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Two-dimensional code(Nijigen code) is a one-dimensional code that has information only in the horizontal direction (barcode), the code of the display method that has information in the horizontal and vertical directions. The information density per area is higher than that of a bar code, and if the coded data is the same, the printing and display area is smaller.
There is a matrix type (matrix code) in which small squares are arranged vertically and horizontally, and a stack type (stack code) in which a plurality of one-dimensional barcodes are vertically stacked.
Technical principles of the entire 2D code
The technical elements that are common to both types of 2D code are as follows.
- Encoding technology to generate code
- Code shape
- Data efficiency
- Technology for printing and displaying
- Error correction for deformation and dirt
- Decoding technology that processes the code image and converts it to a character string etc.
The accuracy of reading depends on the image processing technology of reading and the performance of the optical system in addition to the standard of the code itself.
In the matrix type code, the data cell that represents the minimum unit of data is a point (or triangle/square) shape, and the data storage range is often a straight line or a dotted line. If data cells are colored or transformed (including three-dimensionalization), if they are black and white, the data that is N 3 (m × n) power is increased to the expressive power of M (integer) N power data. You can also
When the invention was first invented in the world of this technology, several types of stack codes and matrix type two-dimensional codes were invented and developed in the United States in the early 1970s. In the 2s, NASA and UPS adopted some of them, but the processor cost, software development environment/hardware technology (processing speed), performance and cost of laser readers and CCD cameras were obstacles to its spread. It was mainly used for factory automation (FA) such as factory automation. In the United States, some companies, such as Veritec, went public with this technology, but there were many successful cases, but it did not spread widely until the mid-1990s. After that, in Japan as well, around 1990, each company added automatic error correction and image processing technology, and the standardization movement was accelerated worldwide, and its applications gradually expanded.
One of the major reasons for the widespread use may be the explosive spread of mobile phones with CCD cameras in Japan from around 1999, but the price problem was solved at once and the standardization proceeded, especially until then. The later-developed matrix-type code has also become widespread. Around that time, two-dimensional matrix codes of various shapes were born in Japan, and new types of printing methods and optical hardware for reading were also developed.
Main two-dimensional code
- JAISA Japan Automatic Recognition System Association
- The Complete Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika) "Two-dimensional code』- Koto bank