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|Indian philosophy - Indian religion|
Ayurveda(Brahma: आयुर्वेद,Romanization:Āyurveda) IsIndian continentTraditionalMedical science.Unani medicine(Greek / Arabian Medicine),Chinese medicineTogether with it, it is one of the three major traditional medicines in the world and has developed by interacting with each other.Three elements called Tori Dosha (body fluidIt is thought that if the balance of (disease) is lost, the person will get sick, and this is the fundamental theory of Ayurveda.
That name islifeMeans life, lifeSanskrit"Ayus" (Brahma: आयुस्, Latin transliteration:Āyus) And knowledge, meaning "academic"Veda"(Brahma: वेद, Latin transliteration:See) Is a compound word.Not only medicine, but wisdom of life,life sciences,哲学It also includes the concept of illness, aiming for a better life as well as treatment and prevention of illness.Pursuing maintenance / promotion and rejuvenation of health, as well as what is a happy life and an unhappy life..From literature studies, it is believed that the system was put together as a system at the earliest in the 5th-6th centuries BC...AncientPersia,The Ancient Greek,Tibetan medicineAffecting medicine in various places,Hindu astrology,alchemyThere is also a deep relationship with.
For systematization, the ancient layers pursuing the fundamental principles of the universeUpanishad(Mystery books, related books of the Vedas) played an important role,Brahminism-Six school philosophyCan be countedSankiya SchoolDualism,Vaisheshka SchoolNatural philosophy,Niaya SchoolLogic ofWas also used extensively.
In IndiaIslamSince the expansion of power, Yunani medicine has become mainstream in the ruler class and urban areas, and its prosperity has risen.TurkishIslamic dynasty OfMughal Empire(1526-1858) It culminated in the era.On the other hand, Ayurveda has declined, Was inherited in the surrounding area and among the poor. In the early 20th century,British EmpireAgainst Indian ruleNationalistAyurveda was revived as "Indian traditional medicine" by Western orientalists.Western modern medicineEducation system was established against.
In modern India, the government has established the Ministry of Ayush (Ministry of Traditional Medicine of India), which is part of the official medical system...About 600 typesMedicinal herbPharmaceuticals and health foods are manufactured from.
The United States of AmericaThen,New age movementIn (1970s-80s), various traditional medicines and holistic medicines such as Ayurveda attracted attention.. In 1998National Institutes of HealthTo (NIH)National Center for Complementary and Alternative MedicineSpread as a result of the creation of (NCCAM), It is used as a medical treatment that complements and replaces modern medicine all over the world.Also interested in AyurvedahippieDue to their stay in India, Ayurvedic massages arranged for foreigners became popular and are now popular.Medical tourismIs prosperous..In India, the Ayurvedic Physician (BAMS) qualification is a national qualification and is treated alongside modern medicine.On the other hand, various problems have arisen due to the worldwide spread of commercialized Ayurveda and the distribution of Ayurvedic drugs as supplements.
Ayurveda believes that overall harmony, including mind, body, behavior and environment, is important for health.This way of thinking that emphasizes physical and mental balance and harmonyOverall view(British: holism) Medicine.Ancient Greek doctorHippocratesBegins withHumorismGreek-Arabic medicine that emphasizes harmonyUnani medicine),陰陽-五行Many traditional medicines, such as Chinese medicine, which emphasizes the balance of medicine, are holistic medicines.
It is more important to build a mind and body that is less likely to get sick than to cure it after getting sick, and to prevent illness and maintain good health.Preventive medicineStanding on the idea of.I thought that maintaining a better balance of mind and body would maintain good health.In particular,Five bigBalance of vata (wind), pitta (bile / heat) and kapa (mucus / sputum) tri-dosha (three body fluids, disease elements) consisting of (five major elements), digestion of food , Production of waste productsexcretionIs in good shape, and Sapta Datu (seven components of the body) is in good condition.
Also, the classical medical book "Charaka SamhitaIn 』, life (Ayus) is" body (Sharila), sensory function (Indria, five senses), spirit (Satva), I (Art man, Self, soul, self) ”is stated to be a combination., Not only the body and sensory organs, but also the mental aspect, and more魂It is also a condition of health that the fundamental aspect as expressed as is in good condition...Meals are especially important, and lifestyle guidance is also provided.SleepAnd excretion,セ ッ ク スIt is admonished that putting up with such natural desires leads to illness.
There are two main types of treatment, one is palliative therapy (sedation therapy) that balances Dosha by improving diet, medicine, air conditioning and behavior, and the other is Dosha (body fluid) and armor (body fluid) that has increased or worsened. It is an attenuation therapy (excretion therapy, purification therapy) that excretes pathogenic elements such as undigested substances) and mala (waste products).In attenuation therapy, Panchakarma (2 typical treatments, 1 types)Intestine・ A treatment method called oil (oil, laxative, vomiting) is well known.As a radical and spiritual treatment, Jotisha (Hindu astrology) Andマ ン ト ラ(incantation),jewelryThere is treatment using.
Tori Dosha (three body fluids, three diseases)
Tori Dosha (त्रिदोष) The theory is that everything that is alive is Vata (वात・ Wind, kinetic energy), pitta (पित्त・ Bile or fever, Conversion energy), Kapa (कफ・ Mucus or sputum, Binding energy), and the theory that all the physiological functions of the body are controlled.Is.Dosha is the five major elements (five major elements, five ancestral elements,Maherbuta).The five majors are Dodai (Pṛthvī, Prithvi orBhūmi, Bumi) ・ Water University (Āpa, Arpa orJala, Jara) ・ Fire University (Agni, Agni orRoof tiles, Tejas) ・ Kazedai (Vāyu, Vayu), which gives the elements a place of existence and movement.Ākāśa, Akasha, Void) is added, and it is a way of thinking derived from ancient Indian philosophy...Vata is a combination of wind-sized and sky-sized, Pitta is a combination of fire-sized and water-sized, and Kapa is a combination of water-sized and earth-sized.
Dosha (दोष) Is a Sanskrit word for "impure, prone to increase, body fluids, illnesses", Factors involved in the development of the disease at a basic level, the most root cause of the disease”, Etc., and refers to body fluids or bioenergy...Since the abnormality becomes the "source of illness", it is also translated as a disease element... The three doshas are further divided into 3 subordinate doshas, each with its own location and function.
Dosha is an energy that sustains life and protects health under normal conditions, but when it increases or worsens, it causes illness...Illness is thought to be the imbalance of Tori Dosha due to the deterioration of the function of the 15 lower Doshas, but in general, the increase or exacerbation of Vata isRespiratorSystem disorders, psychiatric / neurological disorders,Cardiovascular systemDisability, increase / exacerbation of pittaDigestive organSystem diseases,liver-Gallbladder-PancreasDiseases, skin diseases, bronchial diseases, bronchial diseases, increase / exacerbation of KapaDiabetes mellitusAnd obesity,arthritis,AllergiesBelieved to cause symptoms.
Causes of Dosha's imbalance include constitution, time, daily life, place, and celestial body, and the constitution (prakriti) is particularly important.Humans have different strengths of each Dosha, congenital and acquired, depending on the individual, and appear as differences in personality and constitution.Constitution is not only individuality, but also the susceptibility of a person to illness...At Ayurveda, we consider that there are diets, lifestyles, and treatments for illnesses that suit each person's constitution, and provide guidance and treatment.
Dosha has a cycle of change in the order of Kapa → Pitta → Vata every 1 hours from 6 o'clock in the day.Also, during the year (in the Indian season), Kapa worsens in spring, Vata increases in summer, Pitta worsens in autumn, and Kapa increases in winter.India has a rainy season, but during the rainy season, vata worsens and pitta increases...In a person's life, Kapa tends to increase in young age (0-30 years old), Pitta in middle age (30-60 years old), and Vata in old age.It is thought that the balance of Dosha is likely to be lost at the time and time when the Dosha, which is biased due to the person's constitution, tends to increase.In addition, the amount of dosha changes depending on food and daily activities.
In the current Ayurveda, there are three Doshas, but in the classic "Sushruta Samhitter" that incorporates surgery, blood is mentioned as the fourth body fluid...This "blood, mucus, bile, wind" is transmitted to Greece via Persia, and "blood, mucus, yellow bile, black bile" is used as the basic human body fluid.HumorismIt is said that it became the basis of.
Tori Guna (three elements, three characteristics, three virtues)
One of the characteristics of the Samkhya school is the Tori-Guna theory (described later), but this theory had a great influence on others.It was explained that when Tori Guna antagonizes and balances with each other, various phenomena in the natural world, the state of mind and body of human beings, and differences in personality are created...Tori Guna was considered to influence the state of mind in Ayurveda, and was associated with and emphasized the Tori Dosha theory.In Ayurveda, the mind is considered to be higher than the body, and it is likened to the inclusion of Tori Guna in Tori Dosha..
|要素||nature||effect||Color||Impact of increase on Dosha|
|Satva (pure)||Kiraku||照明||White||Harmony of three doshas|
|Rajas (super quality)||Anguish||Impact / activity||red||Vata disturbs Pitta|
|Tamasu (darkness)||Dark foolishness||Suppression / concealment||Black||Disturb Kapa|
Dosha changes according to the law that "things of the same nature increase things of the same nature."As the kinetic Rajas increase, anger and frustration grow, increasing the kinetic Doshas Vata and Pitta.When the number of tamas with stability and inertia increases, it becomes lazy, mental activity stagnates, and Kapa increases...Thus, the increase in Rajas and Tamas has a negative effect on the mind and body.
On the other hand, Satva, one of the tri-guna, has purity and does not increase Dosha (impure).The increase in Satva stabilizes the balance of Tori Dosha and brings about emotional affection, kindness, correct intellect, and physical and mental health..
Sapta Dartu (seven components)
Dartu (Dhātu) Is a component of the body and is produced when food is digested.Unlike Dosha, it is a visible substance that gives shape to the body...It is thought that this quality is deeply related to the state of health, and the excellent quality is called SALA.The ingested food is digested to make a datu, and a part of the datu is made into another datu.The order of generation is as follows:.
- Lhasa: Chyle, nyle.A body fluid that nourishes the body.Function is "nourishment"
- Lacta: Blood tissue.The function is "maintaining life"
- Mansa: Muscle tissue.The function is "wrap around"
- Medas: Adipose tissue.The function is "lubrication"
- Asti: Bone tissue.Function "keeps shape"
- Magger: Myeloid tissue.The function is "filling"
- Sukla: Reproductive tissue.Function is "breeding"
In the above order, tissues are made from food.Agni (fire of digestion) works to convert these darts.
If the agni (fire of digestion) works normally, the food is digested well and the orjas (vigor, vitality) are produced, and the situation becomes lively and healthy.Ojas is the medulla of Sapta datu, which is produced little by little during the formation of each datu, but is most produced and accumulated in the heart when the succulent (reproductive tissue) is formed...Mara (with Ojas)Sweat,Pee,Poop,claw,hairExcretion) is produced.If Agni does not work properly, armor (undigested material, toxin) is produced and excretion changes.Armor is highly sticky and blocks slaughter (paths, passages) in the body, causing illness..
Also, Tori Dosha depends on Sapta Datu.Vata depends on Asti (bone tissue), Pitta on Lacta (blood tissue), and Kapa on other Datu.As the asti decreases, the space increases, so the vata increases, the pitta increases when the lacta increases, and the kapa increases when the other darts increase..
Ashtar Ga (XNUMX subjects)
In the classic "Charaka Samhita", there are eight subjects in medicine (Ashtarga).It is said that it consists of eight, and it is also classified into eight in modern times.
- Curative medicine
- Internal medicine (Kāya-cikitsā, Kaya Chikit Sir): Treatment of illnesses throughout the body.Gynecology is also included.
- Pediatrics (Kaumāra-bhṛtya, Kaumara Brittayer): Obstetrics included.
- Demonology (Bhūta-vidyā, Boota Vidya): Psychiatry.Psychosis in modern times isMonsterWas thought to be caused by possession.
- Specialized department above the clavicle (Śālākya-tantra, Schaller Kya Tantra): A treatment above the clavicle around the head and center, called "special surgery" because it uses special needles and other instruments...Includes ophthalmology, otolaryngology, and dentistry.
- Surgery (Śālya-cikitsā, Sharia Chikit Sir): Removal of foreign matter.tumortreatment of.
- Toxicology (Agada-tantra, Agada Tantra):poison・ Treatment for abnormalities caused by body poisoning and incorrect eating.
- Preventive medicine
It's not clear when it came to count eight subjects like this, but the primitive Buddhist scriptures andJainismIt is said that there is a scripture that lists five subjects that lack toxicology, immortality, and longevity..
Indian Alchemy and Medicine
India has had exchanges with China since ancient times, and the relationship became even deeper as Buddhism was introduced to China.Chinese alchemy (Chinese alchemy) Was reported, and it is believed that it also developed in India.Chinese alchemyTaoismA type of immortality and longevity method, a mineral containing mercury.cinnabarTaking cinnabar with (mercury sulfide) as the main ingredient was taken..
India's Immortality and Longevity LawIncludes Indian alchemy.OriginallyMedicinal herbIt is a scholarship, and at the stage of the classic "Charaka Samhita", mineral medicine is used only in a limited way.mercuryI didn't even take it..Due to the influence of Chinese alchemy, it is believed that alchemy dealing with mercury and mineral medicine has also been included.The word Lasanaya has come to refer not only to herbal medicine, but also to alchemy and alchemy-made herbs, such as Lhasa or Lasayana (herbal remedy for life), Mahalasa (gold herbal remedy), and Satva (gold mercury herb remedy). ), Salva Sartvica (Golden Comprehensive Mineral Herb,philosopher's Stone) And other terms were born..However, due to the toxicity of mercury, alchemy using mercury declined in the late Middle Ages, as in China.
Doctors recognize the patient's condition based on direct perception by their five senses (platyaksha), reasoning (anumana), and the teaching and testimony of a reliable person (shabda). (Reference: Bottom of page ・Niaya School) The examination will be done in the next step.
- Inspection (Darushana)
- Palpation (Sparshana)
- Interview (Prashna)
Inspections include tongue examination (Zifwa Parikshire), eye examination (Natra Parikhshire), observation of physical characteristics, and palpation.Pulse diagnosis(Nardy Parry Sher) and so on.Since the Tori Dosha theory is a body fluid pathological way of thinking, it was important to observe excrement such as fecal examination (Mara Parikhshire) and sputum as well as pulse diagnosis as in Yunani medicine.Hearing (observation using hearing and smell), skin examination, nail examination, etc. are also performed...Practicity (constitution / temperament), Vikritity (disease nature), Sala (good condition of tissue elements), Sanhati (or Sanhanana, physique), Muramana (measured values such as height), Satva (strength of will), Sartmiya (Degree of health, lifestyle) and Vayaha (age) are also grasped in detail, and a comprehensive diagnosis is made..
Pulse diagnosis is performed using the index finger, middle finger, and ring finger of the right hand, and the pulse of the right hand is examined if the patient is male, and the pulse of the left hand is examined if the patient is female...Vata's condition is felt with the index finger, Pitta with the middle finger, and Kapa with the ring finger.The depth of pulse is used to determine the patient's dosha's innate balance and current condition.
Palliative therapies include improving sleep time and diet, decoctions for victility (increased dosha), and calming.瞑想As a measure against armor, exercise and activation of agni are aimed at.There are two treatments for digestion, fasting therapy to reduce excess datu and nutrition therapy (nutrition therapy) to make up for the lack of datu..
Even in the classic "Charaka Samhita", diet is mentioned as a cause of health and illness, and it is considered important not only to enjoy the content but also to enjoy and be satisfied with the diet.
Foods and drinks are thought to affect the balance of tri-dosha and tri-guna in the same way as Ayurvedic drugs.The medicinal effect is judged by comprehensively considering Lhasa (taste, target of taste), Viruya (property), attribute (guna), and viperka (taste after digestion)...Lhasa is said to be a combination of two of the five majors: sweet (earth and water), acid (water and fire), salt (salt, earth and fire), and spicy (wind and fire).・ There are six types: bitterness (wind size and sky size) and astringency (wind size and earth size).Viruya has "heat, cold, neither".There are eight types of attributes: "cold, heat, oil, dry, heavy, light, blunt, sharp", or these eight are "slip, rough, solid, liquid, soft, hard, static, dynamic, fine, coarse".・ 2 types including "sticky (turbid) and clear (pure)"..Vipaka is a change of six Lhasa during digestion, three of which are "sweet, acid, and spicy."The effects of food on Tori Dosha and Tori Guna are judged in consideration of these factors.Aim to restore mental and physical balance by eating foods of the opposite nature to the increased Dosha and avoiding those of the same nature.If Vata dominates to improve Dosha's balancesesame oil, If pitta dominatesGhee(A type of butter oil), if Kapa is dominanthoneyIs given..We also recommend eating foods rich in Satva, such as rice and milk, as foods that enhance Satva will restore Dosha's balance.
Ayurvedic drugs are drugs consisting of naturally occurring animal and plant minerals (Crude drug) Is used.There are about 2,000 to 2,500 kinds of drugs, each of which has a medicinal effect (karma), and its action on dosha, datu, mala, etc. is also determined...As with food, the efficacy of drugs is judged by combining Lhasa and Viruya.The cause of the disease is the increase or exacerbation of Dosha, but there are symptoms and attributes.Treatment takes into account the condition of the individual patient, and drugs that restore Dosha's balance, drugs that cure symptoms, and drugs with opposite attributes are used.The drug may be used alone, but it is prescribed as a combination drug (yoga) Often..Overfishing and depletion of drugs has become a problem worldwide due to the increase in population and the spread of traditional medicine...Also, in recent years, someCrude drugFrom the perspective of modern medicineMechanism of actionIs being studied, as an exampleNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyIn animal experimentsAshwagandhaStrong anti-cancer effect was discovered..For hot milk overseasAshwagandhaAdd herbs and spices such asMoonmilkDrinks called are in fashion.
Stages and types of attenuation therapy
Ayurvedic attenuation therapy (purification method) is performed over time so as not to burden the body as much as possible.In order to excrete excess dosha and armor outside the body, it is given in the order of 1. pretreatment → 2. central treatment → 3. posttreatment.
- Pool Vakarma: Pretreatment
- Arma Perchana: How to digest arma (toxin)
- Snehana Karma: Oil Method
- Shirodalar: Cleansing the head, treating central nervous system tonics, mental illness, etc.
- Abhyanga (Abhyaṅga): Oil massage in the sense of applying.Different oils are used depending on the purpose.
- Piri Twill: Snehana Karma + Swedana Karma (sweat method).Called the King's cure, sprinkle a few liters of hot oil over the entire body and massage.It is said to be effective for intractable diseases such as paralysis and rheumatism.
- Elakiri: Snehana Karma + Swedana Karma.It is said to be effective for joint pain and rheumatism.
- Nabara Kiri (Swedana Karma): With Navarra Rice (medicinal rice) Bullet Use herbal medicine and milk such as
- Pradana Karma: Central Treatment, Panchakarma
- Vamana (vomiting method, mainly for the purpose of purifying the stomach, lungs, esophagus, and throat):Vamana
- Villechana (Laxative, Laxative):Virecana
- Basti (enema method):Basti
- Nasya (nasal drop method, mainly aimed at purifying the throat, head, and face):Navan,Nasya
- Lacta Moksha (phlebotomy):Rakta Mokṣa
- Pashchart Karma: Post-treatment
- Shamana sedation: Dosha balancing and agni normalization
- Sansarjana: Diet
- Rasayana: Immortality and longevity.Take herbal medicines and medicines made of minerals. ((Chavanapurash Is famous)
- Vazi Karana: A strong method.How to make good offspring Like Rasayana, take medicine.
Herbal remedies occupy a large position in the treatment of Ayurveda, and medicinal oil (Tyra), which is a decoction of the drug, is also used for treatment.Massage in Ayurveda is an adjunct therapy to Panchakarma, a type of herbal remedy that also stimulates the seven chakras...Warm sesame oil is used as the base oil for the massage.Sesame oil easily penetrates the skin andantioxidant effectIt is a strong oil, and when applied, sweating is promoted.Massage techniques include Persian medicineUnani medicineFrom the history of incorporating, Eastern and Western techniques are mixed, and there is a part that is compatible with traditional Japanese techniques...The following massages are known.
- Abhyanga: Basti (Basty to drain excess vata with full body oil massage)IntestineIt is a pretreatment of the law). Two practitioners massage the left and right with the same stroke at the same time, from the heart to the end to collect the vata in the large intestine. (On the contrary, Western massage represented by Swedish massage is a body fluid pathology theory (Humorism) In the background, it is done from the periphery to the heart to promote the circulation of body fluids... ) Diet and palliative therapy are required before Abhyanga.
- Shiro Abhyanga: Head and face massage is performed as a pretreatment for Nasya.It prevents hair loss and promotes hair growth, and depending on the type of herbal oil, it relieves tension in the head, improves hot flashes and insomnia, and improves the condition of the skin.
- Padabiyanga: A foot massage aimed at improving blood circulation, activating internal organs, improving foot function, and relieving tension by rubbing oil into the soles of the feet.Massage up to the legs to prevent back pain and constipation.After this, if you take a white darler or take a bath, the effect will be further enhanced.
While there are treatments that apply medicated oil (Tyra) as an adjunct therapy to Panchakarma, many of the so-called "Ayurvedic massages" have been re-arranged for foreigners.Americans staying on the coast of Kovalam, IndiahippieAs they were interested in Ayurveda, local young people gathered knowledge and skills from Ayurvedic healers and started blue sky massage, and "Ayurvedic massage" for foreigners began to be performed. .. (At that time, medical care in Kovalam was Nada Chikitza (community medical care), and villagers did not know the existence of Ayurveda. Multi-ethnic and multi-religious Indian traditional medicine is not limited to Ayurveda.)Currently, massage is taught at treatment facilities and health-related facilities for foreigners in India, and many foreigners study in India and bring it back to their own countries...India andSri LankaDone inMedical tourismSo, the main purpose of travelers is relaxation and health promotion, massage is the center of treatment, and it is often done only once. Even if you stay for more than a week, the treatment is arranged according to the period and the taste of the traveler, and painful treatment such as enema method and vomiting method is not often performed.Since there is no continuity, it is often not a radical treatment...In Japan, only oil massages are often performed at estic salons that call themselves Ayurveda, and there is a short-circuit recognition that Ayurveda is an Indian-style oil esthetic salon.
There is Indian thought such as "Upanishads" in the background of the treatment of the fundamental and spiritual aspects, and the purpose is to bring out the original power of the patient and to restore the harmony of mind and body by using the fundamental energy of the universe. ..Various methods are used, but the therapist devotes himself to assistance, aiming to activate the patient's Atman.It is often time-consuming because of the radical treatment that changes the patient's way of life, but it can have dramatic effects in a short period of time..
If astrology or the like reveals that the illness is due to karma (action / behavior), good deeds are encouraged to eliminate bad karma (karma).Also, Jotisha (Hindu astrology), Seeing the horoscope, herbal remedies that take into account the effects of bad planets, mantras (spells) and jewel treatments are also available.For example, the date and time of Panchakarma may be determined by astrology.However, treatments using mantras (spells) and jewels are rarely used today, and few healers have knowledge of astrology...As a fundamental and spiritual treatment, it is based on Indian thought.Kaze-Versto Shastra, A healing ritual of making a holy fire and chanting a mantra and offering an offering, Yaga, a mantra derived from the scriptures, a sacred figure that visually expresses the relationship between the cosmos and the microcosm (human), Yantra, etc. Used for.
Measurement of efficacy
A 2015 literature review found that about 40% of Ayurvedic journal articles are indexed in the database..
Randomized controlled trialThere have been multiple systematic reviews of.
Survey conducted by the U.S. government in 2008Then, of the 193 Ayurvedic-related products purchased online, more than 2% (21%) of the total products exceed the standard value.lead·mercury·ArsenicThe presence of was measured.In addition, it has not been confirmed how the plant components used in Ayurveda react with other pharmaceutical products in the human body.Side effectsThe danger of is pointed out.Some of the plants used in AyurvedakavalikeIllegal in some countriesIt should be noted that some of the ingredients and intakes are toxic.
Brahmanist scripture "VedaAs the four main vedas,Rig Veda(Around the 15th century BC?), "Therma veda''Yajul Veda''Atalva veda, And Upa Veda, which is a compilation of knowledge about life from the Vedas, is "Ayurveda".The early medicine and pharmacy of mankind was associated with magic, but these descriptions are only found in "Rig Veda" and "Atharvaveda".Upa Veda also said, "Gandharva Veda(Kabuki studies・ Arts), "(The science of military art and bow)), "Star Patia Veda』(Architecture / urban design).Written in Sanskrit, it was inherited by intellectual elites such as Brahmin.
It is said that the oldest document in Ayurveda was "Agnivesha Tantra" (around the 8th century BC?). ""Charaka SamhitaIs said to have been reorganized by Dr. Charaka from "Agnivesha Tantra", and it is believed that the work was completed by the 1st and 2nd centuries. "Atharvaveda" has a lot of medical content, and "Charaka Samhita" was regarded as the upanga (secondary limb) of "Atharvaveda". It is thought that in the 4th and 5th centuries, new religions such as Jainism and Buddhism and the six-sect philosophy developed and influenced medicine, and magic and medicine were separated, and empirical and rational medicine began.This is the medical system organized under the names of Charaka and Sushruta. It was completed as a medical system at the classical stage such as "Charaka Samhita", "Sushruta Samhita" and "Ashtanga Fridaya Samhita", and these medical books have been referred to as practical texts to date.At first glance, progress seems to be denied because the classics are still so important, but in realityChinese medicine OfPulse diagnosisAnd Persian and Greek / Arabian medicine (Unani medicine) Has also been incorporated, and Ayurvedic herbs from outside India have also been incorporated, and are flexibly eclectic. An Indian mathematics and Hindu astrology researcher who translated "Charaka Samhita" from SanskritMichio YanoAccording to the report, newly incorporated substances are treated as ancient when they are sanskritized and incorporated into the text, so in India, pulse diagnosis and internal administration of mercury, which are not seen at the stage of "Charaka Samhita", are also available. Is believed to be of Indian origin.
Establishment of classical medical books
Ayurvedic classic "Charaka Samhita』(Charaka book collection), AyurvedaBrahmaFirst preached by God (Brahma), through some pillars of GodIndraIt was told to God.And it is said that a hermit named Bharadvaja went to the god Indra and was taught."Charaka Samhita" is based on "Atharvaveda", and three hermits explain the three elements by describing wind, water, and fire.[Source required]..Academically, "Charaka Samhita"2st centuryIt was established around the time (although the literature and the date of establishment are inconsistent,Even when explaining the ancient times, infinity, and future of mischief, there is a practice of putting numbers for convenience.The same is true for Buddhism.[Source required]) Dr. Dasgupta analyzed "Charaka Samhita" from a philosophical point of view, in Volume 1 (General) Chapter 1.Vaisheshka School, Volume 3 (Judgment Theory) In Chapter 8Niaya School, Volume 4 (Body Theory) In Chapter 1Sankiya SchoolExplained that the idea of.
It is said that he had a close relationship with Kshatriya (samurai royal family) for "Charaka Samhita" who consistently deals with internal medicine.』(Sushruta book) also deals with surgery, and the final establishment is thought to be in the 3rd-4th centuries...It is said to have been brought from the gods and is said to be the incarnation of the Brahma god.CurcyMedicine is preached in the form of King Dhanvantari talking to Sushruta.There is no difference in the basic theory between the two books, emphasizing internal medicine and explaining that the imbalance of Tori Dosha causes illness.
The exact date of most of the ancient Indian literature is unknown, and the date of establishment of Ayurvedic oldest literature "Charaka Samhita" and "Sushruta Samhita" is unknown, and the context is unknown because they are not mentioned to each other. be.The time when Charaka and Sushruta, who are said to be the authors, lived is unknown, and some theories such as Sushruta are in the 6th century BC, while others are in the 4th century BC...However, "Charaka Samhita" and "Sushruta Samhita" were not written by a specific individual, and were reorganized for a long time with the involvement of many people, and it is thought that it took nearly 10 centuries to reach their present form..
Later, the two books were eclectic.』(Hachishinshinshu) was written by Vagbada, which is an easy-to-read medical book and has spread widely outside India.AlsoIs the first in Indian medicine to specialize in one theme, "Pathogenesis" (Roga-viniścaya, or"Nidana』) Was written.These medical books have been annotated according to the times and regions, and have been used as Ayurvedic texts to date.
Thoughts that influenced the classics
From around the 5th and 6th centuries BC, Buddhism, which denies the authority of the Vedas, has been active by free thinkers in an attempt to break the ritual supreme principle of Brahmanism.JainismA new religion likeUpanishadTetsuto are active, and around the 4th centurySix school philosophyProspered.In these times, the magical nature was removed from medicine and systematized, and it came to be called Ayurveda. The magical medicine found in "Atharvaveda" is the Upanishads and the Six School Philosophy.Sankiya SchoolDualism,Vaisheshka SchoolNatural philosophy,Niaya SchoolBy utilizing the logic of, it was organized into one system that eliminated the magical nature.
The Upanishads are the last books in the broad Vedic literature.There are 13 major Upanishads alone, and it is believed that they were established in the hundreds of years around 500 BC.All belong to one of the Vedic denominations and were transmitted by each school that inherited the Vedic scriptures.
The basic idea is that in this diverse and ever-changing phenomenon world, the only immutable entity (Brahman, 梵) exists as the essence, which is the same as the essence of the individual (Artman, I).Braga Ikyou".Brahman is an objective and neutral principle, while Atman is a subjective and personal principle.Ātman originally meant "breath" and "breath", and in turn came to mean "liveness", "body", "self", "self", "self", "soul" and so on.The whole idea of the Upanishad philosophy is allBraga IkyouExpand around the concept of.
Six school philosophy
In the 4th centuryMagadhaHappened fromGupta morningUnder this, the world was stable and rich Indian classical culture flourished.Brahminism(Brahmin religion, Amamon religion, HinduismThe predecessor of the ancient Indian religion) was regarded as the state religion, and Sanskrit was used as the official language. (Note that "Brahmanism" was coined by Europeans in modern times, and originally did not refer to the entire Brahmanism.) The Brahmanism that has been passed down since ancient times has been established, and various academic systems have been established.Sutra(Nemoto scripture) was summarized..Most of Indian scholarship輪 廻It is characterized by the fact that religion and philosophy are almost indistinguishable for the purpose of liberation from.There are six lines of orthodox Brahmanist philosophical school of this era.Six school philosophyWas called.The Samkhya, Vaisheshika, and Nyaya schools are among the six philosophies.
It features a strict dualism that divides the world into spiritual and material principles (not the dualism of mind and body)."God" as a spiritual principle (Purusha, Pure spirit, self, almost agree with Atman) And "selfishness" as a material principle (Practicity, Fundamental quality) are assumed to be the roots of the world..The material world is all developed from the self, and the mind such as the thinking organ (meaning) and the self-consciousness (patience) is not the spirit but the material, and it is thought that it is only one organ of the human body..
One of the ideas of Samkhya that influenced Ayurveda is the Tri-Guna theory.Before the world unfolds, the self-reliance is in a state of rest in which the tri-guna (three characteristics) of Satva (pure), Rajas (extreme), and Tamas (darkness) are balanced.When the activity of Rajas occurs due to the observation (interest, observation) of the god, the balance of Tori Guna is lost and the world opens (outflows).The process of opening is as shown in the figure.On the other hand, God does not change at all.
"Twenty-five religions" (XNUMX principles) by combining "God, svabhava, sensation (together), patience, eleven roots (meaning, five roots, five roots), five yui, five majors" ).. ("Tattva" means truth.. ) Since the deity is a clean one that has been liberated in the first place, in order to liberate it from the reincarnation, it is necessary to purify its own deity and reveal its true nature.In order to do so, it was necessary to correctly understand the XNUMXth Satya and practice yoga...Yoga training for liberation was carried out not only in the Samkhya school but also in most of ancient Indian philosophy and religion..
It is one of the six philosophiesYoga schoolIs greatly influenced by the Samkhya school.In modern America and Japan, Ayurveda is often talked about with yoga (although most modern yoga is a Hatha yoga lineage, a esoteric version of yoga).However, of the four purposes of life in India, law (Dharma), goods (Alta), love (Kama), and liberation (Moksha), liberation is not the preaching of medicine., Ayurveda and yoga are considered separate in India.
The Vaisheshika school is a school that represents the "Aramba Vada" (collection theory) that this world is composed of multiple components (atoms).The Nemoto scripture is believed to have been established in the near future of "Charaka Samhita"..
In this school, there are six padartas (six phrases, six principles, six) of "entity (actual), attribute (virtue), movement (work), universal (same), special (different), internal genus (harmony)". I tried to analyze and elucidate the world assuming the category).The entity consists of "four majors and emptiness, time, direction, Atman (I), Manas (meaning)", and the four elements cannot be directly perceived.atomI thought it consisted of (minimal).Two or more atoms are combined into a complex, which becomes perceptible, but these complexes are immutable, destroyed and changed.Padalta was analyzed in detail by setting various categories and attempted to explain the world, and such an analysis method is also used in "Charaka Samhita".
In India, correct argument methods and logic have been studied for a long time, and even in "Charaka Samhita", "the way of argument" is classified and examined over 44 items as a doctor's knowledge.Much of the worldview of the Nyaya school is based on the Vaisheshika school, and its uniqueness lies in the study of the method of argumentation.Indian logic is closely related to epistemology, and the Nyaya school also has the main theme of "what should be correct recognition", "direct perception", "reasoning", "analogy", "teaching and testimony of reliable people". We presented four recognition methods.In addition, in dispute with others, reasoning is proved according to the "fifth method" of "claim (sect)", "reason (cause)", "example (metaphor)", "conformity (combination)", and "conclusion (conclusion)". I thought it had to be done.In the controversy, it was said that the truth was known when each of them discussed and examined according to the quintuplet method and decided that a certain matter was valid.
With the introduction of Islam to India, Ayurveda has added an element of Yunani medicine.Conversely, many Ayurvedic drugs have been incorporated into Yunani medicine.
Yunani medicine spreads with the expansion of Islamic power,Mughal EmpireThe power reached its climax in the times.It seems that Ayurveda and Yunani medicine are theoretically close to each other, coexist rather than confront each other, and incorporate each other's knowledge and skills.In general, Muslim-dominated urban areas, courts, and the wealthy centered on Yunani medicine, and Ayurveda declined, but remained alive among the Hindu-inhabited surroundings and the poor.Among Ayurvedic retrospectives, Yunani medicine, along with Western medicine, is said to be the cause of the fall of Ayurveda, but it is believed that Yunani medicine actually brought Ayurveda alive...In India, which is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society, in addition to modern medicine and Ayurveda, Yunani medicine,Siddha medicineVarious traditional medicines and folk remedies are still being performed.
Western modern medicine
Europeans who entered India in the early 16th century despised both Ayurvedic and Yunani medicine as primitive and immature medicine.However, at the end of the 18th century, when traditional Indian scholarship written in Sanskrit attracted the attention of European scholars, Sanskrit medical books also attracted attention.
With the spread of modern education from the mid-19th century, traditional Indian scholars (bandits) awakened to their traditions and a retrospective movement took place.After the university that teaches Western medicine was opened in India, the Ayurvedic education system was put in place to counter it.Along with that, the tradition through family and teachers has decreased.Ayurveda was reconstructed and popularized as "Indian traditional medicine" with the rise of patriotism, and became more prosperous with the independence movement in the 20th century.
The rise of Ayurveda is also related to the fact that expensive Western medicine cannot cover the medical care of all people in India, which has a huge population and many poor people.Also, due to the conservative national character, many people are not familiar with Western medicine.
New coronavirus infectionAyurvedic-based medicines and health foods have also been introduced for (COVID-19).Although recommended by the Indian government, criticism from modern medical doctors has also arisen..
Eclecticism and retrospectiveism
When Western medicine was introduced to India and demonstrated its effectiveness, Ayurvedic doctors were divided into eclectic and retrospective.Eclecticism treats with Western medicine and also diagnoses with modern equipment.On the other hand, retrospectives believe that Ayurveda has fallen due to Islamic and British rule, and argue that if Yunani medicine and Western medicine are eliminated and Ayurveda is returned to pure Ayurveda, it will be superior to Western medicine..
The two are in fierce competition, especially in Sri Lanka. In 1957, the Minister of Home Affairs, who was the chairman of the Sri Lankan Traditional Medicine Commission, was assassinated, allegedly the crime of a fanatical Ayurvedic retrospective..
Dr. Ayurveda (BAMS)
Currently in India, in addition to doctors who treat with modern medicine, the national qualification of Ayurvedic doctors (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery, BAMS).If you study at university and get a qualification, you can start a business and provide treatment.There are more than 100 universities teaching Ayurveda in India, and some have graduate schools. The BAMS education period is five and a half years, including one year of training, and both modern medicine and Ayurveda are studied.
It is said that Ayurveda was introduced to Sri Lanka when Buddhism was introduced from India in the 3rd century BC.Before that, there was a unique traditional medicine called Deshachikissa, which Ayurveda developed in a mixed manner.A Sri Lankan-specific treatment that is still not shared with Ayurveda remains in the name of Deshachikissa..
Western modern medicine was introduced under British rule and became widespread.Ayurveda declined due to the loss of national support, but with the rise of nationalism, it became the focus of attention along with Buddhism and traditional culture, and the Traditional Medicine Commission was established in 1928 before independence. In 1961, the Ayurvedic Act was enacted and officially recognized as medical treatment, and in 1980, the Ministry of Traditional Medicine was established.Sri Lanka is dominated by Sinhalese ethnic groups and Buddhist religions, but it is a multi-ethnic and multi-religious nation.Siddha medicine, Yunani medicine, traditional medicine such as Desha Chikissa are also targeted for protection and development..
Eight years after Britain's colonial rule, Sri Lanka was triggered by the "Sinhalese Only Policy" (8), which eliminates Tamils from ethnic minorities.Fall into a state of civil war.. Although it was declared to end in 2009, the tourism industry was sluggish due to the long-term civil war.Therefore, as a means of acquiring foreign capital, for foreigners who perform Ayurveda at hotelsMedical tourismIs adopted, and the number of tourists is increasing year by year..
Education has been conducted at national universities since 1972, and as of 2008, 15% of the population was treated with Ayurveda.There are eight universities teaching modern medicine, compared to four in Ayurveda.There are 8 doctors in modern medicine and 4 doctors in Ayurvuda...Of these, 4,000 have received Ayurvedic education at the university, and there are also healers of families who have inherited Ayurveda from generation to generation, and monks who have inherited Ayurveda at temples.The genres for which Ayurvedic treatment seems to be effective are arthritis, paralytic symptoms,Rabies, Treatment when bitten by a snake, etc., but traditional Ayurvedic doctors' homes have their own specialties...Also, half a century ago, treatment using astrology was performed, but nowadays, healers with such knowledge are rare...In terms of treatment, modern medicine and Ayurveda are also introducing each other, aiming for integrative medicine..
From the introduction of Buddhist medicine to the Showa era
The drugs used in Ayurveda were introduced to China along with Buddhism, and were introduced to Japan by envoys to Tang China around the 7th and 8th centuries.ShosoinIt is said that many of the drugs transmitted to Ayurveda originate from Ayurvedic drugs.In addition, Japan's oldest medical book "Medical mind(982-984), which was strongly influenced by Ayurveda, but explained to some extent...However, medical care in Japan began in the early 5th century.Chinese medicineSince its introductionChinese medicineDeveloped independently as (Japanese law),MeijiUntil then it was mainstream.Even now, Kampo is still used as an alternative medicine by doctors.Acupuncturist,Judo reduction teacherWidely practiced by them.On the other hand, Ayurveda will be introduced to Japan in earnest.Edo Period OfIsolationThere is also a relationship ofTaishoSince then.
In 1921 (Taisho 10), the research on Indian medicine in Japan was published in the journal "Buddhist Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4" ("Buddhist Studies", Vol. XNUMX, No. XNUMX). First published, followed by several papers published.
Research after Showa
Since the beginning of the Showa era, a translation of Ayurvedic classics by Seigen Daichihara "Kokuryo Ancient Indian Medical Dictionary Charaka Honshu" ("Ritsumeikan University』1巻10〜4巻3号までの7編）、「スシュルタ医学」（『大乗』13巻4号〜14巻4号）が発表され、1941年（ShowaIn 16), a translation "Sushruta Honshu" was published from Sanskrit by Seigen Daichihara..
Full-scale research begins with the establishment of the Indian Traditional Medicine Study Group in 1967 (Showa 42).After the establishment of the study group, the journal of the study group was published, and to date, many papers with more than 580 volumes and more than 3,400 pages have been written...The study group is Tsutomu Hatai (Toho UniversityEstablished by Masao Maruyama (Professor of the Faculty of Medicine), Masao Maruyama (Japan Institute of Ethnology), etc. Nine people including Okabe Ryodo visited India, University of Gujarat Ayurveda, IndiaAnd visited the research institute.The following year, in 1969 (Showa 44), the Ayurveda Seminar was held for the first time at Osaka University, to which Professor Hiroshi Maruyama belongs..
In 1970 (Showa 45), the Ayurveda Study Group was established at the request of Professor Hiroshi Maruyama and others (Chairman: Hiroshi Maruyama, Secretariat:Osaka UniversitySchool of Medicine Hygiene Class)..Tsutomu Hatai established Hatai Clinic, an oriental traditional medicine research institute, and integrated Ayurveda and modern medical doctors for treatment.In addition, Akie Inamura entered the University of Gujarat Ayurveda, completed a five-year academic course, was the first Japanese to be recognized as an Indian nationally certified Ayurvedic doctor, and also completed graduate school..
In the 1980s, Ayurvedic doctor Upadiyaya Karinje Krishna worked as a deputy director of the Institute of Oriental Traditional Medicine and wrote Ayurvedic textbooks in Japanese. In 1994, the Ayurvedic Education Program started at the Institute of Oriental Traditional Medicine in two ways, one for professionals and one for amateurs..
At the 1985th Annual Meeting of the Japan Ayurveda Study Group in 60 (Showa 7), Kushara Sutra (Kushala Sutra) was the first clinical application of Ayurveda in Japan.anal fistulatreatment of)Clinical results were reported.. In 1987 (Showa 62), yoga therapy researchers joined the Japan Ayurveda Study Group, and the scope of academic presentations changed significantly..
Popularization and current situation
1989 years(HeiseiIn the first year)NHK"Chinese / Indian Traditional Medicine" was aired and spread widely to the general public. In 1998, the Ayurveda Study Group changed its name to The Society of Ayurveda in Japan..
In 2008, the 20th Annual Meeting of the Ayurvedic Society of Japan was held, and with the efforts of Chairman Akie Inamura (Dr. Ayurveda), a collection of excellent papers extracted from all 30 volumes of the Journal of the Japan Ayurvedic Research Society. Was published, and the past research on Ayurveda in Japan was compiled..
The Japan Ayurvedic Society is working on "Ayurvedic standardization and qualification system" in order to clarify the role of Ayurvedic medicine in the Japanese medical system and to handle a wide range of treatments...Currently, there is no national qualification for Ayurveda in Japan, but eye drops such as Panchakarma (purification therapy) such as emetic and exhalation methods, and Natratarpana (eye treatment with herbal oil), eye cleaning, diagnosis and diagnosis. Prescription of drugs, etc.治療Many ofMedical practiceIt is thought to hit, Doctors can only be treated in a few hospitals where Ayurveda is performed (even if you have an Ayurvedic doctor's license in India, a doctor's license is required for treatment in Japan).There are very few Ayurvedic educational institutions for doctors.Although it is gaining attention, it cannot be said that treatment is widely used in Japan.
Ayurveda became a temporary boom in the 1990s due to the popularity of yoga introduced to Japan via the United States.Currently in Japan, there are many massage salons and esthetic salons that bear the name.At these salons, a small number of therapies such as Ayurvedic massage, Shirodarah, and medicinal tea are used.Therefore, Ayurveda is sometimes called by another name such as "Indian oil esthetics", and there is a widespread short-circuit recognition that it is a type of slimming massage and esthetics...In addition, there is an article in the weekly magazine that a sex massage shop calls itself Ayurveda, and there are many examples that are the exact opposite of Ayurveda as the original overall life science...Contrary to its name, Ayurveda performed in Japanese salons is a type of esthetic or relaxation, and it is necessary to distinguish it from Ayurveda as traditional medicine.
Ayurvedic drugs are gradually becoming popular as health foods and teas in Japan, most of which rely on imports.However, there are various problems such as sales methods that may violate the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, forgetting the principle of the same source of medicinal herbs and the principle of medicinal herbs, and appealing the effect of only a single herb...Also, as with Chinese medicine, the efficacy and prescription are often judged within the framework of modern medicine..
There are few Ayurvedic research facilities in Japan. At the Toyama International Traditional Medicine Center, which was established in 1999, alternative medicine around the world, including Ayurveda, was being researched, but since 2008 the research has been conducted.Toyama UniversityThe center was abolished in 2010.
- Charaka Samhita
- Joutish(Hindu astrology)
- Versto Shastra(Indian Feng ShuiFamilyStudies / Architectural Environment Studies)
- Traditional medicine
- Siddha medicine(South IndiaTraditional medicine)
- Unani medicine(Greek / Arabian medicine)
- Humorism(Body fluid pathology theory)
- Tibetan medicine
- Jamu(IndonesiaTraditional medicine)
- Chinese medicine
- Personality and illness
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Indian Medicine" Katsuko Komatsu Folk Drug Museum
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Michio Yano"A Masterpiece of Science: An Introduction to Indian Medicine, Charaka Samhita," Asahi Press, 1988
- ^ Yasufumi Washio "Indian View of Life (2): Ayurveda View of Life"Atomi Gakuen Junior CollegeBulletin No. 24, 1988 pp.A13-A24, ISSN 0287-4164
- ^ Yoshio Nagahama, "Overview of Oriental Medicine," 1961,Sogensha
- ^ a b "Government-recommended traditional corona therapy, doctors criticize, Indian / Ayurvedic herbal remedies are free due to lack of vaccine, effect unknown"National geographicJapanese site (June 2021, 6) Retrieved July 4, 2021
- ^ a b Health food, more than 50 kinds of corona input / India Dabbur, "preventive effect" in traditional medicine "Nikkei Sangyo ShimbunDecember 2021, 6 Global aspect
- ^ “This is Not Ayurveda”New Age Ayurveda in the context of Ayurveda's Globalization: between labeling and reinvention Patricia Junge Heidelberg, september 2010
- ^ a b c d e f g h Kazuo Kamibaba and Machiko Nishikawa "Health with Indian Traditional Medicine!Introduction to Ayurveda, Chikyumaru, 2006
- ^ a b c d Masato Kasezawa "How to make use of "Ayurveda" in the present age: A consideration from practice in India, the United States, and Japan"Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies: G-COE Series", Volume 2009, 16,hdl:2433/155782, Kyoto UniversityCenter for Southeast Asian Studies
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Upadiyaya Karinge Krishna, Yukio Kato (co-authored) "Ayurvedic Cure Atopy" Deshou Shinsha <Ayurveda Series>, 2002
- ^ a b c Toyoshiro Takeda "Culture of Ancient India" Iwayoyama Tokoji priest priest Yamauchi Yasushi blog "Iwayoyama Tokoji diary"
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Sadanobu Kawasaki "The Thought of India" The Society for the Promotion of Education, The Open University of Japan, March 1993
- ^ a b Akira Kajita "History of Medicine" Kodansha <Kodansha Academic Bunko>, 2003
- ^ Finger, Stanley (2001). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations into Brain Function. Oxford, England / New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- ^ a b Chie Yamano, "Nagarjuna and Medical Techniques: The Establishment and Development of" Nagarjuna Eye Theory """Bulletin of the Lotus Flower Temple Buddhist Institute" No. XNUMX
- ^ a b c Takumi Kusano "Illustrated Alchemy"Shinkigensha,Year 2008
- ^ a b c "Introduction to Ayurveda" by Bagwan Das, Manfred Jr.s, supervised by Ayurveda Study Group, Hirakawa Publishing Co., 1990
- ^ Hokuriku University Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- ^ Indian herbal medicine that suppresses the growth of cancer cells AIST confirms the effect
- ^ a b c Takahiko Asai "Massage of the World" Fragrance Journal, 2009
- ^ Aggithaya MG, Narahari SR (2015). “Literature searches on Ayurveda: An update”. Ayu (3): 238–53. two:10.4103/0974-8520.182754. PMC 4895749. PMID 27313409.
- ^ a b Unveiled Indian martial arts.Desail new company
- ^ Indian philosopher / Buddhist researcherNakamuraStates that forged documents are also produced in the West and are quite common in China, but in India they are incomparably more, and the author's name may be said to be false in most cases.This is because in India there is a tendency for universal truths to be a problem rather than individual ones, and it was thought that it was more important to tell the truth than who the author was, and that truth is ancient. It was attributed to the great men and gods of India. Since it was thought that "the Buddha must have preached because it is the truth, not the truth because it was preached by the Buddha," it is not unreasonable to attribute the doctrine that is the truth to the Buddha, but it is taken for granted. It was said that it was.Source: "Hajime Nakamura Final Edition Volume 1 Oriental Thinking Method / Indian Thinking Method"Spring and autumn company, 1988.
- ^ a b Keiichi Miyamoto"Reading India's" Dualism Philosophy "" Shunjusha Publishing Co., Ltd., 2008
- ^ "Inoue Enryō Collection Vol. 7" "Indian Philosophy Outline" Inoue Enryō Center for International Philosophy Research, Toyo University
- ^ "" Truth "-Around the Sanskrit artificial word satya-kriyā-" Minoru Hara Ryukoku University Center for Contemporary Indian Studies
- ^ a b c d Sachiyo Iwase "Ayurveda in Green Island Sri Lanka"Shobunsha,Year 2005
- ^ a b c Shihoko Kajiura "Western Modern Medicine and Alternative Medicine: Learning from Sri Lanka to Promote Ayurveda"Bulletin of Kyoto Koka Women's University" Vol. 46, 2008 pp.315-331, Kyoto Koka Women's University
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kenji Tazawa "The history of the Ayurveda Society of Japan and the road to its realization"Journal of the Japan Society for Integrated Medical Sciences" Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010 p.79-89,NOT 40017135881
- ^ a b c d e "Current status and future of Ayurveda in Japan" Kazuo Kamibaba. Deputy Director, Toyama International Traditional Medicine Center
- ^ What is Kushara Sutra | Proctology. Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital[Broken link]
- ^ Legend of medical practice What is medical practice?. Shinnagata Ophthalmology Hospital Ophthalmologist Special Page
- ^ a b c d "Japan Ayurveda Society Qualification Certification System" Kazuo Kamibaba.Ayurveda Society of Japan[Broken link]
- ^ Business evaluation table International Traditional Medicine Center Operation and Management Expenses. Toyama Prefecture
- Seigen Daichihara (Translation) "Kokuryo Ancient Indian Medical Dictionary Charaka Honshu" "Ritsumeikan University" Volume 1 Volume 10-4 Volume 3 7 volumes, Volume 1 Chapter 16 translated from Sanskrit to Japanese
- Seigen Daichihara (Translation) "Sushruta Medicine" "Mahayana" Vol. 13, No. 4-14, No. 4, Japanese translation from Sanskrit
- Seigen Daichihara (Translation) "Sushruta Honshu" 1971, Ayurveda Study Group, 54, Rinkawa Shoten, Japanese translation from Sanskrit
- Michio Yano(Translation) "Introduction to Indian Medicine" 1988, Asahi Press, "Charaka Samhita" Volume 1 "Introduction to Medicine" translated from Sanskrit into Japanese.Appendix "" Charaka Samhita "" Body Theory "Chapter 1 and Vaisheshika Philosophy" Antonella Comba
- Kunja Lal Bishagratna (English translation), Yaeji Ito (original translation), Masao Suzuki (supplementary translation) "Sushruta University Medical Dictionary", all three volumes; Sushruta University Medical Dictionary Publishing Committee, 3, Human and History, 1971 October, 2005, double translation from the English translation book "THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA" (10), ISBN 489007158X
- Tsutomu Yamashita "Disease Theory in Indian Traditional Medicine Book" Charaka Samhita "-" Charaka Samhita "Volume 52, Chapter 3, Sections 2006 to XNUMX Translation-" "Japanese Medical History Magazine" Vol. XNUMX, No. XNUMX, XNUMX Year
- Japan Ayurvedic Society (Translation) "Charaka Book Collection General-Indian Traditional Medicine" 2011, Seseragi Publishing, PV Sharma An English translation based on the English translation.Sanskrit Roman alphabet notation, English, Japanese in three languages.ISBN 9784884162047
The Sutra Rastaana (Volume 1) of "Ashtar Gafridaya Samhita" was once planned to be published and translated by Michio Yano, but it has not been published until now.
- "Introduction to Ayurveda" by Krusina U.K. Toho Publishing, 1993
- Makoto Hasumura "Fantastic Ayurveda" Housing Shinposha, October 1995, Chigensha, September 10,ISBN 4434140450
- Kazuo Uema and Machiko Nishikawa "Indian Life Sciences Ayurveda"Noyama Fishing Village Cultural Association, October 1996 ISBN 4540950878
- Aoyama Keihide"Great Life Sciences-The Spirit of Ayurveda" Sangokan, December 1997 ISBN 4883201341
- David Flory, Vasant Rad, Kazuo Uema, "Ayurvedic Herbal Medicine East-West Fusion Herbal Therapeutics" Deshoushinsha, May 2000 ISBN 491549747X
- Tsutomu Hatai "New Edition of Ayurveda's World-Towards Integrative Medicine" Departure Shinsha, October 2003 ISBN 486103003X
- David Frawley, Subhash Ranade, Avinash Lele, Kazuo Uema, supervised "Revised Ayurveda and Maruma Therapy", supervised by Machiko Nishikawa, translated by Naoko Ota, Sancho Publishing, March 2009 ISBN 4882826976
- Kawasaki Sadanobu "Indian Thought"Open UniversityEducation Promotion Association, March 1993
- Hiroshi Unno "End of the Century Syndrome New Age Light and Darkness" Shin-yo-sha, April 1998
- "Indian View of Life (2): Ayurveda View of Life" Yasufumi Washio "Bulletin of Atomi Gakuen Junior College" 1988 No. 24 p.A13-A24
- Shihoko Kajiura,"Western Modern Medicine and Alternative Medicine: Learning from Sri Lanka to Promote Ayurveda" "Bulletin of Kyoto Koka Women's University" 2008, Vol. 46, p, 315-331
- History of Ayurveda in Japan Japan Ayurveda Association
- General Table of Contents "Ayurvedic Studies" (Nos. 0-37)
- "Traditional Medicine of India / The essence of Ayurveda" Former Indian NationalGujaratAyurveda University Graduate School Dean H. S. SHARMA (Hari Shankar Sharma)
- "Ayurvedic Medicinal Enema Therapy (Bastikarma)" Dr. Bheema Bhat, MD, Translated by Hiroe Inamura Sharma
- Tsuyasu Yoshitsugu"Mental Disorders in Ancient Indian Medicine (unmada)" "Indology and Buddhist Studies" 2009 Vol. 58, No. 1, p.306-303, two:10.4259 / ibk.58.1_306
- Kazuo Kamibaba"Potential of traditional medicine" "Journal of the Japanese Society of Complementary and Alternative Medicine," 2004, Vol. 1, No. 1, p.63-76, two:10.1625 / jcam.1.63
- Michio Yano"Indian culture from the perspective of history of science" "South Asian Studies" 2010, Vol. 2010, No. 22, p.245-260, two:10.11384 / jjasas.2010.245
- Inoue Enryō"Inoue Enryō Collection Vol. 7" "Indian Philosophy Outline"Toyo University Center for International Philosophy Research
- Ayurveda: Benchmarks for trainings in traditional / complementary and alternative medicine World Health Organization(WHO)
- National Library of Ayurveda Medicine
- Use Caution With Ayurvedic Products – Ayurvedic product guidelines by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)