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👍 | JXNUMX Kobe's Iniesta working on crypto assets is advised by the National Securities Market Commission of Spain.

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National Securities Market Commission of Spain sends advice to Iniesta of JXNUMX Kobe working on crypto assets

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"Hello Andres Iniesta, crypto assets, regulated because it is not a product, and there are some related risks" on Twitter of Iniesta.

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currency > Digital currency > Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency(Angoutsuka,British: cryptocurrency, Cryptocurrency, crypto) is a digital asset designed to act as an exchange medium, with individual coin ownership records in the form of a computerized database.LedgerSaved inpowerfulCipherThis guarantees the security of transaction history, controls new coin generation, and confirms the transfer of ownership.[1][2]

Cryptocurrencies do not have a physical form (such as banknotes) and are generally not issued by central authority.A typical cryptocurrency isDecentralized (decentralized)Is controlled byCentral Bank Digital CurrencyIn contrast to.[3]

When a cryptocurrency is generated, before it is issued, or when it is issued by a particular user, it is generally considered centralized.When decentralized controls were implemented, individual cryptocurrencies were decentralized ledger technology (usually).Block chain), It functions as a public financial transaction database.[4]

First released as open source software in 2009BitcoinIs the first decentralized cryptocurrency. [5] Since the release of BitcoinMany other cryptocurrenciesHas been created.


Decentralized cryptocurrencyIs collectively generated from the entire cryptocurrency system.The speed of its formation depends on when the system was created and whether the system is known.Federal ReserveControl of the money supply in centralized banking and economic systems such as by the board of directors and the governmentFiat moneyMade by manufacturing or requesting an increase in the bank's digital ledger.

However, companies or governments cannot manufacture cryptocurrencies.Also, the company or the government itself has not assisted other companies, banks or entities that hold the asset value in decentralized cryptocurrencies until December 2017.It was the development of the basic technology system that supports decentralized cryptocurrenciesSatoshi Nakamoto A group or individual known as (Satoshi Nakamoto)[6][7][8].

As of March 2015, there were hundreds of cryptocurrencies with specifications, most of which were the first fully implemented decentralized cryptocurrencies.BitcoinSimilar to and from BitcoinforkIs what[9][10]..The security, consistency and balance of ledgers in the cryptocurrency system is maintained by a community of non-reliable parties called miners.Miners are the general public who use their own computers, the miners confirm the legitimacy of the transaction, and the transaction is specific.Time stampAdded to the ledger according to the scheme[11].

The security of cryptocurrency ledgers is based on the assumption that the majority of miners try to maintain their ledgers fairly from financial motives.

Most cryptocurrencies are designed to gradually reduce their issuance, and there is an upper limit on the total amount of currencies that will circulate in the future, such as precious metals.[12][13]..Owned by a financial institutioncashCryptocurrencies are more of a law enforcement agency than ordinary currencies exchanged asSeizedHard to be done[12][14]..All existing cryptocurrencies are pseudoAnonymousHowever, pure anonymity can also be achieved, as suggested by Zerocoin and its distributed laundering capabilities.[15][16][17].


In 1998, Wei Dai presented an overview of an anonymous decentralized electronic financial system called b-money.[18]..Shortly thereafter, Nick Szabo created Bit Gold.[19].. Bit GoldBitcoinLike the cryptocurrencies that follow, such as, it required the user to cancel the achievement of proof of work. Proof of work will be unlocked when the complete cryptographic answer is published.

The first decentralized cryptocurrencyBitcoinWas in 2009Pseudonym OfSoftware developerSatoshi NakamotoDeveloped by.BitcoinCryptographic hash functionSHA-256Was used for its proof-of-work scheme[20][21][22].. Namecoin was released in April 2011Online censorshipDecentralization that will make it very difficultDNSWas developed for the purpose of forming.Shortly after that, in October 2011,LitecoinHas been released.Litecoin was the first successful cryptocurrency to use scrypt instead of SHA-256 as a hash function.As another notable cryptocurrency, Peercoin was the first successful cryptocurrency to combine proof-of-work and proof-of-stake.[23]..Many other cryptocurrencies have been developed, but only a few have been successful.Because they brought little to do with technological innovation. United Kingdom on August 2014, 8Ministry of FinanceAnnounced that it has commissioned research into cryptocurrencies and, if any, the role they can play in the British economy.The ministry's investigation will also report whether regulations should be considered.[24].

Since 2014, Monero,Ethereum, And so-called Nxt 2th generationCryptocurrency has appeared.They have advanced features such as invisible addresses, smart contracts, sidechains or side assets.

2015, Cardano (Cardano) Etc.3th generationCryptocurrency was born.For example, Cardano is a proof of stake blockchain network developed as a platform for developing decentralized applications with multi-asset ledgers and verifiable smart contracts.Built using a guaranteed formal method, Cardano aims to deliver the scalability, interoperability, and sustainability required for practical applications that are not sufficient for second-generation cryptocurrencies. There is.

December 2017, 12, No. 3 in the world's proven reserves of crude oil[25] Is in an economic crisisベネズエラ OfNicholas MaduroThe president is a cryptocurrency backed by resources such as oil and natural gasPetroAnnounced to introduce[26], 1 million units issued on January 5th[25]..The world's first cryptocurrency issued by the state[27].


The representatives of the central bank areBitcoinThe adoption of cryptocurrencies such as these will pose a serious challenge to the central bank's influence on the credit value of the economy as a whole, and consumer confidence in fiat money as cryptocurrency transactions become more widespread. Is definitely compromised.

"If (cryptocurrency) is widely used, it will also hinder the statistics bureau from collecting data on economic activity that the government uses to steer the economy," said Gareth Murphy, senior executive at the central bank. Says.He oversees central bank control over key functions of financial and exchange rate policyVirtual currencyWarned that it would pose a new challenge[28].

BitcoinTMJ Robocoin founder Jordan Kelley launched the United States' first Bitcoin ATM on February 2014, 2.The terminal, located in Austin, Texas, looks like a bank ATM, but is designed to scan government-issued identification cards such as driver's licenses and passports with a scanner to authenticate users personally.[29].

ア ー キ テ ク チ ャ

Time stamping

Cryptocurrencies use various time stamping schemes to avoid the need for trusted third parties to time stamp the transactions added to the blockchain ledger.

Proof of work scheme

The first time stamping scheme developedProof of WorkIt was a scheme.This is the most widely used scheme and is based on SHA-256.Bitcoin introduced SHA-256, and scrypt, which is used in currencies such as Litecoin, also introduced SHA-256.[23]..The latter is now the majority in the cryptocurrency industry, with at least 480 confirmed implementations.[30].

Other hash functions used for proof of work include CryptoNight,BLAKE,SHA-3, And X11 are included.

Proof of stake scheme and compound scheme

With Proof of Work SchemeProof of stakeSome cryptocurrencies use a combination of schemes[23][31]..Proof of stake is a method of ensuring the security of cryptocurrency networks and obtaining decentralized agreements by requiring users to present ownership of a certain amount of currency.This is different from the proof of work system.Proof of work schemes run difficult hash functions to validate electronic transactions, but proof of stake schemes generally rely on currency-specific codes, so there is currently no standard format.


A wallet (Cryptocurrency wallet) is a wallet that stores cryptocurrencies, but it is similar to a private bank in that it can issue account numbers and transfer money directly to each other.It also has a mining function.

Strictly speaking, the wallet in the blockchain corresponds to the address on the blockchain.Secret keyRefers to the database where is stored.With this private key, the corresponding address on the blockchain can be accessed and remittances can be executed.

Theoretical price

Stock vs. flow model

originally,Precious metalAlthough it is a model that was applied to commodity prices such as[32], In 2019, it was announced that the stock-to-flow model (S2F model) will work as a theoretical price model for cryptocurrencies as well.[By whom?]..This is economicsFlow and stockBased on, the ratio of cryptocurrency stock (existing) to flow (newly mined), that is

Rarity = stock ÷ flow

It is a model hypothesis that the theoretical price is determined based on[33][34]..Stock If so, the flow that is the derivative is At this time, the shortage becomes constant with rarity = 1 and becomes stable.Rarity decreases when the stock increases faster than the exponential function, and increases when the stock increases later than the exponential function.Bitcoin stock increases slower than the exponential function, so its rarity increases.

Stable coin

The English word stable means "stable."Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin have no credit from the nations that support their value and their prices are not stable, whereas they are exchanged equivalently to legal tenders such as the US dollar and gold (Peg), Convenience that can be used stably without major fluctuation, issued by the stateCredit moneyIt is a currency that borrows the backing of.In order to maintain the same value, gold and US dollars, which are collateral for credit, must be held by the company that manages and issues cryptocurrencies as much as the issue amount, but the guarantee cannot be confirmed from the outside.[35].

In addition, take measures against crime such as money laundering and terrorist financing.Intergovernmental organizationIsFinancial Activities Working GroupThe (FATF) speculates that it is being used for crimes and is becoming more cautious about its widespread use.[35].

Divided into 4 types according to the type of collateral[36].

  • Legal tender collateral type
    • Tether (cryptocurrency) --Cryptocurrency equivalent to US dollars.It has been questioned that it must hold the same amount of US dollars as the amount issued by Tether to get the same amount of credit, and has been charged by the state of New York for hiding the loss.[35].
  • Fake currency collateral type-other cryptocurrencies (EthereumEtc.) is collateral
    • MakerDAO's DAI, SAI
  • CommoditiesCollateral type-Items with market value such as gold are collateralized
    • Tether Gold, Digix Gold
  • Unsecured type

Economic aspect

Cryptocurrencies are mainly used outside existing banks and government agenciesインターネットIt is an electronic currency exchanged via.Although this alternative, decentralized trading method is in its early stages of development, it has the unique potential to compete with existing currencies and payment systems.

Competition in the cryptocurrency market

As of January 2018, there are about 1 cryptocurrencies[37]..Cryptocurrency market capital is from the topBitcoin,Ethereum,Ripple,Bitcoin cash,CardanoThe top 10 cryptocurrencies by market capitalization alone occupy nearly 8% of the cryptocurrency market.[37]..Various companies are entering the cryptocurrency market because of the opportunity to earn profits from issuing currency, and while the mining business is gaining attention, the computer parts required for mining are also soaring and the entry cost is high.[38].

Network externalities play an important role in the analysis of cryptocurrency market development.The popularity of a currency is essential to its success, as any currency will have a higher value in use as its users increase.Economists say, for example, the most popular cryptocurrency schemeBitcoinLarge-scale competitors such as, have assumed that they will acquire more new users due to the size of their growing trading pool, and as a result will effectively gain an advantage in the market.

Use in magazines

In October 2015Peer reviewsystemAcademic magazine Ledger (ISSN 2379-5980 ) Was launched[39][40]..This journal has a hash of the paper file to be submittedDigital signatureThe author is advised to do so, which leaves the treatise file time stamped on the Bitcoin blockchain.In addition, the magazine requires authors to put their personal Bitcoin address on the first page of the treatise.[41].

Legal aspect

The legal status of cryptocurrencies varies widely from country to country, and in many countries it is undefined or in the process of transition.While some countries explicitly allow the use and trading of cryptocurrencies, others ban or limit cryptocurrencies.Similarly, different government agencies, ministries, and courts have different classifications of Bitcoin.

Legal status in each country

The United States of America

August 2014, 3,United States Internal Revenue Service (Internal Revenue Service, IRS) IsBitcoinAs a currencyTax assetsDecided to treat as.This is because Bitcoin is in the USTransfer incomeIt means that it is subject to taxation.The benefit of this decision is that it clarifies the legal status of Bitcoin.Since then, investors have no longer have to worry about investing in Bitcoin, whether the profits they earn from Bitcoin are illegal, and how to declare them to the IRS.[42]..The IRS decision, apart from the reasoning, fits Bitcoin's nature, as Bitcoin has characteristics closer to the precious metal market than traditional currencies.[43].

People's Republic of China

People's Bank of ChinaIs very early in 2014ChugokuBanned the handling of Bitcoin by domestic financial institutions[44].


Cryptocurrency in JapanFund settlement lawDefined in Article 2, Paragraph 5CryptocurrencyCorresponds to.Income from individual purchases and sales is subject to comprehensive taxationOther incomeCorresponds to.

The Government of Japan decided on October 2019, 10 that cryptocurrencies are not money and securities, but donations to individual politicians are donations from property interests.[45].


Cryptocurrencies themselves are legal in Russia, but it is illegal to purchase goods in Russia using currencies other than the Russian ruble.[46].


Legal issues related to cryptocurrencies are not the only ones that arise with the government.Coinye, for example, has a wrapper on its logoKanye WestWas used without permissionOrtho coinIs. Since Coinye was originally named Coinye West, Kanye West's agent sent a suspension order to Coinye's email administrator David P. McEnery Jr.The suspension order states that Coinye is a deliberate trademark infringement, fraudulent competition, cyber piracy, and trademark dilution, similar in appearance and the name of Kanye West. Ordered to stop using[47].

Concerns about the unregulated global economy

As the popularity and demand for online currencies has increased since the launch of Bitcoin in 2009[48]There is also growing concern that the unregulated individual-to-individual global economy offered by such various cryptocurrencies may pose a threat to society as a whole.There are many concerns that Orthocoin may be a tool for anonymous web crime[49].

Cryptocurrency networks have apparently lacked regulation, which has attracted many users who want decentralized currency exchange and use.However, this lack of regulation has been critically evaluated as potentially helping criminals who want tax evasion and money laundering.

Transactions that accompany the use of these orthocoins and exchanges are independent of the legitimate banking system, facilitating individual tax evasion.Since taxable income records are based solely on the taxable person's filing with the IRS, for example in the United States, it is not possible to record transactions using cryptocurrencies, which is a currency exchange method that is sometimes untraceable. Extremely difficult[49].

Anonymity systems provided by the majority of cryptocurrencies can also be used as a simple method of money laundering.Money laundering through Orthocoin is less involved with financial institutions and can be done by anonymous transactions than money laundering through a dense network of financial personnel and overseas bank accounts.Money laundering services for cryptocurrencies exist to meet Bitcoin demand.The service obscures the relationship between deposit and withdrawal addresses by mixing Bitcoins from multiple sources.[49].


On August 2013, 8, Amos Mazzant, a junior judge in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas, said that cryptocurrencies can be used as money (explicitly Bitcoin), that is, they can be used to pay for goods and services, and personal living expenses. Cryptocurrency is a form of currency or money because it can be paid and exchanged for traditional currencies.By this rulingSecurities and Exchange CommissionHas jurisdiction over security fraud, including cryptocurrencies[50].

On October 2013, 10, China's Bitcoin trading platform GBL suddenly shut down, preventing subscribers from logging in and losing $ 26 million worth of Bitcoin.[51][52][53].

In February 2014, the world's largest Bitcoin exchangeMount goxCryptocurrency has garnered national headlines with the announcement of bankruptcy.The company announced that it had lost a little less than $ 4 million worth of Bitcoin to its customers, probably due to theft.This was equivalent to about 7300 Bitcoins, or about 75% of the total amount of Bitcoins that existed at the time.Among other news, the collapse of the company caused Bitcoin prices to fall from about $ 7 in December 2013 to less than $ 12 in February 1,160.[54].

December 2015, 3, thenDrug Enforcement BureauWith an investigatorUnited States Secret ServiceThe duo were accused of communication fraud, money laundering, and several other illegal acts involving the theft of Bitcoin during a federal investigation into the Silk Road.[55].

On December 2015, 12, Homero Joshua Garza was accused of security fraud associated with Paycoin development. Garza was the owner of a cryptocurrency mining equipment sales website called GAW Miners, which is currently out of service.He masterminded an in-depth mouse training attempt, using "cloud mining" as a cover for mining with data center equipment.He claimed that a cloud miner named hashlets was mining cryptocurrencies in a cloud called Zenportal, but in reality no one was mining cryptocurrencies. Zenportal had more than 1 users and earned US $ 1 million in hashlets sales[56].. GAW Miners was co-founded by Garza and the renowned security firm Stuart Fraser of Cantor Fitzgerald.[57].

Darknet market

CryptocurrencySilk roadIt is also used in the controversial environment of online black markets such as.The original Silk Road was closed in October 2013, and two versions have been used since then.Currently in use is the Silk Road 10.The format that was successful on the Silk Road was widely used in the online black market and encouraged the subsequent decentralization of the online black market.In the years following the first closure of the Silk Road, the number of prominent black markets increased from 2 to 3.0, and the quantity of drugs listed increased from 4 to 12.[49].

Black markets are becoming more and more challenging on the legal side.Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency formats used in the black market are not clearly and legally classified almost around the world.Bitcoin is called a virtual asset in the United States.Such unclear classifications are increasing pressure on law enforcement agencies around the world to catch up with fluid drug trafficking in the black market.[58].

The majority of the darknet marketTorBlack markets are relatively easy to find in the public domain because they are run by.This means that you can find customer reviews and public forum sites for black market addresses and drugs sold in the black market, but none of them prove guilty of any form of user.[49]..This kind of anonymity allows both black market sellers and buyers to escape the legal pursuit.As a result, law enforcement agencies stick to activities that thin out individual markets and drug distributors and cut off supply.But distributors and suppliers can stay one step ahead of the rapidly expanding and anonymous black market in pursuit of law.[58].


  • Journalists Joshua Brustein and Timothy LeeBitcoinHighボ ラ テ ィ リ テ ィExpressed concern about the problems that come from[59].
  • Jason O'GradyOrtho coinReported an attempt to disseminate rumors in[60].
  • The community can pre-mining, start hidden activities, orOrtho coinPointing out extreme rewards for the founder as a deceptive practice[61]..However, it is also useful as a unique part of the design of digital cryptocurrencies, such as Ripple.[62]..Pre-mining means that the currency is manufactured by the originator of the currency even before the mining code is published.[63].
  • Most cryptocurrencies are reprints of existing cryptocurrencies and have only minor differences, with no new technological developments.The aforementioned Coinye and Dogecoin[64] Is a typical example[65]..Such a rehashed cryptocurrency that is not aimed at technological development is called "Sitcoin" outside Japan.shitcoin, Meaning of dung coin) "[64] Is called.In Japan, some communities used the aforementioned "sit coin", and the word was coined as "dirty".Grass coin'[Note 1](Derived from the net slang "grass" which means "laughter") is used[66].
  • Banks generally do not provide services for cryptocurrencies and sometimes refuse to provide services to crypto companies.[67].
  • Cryptocurrency stored in local storageMalwareAnd data loss is often a permanent loss.This is also caused by the corruption of physical media, and lost cryptocurrencies virtually disappear from the market forever.[68]..However, this is also a problem common to general cash, including cryptocurrencies (burning banknotes, dropping them in uncollectible places, etc.).
  • There are several criteria that are expected to be met in order for cryptocurrencies to become mainstream.An increasing number of retailers are accepting cryptocurrencies, but the number is still small[69].
  • In cryptocurrencyBitcoinWith technological advances such as, miners are specialhardwareとsoftwareThe entry cost is high because it has become necessary[70].
  • Cryptocurrency transactions are usually irrevocable after a certain number of blocks have confirmed the transaction.One of the features that credit cards have but cryptocurrencies lack is consumer protection, such as withdrawal of payments against fraud.[11].
  • Some cryptocurrencies have unclear backgrounds and developers[71].
  • Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies managed by advanced cryptography, but several governments are cautious about their lack of central control and their impact on financial security.[72].
  • Environmentally conscious people are worried that huge amounts of energy will be spent on the low gains of cryptocurrency mining, but compare it to the energy consumption of the financial system that has been used for a long time. This is very important[73].
  • Traditional financial products come with strong consumer protection.But if Bitcoin is lost or stolen, there is no intermediary to exercise the authority to limit consumer losses.[74].
  • Regulators in several countries have issued warnings about the use of cryptocurrencies and have taken specific regulatory measures to discourage their use.[75].


Cryptocurrencies include fiat currencies such as the Japanese yen and the US dollarClearing houseNot registered, but registeredCryptocurrencyExchangers exist.There is no obligation regarding payment records,Block chainPayment records are published by technology.

The following problems have been pointed out with cryptocurrencies.Block chainCan cause these.[76]

  • There is no guarantee of value to the user. 
  • Cannot be used if the city loses power
  • All data may be erased if an electromagnetic pulse is shot
  • There is a risk of falsification of transaction records due to a 51% attack. (Byzantine general problem)
  • Easy to create a black market.
  • TaxationIt will be an escape route for.
  • Money launderingUsed for.
  • According to the so-called "seminar business method"Investment fraudThe possibility of.[77](A bulletin to call attention to fraud.)
  • The weakness of the management system of exchanges that exchange virtual currency and legal tender.[78] [79]
  • Power waste problem. (Mining is a significant operationBOINC,Folding @ homeThere is also a movement to entrust to. )
  • From now onAI (artificial intelligence)Semi-labor economic consideration for the labor force that can be replaced by robots and robots.

For cryptocurrencies, user / investor protection andMoney laundering-tax evasionFor the purpose of prevention etc.Industry groupThere are also moves to impose regulations[80].

Bitcoin exchange rate

Current BTC exchange rate
Google financeJPYUSD
Coin HackBTC (Japanese Yen)Main rate

Related item


  1. ^ Later, the meaning of a cryptocurrency with a low market capitalization was added, and two meanings are included.[66].


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