mm in the United States.
  16. ^ Axle of model car compared to train weightbearing,Flange・ Between railsFrictional resistanceIs so strong that you can't expect to coast for minutes as it really is.In addition, ordinary electric model railroad vehiclesBraking deviceTherefore, if a design that allows coasting is adopted, it is necessary to control the speed on a downward slope and to take measures against rolling when stopping or detaining on a slope.
  17. ^ Each vehicle (Motor vehicle) Motor characteristics (starting current value, torque characteristics, power consumption, etc.), gear ratio, sliding resistance, and weight (particularly when the difference is remarkable in the gradient), the speed will not be synchronized.

Source

  1. ^ Mamoru Sakamoto "Book for Understanding Railway Facilities" p.33 Sankaido Published February 2004, 2 ISBN-4 381-10495-1
  2. ^ Shoheisaka Academic Exchange CenterThere is a record that Hachinosuke Kawada (Kawada Ko) got on the train."Shoheizaka Gakusho Diary" 3, Shibunkai / Akihiko Hashimoto, Shibunkai / Toyo Shoin (released), January 2006.ISBN 4885943825.NCID BA3981881X.See
  3. ^ Edo Grand Exposition
  4. ^ a b c Ryushi Ueda "Short History of Model Trains in Japan" "Hobby of Model Railroad" No.498
  5. ^ Takejiro Taguchi "The first train and model train that ran in Japan" "Railway Pictorial" No.377
  6. ^ Japan Railfan Club 60 Years Ayumi Compilation Committee, Railfan Editorial Department. "Japan Railfan Club 60 Years Ayumi", Japan Railfan Club, 2014, p. 7
  7. ^ Tatsuya Taguchi "Vintage Model Train Taizen" Seibundo Shinkosha, page 9
  8. ^ Yoshiyo Yamazaki "Mixist"Model Train Hobby" No.437, p.57
  9. ^ Shintaro Hara "All about the model train of Shintaro Hara" Seibundo Shinkosha, 2008, p. 150
  10. ^ Tatsuya Taguchi "Vintage Model Train Taizen" Seibundo Shinkosha, page 90
  11. ^ "I became an adult in the age of craftsmanship in" Children's Science "" INAX Publishing, 2007, p. 67
  12. ^ "How to make an electric locomotive" "Model making ABC"(National Diet Library Digital Collection)
  13. ^ Kikumatsu Ogawa "Fifty Years of Publishing" Seibundo Shinkosha, October 1953, 8, pp. 5-485. 
  14. ^ Kiyoto Homma, "How to Make Electric Locomotives and Trains," Shinkosha, 1930, pp. 29-30
  15. ^ Yoshifusa Sakai "Laboratory of Model Rail Loader" "Models and Works" March 1964)
  16. ^ Ryushi Ueda "Short History of Model Trains in Japan" "Hobby of Model Railroad" No.499
  17. ^ "Round-table discussion model railroad old days" "Torein" No.19
  18. ^ Ryushi Ueda "Short History of Model Trains in Japan" "Hobby of Model Railroad" No.500
  19. ^ Yoshiyo Yamazaki "Mixist" "Model Train Hobby" No.542
  20. ^ Kenichi Matsumoto"In memory of Mr. Kiyo Yamazaki" "Torein (Magazine)] No.349
  21. ^ Tatsuya Taguchi "Vintage Model Train Taizen" Seibundo Shinkosha, 149 pages
  22. ^ Ryotaro Mizuno "Introduction to Model Trains" Kosaido, 1977, pp. 76-79
  23. ^ TMS editorial department "JNR steam magazine exhibition" "model railroad hobby" No.239-240
  24. ^ TMS editorial department "Commercial JNR Electric Magazine Exhibition" "Model Train Hobby" No.212
  25. ^ Yoshiyo Yamazaki "Mixist" "Model Train Hobby" No.175
  26. ^ Nanko "American O Gauge Encyclopedia" "Torein" No.384, p. 38
  27. ^ "Tenshodo Book 1949-1999" Tenshodo, 2000, p. 21
  28. ^ Yoshiyo Yamazaki "Mixist" "Model Train Hobby" No.444
  29. ^ "Electrically Driven Locomotives In 1 / 480th Scale". NovemberBrowse.
  30. ^ NHK Hobby Yuu Welcome! To the World of Railroad Models-Introduction to Layout Production- (NHK Publishing Association) p10

Related item

Works dealing with model railroads

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