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🥾 | Tanigawadake Mountaineering Guidance Center finishes this season's work The popularity of mountaineering in Corona is increasing the number of distress accidents this year


Tanigawadake Mountaineering Guidance Center finishes this season's work The popularity of mountaineering in Corona is increasing the number of distress accidents this year

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However, according to the prefecture, it seems that there are more opportunities for unprepared and unfamiliar people to climb the mountain as a leisure activity that can be enjoyed even in the corona disaster, and this year's distress accidents have nearly doubled from last year's 2 cases, of which 31 have died. ..

The Tanigawadake Mountaineering Guidance Center in Minakami Town, Gunma Prefecture, which calls for safe mountaineering, has completed its operations and will hold a closing ceremony for this season ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Distress(That's right) is to face a life-threatening disaster (danger).in particular(I.e.,æµ·Etc., to say that you encounter a risk of losing your life[1].

Broadly speaking,assassinationIncluding incidents (""Yuki Hamaguchi(Used as "distress" etc.), but this section describes the frequent distresses in the mountains and the sea.

If you are in distress

Wikipedia is not a manualHowever, considering the possibility of viewing by victims in crisis situations, the minimum is described from the viewpoint of respect for human life.However,Use of Wikipedia information is at your own riskPlease note that.

In the field

  1. Distress signalTo use.
    • Sound the whistle once every 10 seconds (or make some loud noise), and after 1 consecutive days, take a 6-minute break and repeat this.
    • At night, it emits a light emitting signal with the same rhythm.
    • Ask the police (110) for help on your mobile phone or smartphone.Give priority to contacting the police and do not waste the battery.
    • After requesting rescue, it does not move and is in a place where mobile phones can be connected[3].
  2. シ ェ ル タ ーTo secure[4].
    It is better to have a place to protect yourself from the elements such as wind, rain, sunlight, heat, cold and dangerous animals.You can just put a rope between the trees, hang a cloth on it, or lean a branch with leaves.If it is not a volcanic area or a water passage, it is also effective to dig a hole and cover it with a branch.
  3. Securing food and water
    • Basically, it's best to avoid hunger with sweets until rescue comes (although salty snacks are thirsty and should be stopped).
    • 9% of mushrooms are not edible and have no calories, so it is better not to eat them.
    • Don't eat wild grasses, bugs, fruits, or meat that you don't understand.
    • Do not consume alcohol in cold regions.The reason why it feels warm is that the blood releases the core body temperature around the brain and heart to the surface of the body, and it warms up to the ends of the limbs, expanding the heat dissipation area and lowering the overall body temperature.As a result, the core body temperature has dropped to 35 ° C or less.HypothermiaBecomes the worst and freezes to death[5][6].

At sea

Maritime collision prevention lawUse the distress signal specified in Article 37, Paragraph 1.

Water accident-Marine accidentThen, when the rescuer goes to rescue, the rescuer may be exhausted and sunk, so floating technology is required.Back floatOr, using an air-filled PET bottle or bag, experts and the Japan Coast Guard are calling and instructing them to "float and wait!"[7][8][9].

Mountain accident


What is a mountain accident?(I.e.Refers to encountering life-threatening difficulties and dangers.In the mountains of Japan, many people are injured every year due to lost roads, slips, falls, injuries, sudden changes in the weather, avalanches, etc., and many people are killed.These can be seen regardless of the season.AlsoYatsugatake,Mt. ShiroumadakeIt is also happening in the popular mountains that have been maintained.The PopularJapan Northern AlpsIn particular, it is occurring in large numbers[10].


Individual distresses in mountain distresses are less widely reported than marine distresses[10][*1]However, the number is overwhelmingly larger than that of marine accidents, and in Japan alone, there are more than 2,000 mountain accidents and hundreds of dead and missing people every year, which is a very serious situation.

National Police AgencyAccording to the statistics of2018 The number of mountain accidents that occurred in Japan in (30) was 2,661, and the number of victims was 3,129 (of which).Death-Missing 342 people, 1,201 injured, 1,586 rescued safely), the number of distresses and the number of victims was the highest since 1961 (Showa 36) when statistics began to be collected, and the number of climbersAgingAs a result, the number of cases increased by 2009%, the number of victims increased by 21%, and the number of dead and missing persons increased by 58.8% compared to 50.1 (Heisei 7.9).The prefecture with the highest number of cases was Nagano prefecture with 297 cases, the second place was Hokkaido with 2 cases, and the third place was Tokyo with 201 cases. Of the total number of distress cases of 3, 147% came from the distress site. It was a rescue request via a communication device such as a mobile phone or a radio. Of the number of mountain victims in 2,583, 78% were climbing, 4% were injured while picking edible wild plants and mushrooms, and by mode, 2018% lost their way, 74.0% slipped, and 12.3% fell. It was.Looking at the number of victims by age group, 37.9% are over 17.4 years old and 15.0% are over 40 years old. Of these, 78.5% are over 60 years old and 50.5% are over 40 years old. Occupied.In addition, the percentage of people who are dead or missing when they are distressed during multiple actions is 95.0%, while the percentage of people who are dead or missing when they are distressed alone is 60%. Has been found to be likely to have fatal consequences[11].


There are many possible causes of distress, but the main ones are:

  • Climbing[10].Normalcy bias, Arrogant attitude[10].
  • Failure / lack of in-depth mountain surveys that should be done before climbing[10].
  • Inadequate equipment that should be prepared before climbing[10].
  • Failure / lack of physical and strength training to climb the target mountain, which should be done before climbing[10](= Reckless challenge to the mountain beyond your physical strength).
  • Before climbingEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euInsufficient investigation[10].
  • Lack of reading map ability[10]..Non-carrying map[10].
  • Unreasonable action plan in the first place[10].
  • Lack or lack of leadership and followership.
  • get lost.
  • (Sprains, etc.) Actions are delayed due to nothing, and it is not possible to proceed on time, and the sunset is reached in the mountains (the flashlight is also uncarried) and it becomes stuck.[10].
  • slide(Many of them die instantly).
  • avalancheLack of knowledge for prevention and avoidance[10].
  • Weather mapWithout confirmingPseudo sunny weatherTo be fooled by the phenomenon that the weather becomes fine for a short time between bad weather and misleads the climber.
  • Falling rocks(Lack of consideration to prevent rockfall. Delay in avoidance when rockfall occurs).
  • Lightning(Because it is expected that you will encounter lightning, but you do not stop climbing or evacuate properly).
  • (For skiers) Ski in areas where skiing is prohibited, outside the designated area of ​​the ski resort. (BackcountrySkiing (Mountain ski)・Backcountry snowboard)


A distress that is judged to be related to the weather or the main factor is "Meteorological distressIt is classified as.Basically, it is necessary to confirm the weather forecast and weather map in advance.Listen to the radio etc. yourselfWeather mapIt is desirable to be able to draw, and it is necessary to grasp and predict the weather of the mountain to be climbed or climbed by using the weather map drawn by oneself.Even after entering the mountain, it is necessary to collect weather information using radio, etc., and in some cases, interrupt the plan and descend the mountain.As a specific exampleMt. Tomuraushiyama distress accidentand so on.

Incidentally,Pseudo fine weatherNeed attention.The weather improves only for a short time between bad weather[12]The name comes from the illusion that the weather has turned out to be fine.It is a phenomenon seen on the Sea of ​​Japan side in winter, and it does not last long and the weather becomes rough soon.There have also been reports of distresses caused by mistaken pseudo-good weather for continuous good weather and decided to climb a mountain.

The distress caused by getting lostLost distress". For "lost distress",Osamu HanedaIs analyzing by giving concrete examples[13], Can occur due to various factors[*2].

The distress caused by slipping downSliding distress".Stepping off and slipping down, oftendeadDirectly connected to.Hard on the wayrockThere is a great risk of death if you hit something like this, or if you fall a few hundred meters or more, and even if the fall distance is short, you may hit your head and die.Standing upRidge, Mountain trails on steep slopes, wet rocksYukieBe especially careful when walking.Even those who are going to rescue the slipper may slide down and a secondary distress may occur.

By suddenly twisting my legSprainHowever, if walking becomes difficult, you will not be able to move to a safe place and you will be exposed to harsh weather, which may be life-threatening, so be prepared to survive even if that happens. There is a need.

It is necessary to learn in advance how to avoid getting caught in an avalanche.Detail isavalancheSee.

Distress measures

Proactive measures

As a countermeasure against distress that can be done in advance when climbing a mountain, first of all, do not treat the mountain, specifically secure experienced people to accompany it, and not only that, but also each person should thoroughly conduct a preliminary survey. Also, each person should bring the necessary equipment and train their physical strength in advance.

Basically, after securing at least one (preferably multiple) mountain experienced people in the group, the leaders will investigate the destination in advance and inform the members of the information and necessary equipment. ..It is necessary to select a mountain that suits your ability, and in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, under the supervision of 1, a typical mountaineering route (2014 routes) in the snowless season and in good weather, compared to the general mountaineering route. ) Was evaluated based on the physical strength and difficulty level ("Grading of Mt. Shinshu").[14].

Each member has basic knowledgeTopographic mapandWeather mapHow to read, first aid (mainly for mountaineering, simpleHemostasisLaw,fractureof timeSplintHow to guessCardiopulmonary resuscitationEtc.) must be acquired.Since it is difficult to learn by yourself, it is desirable to hold a learning meeting in advance.If possible, each person should investigate past cases of distress and deepen their awareness of the factors, countermeasures, and survival methods.[*3].

Each one is sure to be enough even in the summerWinter clothesBring your own, for the mountains (also as winter clothes)Rain wearBring enoughBehavioral dietandEmergency foodCarrying a mobile phone is a basic distress measure.Mountains are cooler and windier than flatlandsExperience temperatureIs low and is deprived of body temperature every moment (when walking stops).If you don't have enough warm clothes, it's easyHypothermiaFall into.

HypothermiaThen, when the body temperature reaches 35 degrees, the brain function deteriorates, the judgment becomes abnormal, and at 34 degrees or less, even the left and right of the foot cannot be grasped and it becomes impossible to move, and death occurs at around 32 degrees.When the body cools, it generates heat due to tremors, but the limit point is around 35 degrees, and when it gets colder, the tremors of the body subside to warm the internal organs, but the cold blood flow on the body surface circulates inside. The decrease in body temperature accelerates, causing a decrease in visceral function faster than expected.Avoidance of hypothermia requires adequate warm clothing and fever generation by ingesting behavioral diets.

In the event of a distress, it is likely that you will have to endure low temperatures until dawn, welcoming the night without moving.Even in the middle of summer, the temperature is extremely low at night, and in the Northern Alps and Mt. Fuji, etc.Below freezingIt also becomes.Winter clothes are essential to survive in a mountain accident.Disposable body warmerAlso helps a little.In addition, even if you are planning a day trip, as a measure against distress (aluminum-deposited vinyl heat-retaining sheet that wraps your body)ZeltCarrying one of the (simple tents) can save your life in the event of an emergency.

Action food / emergency food (emergency food) for mountaineeringチ ョ コ レ ー ト,candy,BiscuitEtc.) is also a must-have.It is often the case that life or death depends on whether or not you carry this with you.

otherFirst aidCarrying equipment may also help.

At the time of mountain climbing and after mountain climbing

Notification of entry in advance or at the time of entry (Mountain climbing plan..If you submit an action plan (declaration of the equipment you brought) (mostly put it in the post next to the entrance of the mountain trail), you can understand the route and equipment that you would have followed in the event of a distress and deal with it. It will be easier[10].

If it is expected that the temperature will drop, avoid hypothermia by wearing warm clothing as soon as possible.If the temperature and body temperature drop too low, it will be difficult to even wear warm clothes, so increase the amount of warm clothes on the inside as soon as possible.

In situations where leaders are required to make a decision to move forward or backward,Courageous withdrawalIs the most important point in avoiding distress.There are data showing that men have a higher rate of distress than women in mountain accidents.Men are impatient because they want to be unreasonable, while women are cautious and tenacious, which is effective in preventing mountain accidents.[10].

What to do in case of distress

If you find yourself or your party in distress or have already been distressed, calm down and calm down.パ ニ ッ クIt is important to avoid.In many cases in the past, even in the same situation, the survival rate is higher if the self and surrounding conditions are calmly and deposited.

When acting in multiples, basically a predetermined and experienced leader is responsible for making decisions.Human life must be a top priority and close attention should be paid to individual, especially vulnerable members.If you have an experienced sub-leader at your party, you can also collaborate to organize information and make decisions with wisdom.Decisions need to be shared with everyone so they can work together.When each person acts separately, the difficulty increases and everyone is in danger of life.

In the event of any serious difficulty (extreme stormy weather, member injuries, slips, rockfalls, etc.), the entire party will often stop walking, reducing momentum and beginning to cool.If you have extra winter clothes, wear them early andHypothermiaTo avoid.AlsoBehavioral dietPut some in your mouth and use the calories to raise your body temperature.

There can be various situations, but it is generally said that you should not move forward in the event of a distress.However, the situation[*4]Do not hesitate to request rescue if deemed necessary by[15]..Delays in making rescue requests tend to make things worse.


If you receive a rescue request, the policeMountain guardAnd firefightingMountain rescue teamIs in charge of the local mountaineering clubFire brigade,Japan Air Self-Defense Force,Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceOften with the help of.In some prefecturesFirefighting disaster prevention helicopterWe have realized quick rescue by searching from the sky and transporting the victims.

However, in stormy weather and at nighthelicopterCan't fly.Depending on the terrain, the helicopter may not be able to approach due to turbulence of the air flow.

In Nagano prefecture, which has the Northern Alps, rescue workers are stationed because of many distresses.[10].

Rescue workers are professionals and trained in "rescue" work, but not trained to relieve the psychological shock of dealing with heavily damaged bodies.traumaMay become[10].

Searches for public institutions such as the fire department, police, and the Self-Defense Forces were carried out with taxes, so they were not charged to themselves or their families, but in April 2017,SaitamaPasses an ordinance requiring self-pay for rescue dispatch by helicopter[16]..In the future, there is a possibility that the presence or absence and degree of burden on the victim side will differ depending on the local government.On the other hand, if you ask a private organization to dispatch, the daily allowance is 3 to 10 yen per person, and if you use a private helicopter, it costs about 1 yen per hour regardless of whether the victim has been found or not. Later, a large amount of money will be charged to the person and his / her family.

"" Can compensate for (a part of) the above-mentioned expenses.insuranceAlthough the name varies from company to company, it often exists in the form of a travel disability insurance option.[Source required]..One day triptrekkingThere is also hiking insurance that can be thrown away.

Distress monument

In Japan, the number of cases of distress during the mountain climbing boom since 1960 is increasing.A large distress monument is now standing in the mountains.For this reason, there was a movement to put together the distress monuments in one place at Mt. Tanigawa.1974 ,Ministry of the EnvironmentIs in the mountainsCologneInstructed national park management offices nationwide to remove all but the minimum necessary, and this instruction will include a large distress monument similar to Cologne, so the construction of the distress monument will be restrained. Was to be[17].

Examples of major accidents in the mountains

Items related to mountain accidents

Mountain distress related books

footnote[10]See also

Marine distress

Marine distress is stormy weather, collision with natural objects,Aground,organ Ofmalfunction,otherShipWithcollisionThis refers to a situation in which a ship loses its ability to navigate safely on its own and needs rescue.Temporary danger avoidance behavior is usually not included (evacuation).Besides shipssubmarineAccidents are also included.

Generally, it is said that "mountain accidents are expensive to search, and marine accidents are not expensive".This is because there is a limit to what the private sector can do compared to the mountain accident, and it is for searching.Fishing boatThis is because even if you rent a private vessel, you will be covered by the marine accident search clause that is included in advance in the "fishing boat insurance" and "marine leisure boat insurance" that you always take out when you own the boat.

Cases drifting after a distress

Before modern times

The order of "year and month of distress (old calendar for pre-modern times), place", "ship name (type)", "days drifting", "thirst survivor", and "number of survivors"

  • Genroku8 years(1695 ) November: Bezaisen over the Pacific Ocean, after about 11 months of drifting, 6 survivorsKamchatka PeninsulaDrifted to. 13 people then fell apartDenbeiOnly one in russiaVladimir Atlasov(Vladimir Atlasov) Protected by the expedition.
  • MeiwaNew Year (1764 ) April 10:Kashima Nada, Isemaru (20 crew members of Bezaisen), cargo during driftingKelpOvercome hunger with the fish caught, and two months later, on New Year's Day in the 2th year of the Horeki (14)MindanaoDrifted to.Survivors become indigenous slaves and scatter,SontaroOnly oneMeiwa8 years(1771 )In MayNagasakiReturn to[22].
  • Tenmei2 years(1782 ) December: Enshu Nada, Shinsho Maru (12 crew members of Bezaisen), overcame hunger with rice and fish caught while drifting, 16 months later, Tenmei 8 (3 years after Tenmei)1783 ) January 7Aleutian Islands OfAmchitka IslandDrifted to.However, one of the 16 crew members died during the drift, then six on Amchitka Island and three on Amchitka Island.Petropavlovsk, 1 personIrkutskDied of illnessShinzo2 peopleRussiaRemained in.Then one personNemuroI died of illness and was able to return to my hometownKotaro DaikokuyaOnly 2 people with[23].
  • 5th year of Tenmei (1785 ) January: Off Tosa, 1 stone boats (300 crew members), in the Izu IslandsTorishimaAfter being washed ashore, two people died in Torishima,Chohei NomuraOnly survived and returned home 13 years later[24].
  • Kansei5 years(1793 ) December 12: Kashima Nada, Wakamiyamaru (2 crew members of Bezaisen), overcame hunger with loaded rice and caught fish while drifting, Kansei 16 years after 7 months (6 months later)1794 ) On May 5th, it was washed ashore on an island in the eastern part of the Aleutian Islands.Of the 10 crew members, one is the Aleutian Islands and one isIrkutskDied of illnessZenroku10 of them remained in Russia, so they returned to their hometowns.TsudayuOnly 4 people[25].
  • Enjoyment3 years(1803 ) April 11:Kazusa(Current:Chiba)Kujukuri beachOki, Keisho Maru (13 crew members of Bezaisen), rice and cargo while driftingcodOvercome hunger, 7 months latercultureNew Year (1804 ) January 7Kuril IslandsHorokajima IslandIt was washed ashore in Higashiura.Of the 13 crew members, 7 died during drifting but survived.TsugeemonThe six of them went through Petropavlovsk in July of the 6rd year of culture (3).Etorofu IslandReturned to[26].
  • 10 years of culture (1813 ): Enshu-nada, Enshu-nada (13 Bezaisen crew members), overcame hunger with cargo of rice and caught fish during drifting, but 10 people died during drifting and survived.Oguri Jukichi3 people drifted on the 484th dayCaliforniaSanta BarbaraHe was rescued off the coast by the British merchant ship Horseton. 3 peopleAlaska, Petropavlovsk to Etorofu Island, but one died of illness and only two were able to return home.[27].

Since modern times

A case where a diver drifted alone

Items related to marine distress

Distress other than mountains and sea

地球 OfPolar regionsWhile exploringSpace shipAlso includes distress.See also the case in the article below.

Works on distress and drift


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Mainly marine distressFishermanIn other words, Maruyama speculated in his book that it would be widely reported because it was a professional distress, while mountain climbing would not be widely reported because it is leisure people.
  2. ^ If it happens due to lack of reading map ability, the person himself will be insufficiently prepared, but it is often used when climbing a mountain.Geographical Survey InstituteIssued1/25000 topographic mapWritten inTrailIn some cases, the closed road has not been deleted or the road has a different shape than it actually is, and even if the climber has no problem, he / she may get lost.
  3. ^ MountaineeringWonder VogelIn clubs, etc., they often learn and analyze past distress cases at regular study sessions.
  4. ^ It turns out that the road you came to was dangerous after passing, and it is safeMountain hutIf is just ahead, you may decide to go a little further.
  5. ^ A detailed memorandum on the history of the distress by the survivor Mitsuharu Sano has been published.[34].
  6. ^ A memoir by Captain Seiji Moroi has also been published.[36].Saito MinoruNote that it is not his own ship of the same name (the oldest yacht in the world and set a record around the world).
  7. ^ Project X109th "Pirate Raid Battle of the Straits of Malacca"
  8. ^ Books are published based on interviews and interviews with drifters and related parties[38].


  1. ^ "Distress" -DigitalDaijisen
  2. ^ a b Why Are St. Bernards Always Depicted With Barrels Around Their Necks? MATT SONIAK FEBRUARY 18, 2009
  3. ^ What are the necessary preparations in Natsuyama until a mountain accident or helicopter rescue is requested?(Asahi Shimbun)
  4. ^ FM 21-76 Survival Manual(US ArmySurvival Manual FM 21-76)
  5. ^ Mountain Climbing Accident (XNUMX: Information) Hypothermia that occurs outside of cold regionsAsahi Shimbun Digital Author: Masahiko Ishikawa Updated: June 2016, 6
  6. ^ Hypothermia lecture Japan Mountaineering Society
  7. ^ "Floating back" is important for dealing with water accidents!(NHK: Hidetoshi Saito, Chairman of the Water Accident Society)
  8. ^ The slogan "Float and wait!" Saves children's lives(Nikkei Dual)
  9. ^ Watch out for water accidents!(Japan Coast Guard)
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Haruhiro Maruyama "I will teach you how to distress: A dry lecture for safe and reliable mountaineering"picture: Shintaro Shiora〈Yamakei mountain study selection book> (Original 1999), 2011 revised edition.ISBN 978-4-635-04815-6.
  11. ^ Overview of mountain accidents in 30 National Police Agency Life Safety Bureau Regional Division
  12. ^ Pit of false blue sky "pseudo fine weather" - NHK,Web fish
  13. ^ Osamu Haneda "Document lost distress』\ Yama-kei Publishers, 2006.ISBN 978-4-635-14006-5.
  14. ^ "Grading of Mt. Shinshu- "Difficulty evaluation by mountain climbing route" in the snowless season and good weather- " (PDF)”. Nagano Prefecture Mountain Center. 2015/5/19Browse.
  15. ^ Hideki Nagata "Mountain Distress Lived, Returned: The Secret of Self-Rescue"Tokyo Shimbun Publishing Bureau, 2005, pp. 162-166.ISBN 978-4-8083-0822-3.
  16. ^ Mountain helicopter to enact charge ordinance 1 yen per hour at rescueMainichi Newspaper (November 2017, 3) Read December 24, 2017
  17. ^ "Cologne" is dangerous for mountain climbing. There is a risk of collapse due to a gust. Instructed to remove unnecessary things. The Asahi Shimbun, October 49, 1974, evening edition, 10rd edition, 3th page.
  18. ^ Exchange with Mexico / Chiba Prefecture
  19. ^ Iwao pp154-166
  20. ^ Tanaka pp2-7
  21. ^ Iwao pp166-170
  22. ^ Iwao pp171-207
  23. ^ Iwao pp124-153
  24. ^ Iwao pp99-122
  25. ^ Iwao p126
  26. ^ Iwao pp49-53
  27. ^ Iwao pp208-240
  28. ^ What is the truth hidden in Melville's "Moby Dick", isolated in the sea of ​​death in the movie "In the Heart of the Sea"-Director Ron Howard Fashion Press
  29. ^ Iwao p253
  30. ^ Iwao pp253-254
  31. ^ Iwao p254
  32. ^ "John F. Kennedy and PT109”. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. 2016/3/22Browse.
  33. ^ The race started on December 1991, 12 at 26:12 AM
  34. ^ Mitsuharu Sano "The Survival of Only One: The" Takago "Drifting XNUMX Days of Fighting" <Shincho Bunko>, 1995 (Original 1992).ISBN 978-4-10-136711-8.
  35. ^ 4 Side Judgment No. 144/145 Pleasure Boat Marine Marine Overturn Case, Pleasure Boat Taka Overturn Case --Marine Accident Inquiry and Ship Accident Investigation Association website
  36. ^ Seiji Moroi "Heaven on the XNUMXnd Day: Shuten-doji's Pacific Drifting Diary"Sankei ShimbunNews service, 1994.ISBN 978-4-594-01621-0.
  37. ^ “Fishermen drifted for 10 months, rescued-Marshall Islands”. AFP BB News (archive.today). (January 2006, 8). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2012, 7.. http://archive.is/oZz0 
  38. ^ Kotaro Koide "Flowing Sea: Documents / Survivors"Kosei Publisher, 1989.ISBN 978-4-333-01354-8.
    Kotaro Koide "Diver Drifting: Extreme 230km" <Shincho OH! Bunko>, 2000.ISBN 978-4-10-290021-5.* Revision of "Flowing Sea"
  39. ^ Apollo experience report: Crew provisions and equipment subsystem(NASA)


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外部 リンク

Nearly 31 cases occurred


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