Photo: Parents' Association of Worried Students
Online "Parents' Association for Worried Students" Opened ... Meiji
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The "Parents' Association of Worried Candidates" is aimed at parents of examinees so that this difference in thread can be resolved as much as possible, the parent-child relationship becomes smoother, and the examinees can challenge the examination with a perfect mind and body. An online community that proposes "support that is not words".
On November 2021, 11, the Meiji era was the 15 student support project for "Meiji Probio Yogurt R-1". → Continue reading
The educational environment, university entrance examination reform, and the environment surrounding children are undergoing major changes. Amid the changes of this era, parents' interest in the education and career of children is only increasing. Risemum will transmit accurate and useful information centered on educational information, as a medium that is close to the hearts of parents. We will promptly deliver information that parents are interested in such as education reform, international education, examinations, educational events, STEM education including programming.
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
The word "parent and child" means the relationship between parents and children, but it is not just the blood relationship between the birth parent and the child.Adoptive parentとAdopted childAlso refers to the relationship of..When using only the relationship between father and child, or mother and child, eachFather and sonOrMother and childThat.
In addition,bossとMinionsconnection of,masterIt is also used to refer to a relationship (fictitious parent-child relationship) that is customarily likened to a parent-child relationship, such as the relationship between a child and a child..
In this article, firstA humanThe parent-child relationship of the above will be explained, and then the parent-child relationship of living things in general will be explained.
Human parent-child relationship
In parent-child relationships, depending on the cultural area, "Blood connectionIn other words, the biological element is sometimes emphasized, but this is not always common, and it is said that if there is a blood connection in any society, a social parent-child relationship will occur immediately. is not..This isSocial anthropologist OfB. MarinovskyPointed out early by.
For example,Trobriand IslandsAboriginal people (biological)fatherI don't know the role thatHowever, it is called TamaMale motherIs a close person of愛情With all of usChild supportHe is a male parent who does, and is essentially the same as the so-called father image of today...In other words, they do not recognize the blood connection between father and son, but recognize the existence of a social father..
motherThe relationship between the child and the child is not necessarily the childBirthTo womenattachmentIt is pointed out that the connection between childcare activities and blood is distinguished., 《Social Mother》mater Matter, "Natural (biological) mother"genitrix GenitrixThere is room to distinguish fromThat is.Being a parent in English is biological parentage It is called / non-biological parentage.
There are also stepfather-child relationships and stepmother-child relationships (in social parent-child relationships).From the perspective of a child, the motherRemarriageWho to dostepfather(Mamachichi), who is the father's remarriage?stepmother(Mamahaha).From the point of view of the person getting married, if the marriage partner already has a child, in the case of a man, he / she becomes the stepfather, and in the case of a woman, he / she becomes the stepmother. Will be built with the child (over time).
Also recentlyArtificial insemination,SurrogacyEtc. are becoming more widespread, with the addition of new elements that were not envisioned by the old civil law of each country, and the emergence of "parents" and "parent-child relationships" that did not exist in the past. The concept of "parent and child" is also becoming very complicated.
Parents and children in Japan
There are various contents and formats of parent-child relationships in Japan, and if you look at the parents, at least "Real parents""Parent-in-law""Foster parentThere were three /It is believed that there is. The "real parent" is the birth parent, and the "parent-in-law" is the spouse's father and mother, Shutooya (Cane), Mamaoya (Mother-in-law) And adoptionAdoptive father,foster motherThere is.A foster parent is a person who has not had a parent-child relationship in the past.BornTime,adultTime,marriageIt sets a new relationship similar to the parent-child relationship (sometimes, etc.),,,,,And so on..Some relationships with foster parents are temporary, but many last a lifetime.As a characteristic of Japanese parent-child relationships, the importance and diversity of such fictitious parent-child relationships may be pointed out...It is said to establish a relationship similar to a parent-child relationship through a certain procedure..
In Japan, in the olden days, when parents are old, their children and their spouses (= children-in-law) are usually parents at home.Nursing careHowever, in Japan in recent years, instead of being cared for by a child, a nursing care facility for the elderly (Nursing home), And the proportion of children leaving their parents in long-term care facilities is increasing.However, there are a considerable proportion of people who do not choose nursing homes / who cannot use them (even if they wish due to various circumstances).While the average life expectancy has increased in Japan, the birth rate has continued to decline considerably, and the proportion of elderly people is extremely high even in the world.Aging societyAs a result, in modern Japan, not only are middle-aged children caring for elderly parents, as is the case with old times, but also super-elderly parents who are already elderly (also themselves). Serious cases (people with weak legs) who have to take care of themElderly care) Is gradually increasing.
Parents and children under the current Japanese Civil Code
Japanese(1896 (Meiji 29) Law No. 89,1898 Promulgated as Law No. 31 in (Meiji 9)1898 Current (enforced from 7th July)Civil lawIn the above, there are two types of parent and child: a real parent and child (natural parent and child) who have a blood connection and an adopted parent and child (legal parent and child) by adoption.The child of a real parent and child is "real child", and the child of an adopted parent and child is "Adopted child".In addition, the parent of the real parent and child is the "real parent", and the child of the adoptive parent and child is "Adoptive parent".parentFor minor childrenCustodyHave.
- Real parent and child (natural parent and child)
- Real parent-child relationship proceedings
- Proceedings of denial of legitimacy
- Cognitive appeal (Civil Code Article 787）
- Proceedings of cognitive invalidity / revocation of cognition (Civil Code Article 786）
- Appeal for the purpose of establishing a father (Civil Code Article 773）
- Proceedings to confirm the existence of a real parent-child relationship (Family Register Act Article 113)
- Adopted parent and child (legal parent and child)
Adoptive parents and childrenIs to create a legal parent-child relationship between a person and a person even if there is no biological parent-child relationship when certain requirements are met.AdoptionRefers to those who became parents and children by the system.Adoption allows for coexistence of adoptive parent-child relationships and real parent-child relationshipsOrdinary adoptionAnd, if an adoption is made, the actual parent-child relationship will end.Special adoption(However, those who reach only under the age of 6 are usually only allowed for adoption).
Parents and children in general living things
Biology InReproductionWas the source whenindividualIt is a compilation of both the newly born individual and the newly born individual.The formerparent, The latterChildThat is.Parent and child are the basis of continuity of life.For example, the phenomenon that a child resembles a parentHeredityTo say.
However, there are not many cases in which such parents and children have special negotiations that differ from other individuals of the same species.Parents have children, specificallyegg,Larva,seed,sporeIn producing, it is thought that somehow they will take measures to survive well, and this is called in a broad sense.
- The relationship between Yahweh, the god of all things, and Christians
When Jesus Christ was asked by his disciples about how to pray,YahwehI taught him to pray while calling him "Abba in heaven" (Lord's prayer) (“New Testament],Matthew 6: 6-13 and so on. ). "Abba" was spoken by JesusAlamaiA word that refers to a father. (Before thatJudaismHowever, the description that calls Yahweh "father" is tentativelyHebrew bibleEspecially for the disciples of Jesus, and later Christians, the relationship between God and man who created all things is often (although).MetaphorIt came to be described as a close and affectionate "father-child" relationship.Even in modern timesク リ ス チ ャ ンIn our daily prayers, when we pray to Yahweh, the god of all things, we keep the teachings of Jesus and pray as if we were calling to our father with the word "father," and as a result, the relationship between Yahweh and ourselves. Has come to feel like a loving "father-child" relationship.
In the usual context, parents and children often refer to living things, especially those in humans.MetaphorWhen we say "parent and child" in a typical usage, we sometimes mean inanimate objects.
At home, etc.Fixed-line phoneA telephone that is directly connected to the external network and a group of telephones that are (indirectly) connected to the external network while hanging from the telephone are called "parent-child telephones"..
The relationship when one thing is derived from another is sometimes referred to as "parent and child" figuratively.For exampleComputerAboveProgramExecution form ofprocessIf one process creates another process in, it may be called a parent-child (relationship) between the two), and even if there is a pair of similar shapes but different sizes, the larger one Is sometimes called a parent and the smaller one is called a child.
- Metaphor related items
- Father, son and holy spirit,Parable of the Prodigal Son,Madonna and Child,Priest
- Parent company,subsidiary
Research and books that mainly deal with parent-child relationships
- Noriko Hiraki,Keiko Kashiwagi"Japanese Parents and Children: From Anxiety and Anger to Creating New Relationships" Kaneko Shobo 2015 ISBN-978 4760830336 A book by a clinical psychologist, dealing with the problems of parent-child relationships (mainly in modern Japan)Child-rearingFrom old parentsNursing careAnd also presents hints for flexible relationships. )
- Kazumi Takahashi"A disease called" mother and child "", Chikuma Shinsho, 2016 ISBN-978 4480069306.. (A book by a psychiatrist. Analyzing that the formation of relationships between children is strongly influenced by mothers, the mothers are "standard mothers with responsibility as parents" and "immature mothers who have not become parents." Classified as "mother" and "mother with impaired interpersonal understanding", explanations of human-related illnesses that tend to appear in children in each case and how to recover from them.
- Gibson, Lindsay C., Adult Children of Emotionally Immature Parents: How to Heal from Distant, Rejecting, or Self-Involved Parents. ISBN-978 1626251700.Adult childrenA book dealing with the complex issues of parent-child relationships that appear when a child becomes a parent
- ^ Kojien Fifth Edition
- ^ a b Digital Daijisen
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Heibonsha "World Encyclopedia" [Parent and child]
- ^ Heibonsha "World Encyclopedia" [Parent and child]
- ^ Furusawa (1974), p. 146
- ^ Nihon Kokugo Daijisen, Nihon Kokugo Encyclopedia (Nipponica), Digital Daijisen, Selected Edition.What is a parent-child phone?”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2019/10/14Browse.
- Isao FurusawaHen, "Biology in General", (1974), Ashi Shobo
|Feelings and emotions|
- Custody,Parental authority
- Parent-child marriage
- Legitimacy estimation,Cognition,,,Appeal for denial of evacuation,Appeal for confirmation of non-existence of parent-child relationship
- Marriage quasi-correct
- Cognitive semi-correct
- Legal representative
- Joint custody
- Guardianship of minors
- Conflict of interest
- Special adoption
- Adoption,Ordinary adoption,Special adoption,Adoption
- Marriage ability
- Support.Nursing care,Elderly care.
- anniversary : Parent and child day --Fourth Sunday of July
- Norio Higuchi, Parents and Children and Law: An Attempt to Compare Japan and the United States, Koubundou Publishers, 1988
- Akira Takeda, Yoshikazu Hasegawa, "Fictitious Parents and Adopted Children" Sanseido, 1988,ISBN 4385406162
- Yasuhiko Yuzawa, "Japanese Characteristics of Parent-Child Relationship," Yasuda Life and Society Corporation, 1990
- Takeshi Soga, Pseudo-Parent-Child Relationship in Rural Areas: Legal Sociology, Ochanomizu Shobo, 1992 ISBN 4275014561
- Fumio Nakazato, "Parent-Child Statue in the Classic", Keiko Publishing, 2002
- Kosaku Matsukura "Overview Austrian Parent-Child Law" Sagano Shoin, 2003,ISBN 4782303726
- Jun Nakagawa, The Law of Couple-Parent-Child Relationship, World Thought, 2004,ISBN 479071070X
- Yasuhiro Okuda, "Nationality Law", Yuhikaku Publishing, 2004,ISBN 4641046255
- Hiroshi Tsuru "Parent-Child Relationship: (Infant / Child Education Course No. 2007)" Nihon Tosho Center, XNUMX ISBN 428430187X
- Tadaki Matsukawa "Development of Medicine and Parent-Child Law" Yuhikaku 2008 ISBN 464113524X
- Tazuko Hiroi, Ryoko Kodama "Modern Parent-Child Problems: Why Parents and Children are" Problems "" Nihon Tosho Center, 2010 ISBN 4284304410