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- State of Oklahoma
() (State emblem)
- State nickname: Runaway state
- State motto: Labor overcomes everything
(Latin: Labor omnia vincit)
State capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Governor Official terminology English area
- Grand total
20th in the US
3,173 km² (1.8%)
- Grand total
- Population density
28th in the US
-Date of subscription
1907 May 11
Time zone UTC -6, -7
STD -5, -6
latitude North latitude 33° 37'-37° longitude West longitude 94° 26'-103° East-west width 645 km North-south length 370 km elevation
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)
Website Oklahoma State Government Senator Jim Inhoff
Oklahoma(Oklahoma,English: Oklahoma, ( Audio file); Cherokee: ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ, ogalahoma; Choctaw: Oklahumma）It is,The United States of AmericaLocated in the South CentralState..North of the stateColoradoとKansasTouchingMissouriとArkansas, WestNew mexico, SouthTexasIs in contact with.It ranks 50th in area and 20th in population among the 28 states of the United States.
The state name isChoctawFamilyイ ン デ ィ ア ンIn the wordsokla と feverMeans "red people".. Original on November 1907, 11Indian TerritoryとOklahoma TerritoryTogether, it is the 46th state in the United States, initially in the United States.イ ン デ ィ ア ンIt is a state created for the purpose of displacement of most of the tribes.Therefore, compared to other states, IndiansReservation place(Reservation) is very large.
OklahomaNatural gas,oilandAgriculture:High output and economic foundation in aircraft, energy, telecommunications and biotechnology..It has one of the highest economic growth rates in the country, and is one of the top in the country in terms of per capita income growth rate and gross domestic product growth rate.。オクラホマシティ市とタルサ市が州の経済の中心となり、両都市圏に州全体の人口の60%以上が住んでいる.
Origin of the state name
The name "Oklahoma"okla と feverIt is a combination of and means "red people".ChoctawProposed by the tribal chief Allen Wright in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the United States Government on the use of the Indian Territory.Wright envisioned an all-Indian state under the control of the United States Indian Affairs Inspector.okla hummaIs used to refer to the entire Native AmericansChoctawIs.It later became the de facto name for the Oklahoma Territory, and became the official name in 2, two years after the area was opened to white pioneers..
Last glacial periodThere is evidence that the Indians have moved through Oklahoma., Became the first permanent inhabitant, from 850 AD to 1450 ADArkansasPeople who built mound-like structures near the border.SpanishFrancisco Vasquez de CoronadoTraveled in the state in 1541, In the 1700sFrenchExplorers claim sovereignty over the area.FranceOccupied by 1803Acquisition of LouisianaBy the United StatesMississippi RiverContinued until I bought all of my western territory from France.
1794 OfFallen Timbers BattleAs a peace treaty(1795 May 8) Was signed, and in the first half of the 19th century, Indians throughout North America were expelled from their ancestral lands ().Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek), Moved to what is now Oklahoma.Choctaws were relocated from the Southeastern United StatesCivilized Five TribesIt was the first tribe in the world. "Road of tearsThe word originated from the movement of the Choctaw tribe in 1831, but it is usuallyCherokeeUsed to represent the movement of a tribe..About 17,000 Cherokees and 2,000 black slaves they owned were moved from their hometown...The Oklahoma region was already occupied by the Osage and Kuapo tribes, but was called the land for the Choctaw, then became the land of the Indians, and the boundaries were re-established to include other Indian tribes under US policy. Defined. By 1890, more than 30 tribesIndian TerritoryFocused on the territory (or called "Indian Country").Civil WarDuring, many IndiansUnion ArmyorConfederateI served in the army.In the case of the Cherokee, there was also an intra-tribal conflict...OklahomaSlaveryWas abolished in 1866.
1866 to 1899 years, Texas cattle ranchers to meet food demand in eastern cities,KansasTo deliver cows on the promised delivery deadline to the railroadChased a cow.cowboyDeveloped cattle trails and ranches by driving cattle north or illegally settling in the Indian Territory.. 1881, 5 major bull trails (Goodnight–Loving Trail,Potter-Bacon trail,,,Shawnee Trail), Four of them passed through the Indian Territory.
With the increase in white pioneers in the Indian Territory, the United States government announced in 1887.Dawes ActEnacted, allocating tribal land to individual family units, encouraging agriculture and private ownership of land, but also securing federal land.In the process, the railroad company took up nearly half of the land owned by Indians in the territory and secured it for purchase by outside pioneers...Usually the land was open to the pioneers who first came to the land.Land rushThere is a mechanism called, in which a specific land is opened to pioneers at a fixed time, and the pioneers who have been waiting for it rush out all at once.1889 years oldIt was done several times including.Breaking the rules of crossing boundaries before the official release time is a "runaway" (sooner) Has come to be said to have crossed the boundary, and thissoonerThe word (first come, first served) is the official nickname for Oklahoma (Sooner State)..The move to promote the territory to a state began near the end of the 19th century.These days,Continued to allocate land to Indian tribes.Attempts to create an all-Indian state named Oklahoma and an all-Indian state named Sequoia failed one after another, but the 1905 Sequoia Constitutional Council enacted the Oklahoma Constitution two years later. Was the basis of the meeting.. On November 1907, 11, Oklahoma was promoted to the 16th state of the United States.
With the discovery of oil in this new state, it became the focus of the oil boom from time to time, and the town rapidly grew in population and seized wealth.The city of Tulsa was called the "world's oil capital" for most of the 20th century, and exploration of oil fields enriched the state's early economy... Oklahoma entrepreneur, also known as the "father of Route 1927" in 66But,US Route 66Started a movement related to the construction of.Avery, TexasAmarilloIn order to build Route 66 using the road that stretched from Tulsa to Tulsa, he formed the Route 66 Association in his hometown of Tulsa and oversaw the plan..
OklahomaAfrican AmericanHas a rich history. Especially in the neighborhood in the early 20th centuryKansasMany black towns prospered due to the migration of black pioneers.Politician Edward P. McCabe encouraged black pioneers to come to the Indian Territory at the time.McCabeTheodore RooseveltWith the president, he considered the possibility of making Oklahoma a black-dominated state. By the early 20th century, the Greenwood district of Tulsa had become one of the most prosperous African-American societies in the United States... After the transition to the 20th centuryJim Crow MethodByRacismBut the blacks created a prosperous area. After 1915Ku Klux ClansThe resurrection of the society has increased the tension of society. In 1921, a white man attacked a black man,Tulsa race massacreWas called.In this case, a 16-hour riot destroyed 35 blocks of the city, with total damage of $ 180 million and deaths of 300, making it one of the largest interracial violence incidents in American history... By the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan's momentum had diminished in the state and was negligible..
The 1930s were a difficult time in parts of Oklahoma due to poor cultivation practices, followed by droughts and strong winds.Kansas, Texas,New mexicoAnd came to northwestern OklahomaDust bowlIs a product of long periods of light rain and unusually high temperatures, with numerous farmers sinking into poverty.Western United StatesWas forced to relocate to fertile land.. The 1950 years to 20 was the only period of decline in Oklahoma's population, with a 6.9% decline.
Soil and water conservation plans have significantly changed farming practices in the state, and large-scale flood control systems and dams have been constructed.Many reservoirs and artificial lakes were built to supply domestic and agricultural water. By the 1960s, more than 200 lakes had been built, making it the largest number in the country..
1995, the worst in American historyTerrorist incidentIt became the stage of. Oklahoma City on April 1995, 4Alfred P. Murah Federal BuildingAn explosion occurred in front of it, killing 19 people, including 168 children.The bomberTimothy McBayMcBay was sentenced to death and executed by the federal government on June 2001, 6.Buddy Nichols was sentenced to life imprisonment with no possibility of release and is still in prison..
Oklahoma has a total area of 69,898 square miles (181,035 km)2), And is the 50th largest in the 20 states of the United States.Land is 68,667 square miles (177,847 km)2), The body of water is 1,281 square miles (3,188 km)2)..OklahomaRocky mountainsIn front of the eastFrontier StripIt is one of the six states located in and is close to the geographical center of gravity of the 6 continental states.
Oklahoma is in the eastArkansasas well as the MissouriIn the north (37 degrees north latitude)soKansasas well as the ColoradoTo the west end (103 degrees west longitude)soNew mexicoIn the southTexasIs in contact with.Elongated land in the northwest (Oklahoma Panhandle) The southern boundary36°30'NIn100 degrees west longitudeThe state border faces south when it reaches.Then the state borderRed riverThe Red River borders Texas to Arkansas.
Oklahoma CityIs the state capital and the largest city.
OklahomaGreat planesWhen,Gulf of MexicoOf the river basin leading toOzark PlateauBetween..Western borderIt has a gentle slope from the southeastern border to the lowlands...The points from the highest point to the lowest point are also along this line.The highest point is Black Mesa at an altitude of 4,973 feet (1,516 m), located near the northwestern corner of the Oklahoma Panhandle.The lowest point is along the Little River, near the southeastern town of Idabel, at an altitude of 289 feet (88 m)..
Oklahoma has more than 10 geographically diverse statesEcoregionIt is one of the four states including.There are 4 ecoregions on the border, the largest of the 1 states in terms of area per square mile...However, the geographical aspect is clearly different between the western half and the eastern half.There are eight ecoregions in the east and only three in the west.
There are four mountains in the state.The Washito Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, and the Ozark Mountains...They are contained within the inland plateau, with the Ozarks and Washito Mountains as the Rocky Mountains.Appalachian MountainsIt is the only major mountainous area between.Part of the Flint Hills stretches north-central, and Oklahoma's Ministry of Tourism and Leisure recognizes Cabanal Hills in the southeastern corner as the best hill in the world.Its altitude is 1,999 feet (609 m), which is less than one foot for the Ministry of Tourism and Leisure to qualify as a mountain..
Sub-dryIs in the northwest corner of the state and has some natural forests.Oklahoma generally ranges from swelling to flat terrain, with canyons and mesas like the Glass Mountains in between.Part of the plain is divided into small mountain ranges such as the Antelope Hills and the Wichita Mountains in the southwest, with transitional prairies and forests covering the central part of the state.The Ozark Mountains and the Washito Mountains run east to west in the eastern third of the state, and the altitude gradually rises toward the east... More than 500 creeks and rivers create waterways in the state, and there are 200 dam-built lakes.The largest number of artificial lakes in Japan..Most of the state territory is with the Red RiverArkansas RiverThe Little River has created a decent basin..
Flora and fauna
24% of the state area is covered with forest,PrairieGrasslands have low grass, mixed and high grass areas, forming extensive ecosystems in the central and western parts of the state, but cultivated land has largely transformed natural grasslands.In the west, there is less rainfall and low grass prairies and shrub bushes dominate, but pinion pine and red cedar (Juniper), Ponderosa pine grows naturally near the river on the west side of the pan handle.Wetlands, cypress forests, and yellow pine,Teda pineDeciduous mixed forests dominate the southeastern quarter of the state.Post-oak in the northeastern part of the stateElm, Numahinoki, andPine treeIt is a mixed forest with many.
White-tailed deer in the state,Coyote,Bobcat,ElkSuch asmammalian,Quail,Pigeons,Northern Cardinal,Bald eagle,Red-tailed hawk,pheasantSuch asbirdsInhabits.For prairieAmerican bison,Greater prairie,Badger,armadilloIs often seen, and it is the largest pan handle low grass prairie in Japan.Prairie dogThere is a habitat.In Crostimbers, a region that transitions from prairie to forest in the central part of the state, there are 351 species.vertebrateCan be seen.In the Washito Mountains,American bear,Red fox,Gray fox,OttersInhabits, and 328 species of vertebrates can be found in the southeastern part of the state.Also in the southeastAmerican alligatorCan also be seen.
50 state parks in the state, ThreeNational parkOr a national protected area, Two national forests and national grasslands, And there is a network of wildlife conservation areas.1,000 million acres in the state (40,000 km)2) 10% of the forest is public land..It contains the western part of the Washito National Forest, the largest and oldest national forest in the southern United States...The Takakusa Prairie Reserve in north-central state is 39,000 acres (158 km) in size.2) Yes, it is the largest protected area of Takakusa Prairie in the world.This is part of an ecosystem that used to span only 14% of the grasslands that spanned 10 states...In addition, the Black Kettle National Meadow in the southwestern part of the state covers 31,300 acres (127 km).2) Prairie..The Wichita Mountains Wildlife Sanctuary is the largest and oldest of the nine wildlife sanctuaries in the state... Founded in 1901, it covers 59,020 acres (238.8 km).2)..The Chickasaw National Recreation Area is the largest federal-protected park or recreation area, covering 9,898.63 acres (18 km).2)..Besides theseSanta Fe National Historical Road,Road of tearsThere are National Historic Sites, National Historic Sites of Washita Battlefield at Fort Smith, and the Oklahoma City National Monument..
OklahomaWarm areasHowever, from early spring to late summer, thunderstorms are more likely to occur due to the climatic conditions peculiar to this region.PrecipitationContinental climateIs typical of..Most of the statesTornado AlleyIn the area called, Average of 54 pieces per year竜 巻Occurs.This is one of the largest annual tornado rates in the world... Especially1999 The largest type of tornado that occurred continuously and simultaneously from May 5rd to May 3thF5A class tornado also occurred, causing enormous damage to each area...This is due to the frequent interaction between cold and warm air masses.Due to its location between zones with different temperature differences and wind directions, the weather in the state can change widely over relatively short distances and can change dramatically in a short period of time...As an example, on November 1911, 11, the afternoon temperature in Oklahoma City was 11.° F It reached (28 ° C) (the highest ever for this time of year), and the subsequent squalls reached 17 in the middle of the night.° F It dropped to (-8 ° C) (also the lowest temperature ever at this time).
The eastern part of the stateGulf of MexicoThe average annual temperature is 62 due to the influence of the moist south wind brought about by° F(17 ℃), annual rainfall records 1,420mmWarm and humid climate(Köppen climate classificationcFA).Pan handleIt is relatively dry in the area west of Lawton city...Average annual temperature in the Pan Handle area is 58° F(14 ° C), rainfall is 430 mm..100 summers throughout the state° FOften records above (38 ° C) and 0 in winter° F(-18 ° C) or less may also be recorded..Even in the southern part of the state, an average of about 10 cm per year,ColoradoIn the northern part near the border with the state, an average snowfall of about 51 cm is recorded...Also in Norman CityOklahoma UniversityNational Weather Center adjacent to the campusThere are institutions that conduct research on meteorological conditions not only in the region but throughout the United States.We also research and predict meteorological conditions called Sever Storm such as sudden thunderstorms and tornadoes.Storm Prediction Center, Storm Research Institute, and Warning and Warning Training Center are also based here.They areUS National Meteorological AdministrationIs a sub-organization of.
Record highs were recorded in Tipton on June 1994, 6 27° F (48.9 ° C), the lowest temperature ever recorded in Nowata on February 2011, 2-10° F It is (-35 ° C).
|Monthly average temperature in major cities in Oklahoma|
|Oklahoma City||8.3 / -3.3||12.2/0.5||16.6/3.8||21.6/8.8||26.1/14.4||30.5/18.9||33.9/21.7||33.3/21.1||28.9/16.6||22.7/10.5||15.5/3.3||10 / -1.7|
|Tulsa||7.7 / -3.3||11.7/0||16.6/4.4||22.2/10||26.6/15||31.1/20||34.4/22.8||33.9/21.7||28.9/17.2||23.3/10.6||15.5/3.9||10 / -1.1|
|Lawton||10 / -3.3||13.3 / -0.5||18.3/4.4||22.8/9.4||27.8/15||32.2/20||35.6/22.8||35/21.6||30/17.2||24.4/10.6||16.6/3.9||11.1 / -1.1|
|Monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures|
The estimated population of Oklahoma on July 2011, 7 was 1, an increase of 3,959,353% from the 2010 census (3,751,351)..
In 2006, per capita income was US $ 32,210, the 50th largest in 37 states, but the 3rd largest in terms of growth...Also, the cost of living index is always lower.。オクラホマシティ郊外のニコルスヒルズの一人当たり収入は73,661米ドルと州内最高である。ただし、タルサ郡は平均収入で第1位である。2006年の世代別構成比では、5歳未満6.8%、18歳未満25.9%、65歳以上13.2%だった。女性の構成比は 50.9%である。
Oklahoma's center of population is near the town of Sparks in Lincoln County.
Race and ancestry
Oklahoma Racial Composition and Comparison with Previous Census:
|イ ン デ ィ ア ン||8.6%||7.9%||8.0%|
- * Not valid; mixed races were first reported in the 2000 census.
- ‡ Hispanics are the sum of numbers regardless of race.
As of 2005, the composition ratio by ancestors declared in Oklahoma isGerman descent (14.5%), American (13.1%),Irish (11.8%),British (9.6%),イ ン デ ィ ア ン (11.8%, the largest tribeCherokee7.9%) and African Americans (8.1%)).However, 8.1% of the respondents declared that they were pure Indian...Many who declare their ancestors to be American are overwhelmingly of British descent, with some Scottish and Wales descent... The estimated population of Indians in 2002 was 395,219, the second highest in absolute numbers and composition of 50 states... As of 2006, the percentage of foreign-born people was 4.7%., Much lower than the national average of 12.4%.. The non-Hispanic population composition in the 2010 census was 68.7%, down nearly 1970% from 88% in 20..
Oklahoma is an overwhelming Protestant Christian state.The religious composition of Oklahoma residents is as follows.
- キ リ ス ト 教 - 85%
- Other religions – 1%
- No religion – 14%
Of this stateイ ン デ ィ ア ンMost of the tribes were in the 19th centuryAndrew JacksonPresident'sIndian immigration lawI moved from another state.For this reason, it is the most in the United StatesReservation placeIt is one of the many states.As for the migration of Indians,Cherokee,Choctaw,Creek,SeminoleTribe,Chickasawof"Road of tearsIs well known.The five tribes sought to modernize in Oklahoma, especially the Cherokee, who promulgated a constitution and built an autonomous state, but soon after further settlers pressured the reservations and deprived them of their autonomy. It was done.
Indian tribes who emigrated to Oklahoma were not allowed to return to their hometowns.CheyenneHometown of two chiefs, Dal Knife and Little CrowWyomingDesperate return to escape escaped in Hollywood in the 20th centuryCheyenneIt was also made into a movie.PoncaChief Matunazer filed a lawsuit with the Supreme Court against the forced migration of tribes from Nebraska to Oklahoma and won an illegal ruling in 1879.[Source required]..However, many tribes have been divided into states due to the previous displacement.
Currently operating in Oklahoma, "Indian CasinoCounts 119 and is the last trump card on the poverty-stricken Indian reservation.This is the only right of the tribes that are officially recognized by the US federal government and have reservations.Many tribes are not accredited by the US federal government, are not supposed to exist as Indian tribes, and do not have tribal casinos.
≪Tribes officially recognized by the US federal government≫
≪Tribes requesting official recognition from the US federal government≫
≪Tribes not officially recognized by the US federal government, but officially recognized by the Oklahoma State Government≫
Oklahoma supply base
Under President Andrew Jackson, this state of Oklahoma (formerly)Indian Territory), Since 1830, Indian tribes have been gathered from all over the United States one after another, and "land reserved by the Ministry of Interior" (Reservation =)Reservation place) Was isolated.
From the 1860s, the Great Plains surrounding Oklahoma were systematically expelled by the US government from the plains Indians' food for life, Buffalo, with the intention of "attacking troops" and almost extinct from the wild world.The Indians of the Great Plains, who had run out of hunting prey and were starving, were forced to accept the imprisonment on the reservation.On the reservation, many plain tribes who had been on the move to chase Buffalo were banned from hunting and forced to embrace white agricultural culture.
The plain Indians who accepted the reservation began to receive food such as flour, sugar, coffee, dried fruits and vegetables as a "pension" in return for the treaty's transfer of their hometown to whites. ..But this deprived them of their self-reliance and drained them.[Source required].
As a dedicated base for the provision of "pension" supplies to the plain Indians who were relocated to Oklahoma on November 1868, 11, the "Payment Base ("Camp Supply) ”Was installed.This made a name for itself in a tough Indian mopping battlePhilip SheridanIt was set up under the banner of the Army commander, and was renamed the "Fort of Supply" in 1878.
The sight of Indians on the reservations lining up to pick up food at the base continued for nearly 1894 years until the base was closed in September 9.The Indians, who were forced to live in their own right, fell into the fall, indulged in whiskey, and eventually became perceived by the white settlers as "lazy troublesome" and "to feed the Indians" from the settlers. It led to dissatisfaction, "Do whites have to work?", Leading to the abolition of numerous treaties against Indians and the deprivation of their rights.This is a problem that still surrounds Indians across the United States, not just in Oklahoma.
After its closure, the fort became the "Western State Mental Hospital Center" from 1908, was designated by the State Legislature as the "Historic District of the Supply Base" in 1988, and became a historical exhibition hall under the management of the "Oklahoma Historical Association".
Indian tribes and state governments have always been in conflict in American history.Indian tribes comply with the "Indian Gambling Regulations Act"Indian CasinoTo open a "reservation", they must use their reservations, or land inside and outside the state to make it a "federal trust", which is, so to speak, the territory of the state government. The legal struggle between states refusing to open Indian casinos and Indian tribes who want to own casinos is a phenomenon that can be seen all over the United States, as it is a transfer to Indians and often dislikes the casino itself under the title of "ethics". It has become.
The Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes in Oklahoma are now appealing to federal judges to prevent these civil proceedings against Indian casinos from being brought to state court.The two tribes argued that state courts were not under the jurisdiction of casino-related proceedings and should be dealt with in tribal courts, saying that the United States, federal courts, and officials in charge of Indian legal matters should consult on behalf of the state courts. There is.
In June 2009, the Oklahoma Supreme Court ruled that it could handle two Indian casino proceedings brought to the state court, dismissing the requests of both tribes.
The "Indian Casinos" in Oklahoma are listed below.The number of tribal casinos will continue to increase, and some tribes are expanding their casinos to neighboring neighboring states.All by federal certified tribes.
Major cities and towns
- reference:Oklahoma City List
- Oklahoma City (681,054, + 17.42%), the following are cities in the metropolitan area
Politics and law
Oklahoma's regimeUnited States GovernmentIt is a constitutional republican government modeled on the above, and the three powers of administration, legislation and judiciary are separated...The state is divided into 77 counties, each with local government jurisdiction...There are also five constituencies for choosing US House of Representatives..State officials are elected by a relative majority in state-wide elections.
The Oklahoma State Legislature is bicameral, both the House of Representatives and the Senate.As a legislature, it is responsible for collecting and distributing the funds needed to run the government.The Senate has a fixed term of 48 and a term of four years, and the House of Representatives has a fixed term of 4 and a term of two years.There is a term limit, and the combined term of office of both houses is 101 years..
The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, the Criminal Appeals Court, and 77 district courts in each county.In addition to this, the Impeachment Court and the Judge Impeachment Court are independent forms.There are two final trials, the Supreme Court conducts civil proceedings and the Criminal Case Appeals Court conducts final trials of criminal cases.This form is only in Oklahoma and Texas.Judges of these two courts and the Civil Appeals Court are nominated by the Governor on the recommendation of the Judiciary Nominating Committee and are subject to a nonpartisan review vote every six years..
The Governor is made up of the Governor, his aides and elected officials.When the Governor, the head of the executive government, is not serving the federal governmentNational GuardEx officioSupreme commanderIt retains the veto power of the bill passed by the state legislature.Government missions include submitting budget proposals, enforcing state law, and maintaining peace within the state..
Oklahoma77 countiesThe county is governed by three elected county commissioners, tax evaluators, clerks, court clerks, finance ministers and sheriffs...Local governments operate independent governments with administrative, legislative, and judicial powers separate from the county government, but the county government has jurisdiction over both incorporated municipalities and unincorporated territories.It has administrative power, but no legislative or judicial power.Both the county and municipal governments collect taxes within their jurisdiction, hire another police force, hold elections, and conduct emergency operations...Other local governments include school districts, technical center districts, community college tics, rural fire departments, rural water supply districts, and special purpose districts.
The Indian tribal government has 31 in Oklahoma, each with limited authority within a designated area.In most of the United StatesIndian settlementThe tribal government held licenses for land during the Indian Territory, but had limited jurisdiction over regimes such as municipalities and counties, and no control.The tribal government is recognized by the United States as a pseudo-sovereign regime over tribal members in terms of administration, judiciary, and legislation, but is subject to the power of the United States Congress when revoking or regulating certain powers.The tribal government must submit its constitution, and any amendments, for approval by the United States Congress..
|Years||Republican Party||Democratic Party|
|2008||65.65% 960,165||34.35% 502,496|
|2004||65.57% 959,792||34.43% 503,966|
|2000||60.31% 744,337||38.43% 474,276|
|1996||48.26% 582,315||40.45% 488,105|
|1992||42.65% 592,929||34.02% 473,066|
|1988||57.93% 678,367||41.28% 483,423|
|1984||68.61% 861,530||30.67% 385,080|
|1980||60.50% 695,570||34.97% 402,026|
|1976||49.96% 545,708||48.75% 532,442|
|1972||73.70% 759,025||24.00% 247,147|
|1968||47.68% 449,697||31.99% 301,658|
|1964||44.25% 412,665||55.75% 519,834|
|1964||59.02% 533,039||40.98% 533,039|
Most of them in the first half of the 20th centuryDemocratic PartyIt was a strong ground. Between 1908 and 1948, OklahomaRepublican PartyThe candidate was supported only twice, in 1920 and 1928.However, the Democratic Party of Oklahoma was usually considered to be much more conservative than the rest of the country, and gradually leaned towards the Republican Party at the national level.
Currently, there are more Republicans in the state.In the presidential elections since 1952, he supported Republican candidates except once. 1 and 2004,George W. BushとJohn McCainWon all counties in the state and won more than 65% of the votes cast throughout the state. In 2008, Oklahoma became the only state with all counties supporting McCain..
In general, Republicans are the strongest in Oklahoma City and Tulsa, in the suburbs close to them, and even in Salient.Democrats are strong in the eastern part of the state and in Little Dixie (southeastern part of the state).
Following the 2000 census, the number of MPs sent from Oklahoma to the United States House of Representatives was reduced from six to five.In the case of the 6th Congress (5-112), there was no change in the party's power, with four Republicans and one Democrat.The two senators are both Republicans.
Oklahoma is an important producer of natural gas, aircraft and food, with economic foundations in the aircraft, energy, transportation equipment, food processing, electronics and telecommunications industries...It is the second largest state in the country for natural gas production... It ranks 50th in agricultural production and 27th in wheat among the 5 states..Fortune 500Four companies entering the Fortune 4 and six companies entering the Fortune 1000 are headquartered in the state., Has become one of the most business-friendly states in the country.. As of 2007, the tax burden is the seventh lowest.. In 2010, Oklahoma City-based Loves Travel Stops and Country Stores became Forbes' 18th largest private company, Tulsa-based QuikTrip 37th, and Oklahoma City Hobby Lobby 37th. Became a place.. Between 2006 and 2010, GDP increased by 1,319% from $ 1,475 billion to $ 10.6 billion... Gross per capita output in 2010 was $ 35,480, the 50th largest of the 40 states...The oil industry has long been a driving force in the state economy, but the collapse of the energy industry in the 1980s lost nearly 1980 energy-related jobs between 2000 and 9, severely impacting the local economy... Oil generated $ 2007 billion in 350, Overtaken by five other industries in terms of employment as of 2007.. The unemployment rate in the state as of March 2012 was 3%..
In mid-2011, the state's labor force was 170 million, with non-farm payrolls rising and falling per 150 million... As of 2011, government-related employment was the largest at 339,300, followed by transportation and utilities at 279,500, education at 207,800, businesses at 177,400, and manufacturing at 132,700...Among the largest industries in the state, the aviation industry sells $ 110 billion annually...The city of Tulsa has the world's largest aircraft maintenance base,American airlinesHas become the headquarters for global maintenance and engineering..More than 10% of the state's production is in the aviation industry, making it one of the top 10 states in the manufacture of aircraft engines...Oklahoma is geographically located in the center of the United States, so it is one of the top logistics states, and there is a lot of research related to weather...North America's top producer of tires and growing rapidlyBiotechnologyThere are also companies.. In 2005, Oklahoma's manufacturing international trade studies amounted to $ 43 billion, or 3.6% of the state's economy...Meat processing, oil and gas equipment manufacturing, and air conditioner manufacturing are also major industries in the state..
Oklahoma is the third largest natural gas producer in the United States, the fifth largest crude oil, and the second largest number of drilling rigs in operation...It is also the 5th largest crude oil reserve... Although it is the 2011th largest wind power generation capacity in the United States as of 8,再生 可能 エネルギーAs of 2009, 25% of electricity was used, including 46% of coal and 94% of natural gas.Depleted resourcesBorn from.. Although it ranks 2009th in per capita energy consumption in 13, Energy cost is 8th from the lowest..The oil and energy industry as a whole sells $ 350 billion in total state production, with oil-related company employees earning twice as much as regular workers in the state on average... As of 2009, 83,700 commercial wells have 653 barrels per year (7,400 million m).3) Is pumping up crude oil..8.5% of the domestic natural gas supply comes from Oklahoma, and as of 2009, 16 million cubic feet (7,300 million m).3) Was produced.
magazineForbesAccording to Oklahoma City, Devon Energy Corporation, Chesapeake Energy Corporation and Sandridge Energy Corporation are among the largest private oil companies in the country...All Oklahoma companies in the Fortune 500 are energy companies...magazineFortuneAccording to Tulsa, ONEOK and Williams Companies are the No. 1 and No. 2 companies in the state, respectively, in the energy sector, and the No. 2 and No. 3 in the country, respectively...Devon Energy is the second largest in the country in mining and crude oil production, Chesapeake Energy is the seventh largest, and Oklahoma Gas and Electric is the 2th largest gas and electricity company..
Oklahoma ranks 50th in agricultural production, 27th in beef cattle production, and 5th in wheat production among the 5 states...About 5.5% of domestic beef comes from Oklahoma, wheat produces 6.1%, pork produces 4.2% and dairy products produce 2.2%... In 2005, there were 83,500 farmers, producing $ 43 billion in meat and just under $ 10 billion in agricultural products, contributing $ 61 billion to GDP...Chicken and pork are the second and third largest industries in the state.
Transportation in the stateInterstate highway, Intercity rail,空港, Inland port andMass transportationIt's done on the network.There are three high-standard roads and four auxiliary roads built into the interstate highway network throughout the United States.In Oklahoma City, Interstate Expressway 3 intersects Routes 4 and 35, making it one of the most important transportation points in the country...More than 10 miles (12,000 km) of roads span the state, including state-managed high-standard roads, 19,200 turnpike and toll roads.. AlsoNational Highway 66Has the longest passable section in Japan.. In 2008, Interstate Highway 44 became the busiest road in Oklahoma City, used by 1 vehicles a day... In 2010, 235 bridges, including 5,212 national highway bridges, were said to be structurally defective, ranking third in the country in terms of number..
In March 2011, it ranked 3th in the state of the United States for poor waste disposal (Georgia,IllinoisSame rank as).Poor cleanliness and inefficiency of public spaces (mainly roads and associated waste disposal) were noted throughout the state..
The largest commercial airport in the state is Will Roger's World Airport in Oklahoma City.Annual passenger numbers were over 2010 million in 350.Tulsa International AirportIs second, with more than 2 million passengers annually in 2010...There are 2 airlines operating between the two airports..In terms of the number of departures and arrivals, the number of departures and arrivals in TulsaRichard Lloyds Jones Jr. AirportIs the largest in 2008 with 335,826 times...There are more than 150 public airports throughout the state..Oklahoma Railroads NationalAmtrakConnected to the Heartland Flyer, which is one of the few railroads to carry passengers.Currently in Oklahoma City and TexasFort WorthIs connected, but Congress began raising funds in 2007 to extend the Heartland Flyer to Tulsa...There are two inland ports on the river, Mascogie Port and Tulsa Port of Catoosa.Only Tulsa Port of Catoosa handles international cargo, handling more than 2 million tons per year, making it the largest inland port in the country...Both ports are part of the McClellan-Kar-Arkansas River navigation system, from Tulsa and Mascogy via the Birdigris and Arkansas Rivers to the Mississippi River.BargeIt is one of the largest and most prosperous waterways in the world..
Oklahoma's education system consists of public school districts and independent private schools, with 2008 as of 533.School district1,845 students were enrolled in 638,817 public elementary, junior high and high schools and vocational schools in.. In the 2009-2010 school year, there were 126,078 Indian students, the largest in the United States...As of 2008, the cost of education per student was US $ 7,755, which is quite low at 47th place in the United States...However, the rate of increase in education costs from 1992 to 2002 was 22nd...Education before entering kindergarten is highly evaluated, and the standard, quality, and access evaluation surveyed by the National Institute for Early Education in 2004 ranked first in the country and is used as a model for early education...High school dropout rate dropped from 2007% in 3.1 to 2008% in 2.5, falling into less than 3% among 18 states.. In 2004, the ratio of high school graduates and above to adults was 85.2%, the 37th in the United States, but the 1st in the Southern United States..
Colleges and universities
In OklahomaOklahoma State University,Oklahoma UniversityandUniversity of Central OklahomaIs a large public higher education institution, operated by one school and a satellite campus in the state. The two state universities, and Oklahoma City University and the University of Tulsa, are highly regarded in the country for their practical education of college students...Tulsa Law School, Oklahoma City Law School, and Oklahoma Law College are among the few in the stateAmerican Bar AssociationIt is an accredited educational institution.The University of Oklahoma and the University of Tulsa are highly regarded in national academic grades, with the University of Tulsa being the only one in the top 100...There are 11 public regional universities in the state..Among them are Northeastern State University, the second oldest higher education institution west of the Missouri River, and the only ophthalmology college in the state.Also, the largest number of Indian students in the country are enrolled in terms of ratio and absolute number...Langston University is the only black college in the state.Six of the universities in the state were among the 6 regional colleges in the country in the 2007 Princeton Review., 3 schools are on the top list of highest value.There are 55 post-secondary technical education institutions run by the Oklahoma Vocational Training Technology Education Program, which provide education and training in specialized areas of industry and business..
During the 2007-2008 education year, 181,973 students, 20,014 graduate students, and 4,395 doctoral students were enrolled in higher education institutions in the state.Of these students, 18,892 received a bachelor's degree, 5,386 received a master's degree, and 462 received a doctoral degree.This means that Oklahoma has an average of 38,278 degree holders per graduate.The national average is 68,322..
- Cameron University
- Phillips University
- East Central University
- Heritage College and Heritage Institute
- Langston University
- Middle American Christian University
- Northeastern State University
- Northwestern Oklahoma State University
- Oklahoma Baptist University
- Oklahoma Christian University
- Oklahoma Panhandle State University
- Oklahoma State University Health Science Center
- Oklahoma State University Okmulgee
- Oklahoma Weslean University
- Oral Roberts University
- Phillips University
- Rhodes State College
- Seminole State College
- St. Gregory's University
- Southeastern Oklahoma State University
- Southern Nazarene University
- Southwestern Oklahoma State University
- University of Central Oklahoma
- Oklahoma University
- University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
- University of Oklahoma, Tulsa
- Oklahoma University of Science and Arts
Art and culture
OklahomaUnited States Census BureauIn the classification ofSouthernAlthough it is positioned in, All or part of it, depending on the definitionSouthwestAnd entering the Southern Cultural Area, and by definition of geographic and cultural areaUpland South,Great planesThere is also a part in..If you trace the ancestors of the indigenous people, the proportion of Germans, British, Scottish-Irish and Indians is high...Twenty-five languages are spoken in Indian languages..It is linguistically very diverse as many Indian tribes were relocated to Oklahoma when white immigrants increased in North America.Oklahoma UniversityMary Lynn, an associate professor of anthropology and an assistant curator of Indian languages at the Noble Museum, says that some languages are highly endangered.
So far, six regimes have dominated what is now called Oklahoma...There are also 67 Indian tribes in the state..It has the largest number of tribal headquarters and 39 federal-certified tribes...Ranchers in the western part of the state, Indian tribes, pioneers in the south and oil deposits in the east have become components of the state's culture and have been considered the lowest culture in the country, even in large cities...Citizens are accustomed to the hospitality commonly found in the South, and the Catalog for Philanthropy ranks its overall tolerance as the fourth largest in the country.. AlsoJohn SteinbeckThe novel "Angry grapes』Depicted the poverty of an uncultivated poverty-stricken farmer in the Dust Bowl era called Okie, but has become accustomed to such a negative culture...However, the word okey is often used by the people of the state in a positive sense.
Art and theater
In the largest metropolitan area in the statejazzThe pocket of culture is thriving, Indian, Mexican-American and Asian-American societies produce the music and art of their respective cultures..The Oklahoma Mozart Festival in Bartlesville is one of the largest classical music festivals in the southern United States...The Oklahoma City Arts Festival is also listed as one of the finest art festivals in the country..
Five Indian ballerinas from Oklahoma have gained worldwide fame and the valley has a rich history.The five are Yvonne Shootoo and Majorie.マ リ アToll Chief sisters, Roselia Hightower and Moserin Larkin, are called the "Five Moons". "New York TimesThe newspaper listed the Tulsa Valley as one of the top volleyball teams in the country...The Oklahoma City Valley and the University of Oklahoma Dance Club were formed by Yvonne Shootoo and her husband, Miguel Telekov.The College Dance Club was founded in 1962 and was the first of its kind to be certified in the United States...There is an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" In Sand Springs, and the musical "Discovery Land!"Oklahoma!Is the official performance hall..He has created popular musical styles such as Tulsa Sound and Western Swing at the Keynes Ballroom (dancehall) in Tulsa.This building is also known as the Carnegie Hall on Western SwingIt was a theater where Bob Willis and the Texas Playboys performed in the 1930s...The city of Stillwater is known as the birthplace of Red Dirt music and is known for playing Bob Childers.
Well-known theater companies in the state capital, Oklahoma City, include the Oklahoma City Theater Company, the Carpenter Square Theater Company, the Oklahoma Shakespeare in the Park, and City Rep.Citirep is a professional theater company that provides equity points to entertainers and technical experts in theater companies.In Tulsa, Oklahoma's oldest inhabitant professional theater company is the American Theater Company, and Theater Tulsa is the oldest civilian theater company west of the Mississippi River.There are other Heller and Tulsa Spotlight troupes in Tulsa.Norman, Lawton, and Stillwater also have highly acclaimed civic theater companies.
Oklahoma ranks 17th and middle of the country in terms of per capita art spending, with more than 300 museums in the state...Of the city of TulsaPhilbrook Museum of ArtIs considered to be one of the 50 best museums in the United StatesThe Sam Noble Oklahoma Natural History Museum, which houses the local natural history literature in Norman, is one of the largest museums of art and history in the country...The collection of Thomas Jill Crease is housed in the Jill Crease Museum in Tulsa, the world's largest and most comprehensive collection of art and man-made objects in the western United States...The Egyptian Art Collection at the Mabie Galler Museum in Shawney is considered to be the most acclaimed collection of its kind between Chicago, Illinois and San Francisco, California...Oklahoma City MuseumDale ChihulyThe most comprehensive collection of glass sculptures by..The National Cowboat Western Historical Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City is a collection of archetypal Old West heritage...Among Jewish Holocaust relics and Jewish-related artifacts, the Sherwin Miller Jewish Art Museum in Tulsa houses the largest collection of Jewish art in the southwestern United States..
Festivals and events
Oklahoma's 2007th Anniversary of State Promotion, held on November 11, 16, was listed as a top event in 100 by the American Bus Association...Every year, ethnic festivals and events are held in the state, such as Indian Paw Wow and other rituals, Scottish, Irish, German, Italian, Vietnamese, Chinese, Czech, Jewish and Arab. Some communities of descent, Mexican descent, African descent, etc. celebrate cultural heritage and traditions.The Oklahoma State Festival, which takes place in Oklahoma City for 10 consecutive days, is visited by nearly a million spectators., Large scale every yearPow Wow, Asian Festival, Juneteenth (Emancipation Proclamation Day), etc.More than 10 million spectators visit the Tulsa Festival in 100 daysIn addition, the May Festival in Tulsa attracted more than 2007 people in four days in 4... In 2006, in the city of TulsaOktoberfestIs the newspaper "USA TodayWas listed in the top 10 in the world and in the magazine "Bonapetti" as the top domestic food festival of German origin.Tulsa also hosts an annual music festival, "D Fes," featuring bands and musicians from the state.The Norman City holds the Norman Music Festival.It has also held the Norman Medieval Festival since 1976, making it the first in the state.The festival was first held at the University of Oklahoma South Oval, then moved to Duck Pond in the third year, and then moved to the Leaves performance in 3 as it grew larger.The Medieval Festival is the largest weekend event in Oklahoma and the third largest in the state, and has been selected by the Events Media Network as one of the 2003 national events.
Celebrity from Oklahoma
- Celebrity from Oklahoma
- Carrie Underwood --A popular audition program in the United StatesAmerican idol4th season victory
- Paul Weiner - baseball player (American Baseball Hall of Fame(Awardee)
- Lloyd Waner - baseball player.Paul Waner's younger brother (American Baseball Hall of Fame(Awardee)
- Nokie Edwards - The VenturesLead guitarist.CherokeeHave the blood of the tribe
- Bobby cox --Baseball player, manager
- Neal Schon - JourneyGuitarist.Oklahoma CityBorn at Tinker Air Force Base
- Willie Stargel - baseball player (American Baseball Hall of Fame(Awardee)
- Wes Studi -Actor
- Randy Bath --Baseball player, exHanshin TigersAthletes, members of the state legislature.It has the blood of the Cherokee tribe
- Forbian Bowers --A musician from Cherokee, a soldier,GhqThen an interpreter.kabukiInsisted on the protection of
- Brad Pitt -Actor
- Garth Brooks --America's most popular country singer
- Patty Page -Singer
- Johnny Bench - baseball player (American Baseball Hall of Fame(Awardee)
- Bob Bogle --The Ventures bassist, in charge of the first lead guitar
- James Marsden -Actor
- Mickey mantle - baseball player (American Baseball Hall of Fame(Awardee)
- Jim Ross --A live announcer representing the American professional wrestling world.WWEVice president
- Wes Welker - NFLAthletes, Cherokee blood
Minor league baseballteam is:
otherOklahoma City·team is:
- (Ice hockey : CHL)
- en: Oklahoma City Yard Dawgz (en: Arena Football League : en: AF2)
- (Women's Football : NWFA)
- Oklahoma City Thunder (NBA)
- (basketball : en: United States Basketball League)
otherTulsa cityTeam in:
- (Ice hockey : CHL)
- en: Tulsa Talons (en: Arena Football : en: AF2)
- en: Tulsa 66ers (basketball : en: NBA Development League)
Oklahoma's federal health care budget was $ 2005 in 75,801,364, making it the 50st largest of the 21 states.Vaccination, bioterrorism prevention, and health education are the three most expensive items...The prevalence of major diseases is close to the national average,Bronchial asthma,Diabetes mellitus,gunandHigh blood pressurePrevalence of illness is somewhat higher than in other parts of the country.
2000年時点で、人口一人当たり医師の数は国内第45位であり、一人当たり看護師の数でも全国平均より少し低かったが、人口10万人あたりの病床数では国内平均を僅かに上回り、過去12年間での健康サービス成長率では国内平均を上回った。2005年時点で18歳から64歳の州民のうち25%近くが健康保険に入っておらず、悪い方から5番目の高率となっている。肥満率では人口の30.3%がobesity, Or is diagnosed as close to obesity, which is also the fifth worst..The Commonwealth Fund's 2007 survey ranked the lowest in health care practices in 50 states..
The INTEGRIS Cancer Institute, along with the Proton Therapy Center, is the sixth comprehensive cancer treatment center in the country, offering traditional radiation and proton therapies.The University of Oklahoma Medical Center, the largest collection of hospitals in the state, is the only hospital in the state to be accredited by the American College of Surgeons as a Level I Trauma Center.The Oklahoma University Medical Center is located within the Oklahoma Health Center base in Oklahoma City and boasts the highest concentration of medical research facilities in the state...The American Cancer Treatment Center Community Medical Center in Tulsa is one of four facilities of this type in the country, treating cancer throughout the Southwestern United States and making it one of the largest cancer treatment hospitals in the country...The largest osteopathic education facility in the country is the Oklahoma State University Osteopathic Therapy Center in Tulsa.NeuroscienceIt is one of the largest in the field of.
According to Nielsen Media Research, Oklahoma City and Tulsa are the 45th and 61st largest media markets in the country, respectively.Lawton, the third largest in the stateWichita Falls (Texas)The media market is the 149th largest in Japan.TV broadcastStarted in 1949 in Oklahoma City and Tulsa City..Currently allNational NetworkThere are affiliated stations in the state.
Two major newspapers are published in the state.Oklahoma City's "The Oklahoma" ranks first in the state and 2th in the country, with 138,493 weekday subscribers and 202,690 Sunday edition subscribers. "Tulsa World" is the second largest in the state and 1th in the country with a Sunday edition circulation of 54 and weekday subscribers of 132,969...The first newspaper in the state was the Cherokee Advocate, first published in 1844.CherokeeとEnglishWas written in both.. As of 2006, more than 220 local newspapers have been published in the state, with 177 weekly newspapers and 48 daily newspapers..
There are two large public radio networks in the state, Oklahoma Public Radio and Public Radio International. The Oklahoma Public Radio, launched in 2, is the first and has received 1955 awards so far...Public Radio International broadcasts programs to 10 base stations in the state, with monthly broadcast times exceeding 400 hours...The first radio station in the state was opened in the city of Oklahoma City in 1920... As of 2006, there are more than 500 radio stations in the state.
There are also several ethnic minority-oriented television stations that broadcast programs in Spanish, Asian languages, or Indians.There is a Christian network station in Tulsa, and in 1980 the first station, wholly owned by the Trinity Broadcasting Network, was established in Oklahoma City..
State symbols, etc.
State law provides for state emblems and honorary positions..The Senate and House of Representatives can specify special events and things that benefit the state.
- State Birds- Scissor-tailed butterfly
- State Tree-American Redbud
- State mammals-- American bison
- State Motto-"Labor omnia vincit" (labor is better than everything)
Japan's sister cities
- (AkitaNikaho Town) - (Shawnee city)
- (TochigiUtsunomiya City) - (Tulsa city)
- (KyotoKameoka) - (Stillwater City)
- (KyotoSeika Town) - Norman City
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- Baird, W. David; and Danney Goble (1994). The Story of OklahomaNorman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2650-7
- Dale, Edward Everett; and Morris L. Wardell (1948). History of Oklahoma. New York: Prentice-Hall
- Gibson, Arrell Morgan (1981). Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries (2nd ed. Ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1758-3
- Goble, Danney (1980). Progressive Oklahoma: The Making of a New Kind of StateNorman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1510-6
- Jones, Stephen (1974). Oklahoma Politics in State and Nation (vol. 1 (1907–62) ed.). Enid, Okla .: Haymaker Press
- Joyce, Davis D. (ed.) (1994). An Oklahoma I Had Never Seen Before: Alternative Views of Oklahoma HistoryNorman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2599-3
- Morgan, Anne Hodges; and H. Wayne Morgan (eds.) (1982). Oklahoma: New Views of the Forty-sixth StateNorman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1651-X
- Morgan, David R .; Robert E. England, and George G. Humphreys (1991). Oklahoma Politics and Policies: Governing the Sooner State. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-3106-7
- Morris, John W .; Charles R. Goins, and Edwin C. McReynolds (1986). Historical Atlas of Oklahoma (3rd ed. Ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1991-8
- Wishart, David J. (ed.) (2004). Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-4787-7 complete text online900 pages of scholarly articles
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