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📱 | Overview of Core Web Vitals (Google's UX index) and how to improve it [Part XNUMX]


The whole picture of Core Web Vitals (Google's UX index) and how to improve it [Part XNUMX]

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Some of the factors that make Core Web Vitals worse are patterned to some extent as explained in this article, so if you are having problems with display speed or providing a comfortable user experience, please refer to it.

● Nowadays, it is indispensable to provide a comfortable UX (user experience) in the operation of corporate websites ... → Continue reading

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User experience

User experience(British: user experience,UX) Is derived from the encounter with the systemuserGet経 験Is[1].User experience,ユーザーExperienceTomo.

People are経 験Have the concept[2]..Of this experience, the experience of human beings encountering and using independent systems such as products, services, and man-made objects as users is called user experience.[3]..For example, for a system called a computer game, Mr. A said, "I'm excited to see an advertising video, I'm excited about my friend's experiences, I buy online, I'm enthusiastic about playing all night, and I look back on those memories a few years later." This is an example of.

To achieve a good user experienceUsability engineering,Interaction design,User-centered design (UCD) or (HCD) is practiced.


User experience as a daily term is "user experience" "impression and experience when using products and services"[4]Is defined.

There is no widely agreed definition of user experience as a jargon[5][6][7][8][9][10]..As a rough common understanding, "the user and the outside (object or environment)Interaction"A mental process occurs inside the user" and "the memory and impression that the user gets as a result" is regarded as the user experience.

Terminology definition example

The following are some of the definitions that have been tried so far.[11] :

  • Human perception and reaction as a consequence of the use of products, systems, services and / or expected use. – – ISO 9241-210: 2010 (Human-centered design of interactive systems) [12]
  • Between companies and end usersInteractionAll sides of.Corporate services and products.The first requirement for an exemplary user experience is to meet user needs without hassle or hassle.Second, simplicity and elegance that make possession and use a pleasure.A true user experience isn't about providing what customers want, nor about providing features like those on the checklist, it's much better. – Nielsen-Norman Group [6]
  • The consequences of the user's internal state (nature, expectations, needs, synchronization, mood, etc.), the characteristics of the designed system (complexity, purpose, usability, functionality, etc.), andInteractionThe situation or environment in which it occurs (organizational / social environment, significance of activities, spontaneity of use, etc.). – Hassenzahl & Tractinsky (2006) [6]
  • Between the user and the product, including the degree to which our senses are pleasing, the meaning we give to the product (experience of meaning), the sensations and emotions elicited (sensitivity experience).InteractionA complete set of emotions drawn from – Hekkert (2006) [6]
  • With products and servicesInteraction(Or expectedInteraction) And the value derived from supporting characters (time, place, user nature, etc.) in the usage situation. – Sward & MacArthur (2007) [6]
  • With a specific designInteractionThe quality of experience you get when you do.It can range from cups, toys, or websites to more integrated experiences such as museums and airports. – UXnet.org [6]


ISO 9241-210: 2010 (Human-centered design of interactive systems) So, we are trying to extend the meaning of the concept of "usability" so that it has the same meaning as "user experience", but there are criticisms that the concept of usability and user experience may not be well organized. is there.[13]

The ambiguity of the word "experience"

"経 験The word "" has two meanings, "experience as a process" and "experience as a result", and it is unclear which one the speaker intends.This situation is the English "experience" (en: Experience) Is the same.In some cases, the former is expressed in the gerund form (experiencing) and the latter in the additive noun form (a user experience), dispelling the ambiguity of the meaning of the original form (experience).[8].

Japanese translation

"Experience" or "experience" is used for the Japanese translation of "experience".

Masaya AndoUses "experience" more than "experience" in his book "UX Design Textbook"[14].. on the other hand,Masaaki KurosuThe reason for choosing "experience" as a translation of "experience" is "experience is fine for non-persistent things like services and things where one-timeness is important, but like when using a product. Experiences are considered better for lasting and continuous things, and moreover, because experiences have a longer span, they may include (multiple) experiences. If you think about general expressions, I think it's good to have experience. "[15]


UX can be classified from the following viewpoints.


UX can be classified into the following three types based on the period[16].

  • Temporary UX (British: momentary UX
  • Episode UX (British: episodic UX
  • Cumulative UX (British: cumulative UX

For example, consider UX to play in an amusement park.When you enter the amusement park and get on the roller coaster, it says "slowly climb the slope and get excited"Temporary UXWhen the coaster ran down the slope and finished riding, the whole ride was regarded as one episode and "it was thrilling and fun"Episode UXOccurs.After that, he experienced various attractions, and on the way back from the amusement park, he said, "It was a satisfying and good holiday" as a stack of all UX.Cumulative UXOccurs.

Long-term UX is not necessarily the sum of short-term UX. The experience of "that moment was painful, but now it's a good memory" is an example of a positive cumulative UX despite a negative temporary UX.[17]..This shows the importance of time in UX design and evaluation.[18].

Anticipation and real experience

UX can be divided into two, depending on whether it is imagined / expected or actual experience.The formerExpected UX(British: anticipated UX).

Humans can imagine the experiences that will occur in the future.As a result, the experience occurs in the imagination before the actual experience.This is an anticipatory UX.For example, by looking at an amusement park advertisement, you can imagine and experience the UX such as the excitement of a roller coaster climbing, the thrill of the entire ride, and the satisfaction of the amusement park.[19].



The UX that occurs inside an individual is influenced by the factors that surround it.These elements are roughly divided into three[20].

  • context: Social (eg: people around), physical (eg: place of use), temporal (eg: schedule before and after), environmental (eg: similar system)
  • user: Motivation, expectation, atmosphere, memory / experience, mental state, physical state
  • システム: 品質,brand image, State (eg tiredness due to use)

For example, the fun (UX) gained from the "exhilarating game (system)" is the game.

  • "It's popular among friends (context)" "I personally expected it before it was released (user)"
  • "The reputation of the people around me is bad (context)" "I can't help but get along with my friends (user)"

It is completely different depending on which state you play.In this way UX is the system品質Not only that, it is greatly influenced by the context and user status surrounding it. UX is a phenomenon that occurs inside an individual and is not touched directly, but UX also changes by changing the elements surrounding UX.


UX can be said to be everything that occurs inside the user who touches the system.This big UX consists of multiple internal elements[21][22]..For example, the big experience of "dining at an okonomiyaki restaurant" is a combination of various factors such as "experience of baking dough by yourself", "sweetness of sauce", and "satisfaction after eating".By clarifying the elements included, high-resolution UX understanding and detailed design become possible.

"UX Honeycomb" (as an example of dividing the sides that make up UX)British: user experience honeycomb)[23]..This classification divides UX into 7 aspects: Useful / Usable / Desirable / Findable / Accessible / Credible / Valuable.Using this classification, you can organize UX like "It's easy to use and I'm glad I found it easily, but I can't trust it."

In addition to emotional aspects, factors that are often evaluated include aesthetics, motivation, presence, engagement, attractiveness, and satisfaction.[24].


User experience is a psychological phenomenon that occurs inside humans.There are various ways to know (evaluate and measure) what kind of UX has occurred.


In the evaluation of UX given by the system, a method that considers the context and the user is required.

UX depends not only on the quality characteristics of the system but also on the user characteristics and usage conditions.Therefore, unlike the actual usage situation, it is carried out in a laboratory etc.Usability testIs not a UX evaluation method[25]..For example, there are cases where a user pays for the purchase and then uses the product, and when a user is invited to a laboratory as a test monitor and tries it for free. It is thought that UX such as "willingness to use" is different.

Also, to evaluate the UX of the "app that cleans up the disused items at home", rather than evaluating the experience of using the app while imagining the state of the home while in the laboratory, actually looking for the disused items at home However, evaluating the experience of using the app is more evaluating the UX in the actual usage situation.

As an evaluation method in a real environmentEthnography(Ethnography)Cultural anthropologyInFieldworkMethod is used.For example, there are the following observation methods.

  • Fly on the Wall: A method of observing as objectively as possible without being involved in the behavior of the survey subjects
  • Shadowing: A method of trying to relive the experience of the surveyed person by cuddling and tracking it like the "shadow" of the surveyed person.
  • Participation observation: Investigators also participate and experience things with the people surveyed


The viewpoint of the period is important for UX evaluation.For example, episodic UX and cumulative UX include impressions formed inside the user through long-term use and retrospective, so there are items that cannot be verified by short-term UX evaluation.[26].

There is little justification for inferring and assessing this long-term (cumulative) user experience by non-user experts.In evaluating the long-term user experience, it is essential to conduct an evaluation targeting actual users.[27].

The long-term UX evaluation methods include the following.

  • Retrospective evaluation: A method of asking users to talk about events from pre-purchase to the present and their impressions and analyze them.
  • Logging: A method of collecting and analyzing behavioral data so that it is not invasive to users.
  • Net promoter score(NPS): Quantitative evaluation method using an 11-point scale answer to the question "How likely is it to recommend this company (or product, service, brand) to friends and colleagues?"


User experience design(British: user experience design) Is a design and method for achieving a good user experience.UX design,UX designTomo.

UX is a phenomenon that occurs inside an individual.At the same time, systems such as products have the UX that they want to generate as a design concept, message, and value.UX design is a design that determines the intended UX, examines the factors that cause it, and tries to realize a good UX.

In practiceUser-centered design It is almost synonymous with (UCD) or (HCD).In other words, it is not considered to have a unique design area called "user experience design".Because in 2010 ISO 9241-210: 2010 (Human-centered design of interactive systems) This is because the idea that "the purpose of carrying out the process is to achieve a good user experience" is shown and accepted to some extent. [*Historychecking〕. As an example of a design process based on HCDISO-9241 210Is mentioned.

The idea of ​​UX design is practiced in a wide range of designs.for exampleweb-UI-Man-machine interface-industrial-communication-InstructionalThe design of.For example, UX consciousDesign guidelines-Used for formulating design systems.

As a tool for expressing the UX desired by customers and designing products through dialogueUser storyThere is.Product management,Agile software developmentOften used in.


Related areas that form the basis of user experience design include:

User diversity and accessibility

In the design process to achieve a good user experiencePersona methodIn many cases, a concrete assumed user image is set.Because "user characteristics" are factors that affect the user experience, it is possible to better measure and evaluate the subjective quality of use by fully understanding the user image, and eventually achieve a better user experience. This is because it is considered.

However, some experts point out that such "design assuming a specific user" may, on the other hand, keep the designer's consciousness away from the realization of "design that anyone can use".In other words, as a result of an excessive design approach that emphasizes "concrete expected user image" in order to achieve a good user experience, it means "available to all users".AccessibilityIs pointed out that it may be neglected.

So-called "unexpected users" are often ignored or neglected.handicappedIs.The industry tends to (often unknowingly and implicitly) "optimize" product design for the majority of the market, but as a result, it is "used in the first place" for some people with disabilities. It is pointed out that there are cases where the design is such that it cannot be done. The experience of "unexpected users" is ignored because the experience of "expected users" is so important.

In the United States, it came into effect on June 2001, 6.Section 508 of the Rehabilitation ActMakes federal agencies' electronic and information technology available to people with disabilitiesAccessibilityIt is obligatory to secure.In Japan, from April 2016, 4Disability discrimination elimination lawWill be enforced to prevent persons with disabilities from suffering disadvantagesRational considerationIs obligatory for government agencies.Also, in developed countries including JapanAgingAs the progress progressesvision,Hearing,Otherphysical ability,Cognitive abilityIn such cases, the percentage of users who deviate from the category of so-called "healthy adults" will increase.In order to meet the demands of society, not only the user experienceAccessibilityIt is pointed out that it is necessary to design with consideration for[28][29][30][31]

Multiple Perspectives on "User Experience Design"

The question is, "Can designers design the user experience itself?"

Position that "cannot design"

Masaaki KurosuAccording to the designer, the user experience itself cannot be involved.In other words,You can't design the user experience itself.[32]

That's because of the three factors that affect the user experience (situation, user, and system), designers can only design the system.The situation and the user are out of the designer's control.Designers have no control over what the user is and how they are used (somewhat, but decisively).

All a designer can do is deliberately design a "system" (artificial object), one of the factors that influences the user experience.For example, as a system characteristicUsabilityTo increaseUser interfaceYou can expect to improve the user experience by designing.

But no matter how carefully designed the system is, it cannot guarantee a good user experience.This is because the designed design may backfire in the unexpected user of the designer or in the unexpected usage situation. [*User diversity and accessibilitychecking〕

The position of being able to design

Masaya AndoAccording to the report, "The approach and methodology of designing products and services from the planning stage with the goal of the ideal user experience (UX) so that the user will be happy with the experience is called UX design." Yes,You can design the user experience itself.[33]


Usability engineering,Interaction designUser subjective in the development history of theoryvalueThe concept of "user experience" has come to be used because of the need to emphasize.[34]

Traditionally, "usability" has been the most important indicator in the user interface design of interactive systems.However, since around 2000, the industry has been paying more attention to the subjective aspects of consumers, and discussions such as "experienced economy" have become active.In such an era, there has been a debate among researchers and designers of interactive systems that "usability alone may not be enough to express the value for users."The symbol of this was known as a master of cognitive engineering and usability research.Donald NormanIn "Emotional Design" (2004)SensibilityIt appealed for the importance of value.In that way, the concept of "user experience" came to be used.

Jesse james garrett Announced in 2000, The Elements of User Experience: User-Centered Design for the Web [35][36] In, we presented a "5-layer model" of user experience.This model isWeb designIt was often referred to in the field and became widely known.

It has traditionally been used to improve usability in design methods for achieving a good user experience.User-centered designIt was developed in the form of developing the method of. In 1999International Standards Organization In (ISO) ISO 13407 (Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems)At the time of its enactment, the concept of user experience had not yet been introduced, but in 2010 the standard was subsequently introduced. ISO 9241-210: 2010 (Human-centered design of interactive systems) When it was revised as, the concept of user experience was introduced.

In 2012, the Usability Professionals Association (UPA), an international non-profit organization of usability experts, was renamed the User Experience Professionals Association (UXPA).

Relationship with other fields

User interface

User interface(UI) is a characteristic / function that the system has for the user. Since UX changes depending on the characteristics of the system, UI affects UX.For example, a difficult-to-use application UI (system) reduces the satisfaction of the service experience (UX).That is, UI and UX are in a "cause and effect" relationship.Therefore, UI design is used as an element of UX design.


UsabilityIs the characteristics of the system品質Is a type of[37].. Usability affects UX because UX changes depending on the characteristics of the system.For example, a bottle opener (system) that is difficult to use reduces the satisfaction level of the wine drinking experience (UX).

We divide "design quality", which is a problem for designers at the time of design, and "usage quality", which is a problem for users at the time of use.In addition, "objective quality" that can be measured externally and "subjective quality" that can only be measured internally (psychologically) are separated.Combining these two categories creates four quality characteristic areas: objective design quality, subjective design quality, objective use quality, and subjective use quality.Usability TheUsability testIt is an objective design quality characteristic that can be measured externally by means such as.


UsabilityInSatisfaction(British: for) Is the user's perception (UX) regarding how much the user's needs and expectations have been met by using the system.[38].. IeAn experience that meets the needs and expectations of a type of UXIs satisfied[39].

Usability satisfaction is marketingCustomer satisfactionIt is a very similar concept to.alsoCustomer loyaltyAlso has a deep relationship.


  1. ^ "ux ... clearly demonstrates the experience that comes from encountering the system." Lotto, et al. (2010). UX White Paper.
  2. ^ "The concept of experience accompanies human existence." Lotto, et al. (2010). UX White Paper.
  3. ^ "ux ... clearly demonstrates the experience that comes from encountering the system ...." system "is an independent or combined form of product / service and man-made that allows individuals to interact through the user interface. Point to an object. … Ux is part of the experience as a general concept. ux is more limited because it is an experience through the system. "Lotto, et al. (2010). UX White Paper.
  4. ^ Kotobank, Digital Daijisen, User Experience Page
  5. ^ C. Lalemand et al. Conducted a 2015 study of 35 people in 758 countries
  6. ^ a b c d e f Lallemand 2014.
  7. ^ Similarly, in 2010, a discussion of 30 researchers and practitioners did not provide a widely agreed definition: User Experience White Paper
  8. ^ a b Roto 2011.
  9. ^ hcdvalue 2011.
  10. ^ Lecture at "UX White Paper Conference" | Ando Lab Note
  11. ^ User experience definitions
  12. ^ Terms and definitions (ISO 9241-210: 2010) "person's perceptions and responses resulted from the use and / or anticipated use of product, system or service"
  13. ^ Masaaki Kurosu 2013, p. 56.
  14. ^ Masaya Ando 2016.
  15. ^ Masaaki Kurosu, is experience "experience" or "experience" – U-Site, August 2014, 9
  16. ^ "It is important to clarify the period of interest, which can be divided into three types: temporary ux, episodic ux, and cumulative ux." Lotto, et al. (3). UX White Paper.
  17. ^ "For example, the importance of strong negative reactions that occur during use may be so small after a successful experience that negative reactions may eventually be remembered as different. "Lotto, et al. (2010). UX White Paper.
  18. ^ "It is important to clarify the target period ... The conditions required for ux design and its evaluation are when focusing on temporary ux, episodic ux and longer period ux. It's different than when you focus on it. "Lotto, et al. (2010). UX White Paper.
  19. ^ "Anticipated UX may relate to the period before first use, or any of the three other time spans of UX, since a person may imagine a specific moment during interaction, a usage episode, or life after taking a system into use." et al. (2010). USER EXPERIENCE WHITE PAPER.
  20. ^ "The ux created by human interaction with the system is influenced by a wide variety of factors. They fall into three main categories. The context surrounding the user and the system, the state of the user. , A characteristic of the system. "Lotto, et al. (3). UX White Paper.
  21. ^ "The experience of using various systems ... involves a wide variety of mental / physical activities. First, mentally, from instinctive and emotional reactions to advanced intellectual understanding. Cognition occurs at a wide range of levels. On the other hand, physically, it is versatile, including tap input with one finger, operation with whole body action, and even collaborative work with someone. User experience… is a comprehensive usage experience consisting of such cognition and interaction. ”Fukami, et al. (2012). HTML5 technical review for skill improvement ..
  22. ^ "I found the need for a new diagram to illustrate the facets of user experience" Peter Morville. (2004). User Experience Design.
  23. ^ "with a little help from my friends developed the user experience honeycomb." Peter Morville. (2004). User Experience Design.
  24. ^ "For each of the 58 selected studies ... Altogether 42 unique UX constructs were measured ... Table 1 shows the 12 constructs with frequency higher than two." Law, et al. (2014). Attitudes towards user experience (UX) measurement. Int. J. Human-Computer Studies.
  25. ^ Serial column XNUMXst "Great misunderstanding about UX" by Dr. Masaaki Kurosu, a leading UX expert in Japan | KUSANAGI MAGAZINE
  26. ^ Masaaki Kurosu, UX is a story after long-term monitoring – U-Site, August 2010, 6
  27. ^ Masaaki Kurosu, UX, 3 Key Points – U-Site, August 2015, 6
  28. ^ Unbearable lightness of accessibility in the UX neighborhood (where) | Notes | @kazuhito
  29. ^ Usability and Accessibility Integration: What Any UX Pro Should Know User Experience Magazin
  30. ^ Basic Policy on Promotion of Elimination of Discrimination on the Grounds of Disability-Cabinet Office
  31. ^ "The recognition rate of the Disability Discrimination Elimination Law is 36%, 9% of companies have issues on web accessibility," Survey on the status of web accessibility efforts "" held on March 2016, 3 Site Management Committee Seminar Part 8 | Public Interest Incorporated Association Japan Advertisers Association Web Advertising Study Group
  32. ^ Masaaki Kurosu 2013, pp. 55–56.
  33. ^ Masaya Ando 2016, p. 2.
  34. ^ Masaaki Kurosu 2013, pp. 22–27, 38–50, 52–56.
  35. ^ Garrett 2002.
  36. ^ Garrett 2005.
  37. ^ Masaaki Kurosu, Design Quality and Usage Quality (Part XNUMX) – U-SiteandSecond part
  38. ^ "3.1.14 Satisfaction A user's physical, cognitive and emotional perception of how well a user's needs and expectations are met due to the use of a system, product or service."
  39. ^ "Satisfaction includes the degree to which the user experience resulting from actual use meets the needs and expectations of the user." JIS Z 8521: 2020


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