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👍 | Alpy Hirako, doubting the current situation where child abuse is not severely punished "There is a small difficult reason ..."


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Alpy Hirako doubts the current situation where child abuse is not severely punished "There is a small reason ..."

 
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I've always wanted to do that with child abuse, but I wonder if there's a small and difficult reason why it doesn't.
 

[Yuki Hirako has been interested in child abuse issues such as donating to the Orange Ribbon Campaign.Opinions from followers ... → Continue reading

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I want a little difficult

Child abuse

Child abuse(I'm sorry,British: child abuse, child maltreatment) Is the person around the child (Guardian, School teachers, facility staff, etc.)Abuse(Abuse), orAbandoned childcare(Negotiate)[1][2]..For toddlersChild abuseSay it.

WHO reports physical abuse to 4 in 1 adultsFemale5 in 1 ofMale12 out of 1Sexual abuseReport that they have received[3].. According to WHO, 4.1 children under the age of 15 are killed at home each year.[3].Economic Cooperation Development Organization(OECD) says that the cost of medical treatment, justice, and lost profits caused by child abuse is米 国InGDPAbout 1% ofAustraliaEstimates that at least 1% of GDP.

For a list of individual child abuse casesList of child abuse casesSee.

Definition

whoAccording to (WHO), Child mal treatment ``occurs for children under 18 years oldAbuse,neglectIs defined as[3].Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) defines that "actual or inaction of the parent or other caregiver may actually harm, endanger, or threaten the child."[4].

In JapanAct on Prevention of Child AbuseIt is defined in Article 2.

Designation

Parents who abuse children are referred to as abusive parents, abusive mothers, and abusive fathers. Also known as Kibo, another name for the abusive mother.[Source required]

Type

Physical abuse

Hit, Kick, Hit, Throw, Shake violently, Burn, Drown, etc.[5].. Even if there is no trauma as a result, this includes cases where there is a clear possibility. It does not include everything using hands and legs, and in trials, etc., differences such as body parts struck with hands, how to strike them (whether "fist" or "hands"), duration, etc. May be the focus. Also, it does not include cases where the child's side hits first and the guardian's side immediately responded and hit shortly (Legitimate defense).

The so-called "Shaken Child SyndromeChild abuse is suspected as an infant having three symptoms of ``subdural hematoma, cerebral edema, fundus hemorrhage'' as ``(Shaken Baby Syndrome)'', but a pediatric neurosurgeon should not judge it as ``3 signs equal abuse'' There is no claim[6].. In the judgment, there are cases in which a relative was sentenced to prison and then acquitted.[7].. Although fundus bleeding is certainly a symptom that is easily associated with shaken child syndrome, an infant-type acute subdural blood strain called ``Nakamura type 1'' occurs even when a child at the beginning of walking falls lightly. Ophthalmologists also suggest that it may be associated with fundus hemorrhage[8].

Sexual abuse

Child sexual abuseTherefore, the child is targeted for sexual activity, or the child is forcibly obscene (genital,sexual intercourse) To show off. Sexual acts on children, showing sexual acts, subject to pornography, etc.[9].

Of the 2017 child abuse consultations submitted from Miyagi Prefecture in 52 through the child-based telephone consultation service for children, which was received through a unified dial nationwide, sexual abuse accounted for 53.8% (28 cases). Most of the victims are girls from elementary school to high school, especially many junior high school students, and most of the perpetrators are believed to be their fathers.[10]。性暴力を受けたときに相談できるワンストップ支援センターの大阪支部では、2010年度~18年度に来所し、受診につながった者のうち19歳以下の子どもは1285人で6割を占めている。また17、18年度、家族からの性暴力を訴えた子どもは161人となり、実父からが36%、実兄・義兄からが18%を占め、そのほか母の恋人・祖父・いとこが加害者の事例もある[11].

According to the "Survey on Violence between Men and Women" by the Gender Equality Bureau of the Cabinet Office, 7.8% of women and 1.5% of men were forced to have sexual intercourse. In response to the question, "Was the perpetrator a guardian (eg, parents, etc.)?", 18% answered "guardian."19.4% of women and 58.9% of men did not consult about the damage, and half answered that it was due to shame.[12][13].

刑法200条に規定されていた尊属殺人の規定は、自己または配偶者の直系尊属を殺した者は死刑または無期懲役に処する旨、普通殺人よりも重罰規定が定められていたが、昭和48年4月4日最高裁判所大法廷にて憲法一四条一項に違反するとされ、1995年に刑法が改正(平成7年法律第91号)された際に傷害罪等他の尊属加重刑罰と共に削除された。本事件は、1968年(昭和43年)に実父(53)を殺害した女性(29)は14歳の頃より父より性虐待を受け、その結果親娘間で数名子を出産するなど夫婦関係を強いられ、職場で正常な恋愛相手に恵まれたが父に阻まれ思い余ったという背景を持つものだった[14].

In 2019WelfareA girl in a receiving household was repeatedly sexually abused from the second year of junior high school and was accused of quasi-compulsory sexual intercourse for a 2-year-old daughter who was forced to sexually act again because his father raised money to go to a vocational school. Father was acquitted in the first instance in the case[15]However, in the Nagoya High Court, his father was found guilty of reversal.[16]..A woman who had been sexually abused by her father since she was in elementary school could not confess the damage for a long time, saying that "the family will fall apart", but it is clear in the trial that the father does not recognize that even sexual activity without contraception is abuse Being[17].

In 2018, there was an incident of obscene acts of touching the body of a daughter (7) who met for the first time in 13 years after divorce.[18].. In October 2020, she was sexually abused from childhood to junior high school and still suffers from aftereffects such as flashbacks, so a woman in her 10s filed a suit against her father for damages.It is reported that the father admits sexual intercourse and obscenity, but insists on a period of exclusion by statute of limitations.[19].. A woman in her 3s who was sexually abused by a man who was her uncle from 8 to 40 years old also sued her uncle and was dismissed from the statute of limitations in the first trial, but the Sapporo High Court in the second trial saw the onset of depression as a new damage and claimed it. I admitted a part of.My uncle appealed and fought to the Supreme Court.My parents suggested that I should be silent with my relatives' shame.In Germany, the statute of limitations for damages claims was suspended until the victims of sexual abuse were 1 years old, and the law was gradually amended to allow them to exercise their rights for another 2 years (up to 21 years old).Even in France, there are provisions such as the statute of limitations being suspended until the age of 30.[20].

Among the girls who were found to have been sexually abused during the 2020 Corona Eruption include cases of pregnancy of sexual violence from their mother's lover at the age of 10 and sexual coercion from their father at the age of 12; On the other hand, there is a high possibility that sexual abuse has not been revealed, but some girls blame themselves or endure because of lack of sex education that protects and values ​​their body. There is also an analysis that the cause of sexual abuse is not sexual desire but lust[21].

According to a 26 survey conducted by the Social Welfare Corporation Onshi Foundation, the Maternal and Child Affiliates Association, sexual abuse was analyzed as 13.03 years old for the abuse of those who were in temporary shelters, and 9-10 years were otherwise analyzed.[22].

According to the continuation of the sex crime system established in the Meiji era in Japan, 13-year-old junior high school students have the ability to consent to sexual activity. In May 1,Age of sexual consentWas from 13 years old South KoreaThen, in the chat room of the communication application, I provided obscene videos and images of women who were made to do by intimidation etc. and gained a profit.Room n caseThe age was raised to 16 years old, triggered by the fact that the victims who seemed to be junior high school students were included in.AlsoFranceAs a result of having been raised to 15 years old by the sex crimes case, Japan is 14 years old, which is the lowest than the countries of the United States, Germany, England, Sweden, etc.[23][24]As a result, the knowledge to protect the younger generation is essential.

There are also cases where obscene acts and sexual violence are caused by familiar adults who trust, such as teachers and cram teachers, and victims may be deeply hurt by understanding the meaning after falling into self-harm or growing up.[25]. Damage from familiar people accounted for 3%[26], In France, preaches the importance of education that prevents anyone from touching important parts of the body[27].

In 2017, a bill to amend the Penal Code to severely punish sexual crimes was passed, and the crime of rape under Article 177 was changed to "compulsory rape, etc." The provisions apply equally to men. According to statistics, the number of underage boys in Japan who have suffered some kind of sexual damage is 5 in 10 to 1 high school boys, and the rape damage rate is 1.5%. It's not that there are no cases, and there are cases where people are ashamed of themselves and become traumatized and suffer mentally and mentally.[28].

There is a risk of dating DV in bondage and extortion of sexual activity, even during dating. Currently, about 4% of the damage caused by child pornography is "damage caused by images taken by children", and the children were tricked or threatened to have their nudes photographed and sent by e-mail etc. Damage is increasing[29].. Damage caused by voyeur shooting in public baths, toilets, stairs etc. has occurred for both men and women[30].. Images and videos once diffused on the Internet cannot be completely recovered, and the risk of suffering irreparable damage for a long time because sexual images are provided and taken is also essential for modern children Has become a knowledge.

Also, in public places such as trains, 18% of the victims are 71 years old or younger, targeting not only junior high school students and above when commuting to school, but also infants and elementary school students with insufficient sexual knowledge.[31]The sexual abuse of molester is mostly carried out by four college graduate office workers, of whom 34.7% are married men.[32]..Molesters have a high recidivism rate and are sexually addicted as a result of repeated sexual deviant behaviors by the perpetrators.[33]..Victims suffer from PTSD, such as being unable to use public transportation or developing depression, and some are forced to think about self-harm and suicide.In some cases, a female junior high school student who was routinely exposed to a sexual crime of molesting on a train cut her list with suicidal ideation.[34]..The perpetrator is aiming at a person who seems to be mature and is likely to cry and fall asleep, and judges that "uniform is a symbol of obedience" and extends to the act of perpetrating students[35].


In France as well, prominent lawyers, architects and politicians have been accused of sexual abuse by their children, a series of social problems, overturning the belief that abuse tends to occur in poor families.There has also been an incident in which a former wife's stepchild gave birth to six children and was tolerated by the entire village.In France, it has been announced that from 6, incest prevention medical examinations will be required twice in total at elementary schools and junior high schools.In Europe and the United States, it is estimated that an average of 2022 to 2 out of 10 30-year-old children are victims of incest.[36].

Also, before a child's sexual offense in humans, the perpetrator may take advantage of the child's loneliness and desire for approval, build an intimate relationship with the victim, and show a prudent act of preparing for the sexual offense.Grooming may be done through SNS such as Twitter and TikTok. The 2021 Criminal Code Amendment Council for Sex Offenses stipulated deliberation on the establishment of new crimes related to the act of placating young people (so-called grooming acts) for the purpose of sexual intercourse or other obscene acts.[37][38].

Psychological abuse

Verbal threats, neglect, discriminatory treatment among siblings, violence against family members in front of children (DV), etc.[39].. Violence of words that causes psychological sequelae to children, extreme extortion, extreme discriminatory treatment between siblings, continuing to ignore, denial of existence itself, self-esteem It includes the act of continuing to trample, and is the source of abuse. Denial and elimination of the existence of separated parents by custody parents often found in parents' discomfort families (environment) such as divorce and separation, which means that the birth of life for children is also denied For example. Mothers continue to say to their children like every day, "I can remarry if you don't even have me. If you disappear," "Your father (mother) is not a flimsy person." Corresponds to. Brainwashing abuse is also included.

Abandoned childcare

Significant dietary loss that interferes with normal physical and mental development of children[40]Or neglecting to neglect for a long time or other guardianship[41].. In addition to "I will not eat for a long time",sickDon't let the hospital see you[1]","乳 幼 児Left in a car exposed to hot sunshine," habituallyunderwearLeft unclean for a long time[42], "Do not go to school (to kindergarten, nursery school, nursery school, school)" and so on.Especially refusal of treatment by parentsMedical neglectCalled[43], If the result has a significant impact on the life and body of the child, it will be subject to[44].

History

1874 year 4 month,America-ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クInMary Ellen Wilson CaseBy(English editionWas established[45].. In later years,The United Kingdom1884 In the meantime, (Society for Prevention for Cruelty to Children) was established as a private organization, and then (National Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children). 1960,France OfHistorianPhilip AriesBut"Birth of <child>"(Children's Tank,French: L'Enfant et la Vie familiale sous l'Ancien Regime)announced.1962 ToBreslauBornJewishsystemGermanso,NazismWith the rise ofexileAnd in the USPediatricianBecame(English editionIn 1962,Beaten child syndrome(English: Battered Child Syndrome)”[46].

Cause

The theory says that child abuse by parents is a complex phenomenon caused by several factors.[47]It is said that. Factors that increase the susceptibility to child abuse are risk factors, and factors that reduce the susceptibility to child abuse are protection factors.Even if there are some risk factors, it is not always possible to determine that child abuse is occurring. However, it is said that the risk of abuse increases due to overlapping factors.[48].

If the baby does not stop crying, night urine, wetting, peeing, not eating, hiding, stealing, and staring back at the parent, when the child behaves differently from the image of the child in the parent, the parent It is an event that triggers anger and leads to violence. Parents are prone to anger or have no control over anger. Also, only certain children may be angry[49].

According to the total number of residents leaving Tokyo after temporary protection in FY30, out of a total of 2,196 cases, 1,360 were the most returned home, followed by 302 cases in child welfare facilities and 543 cases transferred to other child consultation centers/organizations. Has become[50]Since there are many cases of going home after temporary protection, we will support the treatment of parents based on the principle of not blaming the parents.[49]It is essential.

A study based on the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's scientific research H20-21 "A empirical study on the structure of compound difficulties in the independence process of abused children and the ideal way of social support" (Research Director Ichiro Matsumoto) Researchers posted records of 5 cases of abuse received in 10 at children's counseling centers at the age of 14, 15 and 15 to 129 years, and analyzed them after arranging 119 cases where personal information can be protected However, the ratio of children with disabilities in cases of abuse and the ratio of caregivers themselves with disabilities is high.Of the 119 cases in this survey, 56 have disabilities. Yes, 48 ​​cases have sibling disabilities. There are 33 cases in which both the child and the sibling have a disability, and only 15 in the siblings. In other words, 71 cases are raising children with disabilities. Furthermore, there are 40 cases of caregivers having intellectual disabilities, developmental disabilities, and other diseases/disabilities (excluding mental disabilities), which overlaps with the disabilities of children. 119 out of 26 cases in which there were no children with disabilities in the family, and it was clear that the disabilities were unevenly distributed.[51].

In addition, according to a research by the Affinity Social Behavior Research Team of the Neuroscience Research Center, in a case of abuse such as death of a child, a survey targeting parents who were actually reported that they were abused during childhood , 58% had adversity experiences such as absence of parents, 71% had psychiatric outpatient history and addiction. It was also revealed that more than 90% had great stress in the environment for raising children.[52][53].. However, it is commented that this survey result does not mean that the abused person must repeat the abuse.[54].. For parents who are abused or are likely to be abused, supportive measures such as conduct of behavioral therapy aiming to restore attachment of parents and children, home-visit nursing, and exchange meetings between parents are being carried out.[55].

In August 2016, a father who was a truck driver after graduating from a famous university stabbed the eldest son of a sixth grade elementary school student who was preparing to take the junior high school exam but did not improve his grades (Nagoya Small 6 Examination Murder Case)Educational abuseIs occurring[56].

Personal factors

Biological characteristics (such as age and gender) and other personal characteristics may contribute to child abuse[48].

Factors on the part of the parent

  • Risk factors for caregivers
    • Being a child or adopted child, not a real child.
    • Difficult pregnancy and childbirth with complications[48]
    • Abuse experience as a child[48].. However, it is said that the intergenerational chain of abuse is about 30%, and parents who abuse children often have the experience of being abused, but the abused child does not always abuse in the future.[49]
    • Ignorance or unrealistic excessive expectations of child development[48]
      Parents who are not familiar with the normal development of their child can abuse the child in an attempt to discipline them. For example, punishing a one-year-old child to manage urination has no effect[57].. Many parents do not know the extent of abuse.
    • Presence of physical and mental health problems and cognitive impairment[48]
    • Dependence on alcohol, drugs, etc.[48]
      Drug dependenceIs an important factor in child abuse. According to one study in the United States, patients with proven drug dependence (most commonlyalcohol,cocaine,heroinThe rate of child abuse is much higher. In addition, the percentage of those who drop out of services and treatments ordered by the court is high. According to another study, more than two-thirds of child abuse cases have problems with drug addiction. The study reports a strong link between alcohol and physical abuse and cocaine and sexual abuse[58].
    • If you are involved in a criminal activity[48]
    • If you are socially isolated[48]
    • Presence of depression, decreased self-esteem, and maladaptation[48]
    • Lack of parenting skills due to being young[48]
    • When the financial situation is difficult[48]
      unemploymentAnd economicalPovertyAre associated with increased child abuse.2009 OfCBS NewsReports increased numbers of child abuse cases in the United States during the economic downturn. When a father who has not taken good care of his child begins to take care of his child, the injury of the child will increase.[59].
  • Risk factors in children
    • If you have unwanted pregnancy or childbirth[48]
      Children born to unwanted pregnancies are more likely to be abused or neglected. And undesired pregnancies have a higher rate of abusive relationships than intentional pregnancies. In unwanted pregnancies, pregnant women are at higher risk of physical abuse during pregnancy, worsening the mother's mental health and the quality of the mother-child relationship.
    • If the parents died or separated during pregnancy[48]
    • Postpartum depression, where mothers have great anxiety about childcare[49]
    • Multi-child household[49]

Factors on the child side

  • The traits of "handy child" and "hard to raise" such as crying often, difficulty soothing, irritability, and strong commitment[49]
  • Chronic diseases and disorders[49]
  • Premature infant (underweight infant)[49]

Relationship factor

Social relationships of individuals, such as family members and friends, may pose a risk of becoming a perpetrator or victim of child abuse.[48].

Regarding the killing of children1988 US study reports that non-biological parents kill 100 times more children than biological parents[60].. Non-biological parents are, for example, parents in law, cohabitants,BiologyParentboy friend,girl friendIs. An evolutionary psychological explanation for this is that using our resources for the biological children of others is not a good strategy for increasing the chances of successful breeding. More generally, children in law are much more likely to be abused. this is(English editionIt is called.

Single parentChildren raised by are vulnerable to abuse. According to U.S. statistics, the rate of abuse of children in single-parent families is 1,000 per 27.3 children, which is about double that of 15.5 children in families with parents being abused. is there[61].. A survey of 1,000 U.S. high school students found that 3.2% of children raised in families with a father and mother were abused, whereas children raised in other forms The rate of abuse was 18.6%[57].. The most likely victim of abuse is a single-parent mother[62].

Related factors include the following factors.

  • Lack of attachment between parents and children[48]
  • If the family has physical, developmental, or mental health problems[48]
  • Existence of family collapse[48]
  • Presence of domestic violence, etc.[48]
  • If you are isolated in the area[48]

Regional factors

Environments that create social relationships such as neighborhoods, schools, and workplaces may pose a risk[48].

Regional factors include the following.

  • Lack of system to support families[48]
  • Unemployment rate rise[48]
  • When neighboring residents are in a fluid area[48]

Social factors

The state of social infrastructure such as social norms, economic disparities, and lack of safety nets may pose a risk.[48].

Social factors include the following factors.

  • Policies that cause low living standards and socio-economic inequality and instability[48]
  • Social and cultural norms for interpersonal violence[48]

In the 15 Child and Family Research Project "Analysis of Characteristics of Abused Families Corresponding to Child Guidance Centers", 3 cases of households that were temporarily protected during FY17 and had a certain policy were found at 14 child guidance centers in 501 prefectures. I'm researching. According to an analysis of the economic situation, 19% of households were "living protection households" and 26% were "tax exempt from municipal inhabitants tax" and "tax exempt from income tax". In total, the number was close to half, and the number of households with abuse cases was biased toward low-income households compared to households with children in Japan as a whole. In particular, the welfare rate for mothers and children is 45.9%, and that for fathers and children is 20.8%, which is high for single-parent families. In addition, the proportion of single-parent families is extremely high among families with abuse problems. By type of abuse, there is a tendency for more neglect in single-parent families.[63].

It is closely related to economic conditions and abuse, and in the 2006 report[64]Of the 100 cases that were admitted to orphanages due to abuse, more than 3% were parents with mental illness, single-parent families, and welfare families, and 2% had no income.[64].

影響

Child abuse causes the following illnesses:

Child abuse is life-threatening and physical to childrenSequelaeMay cause[48].. In addition, trauma and trauma may be caused by the parent or a guardian who replaces the parent early in the life, which may have a serious impact on the subsequent life (.Combined post-traumatic stress disorder,PTSD[48].

From November 2015 to January 11, 2016% of the juvenile training students had been abused, and about 1% had been abused by a third party other than their family members. .. In particular, about 60% of girls have been abused, and 80% have been abused by a third party.[66]It may cast a shadow over the rest of your life.

According to the White Paper on Crimes in the First Year of Reiwa, 30% of boys and 33.7% of girls have been abused among the 51.4 juvenile training school residents, and most of them have been physically abused. However, it is necessary to note that the existence and content of abuse experience is limited to those that can be grasped by the declaration of the juvenile hospital inpatient at the hospitalization stage.[67].

In the case of unwanted pregnancy, if a student such as a high school student becomes pregnant, the school will be expelled from school and future dreams will be hindered. A case in which a companion was forced to murder[68]In Chiba City, the case of a boy (2018) who hid the body of a newborn baby born by a dating partner (16) at home in 17[69]In 2017, a female college student (20) was arrested for abandoning a baby's body in Shizuoka City.[70]Is happening.According to the statistics of abuse deaths by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, more than half of the victims are 0 years old, and the most common child abuse deaths are "0 years 0 months 0 days".[71][72][73].

Diagnosis

Bruises (hand-shaped), bites, lacerations, burns, frostbite, fractures, skull fractures, ophthalmic trauma, spinal cord injuries, visceral injuries, oral injuries, unexplained injuries, anal and genital injuries In the case of bruises, sexual infectious diseases, etc., these consider the possibility of physical abuse[74].

In addition, the behavior and emotions of the child are not developed according to age, andNeurodevelopment(Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,Autism spectrum disorderIf not), these consider the possibility of abuse[75].

Also, the child has a severe and persistent infection (scabies,Head liceIf you have, if you have been wearing inappropriate clothing or shoes for a long time,malnutritionIf so, consider the possibility of neglect[42].

prevention

In many countries, government agencies and private organizations are taking measures. Mikton of the WHO's "Prevention of Violence and Trauma" division evaluated the effectiveness of measures to prevent child abuse by reviewing previous studies. as a result,Home visit,, Head injury prevention, and multidisciplinary interventions have been shown to reduce child abuse. In addition, home visits, parental education, and prevention of sexual abuse have been shown to reduce the risk of child abuse.[76].

Self-help groups to prevent abused children from abusing their children, parent programs for abusive parents, and meetings where the parties, other families, and supporters come together There is an NPO that operates a system in which the parties themselves decide the solution and the supporters watch the progress.[77].

HyogoAkashi CitySo, in order to confirm the safety of the child, if you can not meet the child or you can not meet, we will stop the transfer of the child allowance and hand it over if you bring the child.[78].

From the perspective of preventing abuse, it means "inappropriate involvement with adult children," which is a broader concept than child abuse.Maru treatmentIs sometimes used[48].

(I.e.

There are three levels of social intervention for maltreatment (inappropriate involvement with children): gray zone, yellow zone, and red zone.[48].

  • Gray zone (observation required, support required, enlightenment / education required) --A state of improper care, although not abusive[48]
It is a stage to avoid aggravation of the situation through support such as childcare guidance, maternity checkups, prenatal pediatric health guidance (prenatal visit), newborn visits, and infant checkups.[48].
  • Yellow Zone (Support Required)-A condition in which it is necessary to continuously watch over the child and provide support to the caregiver.[48]
  • Red Zone (Protection Required)-A condition that requires protection to ensure the life and safety of children[48]

Parents may be exhausted and out of control of their anger due to delayed development and impulsive behavior of the abused child. It has also been reported that there is a parent-child chain of abuse. Former child guidance center staff also point out that there is no saucer after protection, and protection may have a negative impact on the child's development if the child has an attachment to the parent. Some argue that the court should order the post-abuse response to take care for parental recovery and set the standard for family reunification and referee it.[77].

Abused parents may not doubt their actions as "discipline" because of their growth history and beliefs. It has been pointed out that the psychology of the abused side may be understood by receiving continuous counseling, but the implementation system of the perpetrator rehabilitation program is not sufficient.[79].

Abuses are unaware that they are abusive[80], Child guidance centers continue to deny and admit abuse[81].

In April 2020, the Kanagawa Prefectural Police established a new child abuse full-time investigation team in the Investigation Division 4 to investigate violent cases such as murder.[82].

assistance

As an intervention in cases of child abuseOpen dialogIs being tried to use[83].

The reported benefits include:[83].

  1. The supporter's shoulders can be relaxed and flexible.
  2. It is possible to express contradictory thoughts (voices) about problems and increase transparency.
  3. The remarks of the parties increase.

By using this method, the effect of more positively creating a dialogue scene that brings about a useful recovery for the victims, perpetrators, supporters, and the whole can be expected. However, due to the seriousness of the problem of violence, it is necessary to devise and prepare to establish a place for safe dialogue.[83].

Abused children may protect their parents from fear or affection. It is rare to sue yourself for being abused, and some children even confirm, deny, or even revoke the facts later, even after confirming the abuse. Many children are not aware that they are being abused, and many of them are blaming themselves for their badness.[84].. For this reason, when a supporter asks if he/she wants to return home, he/she wants to go home, and in some cases, temporary protection is released, resulting in death.[85].

OsakaIn the analysis of childbirth due to unexamined patients and dives, it was confirmed that the background factors of the cases of unexplained pregnancy and child abuse were very similar. Understood what was reported. As a result, it has been implemented mainly in medical institutions for pregnancy prevention in Osaka.[86].

The percentage of "persons who do not accept abuse (those who do not accept acts or abuse, those who accept acts but do not accept abuse) is about 62% for men, about 48% for women, and about 14% for men. It's getting higher. "People who do not accept abuse" do not seek help. However, among the abusers, there are also "those who acknowledge abuse but do not seek assistance", and the proportion of "abuses not seeking assistance" is 81.1% for men and 63.4% for women. .. Even though there is a program for female abusers, "Tokyo Children's Counseling Center", "Osaka City Children's Minister", and "Ibaraki Chuo Children's Minister" have started group therapy for male abusers. It is pointed out that it is only these three child ministers that are using the program for children[87].

About 2008 cases handled by child counseling centers nationwide from April to June 4, the National Children's Counseling Directors' Committee prepared a report in 6 as "Survey research on case analysis of child abuse counseling" doing. In the survey report, regarding the cognitive status of abuse among abusers, 10,000% of those who do not accept acts or abuse, 2009% of those who accept acts but do not accept abuse due to evasion, but they do 17.3% did not accept abuse and 15.7% asked for assistance due to abuse[88].

Supporting the importance of supporting rehabilitation of perpetrators who repeatedly abuse DV, said the president of an NPO organization[89].

By the promulgation in June 2019, by the 6th year of Reiwa, ``When protecting and supporting children, ensure the opportunity to listen to the opinions of the children and the opportunity for the children to express their own opinions, and a mechanism to support the children on the occasion. , The establishment of a mechanism to uphold the rights of children and other measures to respect the opinions of children and give priority to the consideration of their best interests, and consider necessary measures based on the results. Are to be taken." Children in MieAdvocate(Representative) The system was introduced as a test, and efforts were made to hear the opinions of children at temporary shelters.[90].

Status of each country

Abuse prevalence in children (OECD 2011, p. 247)
Institutional protection rateAbuse confirmation rate
England flag England1.5%Canadian flag カナダ2.2%
Canadian flag カナダ2.2%Israeli flag イ ス ラ エ ル1.8%
Australian flag Australia3.3%United States flag The United States of America1.2%
United States flag The United States of America4.8%Dutch flag  Netherlands0.4%
British flag The United Kingdom0.2%

2000 The number of children abused byGermanyTwo people,France18,000[91].. The United States stands out.

While the number of abuse notification consultations in Japan continues to grow, the number of social care cases that can be accepted is 5 beds for all facilities and foster parents, so more than 90% of the notifications are returned to their homes. Others have expressed concern that the returned child will remain in an inappropriate parenting environment. Regarding the number of notification consultations, the ratio of the number of children in the OECD to the number of protected children (2007) was 1% of the population in France, Canada and Denmark, and 0.8% in Germany, while Japan was 0.17%. There is also an opinion that the abuse has not become apparent yet[92][93].

The United States of America

Child abuse has become a social issue in the United States since the 1960s[94].. In the 1970s, efforts by the federal government began,StateVarious measures are taken at the level as well.[94].. At the national level, there are “National Alliance of Children's Trust Funds” and “Prevent Child Abuse America”, both of which have members (branches) in each state and bundle them. Also,Federal governmentBy Children's Bureau[95]There is. At the state level,Child protection services(Child Protective Services, CPS).

State governments

In the United States, each state has primary responsibility for child welfare, and each state has its own laws and administrative efforts.[94].. However, maintenance is being carried out in accordance with the federal government's policy so as to meet the requirements of receiving subsidies from the federal government, and the leveling and unification of policies and coordination among organizations have been made.[94].

The Child Advocacy Centers (CACs) in various parts of the United States are investigating child abuse. At first this Child Advocacy CenterAlabama OfHuntsvilleAtRobert CramerThe team was made up of teams to quickly and efficiently investigate child abuse and ultimately reduce trauma in children.

In the United States Los Angeles group, the abuse response organization is DCFS (Department of Children and Family Services), and everyone is obliged to report, and within 2 hours depending on the severity of the report (directly after receiving the report), within 3 days , Within 5 days (although this is not a severe case, a survey must be carried out), and the corresponding levels are assigned. If the abuser agrees to the aid program, involvement such as counseling will be initiated. On the other hand, although there are facts of abuse, DCFS needs to persuade parents if they do not agree with the abuser, so they will continue "strategy" and "negotiation", but in the worst case the child will die. However, it means that the parents did not agree, DCFS's responsibility is not asked[96].

Federal government

The federal government1974 The Department of Health and Human Services established the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglec (NCCAN) and enacted the "Act on Prevention and Countermeasures against Child Abuse".[94].

The U.S. government is taking various measures to prevent child abuse[97].

  • By a nurseHome visit‥‥ During pregnancy and 2 years after birthnurseVisits children on a regular basis
  • ‥‥ Explain how to raise children and the systems and organizations that can be used
  • Safety education for children: Teaching children the distinction between good and bad touches
  • ParentingSupport group
  • Adopted childsystem
  • In an emergencyhotline, Crisis Nurseries Emergency Shelter

Also, as an indirect measure

statistics

2010 yearsMinistry of Health and WelfareAccording to the report (NIS-4), physical and sexual abuse is on the decline by more than 6%.[100].. However, mental neglect is on the rise by about 1%.[100].

Incidentally,Child discipline by the use of tangible force is permitted in the United States and is not considered "abuse".. According to one survey, 82% of adults say they "have been spanned by their parents when they were children." Also, many respondents say that "most corporal punishment by parents is not abuse."[101].. When a Japanese childcare magazine conducted a reader survey, 62% of parents answered that they "may hit their child's bottom" and 55% said that they "may hit their child's head".[102], 12.2% answered "the principle of not hitting children"[103].

The University of Minnesota's Center for Early Education and Development describes the use of punishment as "exceptional use of light punishment in an educational atmosphere, with positive praise and rewards for good deeds. For example, the use of punishment is acceptable. "[104].

U.S. courts and Child protection services(Child Protective Services) considers the following points when deciding the treatment of parents:[105].

  • Weight of child injury
  • Age and degree of development of the child
  • Method of corporal punishment
  • Frequency of corporal punishment
  • The impact of corporal punishment on a child's mind and development
  • Motivation for corporal punishment (purpose)

米 国Child protection services(CPS) said about 2013 children were victims of abuse in 67.9[106].

Incidents per 1000 Children in the United States, by Age (NIS-4)[107]
Age of the childInappropriate behaviorAbuseneglect
00-0233.427.306.1
03-0534.926.809.9
06-0842.433.113.1
09-11 years38.330.410.9
12-14 years37.628.612.6
15-17 years29.021.610.9
Incidents per 1000 Children in the United States, Race (NIS-4)[108]
severityWhiteBlackHispanic-Latin
serious4.68.85.2
Medium7.213.78.1
Strongly suspected0.71.50.8
meter12.624.014.2

フィンランド

(English editionTo prevent child abuseParentingIs encouraged to share the burden of[109].

  • motherMay abuse small children
  • If the mother is left unaided, she may abuse her child
  • Mother is raising a childstressAnd need someone to share the burden
  • A humanChildren are so manyTake careNeed
  • Human childrenIndependenceIt takes a long time to do
  • No one can raise a child alone
  • Parental interests and child interests do not exactly match
  • Child development is promoted when multiple adults are involved in parenting

オーストリア

According to the Sydney Office of Local Authorities for International Relations in Australia, the family law stipulates the provisions of 2006 to prevent parental disconnection, strengthening the "parent's rights", but the child was killed by the parent during the visit. In 2011, the law was further revised, the "Friendly Parent" clause was abolished, and the safety of children was emphasized rather than the rights of parents, and restrictions on visitation exchanges were implemented.[110].

Germany

As of the end of December 2012, the number of alternative care users was 12 for foster care and 64,851 for institutional care. 66,711). The Department of Juvenile Affairs in Germany is responsible for the immediate and temporary treatment of children as part of their administrative actions if the welfare of children and adolescents is at urgent risk, without prior parental consent or the involvement of family courts. Can be protected. The government is delaying the response to child abuse and a fatal case has occurred. In addition, the disciplinary right is not included in the custody of German civil law.[111].

Japan

In JapanAct on Prevention of Child AbuseIs prohibited inMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareIs in charge.The prefecture ischild consultation centerIs installed, which is equipped with a temporary shelter.Battered childrenChild Welfare Actbased onChildren requiring protectionIs the subject of.

注 釈

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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