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📷 | Panasonic: All new remote camera products are on display.Product development tailored to the application.For products for companies and education ...


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Panasonic: All new remote camera products are on display.Product development tailored to the application.For products for companies and education ...

 
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Also, although it does not support NDI, it does support USB and 3G-SDI.
 

A remote camera was exhibited in the camera system solution area of ​​the Panasonic booth.Panasonic ... → Continue reading

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3rd generation mobile communication system

3rd generation mobile communication system(Dai 3 Sedai Idotsushin System,English: 3rd Generation Mobile Communication System, "3G') Is1G-2Gfollowed byInternational Telecommunication Union "(ITU) stipulates"IMT-2000(International Mobile Telecommunication 2000) Compliant with the standardMobile communicationA system.Generally in English "3rd GFrom "eneration", "3G"(Sleezy) Etc. are also abbreviated.

ITU has 5 types of terrestrial communication methods and 6 types of satellite communication methods.1999 Recommended to.In the Japanese example,NTT DoCoMo,Softbank,Y MobileW-CDMA system adopted by (in EuropeUMTS(Called the method)KDDI-Okinawa Cellular PhoneUnion "auIs adopted byCDMA2000 1x(CDMA2000 1xRTT, initiallyCDMA2000) There is a method. As of November 2007, the ITU estimates that there are more than 11 million subscribers in more than 100 networks in more than 700 countries around the world.

Overview

Background of standardization

ITU is considering standardization of 3G mobile communication systems1985 Was started in.The aim is to provide an ultra-fast wireless communication solution that supports multimedia, data, and video in addition to voice.[1]..Initially called "FPLMTS" (Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems), it was later faster.data communication,VideophoneSuch asマ ル チ メ デ ィ アOperation of "new band (2000MHz band)" so that services can be used[2] "Data transfer speed of 2000kbps (at rest)" is changed to "2000 Renamed to "IMT-2000" with the hope of "commercialization"[3].

In the 2nd generation (2G), incompatible mobile communication systems were deployed in each country and region, so the 3rd generation is worldwide.roamingWe aimed to formulate a unified standard so that it would be possible, but in the end, the content comprehensively included five types of ground-based systems.The background is that patent issues related to new technology have emerged, and proposals for 5G methods that are strongly conscious of the utilization of existing 2G assets in terms of both infrastructure and technology have been made.[4].

IMT-2000 standard

There are five terrestrial wireless systems recommended in 2000 as the IMT-1999 standard: IMT-DS, IMT-MC, IMT-TC, IMT-SC, and IMT-FT, and the communication speed is 5k.bps(When moving at high speed), 384kbps (when moving at low speed), 2Mbps (when moving at rest) are specified.afterwards2007 Added OFDMA TDD WMAN, which is a derivative of IEEE 802.16e. (Refer to the table below for details of each method)

IMT-2000 method and extended standard for data communication
Standard nameDuplexthe wayMultiple accessthe wayFeaturesMain areas of use
ITUaliasHigh speed data communication
IMT-DSW-CDMAUTRA-FDDHSDPA / HSUPAFDDCDMAbase stationNo need for synchronization (Synchronization is optional with Release 4)Europe-Japan-North America-South America-Southeast Asia-Chugoku- South Korea-Middle East-Oceania
IMT-MCCDMA2000 /
CDMA2000 1x (1xRTT)
CDMA2000 1x EV-DO (Rel.0 / Rev.A)Requires synchronization between base stationsNorth America, South America, Japan, South Korea, China,Taiwan-Hong Kong·Southeast Asia·Israel
IMT-TCUTRA-TDDTD-SCDMATRequires synchronization between mobile stationsChugoku
TD-CDMAHSDPAbase station·Mobile stationNo need to synchronize betweenEurope
IMT-FTDECTTDMADigital cordless phoneEurope
IMT-SCUWC-136,EDGE, GSM384EDGE Phase 2 / EDGE EvolutionFDDGSM OfUpward compatibility,D-AMPSAlternative toUSA·Asia·Europe
IMT-2000 OFDMA TDD WMANWiMAXTOFDMAIEEE 802.16WiMAX Forum ProfileUSA / Asia / Europe

3G deployment

IMT-MC (CDMA2 2000x) and IMT-SC (EDGE), which ITU positions as “evolved” of 1G, have compatibility with existing CDMA (IS-95) and 2G networks such as GSM or D-AMPS, respectively. It was expensive, and the development advanced ahead of each 3G system.However, regarding the IMT-DS method, which requires a new frequency band allocation (license), especially in Europe.Frequency auctionThe winning bid at that time became huge, and the financial condition of the business operator deteriorated, and investment in 3G (UMTS) infrastructure was restrained.The operator adopted a policy of seamlessly operating using the existing 2G (GSM) network and gradually expanding the UMTS network, but the supply of GSM / UMTS dual-mode terminals could not catch up with the development of UMTS. Caused further delays.

Previously, in Europe, the mobile business in the 900MHz band was limited to the GSM system, but this restriction was abolished in 2009 (European Directive 2009/114 / EC).[5], UMTS can now be operated in the same band. The 900MHz band has an advantage in terms of coverage over high frequency bands such as the 2GHz band, and it is said that UMTS can be introduced with a smaller amount of infrastructure investment.According to a survey compiled by the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA), a European affiliate, legislation has already been put in place to allow UMTS operations in the 20MHz band (or 900MHz band) in more than 850 countries, including Europe. Has been done, and it is said that the operation has actually started or is planned in 18 countries.

In Japan, NTT DoCoMo was the first in the world to start commercial services of 2001G (W-CDMA) in 3, followed by the KDDI Group and J-PHONE (currently Softbank) the following year.Morgan StanleyAccording to a survey report released by the government, as of 2008, the 3G penetration rate in the region is as high as 84%.[6]..According to this survey report, the second highest penetration rates are in North America (29%) and Europe (25%).

Japan situation

Number of users

As of the end of May 2011[7]Of the more than 1 million mobile phone contracts, about 2 million, 1% of all contracts are 1600rd generation (96rd generation)3.5th generationIncluding).especially,SoftBank 6-2(PDCMethod)2010 With SoftBank Mobile, which ended at the end of March,2007 Newly entered inE-MobileAll contracts are 3rd generation.

For businesses that provide second-generation services, au (KDDI / Okinawa Cellular Telephone)cdmaOneAs of July 2012, 7[8], NTT DoCoMoMOVA(PDC method) will be available at the end of March of the same year.[9] The transition is progressing to terminate the service, with au having 99% or more contracts and NTT DoCoMo having 98% contracts in the third generation.In addition, NTT DoCoMo3.9th generationHitXi(LTEThe method) has started, but as of the end of May 2010, it was only about 12% of all DoCoMo contracts, as it was just started in December 2011.

Regarding the number of contracts of each company, please refer to the industry groupTelecommunications Carriers AssociationIs announced by company and generation (method) as of the end of each month, and is widely used as a material to know the situation of the mobile phone industry at that time.

Japanese frequency allocation

3.9rd generation mobile communication systemThe table below shows the frequency bands assigned to each operator in Japan, including the bands used thereafter.

Incidentally,KDDI/ Okinawa Cellular Telephone (au) 3G methodCDMA 1X(Currently au 3G),CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Rel.0 The2012 May 7Until2rd generation mobile communication systemFrequency band for (old)800MHz band, Band Class 3) was used in parallel.Currently, the service is being developed in the following frequency bands that have been reorganized for 3G.Old 800MHz band and old used once1.5 GHz bandabout,2rd generation mobile communication systemchecking ...

携 帯Wireless communication Frequency table for (IMT-2000 FDD)
numberGoing up (MHz)Going down (MHz)Bandwidth (MHz)Busan AreaUseCareer
1718 - 728773 - 78310 × 2 = 20JapanLTE(700 MHz Low band, band 28)KDDI-Okinawa Cellular(Au)
(au 4G LTE )
728 - 738783 - 79310 × 2 = 20JapanLTE(700 MHz Middle band, band 28)NTT DoCoMo
(Xi )
738 - 748793 - 80310 × 2 = 20JapanLTE(700 MHz High band, band 28)Softbank
(OldE accessallocation)
2815 - 825860 - 87010 × 2 = 20Japan

LTE(Band 18)

KDDI / Okinawa Cellular (au)
(Au 4G LTE)
825 - 830870 - 8755 × 2 = 10JapanIMT-MC CDMA2000 1xMC CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Rel.0 CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Rev.A CDMA2000 1xMC-Rev.A(Band Class0 Subclass2)KDDI / Okinawa Cellular (au)
(CDMA 1X WIN, Currently au 3G)
3830 - 845875 - 89015 × 2 = 30JapanIMT-DS W-CDMA HSDPA(Band 19)[10][12]
(LTEDual use with) 838-843MHz
NTT DoCoMo
(FOMA Plus Area, Xi)
4900 - 905945 - 9505 × 2 = 10JapanIMT-DS W-CDMA HSDPA HSPA+(Band 8)Softbank
(Platinum band)[13]
905 - 915950 - 96010 × 2 = 20JapanLTE(Band 8)Softbank[14]
(SoftBank 4G LTE)
51427.9 - 1437.91475.9 - 1485.910 × 2 = 20JapanLTE(Band 11)Softbank
(SoftBank 4G LTE)
1437.9 - 1447.91485.9 - 1495.910 × 2 = 20JapanLTE(Band 11)KDDI / Okinawa Cellular (au)
(Au 4G LTE)
61447.9 - 1462.91495.9 - 1510.915 × 2 = 30JapanLTE(Band 21)NTT DoCoMo[15]
(Xi)
71710 - 17301805 - 182520 × 2 = 40JapanLTE(Band 3)KDDI / Okinawa Cellular (au)
(Au 4G LTE)
1730 - 17501825 - 184520 × 2 = 40JapanLTE(Band 3)Rakuten Mobile Network (planned)
1750 - 17651845 - 186015 × 2 = 30JapanLTE(Band 3)Softbank
(SoftBank 4G LTE)
(Old e-access allocation)
1765 - 17851860 - 188020 × 2 = 40TomeisakaLTE(Band 3)NTT DoCoMo[16][17]
(Xi)
81920 - 19402110 - 213020 × 2 = 40JapanIMT-MC CDMA2000 1xMC CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Rel.0 CDMA2000 1x EV-DO Rev.A CDMA2000 1xMC-Rev.A(Band Class6, Band 1)
(LTEDual use with)
KDDI / Okinawa Cellular (au)
(CDMA 1X WIN (currently au 3G), au 4G LTE)
1940 - 19602130 - 215020 × 2 = 40JapanIMT-DS W-CDMA HSDPA(Band 1)
(LTEDual use with)
NTT DoCoMo
(FOMA, Xi)
1960 - 19802150 - 217020 × 2 = 40JapanIMT-DS W-CDMA HSDPA HSPA+(Band 1)
(LTEDual use with)
Softbank
(SoftBank 3G, SoftBank 4G LTE)
Frequency table for mobile wireless communication (IMT-2000 TDD)
numberMHzBandwidth (MHz)Busan AreaUseCareer
12010 - 202515JapanIMT-TC UTRA-TDD TD-SCDMA TD-CDMA HSDPA TD-LTE(Bands 34)Unallocated
23440 - 352080JapanTD-LTE(Band 42)NTT DoCoMo
3520 - 356040JapanTD-LTE(Band 42)KDDI / Okinawa Cellular (au)
3400 --3440 3560 --360080JapanTD-LTE(Band 42)Softbank

2014 OctoberCurrent,Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsThen.3.5 GHz bandWe are considering the allocation of 3480 to 3600MHz, and we are planning to divide the 3-1MHz part into 40 blocks in the TDD band and allocate 120MHz width per company (XNUMXMHz width in total).To secure this band,Satellite communicationUsed inFrequency band OfWindingIs required.Since the range of winding is wide, the upstream band cannot be secured in the FDD band that follows the conventional allocation, and the early winding can be performed only on the part corresponding to the downlink band, so the allocation as the TDD band is used. Although it was a strong candidate, it was officially scheduled to be allocated in December 2014.

Of these, NTT DoCoMo2016 In the summer, in the Higashi-Meihan area, Bands 42 was bundled with 2 waves and Bands 3 was bundled with 1 wave.Carrier aggregationIt was launched in the form of 3CCA.

After that, KDDI / Okinawa Cellular TelephoneUQ Communications OfWiMAX 2+Since the 2CCA of 3 waves and the company's LTE has been approved by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, 42CCA will be started by bundling the 2 waves of WiMAX 2+ and the Bands 1 band prior to the start of Bands 3. rice field.

Chronological table

Situations outside Japan

The United States of America

In the United States, there are currently three operators that provide mobile phone services at the national level, and the nationwide expansion of 3G was achieved in the 3s. As of February 2000, the end of 2021G service is approaching, and most operators are unable to activate 2G-only terminals.

AT & T Mobility

AT & T Mobility(Cingular(Including) has been providing 2005G services since 3,W-CDMAIt is provided by the method (band 2 of, band 5 of).Map of coverage area (English). 3G service is scheduled to end in February 2022[23].

T-Mobile

T-MobileHas been providing 2008G services in W-CDMA format (Band 3, AWS) since 4.Map of coverage area{(English).The old sprint cdma2000 is also in service.

Verizon Wireless

Verizon wirelessHas been providing 2005G services in CDMA3 format since 2000.Map of coverage area(English). 3G service will end on December 2022, 12[24].

Chugoku

ChugokuThen, in January 2009, three companies were granted a 1G business license.[25], Full-scale operation started in the same year.

China Mobile

China Mobile TD-SCDMABy method, in 2008Beijing OlympicsAhead of this, we will test in 5 cities from May,2009 It is officially open from. The GSM system will continue in parallel.

China Unicom

China Union Communications W-CDMA2009 cities from May 5 (depending on the method)City,Deputy cityAnd otherProvincial capitalWe are conducting trial sales in major cities such as), and are planning to start full-scale sales from October.In addition, China Telecom will take over the conventional CDMA system after separating it, and Unicom will develop the service with GSM and UMTS.Although it is not 10G, Unicom merged with it.China NetcomWas working onSmall spiritual communicationIs inherited by Unicom.

China Telecom

China TelegraphMade 3G the CDMA system undertaken by China UnicomCDMA2000Has been in business since April. It is scheduled to start operations in 4 cities by the end of 2009.In addition, from the pastSmall spiritual communicationThe service will continue to be telegraphed as before.

Russia

RussiaIs the second generationGSMIn the standard, the 3rd generationW-CDMAMainly using standardsEU countriesThe three major mobile phone service companies, Mobile Telesystems, VEON.However, Delta Telecom, which has not yet reached national service, is using the CDMA2000 standard.[26].

Of the capitalMoscowIn December 2009, the Russian Federation Communications, Information Technology, and Mass Communication Supervision Bureau just granted 12G approval to the above three mobile communications companies, and the 3G service is scheduled to start from the beginning of 3.[27].

MegaFon

Megaphone (MegaFon) Is licensed by the Federal Media, Communications and Intellectual Property Protection Authority (Los Subyagio Francritura).St. PetersburgW-CDMA standard 3G service (data service only) started commercial operation in October 2007 in the city[28].

MTS

Mobile Telesystems (Mobile TeleSystems, Abbreviation: MTS)UlyanovskIn December 2009 in the city centerW-CDMALaunch standard 3G service and expand to the entire city by the end of 2010[29].

Vimpel Com

Vympel.com (VimpelCom) Company is Beeline (bee line) W-CDMA standard 3G service in December 2009Republic of KalmykiThe capital ofElistaStart in the city and aim to spread throughout the republic by the end of 2010[30].

Delta Telecom

Delta Telecom (mobile service name is SkyLink) is the only one in RussiaCDMA2000Standard 3G service started in 2002[31].

Reference document

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ William Sterlings, Foundations of Modern Networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and Cloud, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2015 ISBN 0134175395
  2. ^ However, it is not limited to 2000MHz (2GHz).
  3. ^ "Yukio Takeda "Mobile Infrastructure-IMT-2000 and its Subsequent Development-" (PDF)". "FUJITSU" No. 52, (July 2001), pp.7-308. 2014/6/28Browse.
  4. ^ "Keywords: IMT-2000". atmarkIT (ITmedia, Inc.). 2010/9/1Browse.
  5. ^ "DIRECTIVE 2009/114 / EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 16 September 2009 (PDF)". European Union. 2014/6/28Browse.
  6. ^ "The Mobile Internet Report Setup (PDF)". Morgan Stanley (December 15, 2009), slide 26. 2010/9/2Browse.
  7. ^ "Number of contracts by business operator (as of the end of May 2011)”. Telecommunications Carriers Association. 2011/6/20Browse.
  8. ^ "Notice of service termination such as "CDMA 1X" <Attachment>”. KDDI (December 2011, 4). 2011/6/20Browse.
  9. ^ "Notice of termination of "mova service" and "DoPa service"”. NTT DoCoMo (September 2009, 1). 2011/6/20Browse.
  10. ^ It was expanded from the conventional UMTS band 800 after the 6MHz band reorganization was completed.However, since the expanded part was used as LTE, it remains Bands 3 as 6G, and in some areas, the entire band of 800MHz band allocation is diverted to LTE, so 3G is stopped. Also exists.
  11. ^ "Survey and study report on the use of mobile phones, etc. in aircraft』Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, March 2008, page 3
  12. ^ This band used to be an aircraft phone[11]-Marinette Phone-Tele terminal-Convenience radio phone・ Analog methodMCA radioThis is the bandwidth allocated to.
  13. ^ 2012 May 7Service started.
  14. ^ Electronic tag (RFID) Band andMCABand transition is complete2015 More available.
  15. ^ However, the bands of 1455.4 --1462.9MHz and 1503.4 --1510.9MHz2014 May 3Until then, the license for digital MCA that uses the same band has not expired, so it was not possible to use it in Higashi-Meihan.
  16. ^ On July 18, 7, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications found that it conformed to the standards for changing the frequency designation as a result of the examination. Frequencies exceeding MHz and 18 MHz or less were assigned.[1](Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications link)
  17. ^ On March 18, 3, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications attached a plan to open DoCoMo Central, DoCoMo Tokai, and DoCoMo Kansai after April 15, when frequencies can be used, based on the report from the Radio Control Council. We will certify as per, and we plan to issue a certificate.[2](Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications link)
  18. ^ November 17, 11, certification of opening plan based on guidelines for opening specific base stations using frequencies in the 9 GHz band or 1.7 GHz band [3](Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications link)
  19. ^ On May 18, 5, an inquiry by the Radio Regulatory Commission regarding the revocation of certification for the establishment plan of a specific base station that uses frequencies in the 17 GHz band. [4](Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications link)
  20. ^ On July 18, 7, the certification for the establishment plan of a specific base station using the frequency of 12 GHz band was revoked. [5](Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications link)
  21. ^ On October 19, 10, about the return of the approval of the opening plan of the specific base station using the frequency of 30GHz band from IP Mobile [6](Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications link)
  22. ^ Kyodo News (March 2021, 11). “au3G, automatic cancellation service ends in April | Kyodo News”(Japanese). Kyodo News. 2021/11/29Browse.
  23. ^ "Get ready, 3G is going away in 2022". AT&T (September 2021, 1). 2021/2/25Browse.
  24. ^ MIke Haberman (03-30-2021). “3G CDMA Network Shut off date set for December 31, 2022". Verizon Wireless. See 11-29-2021.
  25. ^ 3G mobile business license for China Mobile, China Telecom, and China Unicom
  26. ^ Current status of CDMA200 in Europe
  27. ^ 3G approval for 3 Russian mobile carriers
  28. ^ Russia's MegaFon launches third generation in Petersburg
  29. ^ Russia's Mobile Telesis Launches 3G Service in Ulyanovsk
  30. ^ Russia's Beeline launches 3G service in the Republic of Kalmyki
  31. ^ Russia's Delta Telecom launches for BREW® commercial service

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