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Imperialism(Empire,British: imperialism) OrImperialismIs oneCountryorPeopleIs the interest of your own countryterritory・ Aiming to expand power,PoliticsTargetEconomyTargetMilitaryFor other countries and ethnic groupsInvasion・ Domination and oppressionTrying to create a mighty nationmotion-thought-policyIs.. EtymologyLatinof"Imperium"(imperium）.
In Japanese "imperialism"Is imperialism"・ "Empire"・ "Imperial system"・ "Emperor system"・ "Emperor system", "imperialistIs translated as "imperialist," "emperor supporter," "imperialist," etc.[Note 1]. "emperor"漢字Advented神Shapes the desk on whichHieroglyphIs a character,Meaning"Space OfSupreme god', "Maximum bestDeity,God',WorldRuleYou'.
The term "imperialism" was used19st centuryAfter the second half, but as a historical phenomenonAncient chinaEmpire,Sumer-Babyloniaempire,Egyptian dynasty,Alexander the GreatEmpire,Roman EmpireEtc. also have an imperialist tendency.. "15th-18th centuryWestern European countriesbyAsia.India.AmericaAtterritoryAcquisition and intensified from the latter half of the 19th centuryColonyPolicy can be said to be imperialist rule.But in theoryAncient timesからmodernMany up totheoryThere is no consensus. ".
Osamu NakanishiAccording to academic papers, imperialism was a "plus symbol" until the end of the 19th century...As an example at that time, in 1871Imperial ConstitutionThe German Empire, which promulgated the "Empire Federation" in 1874 (imperial federation) ”And aimed at developmentBritish Empire, In 1889Emperor(Emperor) ”was promulgated as the head of stateDainichi this empireAnd so on..According to Nakanishi, the word imperialism is "extremelyPoliticsTerm ".Second World WarでGerman Third ReichThe Empire of Japan was defeated, and after the warColonyThe independence of Imperialism ended once, but since then it has been revived in terms of both terminology and politics...Nakanishi said, "Whether Empire is translated as empire, wide-area rule, imperialism as imperialism, or wide-area rule is the difference between the countries.translatorDepends on the difference in political position of.
In the academic paper of "Imperialism (Imperialism) vs.Republic(idealOfPolitical thought) ”[Note 2],Kim ShizumiAccording to the scholarly book, "imperialists are imperialists, emperor supporters, and imperialists.".Kunihiko UemuraAccording to the academic paper of "Imperialism"powerA prominent example used as an analytical term isKarl MarxIn the age ofModernEmperor (Napoleon IIIEven in a modern empire governed by), "the natural result is imperialism, no matter what empire it is."..In his academic paper, "According to Marx,Louis BonaparteThe imperialism of the state is "the most injured form of state power and at the same time its ultimate form."[Note 3].
According to the 1870s, the term "imperialism" first became popular in its current sense.United KingdomAnd was used in a negative sense ..According to him, the term was used to describe political support through Napoleon III's military intervention in other nations..
Commentary in the dictionary
- "Random House English-Japanese Dictionary":
- "Kenkyusha New English-Japanese Dictionary":
- "Weblio English-Japanese Dictionary / Japanese-English Dictionary":
What is imperialism? Main meaning Imperialism, imperialism, territorial expansionism, rule of developing countries (policy)
The term also refers to the 19th and 20th centuries, especially in Asia and Africa.Strong lineUsed for political and economic domination by.The exact meaning of this term continues to be debated by scholars.Originally due to the great powerColonialismUsed to refer to, but in a broader sense it is just expansionismHegemonyIs used to point to.AlsoVladimir LeninIs a book "Imperialism"Imperialism資本主義Defined as the final stage of.More broadly, scholars have used it to describe any system of domination and subordination organized in the center and perimeter of the empire, by this definition.Neo-colonialismIs also included[Source required].
"World EncyclopediaAccording to, the concept of "imperialism" is modern.Politics-EconomyWhat has become established as a term19st centurySince the second half, modern phenomena have reflected the historical meaning of this concept as a mirror... "The origin of imperialismAncient rome OfImperiumIt goes back to.hereRepublic RomeからEmpireAnd the conversion of the system toempireThe relationship with the formation of is strongly conscious of posterity. "..In other words, in ancient Rome, the meaning of "imperium" was that of the former republic.Legal orderFrom other ethnic ruleMilitary powerとwealthChanged to a form of control that relied on.. "This transformation of the governing structure is one of the later people's images of imperialism.prototypeIt became ".
The concept of imperialism also has a second implication:Absolute monarchyPeriodMercantilismOf the empire戦 争Policy and domesticTyrannyBorn from the history of "government structure".. "The word empire inherited by modern people isAbsolute monarchyIt praised the wealth and power of the world, and showed its version. "..These criticisms of the empire became a framework for dealing with new phenomena since the 19th century..
From the 19th century to the 20th century, Western European countries called great powers, especially in Asia and Africa.ColonyWe competed for acquisition.The term "empire", regardless of politics or national name, includesSpanish Empire,Portuguese maritime empire,Dutch Empire,Danish colonial empire,Swedish colonial empire,Russian Empire,British Empire(British Empire),French colonial empire,Belgian colonial empire,German colonial empire,Italian Empire,American Empire,Great Qing Empire,Dainichi this empireAnd evenSocialist countryAgainstSocial imperialismand so on.
HobsonPointed out that colonialism, in addition to the economic aspect of where it was dropped, the social aspect of colonialism providing high-ranking jobs, but colonialism since the mid-19th century, especially immigrants. It cannot be an outlet for the surplus population because it is inappropriate as a destination.熱 帯Regional expansion was criticized as imperialism.Bobson's work had many implications for Lenin.
In Lenin's theory of imperialism, imperialism is資本主義It is the monopoly stage (final stage) ofWorld War IIt is also a period division that points toStrong lineIt refers to an era in which countries were subdividing the world through colonial management and conflicts of interest.There is controversy over whether to call this period alone imperialism or to include it in the imperial era after that.According to Lenin, highly資本主義Is established by the development ofMonopoly capitalBut,MarketIt is said that the nation will act in response to their recommendations, as it will demand the securing of new territory as a destination for securing surplus capital.If several nations expand their territory (colonies) according to imperialism世界Is finite, so one day we have to seize territory (colonies) from other imperialist nations,World warIs a natural consequence of that.Lenin's Theory of Imperialism pointed out that the catastrophe as a result of the World War would lead to the catastrophe of the capitalist regime.Such economic deterministic Lenin's claims are often described as "Hobson-Lenin's" imperialism, but the two claims are not necessarily the same.
"" by Gallaher-RobinsonThe Imperialism of Free Trade(Imperialism of free trade) ”theoryUnofficial empireIt uses the concept of informal empire to explain investment outside the colony of its own country.According to their theory, colonization is not always necessary as long as conditions such as maintaining free trade, protecting interests, and stabilizing the situation are met, and only if the above conditions are not observed. It is said that the landing was done.Since Gallerha-Robinson sought the reasons for colonization in response to the local situation and crisis, there was a strong tendency to emphasize the conditions on the colonial side, which has since been called the "peripheral theory".
On the other hand, it was Wallerstein who brought the focus of imperialism back to the "center" again.World system theoryAnd by Kane-HopkinsGentlemanly capitalism(Gentlemanly capitalism).Wallerstein is often criticized for being too economic deterministic, but Kane-Hopkins revisited the social aspects since Hobson and addressed political and social factors in his home society.These studies have been pointed out as decolonization progressed after World War II.Neo-colonialism (Neocolonialism) It was influenced by (indirectly controlling politics, economy, and culture).
Imperialism was justified by the idea of positively affirming the rule of others.that isBiologyWas the above conceptSurvival of the fittestExpanded to a more complex human societySocial Darwinism,Such asPseudo scienceAn imperial consciousness backed byKiplingof"Is represented by the word.Social Darwinism, etc.進化TheProgressCame from being confused withIdea of ProgressToEnlightenment(Enlightenment Enlightenment literally "illuminates with light"), darkness /Savage,light/文明We will create a dichotomy called "Rescue from the state of ignorance" by bringing light, that is, civilization, to the realm of darkness.enlightenment OfideologyI often pretended to be ostensibly.
Hobson, who criticized imperialism, also ultimately "contributes to the well-being of humanity as a whole.資本主義The idea of "incorporating the surrounding area into the economic zone in an appropriate way" is affirmed as "a part of civilization."thisOrientalismThe idea that can be said to be typical of is that dominating non-European regions often goes beyond economic principles, "conscienceIf it was carried out in the name of "and provided a means of security and civilization, it did not necessarily require political control by its own country, but on the other hand, it did not require it.BelgiumAreaCongo Free StateInLeopold IILost the "white duty" like, too muchexploitationIf this is done, it will be severely criticized by the international community.
Also in the latter half of the 19th centurynationalismIn Europe by the rise ofNation-stateDuring the period of formation, the people who increased their sense of belonging to the state often strongly supported imperialism in order to raise national prestige..
Main imperialism theory
HobsonIt is,South Africa WarBased on my experience as a reporter1902 "Imperialism" (Imperialism: A Study), And criticized the expansion of the British Empire after the 1860s as imperialism for capital investment and market development away from "colonization".Pointing out this economic aspect has had a great impact on Lenin's writings.He also pointed out that although it did not affect Lenin, as a political and social aspect, the interests of the hierarchy in the fields of finance, military, and logistics, where the cost of maintaining the empire itself could be the goal.While Hobson considered imperialism to be the "corruption of civilization," he believed in the essential goodness of capitalism and "civilization," and was "barbaric" under the trust of international organizations such as the United Nations today. I thought it was ultimately good to "civilize".
LeninIn 1917Imperialism as the highest level of capitalism』Published.According to the book, imperialism is a special stage of capital development.in the first placeMarxismAccording to capital, capital is based on its basic natureExtended reproductionIt expands while repeating the above, and it is considered that imperialism is the most advanced.In imperialism, monopoly brings about a concentration of capital, and金融Oligarchy in which capital is fused with industrial capital, corruption progresses, and in the long runDeadI'm doing it.Lenin foresaw the inevitable clashes between the imperialist powers, and only then.SocialismI saw it as an opportunity for a revolution.
Hans MogensowTakes a negative position on the relationship between capitalism and imperialism, discussed from a Marxist perspective.Historical statements confirm that capitalists have opposed, rather than favored, imperialist foreign war, in the first place.戦 争Given the inherent accidental dangers and unpredictability of, it can be judged that foreign war is too risky for capitalists.He also said that economic activities that require a certain degree of social stability are basically incompatible with military activities, making it difficult to make profits.
Authored "Nangokuki"Southern theoryInsist,Colonial policyChantedSecretary counselor-Takegoshi YozaburoInsisted on "tropical immigration theory", saying that white people are not familiar with the climate and climate of the tropics, and that immunity to diseases is insufficient.Southern Ocean Islands,Japanese immigrants to Hawaii,Manchuria,KoreaAdvocated relocation to.Also, in the 33rd year of the Meiji era (Meiji XNUMX), the title was "Liberal imperialism, as Sir Roseberg of England says."1900 ) In "" Vol. XNUMX, No. XNUMXBritish Empire OfLiberal imperialismIntroduced to Japan,Earl of Rosebery(Lord Rosebery) policy posted.Sensing the international trends in colonial policy, including criticism of France's assimilation, he insisted on "imperialism outwards and freedom and tolerance in the interior."
Kotoku Shusui The1901 In (Meiji 34), he wrote "Imperialism", stating that "Imperialism is not a policy that can be woven through so-called patriotism, so-called militarism." Based on "Patriotism and Empire" (1899), he conducts his own analysis of the relationship between patriotism and nationalism.
The era of imperialism
There are various definitions of the word imperialism, but the one with the strongest imperialism is1870 eraAfter that, imperialism in the narrow sense refers to the movement during this period...However, in contrast to the global expansion of European countries from the latter half of the 15th century to the first half of the 19th century, imperialism during this period is sometimes called neo-imperialism.At this time, European countries, the United States, Japan, etc.Strong lineCountries take up a significant part of the worldColonyAreas that have become independent and have been divided and controlled, and have maintained their independence, have also been included in the sphere of influence.
The main objectives of imperialism during this period were mainly in Asia, Africa and Oceania.Asia had been divided considerably by that time, but the regions that had maintained their independence between 1870 and 1914 came under the control of the great powers one after another, and what remains as an independent country remains. It became a little.However, in this area other than the modern empire,clear,Ottoman EmpireThe old empire such as..However, many of these former empires were between the great powers due to political defeat.Inequality treatyHas been concluded,Customs autonomyLoss orExtraterritorial law,Consular courtHe was in a semi-colonial situation, as he was made to admit such things as well, and the economic interests of each region in the country were seized by the great powers.
One of the focal points of the conflict during this period wasCentral AsiaAndGreat gameIn the sphere of influence conflict between Britain and Russia, which is called, Britain, which has interests in Russia and India aiming southward, is in the middle.Turkestan-アフガニスタン-Persia-TibetI repeated the corners around.RussiaKhanate of Kokand-Khanate of Bukhara-Khanate of KhivaWest Turkestan 3 Takes control of Khan, Britain is in AfghanistanBarakzai DynastyThe1881 SecondaryAfghan WarでProtected countryAnd said.This dispute1907 OfBritish-Russian cooperativeThe decision was made to respect the independence of the Persian-Qajar dynasty, to make Russia and the southern part the British sphere of influence, and to respect the British sphere of influence in Afghanistan.
The latest left behind in the world divisionAfrican continentIn 1870, there were only a few colonies around the coast,1884 ToBerlin conferenceWas opened and the division rule was enactedAs a result, the great powers started colonizing the inland Africa all at once, 16 years later.1900 By this time, almost all of Africa except some regions had been divided by the European powers.Besides the black nation, in Southern AfricaRepublic of TransvaalとOrange Free StateTwo Dutch immigrants (Bohr) There was a white nation,FriWas discoveredgold RushBritain, which was planning to annex Transvaal1899 Declared war on both countriesBoer WarCaused (Second Boer War),1902 OfVereeniging TreatyBoth countries were merged into the United Kingdom.At the northern endAlawi dynastyモロッコWas maintained independence by the restraint between the great powers because it was at a critical point, but the superiority of Spain and France increased.Germany worried about this1905 OfFirst Moroccan Crisis(Tangier case) and1911 OfSecond Morocco IncidentI aimed to advance to Morocco by (Agadir incident), but in the end1912 OfTreaty of FesFrance made Morocco a protectorate.Thus, in 1912, the independent nation of the African continentエチオピアとEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThere were only two countries.
Various explanations have been given as to the reason why imperialism became stronger during this period.As a political explanation,nationalismBy the development ofNation-stateEuropeStrong lineIt can be said that the nations adopted expansionism in order to raise the prestige of the nation and satisfy their self-esteem as a nation.This aspect is especially noticeable in France.French Third RepublicGovernment1871 OfFrench-French warHealed the wounds of his defeat and aggressively expanded overseas to increase the prestige of the nation...So-called "late" powers such as Germany and Italy were also aiming for foreign expansion and colonization as proof of their country's full national power...On the contrary, Portugal faced the decline of its national power and was strongly obsessed with maintaining its colony as a sign of its well-being and prestige...Such advancement was laid down before the 1870s, and Britain and France, which had built footholds in various places before this, became the protagonists of the colonial division.Italy and Germany, which achieved unification during this period, had no choice but to lag behind in the colonial division competition, and decided to advance to areas with low colonial value where Britain and France had not advanced..
The nationalism of these great powers is often the pre-existing European "humanitarianism", or to non-Europeans.キ リ ス ト 教It was easily linked to the mission of the country and the movement to "educate" the local "delayed" people by communicating European civilization.These movements have been continuous for a long time, but in the imperialist period, they became sharp soldiers due to their slow movement and failure.MissionarySome of them have begun to welcome the overthrow of the local government, which continues to resist, by the secular government of their homeland, and to make the environment easier to indoctrinate.Also at this timeProtestantNot only that, the movement of missionary work was temporarily stoppedCatholicHas begun active missionary work again.Already abolished by major European countriesSlaveryOpposition to is still activeSlave tradeContinuing to target the hinterland of the African continent, the abolition of the slave trade was one of the main names of European intervention in local governments...In addition, the movement of "education" of European civilization to non-Europeans has various discrepancies with local residents (among European civilizations, only a few of the European civilizations that local residents have tried to recognize and incorporate superiority are centered on material progress. (Limited to the field) and changed due to the delay in westernization, and the local people fully understood the civilized "superiority" of Europeans.AssimilationIt is impossible to doRacismLeaned toward recognition.
In Africa, it was not uncommon for exploration of the hinterland to be directly linked to imperialist advancement.Especially since the 1870s, it was widespread for explorers commissioned by the government to conclude treaties with local chiefs and incorporate the land into colonies.1878 ToHenry Morton StanleyIs the king of BelgiumLeopold IIIExploring the Congo River basin under consignment to, and concluding trade agreements in various places, this is1885 It led to the establishment of the Congo Free State..At the same time, in FrancePierre BrozaAlso exploring the Congo River basin, the area he exploredFrench CongoIt led to.
As an economic explanation,Industrial revolutionDue to the great changes in the economic systems of the great powers, each country became a source of raw materials for its industry.MarketIt was generally explained that they were under the control of the underdeveloped area by competing for the underdeveloped area because they were forced to secure the scent...And for that reason, each colony has a minePlantationAs a raw material supply areaMonoculture economyExplained to have placed below..This explanation is a one-sided truth, but it does not necessarily explain everything.
Economic imperialism was not necessarily accompanied by political colonization and external expansion, and with a few exceptions, the colonies of each country occupy an economically important position. There wasn't.For example, colonization culminated1913 In the world trade of Africa, the proportion of Africa is only 3.5%, the proportion of India is also only 3.5%, and the colonies do not have such a large proportion...In the same year, the total trade of European countries and the United States accounted for 72.4% of the world total, and the main battlefield of trade was developed country trade, not colonial trade.. this isinvestmentThe same is true for each country.capitalWas overwhelmingly dropped in areas that were not their own colonies.French capital was most invested in Russia, not the French colonies, and ItalyBalkan Peninsula,Middle EastHe mainly invested outside the colony of his own country.Britain is a white colony of its own country (Canada,Australia,New Zealand) Was a little different at the time when it was investing quite aggressively, but it was stillArgentineIncludingLatin AmericaInvesting in countries was comparable..Conversely, there are some areas that remain politically independent but economically subordinate, by John Gallaher and Ronald Robinson.Unofficial empireWas given the name and generalized.In addition, there were few participants from the business world as the main members of overseas colonization promotion organizations in each country..
The economic advancement of the great powers into the underdeveloped areas was often led by the government rather than the private sector.One example is from the great powers of developing countries.loanIs.Ottoman EmpireGarjar morningThe old great empires, such as Qing, have come to rely on foreign loans to survive financial difficulties, and have been forced to provide concessions and concessions to the great powers that are the source of the funds...Of these countriesCustoms autonomyThe loss of the power also encouraged the economic advancement of the great powers.
Advancement in the transportation field
Another economic advance with strong political involvement isTrainConstruction is mentioned.The great powers competed for the right to lay railroads not only in the colony but also in the underdeveloped areas, and built them with their own private capital.Railroad construction is often closely associated with imperialist initiatives, such as British territory.Cape colonyWas the prime ministerCecil RosebyCape Town-CairoTranscontinental railroad concept between AfricaAnd both cities and even IndiaCalcuttaBuild a sphere of influence that connects with3C policy, And by Germany in opposition to itBerlin-Baghdad RailwayConstruction concept (later,Berlin-Byzantine-BaghdadThe 3B policy has come to be called as an advancement policy that connects the two.) Is one example.
In addition to the railway, the two largest buildings in the world built during this periodcanalIsSuez CanalとPanama CanalWas also deeply connected to imperialism.The Suez CanalMuhammad Ali morningUnder ruleEgyptAnd in FranceFerdinand de LessepsBy1869 It was built in Egypt, but the conditions were very disadvantageous to Egypt..1875 Egypt falls into a financial crisis, EgyptViceroy OfIsma'il Pasha Suez Canal CompanyWhen the British government bought it and became the largest shareholder, it became a major influence on Egypt...The following year, when Egypt collapsed, it managed the country together with France.Soon1882 Will lead to the military occupation of.The Panama Canal was originally built by Lesseps but failed and went bankrupt.1903 The U.S. governmentコロンビアHe signed a treaty with the government and took over that right.However, the United States is a planned canal site because there was strong opposition in the Columbia Parliament.Panama CityFunded the separatists and instigated the revolution.IndependentPanamaThe United States immediately approved,Panama Canal ZoneConcluded a very favorable treaty such as the concession of the United StatesStart construction of the canal,1914 Opened to.
As a technical factor,Medical scienceWith the development ofDiseaseThe death toll in Europe has decreased, and until then it was difficult for Europeans to take military action.熱 帯First of all, large-scale military operations have become possible in the region.This was one factor that enabled the division of the European powers into Africa.. AlsoScientific revolutionThe development of weapons due to the Industrial Revolution and the development of weapons has increased the military power of European countries, and the rapid economic growth has made a big difference in national power, which has created a large gap in military power with the underdeveloped regions. rice field.This greatly reduced the cost of aggression and became one of the major factors in the division of Africa..TelegraphAnd railroads,Steam shipOne of the factors was the advancement of transportation and communication means such as the development of the vehicle, which made it easier to contact remote areas.
According to Albert Grundrin, the development of rugby in South Africa was due to British colonists as "a good way to promote understanding between Afrikaans and English-speaking people," and "the high degree of unity of the empire." He also points out that it was a form that permeated the "plan".. Grundrin suggests that Afrikaners' attachment to or "fusion" of rugby was actually exercised as a reaction to capitalism. "Afrikaners' nationalism has advanced in the context of urbanization and secondary industrialization, and the continued influence of the empire in the economic and cultural sphere..
After World War I and WWII
This imperialismWorld War IIt began to loosen with the end of the game, but was defeated at this time.Central alliesThe colony on the sideMandateThere were still movements that led to the reorganization and strengthening of imperialism, such as being distributed to the victorious countries in the name of..Second World WarLater, as the great powers could not resist the colonial demand for independence, a large number of new independent countries were born in various places.DecolonizationWas to progress rapidly.
After the Cold War
Although open imperialism has hidden its shadow, there are often movements to expand hegemony using humanitarian issues as an excuse.Sokal affairKnown forJean BricmontIn "Humanitarianism: The Hypocrisy of the Democratic America and the Real Image of the Anti-War Peace Movement"HumaneHe criticized it as humanitarian imperialism.Humanitarian imperialism is characterized by mobilizing leftists and minorities..
Imperialism as a metaphor
The term imperialism goes beyond the original meaning and is often used to refer to unequal power relations between civilizations and the advancement of powerful national things and concepts into the surrounding areas.
- Media imperialism
The word is the flow of international information in the United StatesAP communicationAnd BritishReuters,FrenchAFP communicationHuge internationalNews agency,Media conglomerateHas been used to indicate that information dissemination is unilateral from developed countries in Europe and the United States, and has been criticized by developing countries... This criticism was particularly high in the late 1970s and early 1980s.UNESCOWas the Secretary-GeneralAmadou Mahatal MubowAlthough he advocated the "New World Information Order" and appealed for the correction of this situation and gained strong support from developing countries, the eastern countries in this debatejournalistFrom developed countries, partly because they advocated the introduction of a license system forFreedom of the pressThere is a strong opposition as it limits,1984 In America,1985 To England andSingaporeInvited the withdrawal of UNESCO..As a result, the New World information order disappeared, and the imbalance in the flow of information was not corrected..
- ^ "imperialism" used to be "throneWas also translated.
- ^ Original: "CaesarWhether it is worth killing the spirit (imperialism), imperialism (imperialism) vs. republic (ideal political thought), that is, "Caesar's body and spirit" and "BrutusLet's think about the confrontational relationship of "Private feelings and ideal political thought" below. ".
- ^ According to Satoru Osawa's academic paper, Marx states in the "British Constitution":.The imperialism is about to be bornMiddle classSociety began to create and mature as a means of liberating itself from feudal societyBourgeois societyFinallycapitalIt is the most insidious form of that state power, and at the same time its ultimate form, which has been transformed into a means of enslavement of labor by.
- ^ Original: "Imperialism ... 1. An imperial system of government; the rule of an emperor ... 2. The principle or spirit of empire; advocacy of what are held to be imperial interests".
- ^ Semantics are divided by the numbers 1 2 3…, Sorted by frequency of use..Translations of the same kind in one meaning are arranged by (,), The big division is shown by (;).
- ^ According to the "Legend", "In principle, the order of arrangement of meanings ranges from the most common ones in modern usage to special meanings in order .... The meanings are roughly classified by 123 by part of speech, and if necessary. It was subdivided into abc. Also, when it was particularly necessary, ABC was used to show a larger category. ".
- ^ a b c Digital Daijisen. Koto bank. Retrieved May 2019, 3.
- ^ a b Selected Japanese Dictionary. Koto bank. Retrieved May 2019, 3.
- ^ a b c Daijirin XNUMXrd edition. Koto bank. Retrieved May 2019, 3.
- ^ Yoshiya 2019.
- ^ a b c d Ogawa et al. 2017, p. 415.
- ^ a b c d e Bamboo forest 2002, p. 1231.
- ^ a b c Awaji 1980, p. 104.
- ^ a b Nakanishi 2005, pp. 97–98.
- ^ a b c https://ejje.weblio.jp/content/imperialism
- ^ a b c Osawa 2006, p. 51.
- ^ a b Fri 1994, p. 259.
- ^ Chen 2013, pp. 53–54.
- ^ Yoshinaga 2005, p. 99.
- ^ a b Britannica 2019.
- ^ Nakanishi 2005, p. 92.
- ^ Nakanishi 2005, pp. 91–92.
- ^ a b Nakanishi 2005, p. 95.
- ^ a b Yokomori 1977, p. 88 (3).
- ^ Uemura 1997, p. 13.
- ^ a b Magnusson, Lars (1991) (Swedish). Teorier om imperialism. Södertälje. P. 19. ISBN 978-91-550-3830-4
- ^ a b Simpson & Weiner 2004, p. 712.
- ^ "Imperialism" "Random House English-Japanese Dictionary" Shogakukan Random House English-Japanese Dictionary Second Edition, edited by Shogakukan, 1993, p. 1345.
- ^ a b c d "How to use this dictionary" "Random House English-Japanese Dictionary" Shogakukan Random House English-Japanese Dictionary Second Edition Edit, Shogakukan, 1993, p. (10).
- ^ Bamboo forest 2002, p. xi.
- ^ Ishikawa 1993, p. 573.
- ^ a b c d e f g Nakamura 2009, p. 42.
- ^ Yasuo Kobayashi and Takeo Funabiki, "The Logic of Knowledge," 173 --183 pages, University of Tokyo Press
- ^ "Nationalism 1890-1940" p66-69 Oliver Zimmer Translated by Norihiko Fukui Iwanami Shoten August 2009, 8 27st printing
- ^ "Imperial and Imperialism" p27 Yoichi Kibata ("Creation of Empire and Imperialism 21st Century History 4" by Yoichi Kibata, Shingo Minamizuka, and Tadashi Kano) Volunteer House September 2012, 9 30st printing
- ^ "Imperial and Imperialism" p29 Yoichi Kibata ("Creation of Empire and Imperialism 21st Century History 4" by Yoichi Kibata, Shingo Minamizuka, and Tadashi Kano) Volunteer House September 2012, 9 30st printing
- ^ "New Book African History" 8th Edition (edited by Masaoki Miyamoto and Motoji Matsuda), February 2003, 2 (Kodansha's New Book) p20
- ^ "Imperialism" (Introduction to European History) p30-31 by Andrew Porter Translated by Norihiko Fukui Iwanami Shoten March 2006, 3 28st printing
- ^ "Imperialism" (Introduction to European History) p32 by Andrew Porter Translated by Norihiko Fukui Iwanami Shoten March 2006, 3 28st printing
- ^ "Imperialism" (Introduction to European History) p32-33 by Andrew Porter Translated by Norihiko Fukui Iwanami Shoten March 2006, 3 28st printing
- ^ "Imperialism" (Introduction to European History) p114-115 by Andrew Porter Translated by Norihiko Fukui Iwanami Shoten March 2006, 3 28st printing
- ^ "Imperialism" (Introduction to European History) p36-37 by Andrew Porter Translated by Norihiko Fukui Iwanami Shoten March 2006, 3 28st printing
- ^ "Imperialism" (Introduction to European History) p39-42 by Andrew Porter Translated by Norihiko Fukui Iwanami Shoten March 2006, 3 28st printing
- ^ "Story Belgium History European Crossroads" p77 Hideya Matsuo Chuokoron-Shinsha Published August 2014, 8
- ^ "North-South / South-South Problem" p11 Yoshio Muroi Yamakawa Publishing Co., Ltd. July 1997, 7, 25st edition, 1st printing
- ^ "North-South / South-South Problem" p13 Yoshio Muroi Yamakawa Publishing Co., Ltd. July 1997, 7, 25st edition, 1st printing
- ^ "Commercial History" p247 by Akio Ishizaka, Kinsaburo Juei, Minoru Morota, Yukio Yamashita Yuhikaku November 1980, 11 First Edition First Edition
- ^ "Commercial History" p245 by Akio Ishizaka, Kinsaburo Juei, Minoru Morota, Yukio Yamashita Yuhikaku November 1980, 11 First Edition First Edition
- ^ "Imperialism" (Introduction to European History) p66 by Andrew Porter Translated by Norihiko Fukui Iwanami Shoten March 2006, 3 28st printing
- ^ "Imperialism" (Introduction to European History) p67 by Andrew Porter Translated by Norihiko Fukui Iwanami Shoten March 2006, 3 28st printing
- ^ "Imperialism" (Introduction to European History) p73-74 by Andrew Porter Translated by Norihiko Fukui Iwanami Shoten March 2006, 3 28st printing
- ^ "Imperialism as seen from the rise and fall of 17 miles of railways" p62 Clarence B. Davis, Kenneth E. Wilburn Jr.
- ^ "New Edition Egyptian Modern History From the Establishment of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty to the Collapse of the Mubarak Administration" p122 Naohiko Yamaguchi Akashi Shoten October 2011, 10 New Edition 25st Printing Issued
- ^ "New Edition Egyptian Modern History From the Establishment of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty to the Collapse of the Mubarak Administration" p150 Naohiko Yamaguchi Akashi Shoten October 2011, 10 New Edition 25st Printing Issued
- ^ "New Edition Egyptian Modern History From the Establishment of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty to the Collapse of the Mubarak Administration" p151 Naohiko Yamaguchi Akashi Shoten October 2011, 10 New Edition 25st Printing Issued
- ^ "55 Chapters for Knowing Panama" p98-100 by Iyo Kunimoto, Shiro Kobayashi, Takuya Ozawa Akashi Shoten August 2004, 8 First edition, first edition published
- ^ "New Book African History" 8th edition (edited by Masaoki Miyamoto and Motoji Matsuda), February 2003, 2 (Kodansha's New Book) p20
- ^ "African Economics" p51 Katsuhiko Kitagawa, Motoki Takahashi ed. Minerva Shobo November 2004, 11 First edition First edition
- ^ "Imperial and Imperialism" p41 Yoichi Kibata ("Creation of Empire and Imperialism 21st Century History 4" by Yoichi Kibata, Shingo Minamizuka, and Tadashi Kano) Volunteer House September 2012, 9 30st printing
- ^ "Humanitarian Imperialism" Book Review Logical criticism, sharpness | Good book Good day
- ^ Monthly Review | Humanitarian Imperialism: Using Human Rights to Sell War
- ^ Modern imperialism-new book map
- ^ "New Edition Mass Communication Overview" p207 Hideo Shimizu, Shinobu Hayashi, Hideo Takeichi, Kenta Yamada Gakuyo Shobo May 2009, 5 New edition first edition issued
- ^ "Encyclopedia of the World Geography 1 United Nations" p318 February 2000, 2 First edition 1st edition Asakura Shoten
- ^ "Encyclopedia of the World Geography 1 United Nations" p310 February 2000, 2 First edition 1st edition Asakura Shoten
- ^ "New Edition Mass Communication Overview" p208 Hideo Shimizu, Shinobu Hayashi, Hideo Takeichi, Kenta Yamada Gakuyo Shobo May 2009, 5 New edition first edition issued
- Awaji, Kenji "The Paris Commune and Marx (II)"Journal of the Economic Society of Okayama University" Vol. 11, No. 4, Okayama University Economic Society, 1980, pp. 97-130, two:10.18926 / OER / 42271, ISSN 03863069, NOT 120002737550.
- Ishikawa, Kazuo"Imperialism", Britannica International Encyclopedia, Volume 13, Frank B. Gibney (eds.), TBS Britannica, 1993, 2nd edition revised.National bibliographic number:97022671.
- Imai, Yoshio, "Idealism of Russian Tsarism," "Social Thought History Study," Vol. 15, Society of Social Thought History (Kitaki Publishing), 1991, pp. 30-42.
- Uemura, Kunihiko "Marx's method of recognizing history: "Louis Bonaparte's Brumer 18th""Kansai University Economic Review, Vol. 47, No. 5, Kansai University Economic Society, 1997, pp. 481-510," ISSN 04497554, NOT 120005686024.
- "Does Marx use bourgeois for bourgeois?Kaetsu University Research Review, Vol. 49, No. 1, Kaetsu University, 2006, pp. 49-65, NOT 120005538517.
- Ogawa, Tamaki, Nishida, Taichiro, Akatsuka, Tadashi, Atsuji, Tetsuji "Kakugawa Shinjigen"KADOKAWA, 2017, revised new edition special edition first edition.ISBN 978-4044003333 .
- Kim, Shizumi"Horizontal Movement History Study: Criticism of Ethnic Discrimination" Gendai Kikakushitsu, 1994, first edition, first edition.ISBN 978-4773893120 .
- Takebayashi, Shigeru "Kenkyusha's New English-Japanese Dictionary" Kenkyusha, 2002, 6th edition, 1st print.ISBN 978-4767410265 .
- Chen, Liwei "Dissemination of "principle" and Chinese acceptance: Focusing on socialism, communism, and imperialism"Seijo University Economic Studies," Vol. 199, Seijo University, 2013, pp. 31-58, ISSN 0387-4753 , NOT 120005467528.
- Nakanishi, Osamu"Globalization, Empire and Imperialism: Is the USA an Empire? Is Its Policy an Imperialism?" "Sociologica (Professors Koken Sasaki and Kazuyoshi Matsumoto) Retirement Memorial Theory), Vol. 29, 1-2, Soka University, 2005, pp. 81-107, NOT 110006608858.
- Nakamura, Kenichi"Imperialism", "World Encyclopedia", Volume 19, Naoto Shimonaka (eds.), TBS-Brittanica, 2009, Revised New Edition, p. 42.ISBN 9784582034004.
- "An Essay On" Julius Caesar "", Bulletin of Shukutoku University, Vol. 11, Shukutoku University, 1977, 79-90 (12-1), NOT 110004781052.
- Kiyoji Yoshiya "Imperialism" "Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica)"Shogakukan, 2019. The Complete Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika) "Imperialism』- Koto bank
- "Development of the Idea of Emperor and Heaven in Chinese Civilization: An Intellectual Consideration", "Akita Chinese Society 50th Anniversary Collection", Akita Chinese Society, January 2005, 1, pp. 1-97, NOT 120000799403.
- Britannica Japan Co., Ltd. "Imperialism" "Encyclopedia of Britannica Subitems" Britannica Japan Co., Ltd., 2019. Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Item Encyclopedia "Imperialism』- Koto bank
- Andrew Porter "Imperialism" Translated by Norihiko Fukui, Iwanami Shoten <Introduction to European History>, March 2006.ISBN 9784000271004.
- Tsutomu Kitani (1997), "Imperialism and Global Integration", Yamakawa Shuppansha.ISBN 4634344009
- Kotoku Shusui; Susumu Yamaizumi (school note) (2004/1901), "Imperialism", Iwanami Shoten.ISBN 4003312511
- Michio Goto, Masanao Itoh; Osamu Watanabe (eds.) (1997), "Reorganization of Contemporary Imperialism and World Order", Otsuki Shoten.ISBN 4272200623
- Yoichi Kibata "Imperial and Imperialism" "Imperial and Imperialism 21st Century History Creation 4" Volunteer House, September 2012.ISBN 9784903426631.
- Keihachiro Shimizu "World History of Invasion" (Shodensha)
- Masayuki Yamauchi (2004), "Imperial and National", Iwanami Shoten.ISBN 4000240102
- History Study Group (ed.) (1995), "The Logic of the Strong-The Age of Imperialism", University of Tokyo Press.ISBN 413025085X
- Rosa Luxembourg (1913), "Capital Accumulation Theory", (2006), Shobundo Publishing.ISBN 4881160281
- Hobson, JA (1965/1902), Imperialism, Michigan. ISBN 0472061038
- Lenin, Vladimir Iliich; Hiroshi Kikunami (1999), "Imperialism," Shinnihon Shuppansha.ISBN 4406026967
- Said, Edward W. (1994), Culture and Imperialism, repr ed., Vintage. ISBN 0679750541
- Simpson, John Andrew; Weiner, Edmund SC (2004). Oxford English Dictionary. 7 (Hat-Intervacuum) (Second Edition (Reprinted) ed.). Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198612193
- Pax Romana
- Chinese Empire
- British Empire
- French colonial empire
- Third Reich - Nazi Germany
- Dainichi this empire
- Islamic imperialism
- American Empire
- Cultural imperialism
- Anti-imperialist - Decolonization