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👍 | Disseminate the type and location of garbage on SNS and collect it ... Investigate the situation of garbage scattering in the city Participants from companies, etc. Tonami City, Toyama Prefecture


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Disseminate the type and location of garbage on SNS and collect it ... Investigate the situation of garbage scattering in the city Participants from companies, etc. Tonami City, Toyama Prefecture

 
If you write the contents roughly
The person in charge said that by sharing the garbage problem in the city on SNS, as many people as possible could pay attention to the environmental problem.
 

In order to understand the current state of garbage in the area, companies and other related parties in Tonami City picked up garbage while investigating the scattering of garbage in the city ... → Continue reading

 Toyama TV

"Toyama TV Broadcasting" (Fuji TV affiliate) news account. We will send you the latest news from Toyama Prefecture.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Environment issues

Environment issues(Environmental issues,British: Environmental threats, Environmental issues, Environmental problems) Is(I.e.Surroundings derived from the activities ofEnvironmentIs a general term for problems caused by changes in地球BesidesSpaceIt is a problem that extends to.

Basics of environmental problems

With regard to environmental issues, the parties take full responsibility, including the impact on others who are not burdened.Polluter pays principleThere is an idea. However, there is no problem as long as the adverse effects such as pollution are small, but if the adverse effects are large or if the parties that are impacting the environment are not known, the burden on the parties may be too heavy and the measures may not be taken. In that case, we take responsibility for society as a whole, for exampletaxOf damage caused by pollutioncompensationSupport the parties and those affected.

In some cases, there are cases where the parties do not take voluntary measures, and there are many parties where cooperation is difficult.Community,AdministrationIt is necessary to take measures centered on the entire society.JurisprudenceIn general, environmental issues that affect human survivalRight to life,Moral rightsThe liability of the parties is legally stipulated as an infringement of. In recent years,Environmental rightsThere is a movement to recognize that, but there are differences between countries.

There are two main types of measures for environmental problems. Standards to prevent health effects from environmental pollution (Environmental standardsEtc.) and make plans based on this, and monitor and regulate pollution,top downThis is a typical type countermeasure.組織To voluntarily set policies and goals regarding the environment, and to carry out activities and evaluations in line with them.Environmental management(Environmental management)Bottom upThis is a typical type countermeasure.

However, since measures against environmental problems are made on a political organization (national, prefectural, municipal, etc.) basis, pollution in other areas where the measures are not effective can reach your area. There is also the problem of crossing borders. Private sector activities cannot keep up with this, and political action and international discussion and consultation are needed.

To protect the environment for the purpose of solving environmental problems or in the background of ideasEnvironmental protectionIt is said that doing this continuously (CitizenshipIf you try)Environmental protection activitiesOr (Social movementIf you try)Environmental protection movementIs. Among environmental protection,NATURETargetingnature conservationCall. To promote and promote environmental protectionEnvironmental protection groupEspecially those that target natureNature conservation organization(See each item for details).

As a word similar to environmental protectionEnvironmental protectionThere is. Although they are almost synonymous, they may be used properly.

An international organization that manages environmental issues covers the entire worldUnited NationsとUnited Nations Environmental ProgramStarting with (UNEP),European Union(EU) orAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation ConferenceAs an organization that handles regional unions such as (APEC) and specialized fieldsIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) etc.

Academic fields for environmental issuesEnvironmental studies.Environmental chemistry,Environmental sociology,Environmental economics,Environmental ethics,Environmental policyEtc., dealing with the environment and its effects, and the issues surrounding it.

Environmental thoughtsEcology,Gaia theoryand so on. Some of them are widespread in general, but some have their own ideas. The idea is to promote environmental protection based on these ideas.EnvironmentalismAnd most environmental groups advocate this principle.

Initiatives for "environmental problems"

全 般

There is an important way of thinking when considering measures for environmental problems.sustainabilityIs a term that refers to the possibility that an object or activity can sustain and sustain human activity.Sustainable development(Sustainable development, sustainable society) is to promote development with the utmost respect for sustainability. While maintaining sustainabilityresource,EnergyA society that usesRecycling societyResource saving,Energy Conservation,Zero emission,3RThere are various shapes.

There is no doubt that industrial activities are the main cause of environmental problems, but civilian activities such as individuals are another main cause. Regarding industrial activities, taking uniform measures by taking advantage of its organizational characteristics,PenaltiesIt is easy to define such things. However, as for individuals, it is difficult to take uniform measures because there are various ways of thinking and lifestyles (lifestyles), and it is not easy to set penalties, so each person is left with their own way of thinking and actions. The part is large. Therefore, environmental protection activities have a large influence on the private sector.

Citizen activities that are not for profitNPOAs a result, a system for preferential treatment has been established.Car sharing,Shopping bagEfforts to protect the environment at the grassroots level such as self-restraint (Grassroots livelihood) Is also becoming popular.

Along with the growing environmental awareness of citizens, a monitoring system such as environmental monitoring was born.TransportationIn the fieldMobility managementThere are also movements to promote voluntary environmental measures.

Nongovernmental organizationIn the formCitizenshipIn addition,CountryEfforts (Emission regulation,Environmental standards, Research) and efforts by companies (Environmental technologydevelopment of,Zero emissionThe pursuit ofRecyclingEtc.) are being promoted in various ways.

For activities related to overall environmental protection and reduction of environmental impact,Green purchasingAnd assist itEnvironmental labeling system,3RThere are such things as institutionalization and support from the government and the private sector.

As for institutionalization, it covers all areasEnvironmental lawThere is a field calledEnvironmental standards,Environmental taxThere is a method such as.Environmental consultant,Environmental counselorAre experts who deal with environmental measures in general, but institutionalization varies from country to country.

For companies and groups,Environmental accountingOperation ofEnvironmental management systemThe introduction of will lead to comprehensive measures. There are many companies and organizations that take measures to deal with environmental problems as an opportunity, mainly in "environmentally advanced countries".Environmental businessAnd environmental markets are emerging.

While grassroots activities, steady activities with good intentions, and activities with a sense of crisis are expanding, in order to solve environmental problems,poverty,Population problemIt has been pointed out that large-scale measures are necessary, such as measures to prevent the change in ideas, such as measures to improve profitability and the idea of ​​pursuing only self-prosperity.

Food system innovation

United NationsLivestock[1]It reports that the food system is a major threat to environmental destruction and that production methods need to be improved.The food system is a system that includes all the elements related to food production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption, and it is estimated that the food system emits 21-up to 37% of total greenhouse gas emissions. ing[2]..This estimate includes 9-14% emissions from crop and livestock activity on the farm and 5-14% emissions from land use and land use changes, including deforestation and peatland degradation. Volume and 5-10% include due to supply chain activities[3].

食料システムからのGHG排出量を減らすために、食料ロスと廃棄物の削減やより持続可能な食事への移行といった食料システムにおける他の行動は、27億台の車を道路から撤去することに相当する12.5 GtのCO2を削減できると試算されている。全GHG排出量の8%を占める食料の損失と廃棄物を削減することは、年間4.5 GtのCO2削減、家畜の生産方法を改善し、家畜からのメタン排出を削減すれば年間最大1.44 GtのCO2を削減できるとされ、植物由来食品の割合を多くすることで年間最大8 GtのCO2を削減できる可能性があるとされる[2]..Focusing on plant-derived foods,Meat substitutes (plant-based meat)The number of food tech companies that handle alternative foods is increasing.[4]..Insect foods containing proteins and amino acids equivalent to meat are also attracting attention as environmentally friendly foods.[5]..As for livestock, an environment-friendly livestock method has been sought, and as of 2020, many natural feed materials that work on the rumen (rumen) flora of cattle to reduce methane have been discovered all over the world. There is.These are being evaluated as early treatments for methane.In Japan, it has been discovered that a rare phenolic substance (alkylphenol) contained in cashew nut shell liquid reduces methane generation by 20%.[6]..Attempts are also being made to use methane generated from livestock excrement for biogas energy.[7].

Noise, vibration, comfort issues

aircraftTake off during takeoff and landingLoud soundIt is,空港,baseIn the vicinity, etc., it may reach a level that interferes with daily life. Measures such as restricting takeoffs and landings at night at the airport have been implemented due to the problems related to land acquisition at the airport, etc.Noise problems TheOkinawaHowever, it is still serious.

groundIs weak,Traffic volume(EspeciallyLarge Vehicle) Around a roadvibrationMay affect your life.wasteDue to improper handling ofStenchThe problem may occur.

Development issues/nature conservation/ecosystem issues

For nature conservation,World Wildlife Fund(WWF) andInternational Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) and various sizesNature conservation organization, Individual activists are engaged in activities.

development ofbeforeEnvironmental assessmentThe method of doingNature reserveWhile the establishment of the policy is being actively promoted, there are some areas where the protection is not adequate due to political or economic reasons. However, there is no room for people's lives and no financial room.Poor countryAlsoAfricaThere are many regions and there are strong claims from those countries that development and improvement of people's lives are necessary before environmental protection.

Focusing on the individualNational trust movementIs also being developed in some areas.

Global warming and climate change issues

1997 (Heisei9 years)Japan Of京都AtFramework Convention on Climate ChangeThe 3rd Conference of the Parties was held. hereKyoto ProtocolBycarbon dioxide,methane,Freon gas such asGreenhouse gasIt was agreed to reduce the total emissions of. Reduction targets are assigned by country,Developed countryOverall2012 until1990 It is required to reduce 5.2% from the total amount of COXNUMX emitted. this is2050 This is a small amount compared to the long-term target of halving the total amount of emissions, but there is a certain meaning in the agreement to reduce emissions.

problem

Just as the efficiency and efficiency of the industry will increase, the consumption of energy will increase due to the introduction of machinery and so on. The development of industry, the improvement of living standards, and the increase of environmental load are inseparable. There is a strong belief that if we try to reduce the environmental load, it will hinder the development of industry and the improvement of the standard of living, which is a major stumbling block to the current measures for environmental problems.

Environmental markets andEnvironmental businessIs expanding, and the number of products and companies with the theme of environmental protection is also increasing. While the private sector mainly conducts devoted environmental protection activities and environmental measures that do not reduce their own losses, environmental protection activities and environmental measures for profit are also implemented.

In considering measures for all environmental problems, measures for one problem may adversely affect other problems, and measures for each environmental problem may be mutually exclusive. In Europe, for example, due to low greenhouse gas emissions,Diesel carHowever, due to the large amount of air pollutant emissions, it is subject to regulation in Japan.

Environmental concept

Sustainable development

Ecology

The original meaning is "EcologyHowever, the meaning has expanded and now it is used to mean "environmentally friendly", "environmentally friendly", and "environmentally friendly". For shortエ コOften called. Because the meaning and definition are ambiguous, the meaning may be expanded to "healthy" and "natural".

Natural regression/Civil denial

Development andCleaning upFrom the pursuit flow,NATUREThere is an idea to solve the environmental problem by returning to.文明Since there is a close relationship between and environmental problems, there is also the idea of ​​trying to solve it by avoiding or retreating civilization. This flow isLadditeExercise and in JapanEnvironmental loadLowVegetarian food-Edo PeriodYou can look at the movement to re-examine traditions such as the lifestyle of. The idea that nature is idealAnarchism,RousseauAnd someRomanticismCan be seen inAsconaThen there was a case where a community of that kind was tried.

Lifestyle innovation

In lifeNATUREThere are also efforts to address environmental issues that are deeply related to lifestyles, such as adopting lifestyles and living in an environment-friendly manner. "Eco-life" and "LOHASThere are various things. Some have contributed to the reduction of the environmental load, but some have simply taken in nature and have no effect on the reduction of the environmental load, and there are persistent criticisms.

Various environmental problems

Major environmental issues

Types
The problems listed here are environmental problems caused by human factors, and include environmental problems that may occur even without human factors.
Those closely related to environmental issues

Environmental issues and initiatives in each country/region

Asia

JapanThen, in the postwar periodFour major pollution diseasesHas expanded to the surface, and social interest in environmental issues has increased.1967 OfBasic Law for Pollution Control,1993 OfBasic Environmental Law,1997 OfEnvironmental impact assessment methodAs a result, legal regulations are gradually expanding.1990 era(1997 )Kyoto ConferenceIs being heldKyoto ProtocolWas adopted. In the early Heisei periodDioxinThe issue was greatly highlighted and regulation was advanced.

Europe

In Europe,(I.e.Measures have advanced due to the widespread effect of[Source required].. Water and air pollution regulations, regulations on garbage, etc. began relatively early,Germany,Sweden,DenmarkIt is said that citizens are highly aware of the environment in many countries including Japan.[Source required].EURegulations and policies based on a wide-area framework are also being implemented.

North America

United Nations

United NationsThen.Ban KibunSecretary-GeneralIs directly led bySE4ALL(Sustainable Energy for All) As part of the aim of building a "Global Energy Efficiency Accelerator Platform",Energy efficiency improvement cityThe selection of the above was started at the 2014 United Nations Meteorological Summit.

footnote

  1. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2006). LIVESTOCK'S LONG SHADOW (Report). http://www.fao.org/3/a0701e/a0701e00.htm. 
  2. ^ a b "Improved climate action on food systems can deliver 20 percent of global emissions reductions needed by 2050”. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). 2021/10/9Browse.
  3. ^ ipcc (2021-02-08). SPECIAL REPORT: SPECIAL REPORT ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND LAND -CH05 Food Security- (Report). https://www.ipcc.ch/srccl/chapter/chapter-5/. 
  4. ^ "Expectations for a reversal in the shrinking beer market due to liquor tax revisions | Visual news commentary | Economic knowledge bank | Navigation site for Nikkei Yokuyomu --nikkei4946.com”(Japanese). nikkei4946.com. 2021/10/5Browse.
  5. ^ "Insect food security, livelihood and contribution to the environment”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2021/10/9Browse.
  6. ^ Yasuo Kobayashi "Development of Livestock Nutrition for Environmental Harmony: Toward Reduction of Greenhouse Gases", Japanese Society of Animal Science, Vol. 91, No. 3, 2020, pp. 304-306, two:10.2508 / chikusan.91.304, ISSN 1346-907X.
  7. ^ Masayasu Asai (2020-09-28). Utilization of biogas energy by methane fermentation of livestock excrement (Report). Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Policy Research Institute. https://www.maff.go.jp/j/chikusan/kankyo/taisaku/pdf/2020_sympo_asai.pdf. 

Related item

References

(Order of publication year)
  • Co-authored by Barbara Ward Rene Dubos, "Irreplaceable Earth", co-translated by Institute for Environmental Science, Human Environment Working Group, co-supervised by Fujiyoshi Sakamoto, Nagamune Soda, Japan General Publishing Organization, 1972, ASIN B000J9N80G
  • Yonemoto Shohei "What is the Global Environmental Problem?" Iwanami Shoten, 1994, ISBN 4004303311
  • Shuichi Kito, "Reconsidering Nature Conservation: Environmental Ethics and Network," Chikuma Shobo, 1996, ISBN 4480056688
  • Ernst Ulrich "Factor 4-Double the richness and halve the resource consumption" Energy Saving Center, 2, ISBN 4879731846
  • David Arnold, Environmental and Human History, New Review, 1999, ISBN 479480458X
  • Kazuko Toyama "What is an Environmental Problem?" PHP Research Institute, 2001,ISBN 4569618464
  • Bjorn Lomborg, "The Reality of the Global Environment: Don't Touch the Environmental Crisis," Bungei Shunju, 2003, ISBN 4163650806
  • Dennis Meadows, "The Limits to Growth, The Choice of Humanity," Diamond, 2005, ISBN 4478871051
  • Kunihiko Takeda "Why lie passes environmental problems?" Yosensha, 2007, ISBN 4862481221
  • Al Gore "Inconvenient Truth ECO Primer: Global Warming Crisis" Random House Kodansha, 2007, ISBN 4270002263
  • Christopher Frevin "White Paper on the Earth" World Watch Japan, 2007, ISBN 4948754285
  • Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, ISBN-978 4102074015)

Garbage problem

Garbage problem(Garbage mondai) means daily life, economic activities,disasterOccurred due toGarbage(garbage),waste(General waste,Industrial wasteProblems related to).Illegal dumpingEnvironmental pollution due to[1]In addition to health hazards, even with proper treatment, incineration and waste generationFinal disposal siteIn some cases, the landfill cannot catch up with the landfill, or the local side opposes the import of garbage and the expansion of new collection and treatment facilities.[2].

Main problems with garbage

problem

The main problems related to waste are emissions, collection, transportation, disposal, disposal, recycling / weight loss, citizens' roles, businesses. It can be divided into issues related to the role of the local government, internal cooperation of local governments, and issues related to the role.[3].

  • Problems with emissions
    Problems with water content in waste, increase in oversized waste, discharge methods, emergency treatment (large amount of waste in the event of a disaster such as a fire, waste due to moving, etc.), diversification of waste, etc.[3]
  • Collective issues
    Decrease in collection efficiency due to how to dispose of garbage, change in quantity and quality of garbage depending on the season, pollution of garbage collection site, illegal dumping problem, separate collection, etc.[3]
  • Problems related to transportation
    Problems with road conditions and pollution control measures for transporting garbage, etc.[3]
  • Processing issues
    Facility construction, facility management, difficult-to-process materials, energy recovery, etc.[3]
  • Disposal issues
    Problems of securing disposal sites and maintenance of disposal sites[3]
  • Problems related to recycling and weight loss
    Problems such as effective use of products and lack of demand for recycled resources[3]
  • Issues surrounding the role of citizens
    Increasing the amount of garbage due to disposables, cooperation in collecting garbage, keeping and managing the cleanliness of owned land, etc.[3]
  • Issues surrounding the role of businesses
    Self-regulation of difficult-to-treat materials,PPPsPrinciples etc.[3]
  • Issues surrounding internal cooperation and roles of local governments
    Administrative public relations, constant internal cooperation, etc.[3]

Illegal dumping

Japan

In addition to early detection by monitoring and reporting by the national and local governments and identification of dumpers by analyzing waste, various efforts are being made such as prevention, pursuit of discharger responsibility, and restoration of the current situation.[4]..Regarding discharger liability and waste monitoringManifest systemSee also.

To promote measures against illegal dumping2003 It is a timed method of 10 years from the degreeIndustrial Waste Special Measures Law(Special Measures Law Concerning Removal of Obstacles Caused by Specified Industrial Waste) Was enacted.

フィリピン

In the Philippines, the Clean Air Act of 1999 outlawed waste incinerators and required them to be collected at designated garbage collection points.[5]..However, at the same time, the previously used disposal sites were closed one after another due to water pollution, etc., and the collected waste was illegally dumped in vacant lots and rivers.[5].

Environmental pollution due to waste incineration

chlorineBy incineration of waste includingDioxinSince the occurrence of this has been regarded as a problem, various regulations have been imposed on incineration.

In Japan, the Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law has traditionally been used in rural areas.BurningWas also banned[6].

Landfill problem

フィリピン

In the philippines2000 eraToMetro ManilaAbout 1 tons of garbage was discharged a day[7]..Garbage may be dumped illegally or collected from the city and left unattended. It is said that more than 2000 people were killed in July 7.Payatas dump site(Disposal site) Garbage collapse incident has occurred[5].. The Solid Waste Management Law was enacted in 2001[5].

A landfill site that once existed in Metro ManilaSmoky mountainIn developing countries, including the poor people who search for and sell valuable resources from landfill waste and feed on their livelihoods (Scavenger) Exists, and health hazards are a problem.

Malaysia

There were 2001 final disposal sites in operation in Malaysia in 168, but most of them are in a wild state, and there are concerns about soil pollution and groundwater pollution.[8].

Waste import / export regulations

Waste, mainly recyclable waste paper and metal scrap, may be shipped overseas.However, there are cases where pollution prevention and residue treatment in the process of recycling are inadequate, and hazardous waste is dumped overseas using recycling as an excuse.For this reason, the international movement of hazardous waste is regulated.Basel ConventionEffective in 1992[9].

People's Republic of ChinaBanned the import of some waste at the end of December 2017.Movie "PLASTIC CHINA" (Kingdom of Plastics) accusing pollution problems associated with importing waste for recycling[10]Is believed to have triggered regulation[11].

Medical waste problem

InfectionAs medical equipment is being thrown away to prevent it,Medical waste[12] Was not properly treated and disposed of, and was found in various places.Old waste (see "Illegal dumping problem" below) in line with the tightening of crackdowns on illegal dumpingInfectious wasteBefore there was no classification rule, new illegal dumping is decreasing, except that it was treated and disposed of as incombustibles in some cases).

Building waste problem

Since a large amount of concrete and wood were brought into the industrial waste disposal site, since 2002Construction Recycling LawHas started and countermeasures have begun.It is known that Japanese houses are rebuilt in a short cycle of 75 years on average, while the UK rebuilds on average 44 years and the United States on average 26 years.[13]..For this reason, the government and the ruling party are considering a "200-year housing vision" to support housing that can extend the life of the house even if the initial investment is high.[14]..On the other hand, in Japan, due to population decline and urban concentrationA vacant houseIs increasing nationwide[15], Garbage disposal of household goods and demolished houses has become an issue.

Legal system in each country

Japan

Basic Law for Establishing a Recycling SocietyIs positioned as the basic law,Law on waste disposal and cleaning,Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization of ResourcesThere are individual laws and regulations such as[16].

Economic growth in postwar JapanMass consumptionGarbage that has increased rapidly due to the arrival of the timesPollutionIt became a problem as one of.TraditionalHow to clean filthInstead of (1900), as a law that comprehensively regulates garbageLaw on waste disposal and cleaning(Waste Management and Public Cleansing Act, 1970) was enforced.After that, in order to reduce the amount of garbage and resource consumption, various items are used.Recycling lawHas been established[17].

EU

As a basic policy, there is a "Board resolution on February 1997, 2 on a joint strategy for waste management", and for general waste, the Board Directive on Waste (24/91 / EEC), and for hazardous waste. Has a board order (156/94 / EC)[16].

Germany

As a basic law, there is the "Act on Promotion of Circular Economy and Ensuring Disposal of Waste in an Environmentally Friendly" manner. There are individual laws and regulations such as "Equipment Cabinet Order"[16].

米 国

There are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Law and the Hazardous Solid Waste Amendment Law as basic laws, and there is no federal law for household waste other than hazardous waste, but state law.[16].

Main measures for garbage

Garbage weight loss

While organic substances such as fallen leaves and natural fibers are decomposed by putrefaction, many of the wastes discharged in modern times are not decomposed in nature such as plastic products or take an extremely long time to decompose.Therefore, it is necessary to take measures to reduce the amount of waste itself.

Charge for garbage collection

Based on public economics, we also helped with the movement to support the internalization of disposal costs, and in Japan we are charging a fee for garbage collection.MunicipalitiesIs increasing.On the other hand, although garbage separation is strictly imposed, there is no charge for garbage collection.横 浜 市There are also local governments like.[18] Municipalities that have decided to charge a fee often temporarily reduce the amount of garbage collected significantly.However, after that, the amount of waste discharged gradually increases, and a rebound phenomenon occurs in which the amount of waste discharged returns to the original amount.The method of collecting charges is as follows.

Flat rate

This is a method of paying a fixed amount per household or household member regardless of the amount of waste discharged.

Pay-as-you-go

This is a method of paying a processing fee according to the amount of waste discharged.

  • Simple method
    Designated bags and stickers are charged from the first sheet.It has been introduced in local governments all over Japan.
  • Excess amount method
    A certain number of designated bags and stickers are distributed free of charge, and if the number exceeds that number, they are sold for a fee.ChibaNoda-shi,GifuTakayamaEtc. have introduced.
  • Two-step method
    It is a mechanism that sells designated bags at a cost up to a certain number, and sells at a higher price if it exceeds that.ShigaMoriyama,MiyazakiMiyakonojo City,Yamaguchi Yanai City,ShizuokaGotemba,GifuSeki CityEtc. have introduced.

Subsidy for food waste disposal 

In Japanese municipalities, garbage disposal machines orcompostSome have introduced a system to subsidize the purchase of.On the other hand, some local governments have adopted the system, but have discontinued it due to lack of income and expenditure.

Announcement of weight loss results 

Some Japanese local governments have announced the results of weight loss by charging charges based on specific figures.TokyoMusashino,NiigataNiigataEtc. have announced.Even in municipalities that remain freeSaitamaAsaka,Hanno,Iruma-shi,Niiza city,YoshikawaHas released detailed data.

Recycling resources

It is important to note that energy is required for recycling, and simply recycling is not always good for the environment.In general, to reduce energy consumptionReduce(cut back)·Reuse(Reuse) ・ The order of recycling (repeated use) is good.

In the garbageresourceSome can be used as.The key to recycling is not to reduce the purity of valuable resources, which is why garbage is separated.The method of waste separation differs depending on the municipality, but as an example of the most separated waste, Kamikatsu Town, Tokushima Prefecture has increased the amount of waste to 34 categories.[19]..Also make sure theyReuse-RecyclingThe challenge is to create a mechanism for doing so.After being exported to China, etc., there are cases where it is not effectively used, causing a global environmental pollution problem.

Including these methodsReuse-Reduce-RecyclingIs generally3RIt is called.

Furthermore, regarding the recycling of automobiles

Also, regarding beverage containers

Effective use other than recycling

Regarding waste such as kitchen waste and sludgeBiogasIt is also being used as a product.Sekisui Chemical IndustryIn 2017, steamed garbageCarbon monoxide(CO) andhydrogenDecompose them into gas and fungus themfermentationLet meethanolAnnounced that it has developed a relatively low-cost technology that can be used as a raw material for fuels and petrochemical products.[20][21].

Main garbage problems

  • Tokyo Garbage War - High economic growthIn a periodTokyo OfKoto WardとSuginamiConflict with.
  • Teshima industrial waste problem --Applying the Industrial Waste Special Measures Law.Kagawa OfTeshima50 tons of industrial waste was illegally dumped in Japan, and a trader was caught.
  • Kamiuchimagi industrial waste problem- SaitamaAsakaKamiuchimagi OfShinkawa RiverIndustrial waste on the riverbed (estimated 10,000m)2The above) was illegally dumped, and the statute of limitations was established without being able to identify the criminal.DrumToPCB,leadWith harmful substances such asTrichlorethylene,TetrachlorethyleneVolatile organic solvents such asSpecified hazardous industrial wasteIt turned out that it contains a lot of harmful substances specified in[22].
  • Industrial waste problem- ShigaRitto CityHigh concentration from the final disposal site inHydrogen sulfide (H2S) Gas was detected and groundwater pollution became a problem.The prefecture issued an improvement order and completed the correction work, but a subsequent investigation revealed that it contained harmful substances.DrumTurned out to be buried (Improper storage).The prefecture ordered the company to remove it, but due to the bankruptcy, the company's response could not be expected.[23].
  • - AichiNagoya citySo, I was planning to reclaim the Fujimae tidal flat and create a waste disposal site, but it took a stop.
  • ――In Kiyota Ward, Sapporo City, Hokkaido, cars and tires were illegally dumped in the forest for about 300m, and it was commonly called Garbage Road. An antique dealer was arrested on February 2008, 2.
  • Koganei garbage problem - TokyoKoganei-shiGarbage disposal problem in. 2007Futaba Bridge Cleaning FactoryWith the closure, Koganei City decided to jointly dispose of waste with a new local government, but the construction of the new treatment plant was disrupted due to the opposition of the citizens near the planned construction site, and it was impossible to dispose of the waste on its own. became.GarbageEmergencyMake a declarationTown meetingHowever, there was no progress, and the newly elected Mayor Koganei also made inappropriate remarks about waste disposal and requested waste disposal.KokubunjiThe confusion continued for a long time, such as inviting a backlash from neighboring cities and being forced to resign immediately afterwards.

footnote

  1. ^ As an example, in the Seto Inland SeaTeshima (Kagawa Prefecture)There is an illegal dumping case of industrial waste.Teshima Problem Homepage(Kagawa Prefectural Office, viewed January 2018, 1).
  2. ^ As an example,"Mito City Waste Final Disposal Site is Full" (See "Mainichi Shimbun" morning edition, August 2016, 8)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kiyoshi Ishizawa. “Changes in life and changes in garbage". Yokohama. 2021/1/16Browse.
  4. ^ Illegal dumping measures relatedMinistry of the Environment (browsed on July 2018, 1)
  5. ^ a b c d "Asia Environmental White Paper 2003/04"Toyo Keizai Inc., 2003, 265 pages.
  6. ^ Open burning is prohibited by lawWakayama Prefecture Kinokawa City Homepage (viewed January 2018, 1)
  7. ^ "Asia Environmental White Paper 2003/04"Toyo Keizai Inc., 2003, 264 pages.
  8. ^ "Asia Environmental White Paper 2003/04"Toyo Keizai Inc., 2003, 285 pages.
  9. ^ Basel ConventionMinistry of Foreign Affairs website (viewed January 2018, 1)
  10. ^ PLASTIC CHINA Documentary Film Official Site(Retrieved September 2018, 1)
  11. ^ China bans waste imports, US garbage has nowhere to go"Yomiuri Shimbun" morning edition January 2018, 1
  12. ^ What is medical waste in Japan?Waste treatment methodThen, it is called "infectious waste" and is classified as "specially controlled waste".This division was made from the 4 revision.Prior to that, there was a notification from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Water Environment Department, "Proper Treatment of Medical Waste" dated November 11, 13, but there was no particular provision before that.Specially controlled waste is defined as "waste that has explosive, toxic, infectious, or other properties that may cause damage to human health or living environment," and has established necessary treatment standards and is normal. It has stricter regulations than waste.Infectious waste is divided into "infectious general waste" and "infectious industrial waste" depending on the facility where it is discharged.
  13. ^ Current status of national land construction in 8 (former Ministry of Construction)
  14. ^ 200 Year Housing Vision Archived August 2007, 12, at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ About the establishment of the National Council for Promotion of Measures for Unoccupied Houses-Approximately 1,000 municipalities are expected to participate-Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism website (August 2017, 8) Retrieved January 29, 2018
  16. ^ a b c d "Comparison of waste-related legislation”. Ministry of the Environment. 2021/1/16Browse.
  17. ^ Waste / recycling measuresMinistry of the Environment (browsed on July 2018, 1)
  18. ^ Re-Style Special Feature 019 part1 Garbage Separation[Broken link]
  19. ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun March 2005, 5
  20. ^ Established the world's first innovative production technology to convert "garbage" into "ethanol"Sekisui Chemical (December 2017, 12)
  21. ^ Sekisui in a resource-rich country in an "urban oil field", ethanol in garbage"Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun』May 2017, 12 (26 pages)
  22. ^ Shingashi River Industrial Waste Disposal Measures-Saitama Prefecture Archived August 2014, 8, at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ "Bankruptcy RD = Countermeasures against harmful substances left by Co., Ltd."-Shiga Prefecture Final Disposal Site Special Measures Office Archived August 2011, 12, at the Wayback Machine.

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