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💪 | Eliminates coldness and swelling of the lower body!Easy "hip exercise"


Eliminates coldness and swelling of the lower body!Easy "hip exercise"

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Thick arteries, veins, and lymph vessels run around the hip joint.

Good morning.I'm Saori Takagi, a yoga instructor.When it gets colder, it's hard to move ... → Continue reading

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Approximately 1 breakfast recipes, serialization of recipes by popular cooks, breakfast shop information, morning scenery reports around the world, yoga, beauty, fashion, hair arrangements, articles written by experts every morning. I will deliver it.

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Thick artery

Lymphatic system

vertebrateAtLymphatic system(Lymphatic disease,British: lymphatic system) IslymphIt is a conduit network that carries clear liquid called liquid.This includes lymphoid tissue through which lymph fluid passes.Lymph nodeThere are many organs where lymphoid tissue is found, starting withtonsillikeDigestive tractAccompanyingLymphoid follicleIs one of them.The lymphatic system is alsospleen,Thymus,Bone marrow, Lymphoid tissue associated with the digestive tractlymphocytesIncludes all structures that circulate and produce[1]..What we call the lymphatic system todayRudbeckWritten independently for the first time by Bertlin.

bloodDissolved components in the body細胞,組織It does not mix directly with.First mixes with tissue fluid and then enters cells.Lymph fluid is the tissue fluid that has flowed into the lymph vessels.mammalianIn the lymph心 臓It does not flow through the body with a pump like blood driven by a valve, but it is roughly a lymphatic vessel whose regurgitation is blocked by a valve.Skeletal muscleIt flows in a certain direction by applying pressure due to the contraction of.But,Amphibian,reptilesThe pumping organs of the lymphatic system, called in, drive the lymph.

The lymphatic system has three interrelated functions.One function is to remove tissue fluid from tissues.Absorbedfatty acidLipidAs a chyleCirculatory systemOne function to carry to (thoracic duct).Finally,MonocyteAndantibodyIncluding lymphocytes such as producing cellsImmunologyIt is a function to produce cells (thymus)[2].

Studies on lymphatic drainage of various organscancerIt is important in terms of diagnosis and treatment of.Because the lymphatic system is physically close to many tissues in the body, it is among the various parts of the body.TransitionIt causes a process called, which carries cancer cells.Cancer cells pass through the lymph nodes and can be caught there.If the cancer cells cannot be destroyed there, the lymph nodes may in turn become lesions of secondary tumors.

When the lymphatic system becomes ill or has some abnormality, swelling and other symptoms appear.Lymphatic system abnormalities in the bodyInfectionImpairs resistance to.

Brief commentary: Lymphatic system

Lymphatic system(Lymphatic, lonely)Lymphatic organs(Lymph node,Lymphatic vessels,Thoracic ductEtc.) in a complex systemLymphGeneration and from the organizationCirculatory systemParticipate in the move to.AlsoImmune systemPlays a big role in.

The lymphatic system has three functions, which are interrelated.

  1. Remove excess fluid from tissue
  2. Transport digested and absorbed lipids to the circulatory system
  3. Immunocytes (lymphocytes,Monocyte,antibodyTo producePlasma cells) Production

The source of lymphCapillariesExuded fromplasmaThe component is intercellular spaceInterstitial fluidIt became.It is called interstitial fluid or interstitial lymph.Interstitial lymph is a fluid network between cells that carries nutrients and oxygen from capillaries to cells and waste products to blood vessels and lymph vessels.Plasma is pushed out of the capillaries by the cell to become interstitial fluid (interstitial lymph).Most (about 80-90%) of the water containing blood gas electrolytesOncotic pressureThe interstitial lymph, which contains about 10 to 20% of the total volume of proteins and waste products, flows into the lymphatic vessels and becomes intraductal lymph.It will be returned to the circulatory system by the lymphatic system.In short, the lymph fluid in the lymph vessels (intraductal lymph) is the tissue fluid itself taken up by the lymphatic system.The "interstitial lymph" that flows between cells and the "intraductal lymph" that flows through the lymph vessels are the same, although there are differences in concentration.

Lymph circulation

The lymphatic system functions as a second circulatory system.In the lymphatic system, white blood cells in the lymph nodes protect the body from cancer cells, fungi, bacteria, and viruses.The lymphatic system is the open circulatory system, unlike the vascular system, which consists of closed tubes centered around the pump (heart).Lymphatic system pressure is low and fluid flow is slow.Lymphatic system pressurePeristalsis,Skeletal muscleCaused by the contraction of the lymph vessels静脈Like, backflow preventionSemilunar valveThere is.Lymphatic fluid movement is primarily driven by skeletal muscle contraction, but periodic tube wall contractions also aid in lymphatic fluid migration to the lymphatic vessels.Capillary lymph vessels gather and gradually thicken, lymph from the right upper body into the right lymph vessels, and lymph from other sitesThoracic ductGather at.These are right and leftSubclavian veinIt flows into the blood circulation system and joins the blood circulation system.

Transport of lipids

Lymphatic vessels The Chyle tubeAlso calledDigestive tractIt is distributed along the surface of.Small intestineAbsorbed inNutrientsMostlyLiver portal veinThroughliverThe lipids are carried by the lymph through the thoracic duct to the veins, where they flow into and are processed there.Lymph fluid rich in lipids from the small intestineChyleIs called.Lipids are processed in the liver once they enter the systemic circulation.

Lymphatic organs

For the ancillary lymphoid tissues that make up the lymphatic organsThymus,spleen,Lymph node,Peyer's patch,Tonsils,appendix,redBone marrowThere is.Using these organs as scaffoldingB cells,T cells,as well asMacrophage,Dendritic cellsOther immune cells circulate in the body.Other,Reticuloendothelial systemThere is something called.PathogenInvades the body or the bodyantigenWhen exposed to (such as Japanese cedar pollen), antigens migrate to the lymph and the lymph is transported through the lymph vessels to nearby lymph nodes.Foreign substances such as bacteria and cancer cells in the lymph are removed by the lymph nodes.Macrophages and dendritic cells phagocytose and process pathogenslymphocytesAntigen presentation is performed.When the pathogen is recognized, the lymph nodes swell, and the produced immune cells are newly added to protect the body.


The lymphatic system consists of a transport system and lymphoid tissue.The transport system carries intraductal lymph and consists of capillary lymph vessels, lymph vessels, right lymphatic trunk and thoracic duct.

Lymphoid tissue, wherever it is, is involved in the immune response and consists of lymphocytes and other white blood cells.They are heavily attached to the network of connective tissue through which lymph passes.The site of lymphoid tissue where lymphocytes are concentrated and shaped like a mass is known as lymphoid follicles.The composition of lymphoid tissue is either well-structured as lymph nodes or structurally loose, known as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.Lymphoid follicleIs one of.

Lymph production

Blood also supplies nutrients to cells and collects the waste products produced by the cells metabolizing them.However, blood vessels and cells are not directly connected, and the supply of nutrients and the recovery of waste products are not possible.Interstitial fluidIt is mediated by (interstitial lymph).

Capillary microcirculation
Capillary lymphatic vessels in tissue occupancy

Tissue fluid (interstitial lymph) is an aqueous solution containing plasma components that permeate through capillaries due to capillary arterial pressure and waste products generated from cells.90 to 80% of the tissue fluid (water containing electrolyte blood gas) returns to the capillary vein side and the small vein again due to the tissue pressure generated by oncotic pressure and muscle movement.The remaining 10 to 20% of tissue fluid (interstitial fluid containing foreign substances such as proteins and viruses, cell debris, etc.) flows into the capillary lymphatic vessels and flows through the lymphatic system as intraductal lymphatic fluid.[1]..Therefore, the initial lymph fluid (intraductal lymph) that flows into the capillary lymph vessels has the same components as the tissue fluid (interstitial lymph) and is a clear liquid like water.However, when it passes through the lymph nodes, it becomes rich in cells (especially lymphocytes).[3].

There are two primary lymphatic organs, one is the thymus and the other is the bone marrow.These are the places where immune cells are made and mature.Secondary lymphoid organs consist of lymphoid tissue that exists in a cohesive, saccular or scattered state.The saccular tissue includes the spleen and lymph nodes, and the diffuse tissue includes the gastrointestinal tract-associated lymphoid tissue and tonsils.

Lymph circulation

The tubular tube returns lymph (intraductal lymph) to the blood and ultimately makes up for the amount lost when tissue fluid (interstitial lymph) is made from the blood.These channels are called lymphatic vessels (lymph glands)[4].

General structure of lymphatic vessels

The general structure of lymphatic vessels is based on the structure of blood vessels.The inner wall surface is covered with an epithelium consisting of a single layer of flat cells of the epithelial tissue type, and the cells are called endothelial cells.This cell layer has the role of mechanically transporting the fluid.There is a basement membrane underneath, but there is a lot of liquid leakage due to the discontinuous connection.[5]..There is a layer of smooth muscle that surrounds the endothelial cells and contracts (contracts) and loosens to change the diameter of the lumen.The outermost layer is an adventitia consisting of fibrous tissue.The general structure described here is found only in large lymphatic vessels.Small lymph vessels have only a few layers.The smallest tube (Capillary lymphatic vessels) Has no muscularis and outer adventitia.As they grow first, they combine with other capillaries and grow thicker as they grow.Then first wear the adventitia and then the smooth muscle.

The lymphatic duct system is roughly composed of two types of vessels.Lymphatic vessel of originHas the function of collecting lymph fluid exclusively from tissue fluidAnterior lymphatic vesselsOrCapillary lymphatic vesselsIs one.The other is a large lymphatic vessel that drains lymph (intraductal lymph).

Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not a closed system and does not have a central pump.Lymphatic flow is due to peristalsis, valves, compression during contraction of nearby skeletal muscles, and pulsation of arteries.Flow occurs even though the pressure from these is weak[6].

Capillary lymphatic vessels

Lymph circulation begins in the blind tube (one end closed).These are superficial, highly permeable capillary lymph vessels made from endothelial cells with button-like joints that allow fluid to pass between each other when the pressure of tissue fluid is high enough.[7]..These button-like joints consist of protein filaments such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1).The valve system deployed here prevents the absorbed lymph from leaking towards the tissue fluid.There is another system of semilunar valves that keeps lymph from retrograde along the lumen of the tube.[7]..Capillary lymph vessels have many that connect between each other, forming a delicate network.[8].

The rhythmic contractions of the tube wall that occur during exercise also seem to help the fluid to be drawn into the smaller lymphatic vessels, the capillaries.When tissue fluid causes swelling in the tissue, it is called edema.As the system of circulatory pathways stretched around the body connects, fluid is gradually carried to larger lymph vessels, and finally the right lymphatic trunk (for lymph fluid in the upper body) and thoracic duct (remaining body). (For lymph in the part of) reaches.Both tubes carry fluid into the circulatory system through the right and left subclavian veins.This system works with white blood cells in the lymph nodes to protect the body from cancer, mold, viral, and bacterial infections.This system is known as the secondary circulatory system.

Lymphatic vessels

Capillary lymph vessels transfer lymph (intraductal lymph) to thicker, contractile lymph vessels.This lymph vessel has both valves and smooth muscle.They areCollective lymphatic vesselsIs said to be[6]..As the collecting lymph vessels perform their assigned role of collecting lymph from more capillaries, they become thicker.It is called an efferent lymph vessel because it enters the lymph nodes.Here, the lymph (intraductal lymph) is filtered by the lymph node tissue and sent to the efferent lymph vessels.Some efferent lymph vessels (right lymphatic trunk or thoracic duct) connect directly to lymph vessels, while others import lymph vessels to other lymph nodes.[8]..The right lymphatic trunk and thoracic duct flow into the subclavian vein and return lymph to the bloodstream.

The functional unit of lymphatic vessels isLymphatic angion(lymphangion) Is known.This is a fragment between the two valves that has a length: radius ratio-dependent contractility and acts like a contractile vessel that pushes the fluid forward, or a tube that resists lymph to stay in place. Also works[9].

Lymphoid tissue

Lymphoid tissue associated with the lymphatic system is involved in the immune system that protects the body from infections and the spread of tumors.Lymphoid tissue consists of connective tissue, in which various types of white blood cells, most notably lymphocytes, are entwined in a mesh pattern.

Lymphoid tissue is divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary according to the stage of development and maturation of the lymphocytes contained therein.The thymus and bone marrow are the primary lymphoid tissues involved in lymphocyte production and early selection.Secondary lymphoid tissue provides an environment for altered (antigens) of foreign or inactive molecules that react with lymphocytes.Examples are lymph nodes, tonsil lymph follicles,(English editionThere are Peyer's patches related to (MALT).The tertiary lymphoid tissue has very few lymphocytes.It plays an immune role only when exposed to inflammatory antigens.At that time, it attracts lymphocytes from blood and lymph.[10].

Lymph node

Lymph nodes are a collection of cohesive lymphoid tissues through which lymph passes through in the middle of the flow and returns to the blood.Lymph nodes are spaced along the lymphatic system.Some efferent lymph vessels carry lymph fluid where it is filtered by lymph node structures.Then it exits through the efferent lymph vessels.

The structure of the lymph nodes is on the outsidecortexLymphatic follicles in a part called and insideMedullaIt consists of a part called.MedullagateExcept for the part known as, it is completely surrounded by the cortex.The phylum is a depression on the surface of the lymph nodes, which, without it, is bean-shaped where it is spherical or oval.Efferent lymph vessels originate directly from here in the lymph nodes.The arteries and veins that supply blood to the lymph nodes enter and exit through the phylum.

Lymphocytes are tightly packed clusters of lymphocytes, the number, size, and placement of lymphocytes vary according to the functional stages of the lymph nodes.For example, follicles grow visually when they encounter foreign antigens. B cell selection occurs in the germinal center of the lymph nodes.

Lymph nodes are especially common in the mediastinum of the chest, neck, pelvis, axilla (armpit), groin (groin), and blood vessels in the gastrointestinal tract.[1].

Function of fatty acid transport system

Lymphatic vessels, called chyles, are located on the inner wall of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine.Most nutrients other than fatty acids absorbed in the small intestine are poured into the portal system via the portal vein and transported to the liver for processing, but lipids (fats) are secreted into the lymphatic system as chylomicrons of lipoproteins. It is transported to the blood circulation system via the thoracic duct.The component-rich lymph fluid derived from the lymph vessels of the small intestine is called chyle because it becomes cloudy due to chylomicrons.The chylomicrons in the blood are broken down by lipoprotein lipase present in the capillary endothelium of the whole body.

Lymphatic system disease

LymphedemaIs swelling caused by damage to the lymphatic system that transports tissue fluid and the retention and accumulation of lymphatic fluid.[11]..Abnormal findings are usually found in the extremities, but abnormalities may be found in the face, neck, and abdomen.Along with these abnormal findings, the following causes are identified and diagnosed.It is estimated that there are an estimated 1 million patients with this disease.Depending on the diagnosis, the degree of progress is divided into three stages as follows.

  • Stage 1: When you press the swollen part of the limb, it takes a while for the dent to remain and return to its original state.Almost no fiber formation (hardening) is seen.The swelling is reduced by raising the site high.Recovery from this stage is often seen.
  • Stage 2: No dent remains when pressing the swollen area.The swelling does not go away even if it is raised high.If left at this stage, fibrosis in the epidermis and subcutaneous tissue will progress.
  • Stage 3: At first glance, there is an obvious surface abnormality.The skin loses elasticity, becomes hypertrophied and hardened, and pigmentation is also seen.This stage is oftenElephant skin diseaseCalled.

Lymphatic system is the most common cause of lymphedemaFilariaParasitosis caused by lymphatic vessel obstruction.LymphangiomaOftenTurner syndromeAppears withBenign tumorBut lymphatic sarcoma is malignantSoft tissuetumor(Soft tissuesarcoma).In addition, edema may appear due to congenital disorders of the lymphatic transport system or sequelae of surgical removal of lymph nodes.Elephantiasis is a lesion in which edema is left untreated and the skin and subcutaneous tissue are significantly thickened due to stimulation of lymph fluid that has accumulated for a long period of time.In particular, it causes extreme hypertrophy and hardening of the genital organs such as the upper arm, lower limbs, breast and scrotum, penis, and vulva, which have many peripheral parts of capillaries, and causes difficulties in daily life.In elephantiasis, it is difficult to reconstruct the lymphatic vessels to remove the irritation, and especially the lower limbs are prone to blood pressure and recovery is difficult.

Epstein-Barr virusLymphatic system infections caused by (EBV)Infectious mononucleosisKnown as.

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a lymphatic vesselSmooth muscleOccurs within, mainlylungIt is a progressive benign tumor that forms multiple cysts and is designated as an intractable disease.

Malignant lymphomaOf blood cells in the lymphcancerIt is a systemic disease.Hodgkin lymphoma,Non-Hodgkin lymphomaIs known, and blood cells that have become cancerous cells ride on the lymphatic system and go around the whole body.Transitioncause.

Lymphoid tissue development

Lymphoid tissue begins to develop by the end of the fifth week of embryogenesis.Lymphatic vessels arise from lymphatic sac that originates from veins of mesoderm origin that have begun to develop.

The first lymphatic sac to appear is the paired cervical lymphatic sac at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins.From the cervical lymphatic sac, the capillary lymphatic plexus extends to the chest, upper limbs, neck, and head.Some of these capillary lymphatic plexuses spread widely to produce lymphatic vessels in their respective areas.Each cervical lymphatic sac maintains a connection with at least one jugular vein, with the left lymphatic sac extending into the area occupied by the upper thoracic duct.

The next lymphatic sac is the unpaired retroperitoneal lymphatic sac that forms at the base of the small intestinal mesentery.It develops from the immature vena cava and mesonephric duct.Capillary plexus and lymph vessels spread from the retroperitoneal lymphatic sac to the abdominal internal organs and diaphragm.The lymphatic sac establishes a connection with the chyle tank but loses its connection with the surrounding veins.

The last lymphatic sac is a pair of buttock lymphatic sac, which develops from the iliac vein.The buttock lymphatic sac produces the capillaries and lymphatic vessels of the abdominal wall, pelvis, and lower extremities.The buttock lymphatic sac merges with the chyle and loses its connection to nearby veins.

All lymphatic sac is subject to invasion of mesenchymal cells, except for the anterior part of the sac where the chyle tank develops, and undergoes changes that result in a group of lymph nodes.

The spleen develops from mesenchymal cells between the layers of the dorsal mesentery of the stomach.The thymus originates from the process of the third gill sac.

Lymphatic vessels of the central nervous system

brainincludingcentral nervous systemLymphatic system is absent and manyAnatomyIt was mentioned in the textbook of.But also in the central nervous systemarteryから静脈There is a flow of tissue fluid to, and alwaysImmunologyIs being monitored by.In other words, even though the brain also has lymphatic system functions, the mechanism was unknown. Nedergaard's group is of mouseArachnoidThrough the cannula attached belowCerebrospinal fluidInjected intofluorescenceWe investigated how the substance spreads in the brain using a live imaging method.As a result, in the brainGlial cellsFound that they created the glymphatic system to remove fluorescent substances from the brain, and reported it to Science in 2013.[12]..What is noteworthy about this finding is that the glial lymphatic system is activated during sleep, removing waste products that have accumulated in the brain.Pathological retention of Aβ protein in cerebrospinal fluidAlzheimer's diseaseThe results of this study are the factors that cause the onset.SleepIt is predicted that activation of the lymphatic system of the central nervous system is important for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.However, this paper did not yet assume that there are lymphatic vessels in the brain.

In 2015, the Kipnis and Alitalo groups reported that lymphatic vessels were present in the meninges of the brain using Proxl-GFP reporter mice and the like, and that both cerebrospinal fluid and immune cells could be transported from the cerebrospinal fluid.[13][14]..The idea was that the central nervous system, cornea, hair, testes, and fetuses in the mother's body were isolated from the systemic immune system (immune privilege), but the existence of a classical lymphatic system in the central nervous system. It is necessary to review from.AlsoMultiple sclerosisVarious neuroimmune diseases such as Alzheimer's diseaseNeurodegenerative diseaseMay be associated with dysfunction of meningeal lymphatic vessels.


Hippocrates The5th century BCHe was one of the first to mention the lymphatic system.In his book About Joints, he briefly described the lymph nodes in one sentence.Rufus of Ephesus, a Roman doctor (en) In the axilla, groin, and mesenteric lymph nodes in the 1st and 2nd centuries ADThymusFound with[15]..Lymphatic vessels were first mentioned by Egyptian anatomists in the 3rd century BCHerophilosHowever, the wrong conclusion was that the lacteal vessel (lymphatic vessel of the intestine) was called the "lymphatic vessel absorption vessel", and that it entered the hilar vein and went to the liver.[15]..The discovery of Rufus and Herophilias is a Greek doctorGalenFurther promotion was made by.GalenAD 2nd centuryWe described the lymph nodes of the chyle and mesentery from the observations of dissecting monkeys and pigs.[15][16].

17st centuryGalen's ideas were the most disseminated until.Therefore, it was believed that blood was produced from chyle in the liver, mixed with the disease by the intestines and stomach, added various sources of energy from other organs, and consumed by all organs of the body.In this theory, blood had to be consumed and produced many times.His ideas were held unexamined until the 17th century, and even then there were doctors who supported them.[16].

Mid-16th century,Gabriele Falloppio(The discoverer of Falloppio's canal) described what is today known as the chyleal canal as "filled with yellow matter that circles the intestines."[15].. Around 1563, Professor of AnatomyBar Romeo EustachiThe horse's thoracic ductvena alba thoracisDescribed as[15]..The next groundbreaking case is the 1622 doctor Gasparo Asery (it) Finds the lymphatic vessels in the dog's intestinevenae alba et lacteaeIt was named.This is today simply known as the chyle.The chyleal tube was called the fourth tube (the other three were arteries, veins, and nerves, which were believed to be a type of tube at the time).And he proved that Galen's idea was one mistake.In other words, the chyle is carried by veins.But he still believed that the chyle tube would carry the chyle to the liver (as taught by Galen).[17]..He also found the thoracic duct but overlooked that it was connected to the chyle.[15]..This connection is1651 Gene Pequette (fr) Was found and confirmed to be certain.He found that the white liquor mixes with blood in the dog's heart.He thought the fluid might be chyle, as pressure on the abdomen increased the flow.He found that the fluid went to the thoracic duct and then to the chyle-filled sac.This sac is today called a chyle tank, but hechyli recept aculumI called it.He continued his research and found that the contents of the chyle can enter the venous system via the thoracic duct.[15][17]..This certainly proved that the chyle did not end in the liver, and proved Galen's second misconception that chyle went to the liver.[17].Johann Vesling The1647 Draws the earliest sketch of the human chyle[16].

The idea that blood circulates in the body rather than being newly produced by the liver and heartWilliam HarveyIt was first recognized as a result of this study.His research1628 Published in. 1652, SwedesOlaus Rudbeck(1630-1702) found a clear tube in the liver containing a clear (and non-white) fluid.So I put it in the liver water pipe (hepatico-aqueous vessels).He also noticed that this tube was connected to the thoracic duct and had a valve.[17]..He made this discovery the Queen of SwedenChristinaAnnounced at the court but did not publish for a year[18]..After a while, a similar discovery was made by Thomas Bertlin (en) Published by.He further published, noting that such tubes are ubiquitous in the body, not just the liver.He is also one of those who named those vessels "lymphatic vessels"[17]..This is the story of Martin Bogdant, one of Bartlin's disciples.[19]Radbeck accused Bertlin of plagiarism, leading to the development of a fierce controversy between[18].


  1. ^ a b c Warwick, Roger; Peter L. Williams (1973) [1858]. “Angiology (Chapter 6)”. Gray's anatomyillustrated by Richard EM Moore (Thirty-fifth Edition ed.). London: Longman. Pp. 588—785 
  2. ^ Lymphatic system
  3. ^ Sloop, Charles H .; Ladislav Dory, Paul S. Roheim (March 1987). “Interstitial fluid lipoproteins”. Journal of Lipid Research 28 (3): 225--237. PMID 3553402. http://www.jlr.org/cgi/reprint/28/3/225.pdf 2008/7/7Browse.. 
  4. ^ "Definition of lymphatics". Webster's New World Medical Dictionary.MedicineNet.com. 2008/7/6Browse.
  5. ^ Pepper, Michael S .; Michaela Skobe (2003-10-27). “Lymphatic endothelium: morphological, molecular and functional properties”. The Journal of Cell Biology 163 (2): 209--213. two:10.1083 / jcb.200308082. PMID 14581448. http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/163/2/209 2008/7/6Browse.. 
  6. ^ a b Shayan, Ramin; Achen, Marc G .; Stacker, Steven A. (2006). “Lymphatic vessels in cancer metastasis: bridging the gaps”. Carcinogenesis 27 (9): 1729. two:10.1093 / carcin / bgl031. PMID 16597644. http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/27/9/1729. 
  7. ^ a b Baluk, Peter; Jonas Fuxe, Hiroya Hashizume, Talia Romano, Erin Lashnits, Stefan Butz, Dietmar Vestweber, Monica Corad, Cinzia Molendini, Elisabetta Dejana, and Donald M. McDonald (2007-09-10). “Functionally specialized junctions between endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels”. Journal of Experimental Medicine 204 (10): 2349--2362. two:10.1084 / jem.20062596. PMID 17846148. 10.1084 / jem.20062596. http://www.jem.org/cgi/content/full/204/10/2349 2008/7/7Browse.. 
  8. ^ a b Rosse, Cornelius; Penelope Gaddum-Rosse (1997) [1962]. “The Cardiovascular System (Chapter 8)”. Hollinshead's Textbook of Anatomy (Fifth Edition ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven. Pp. 72—73. ISBN 0-397-51256-2 
  9. ^ Venugopal, AM; Stewart, RH; Laine, GA; Quick, CM (2004), “Optimal Lymphatic Vessel Structure”, 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, 2, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 3700--3703, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=1404039 
  10. ^ Goldsby, Richard; Kindt, TJ; Osborne, BA; Janis Kuby (2003) [1992]. “Cells and Organs of the Immune System (Chapter 2)”. Immunology (Fifth Edition ed.). New York: WH Freeman and Company. Pp. 24-56. ISBN ‭07167-4947-5-XNUMX 
  11. ^ Lymphedema, http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec03/ch037/ch037b.html 
  12. ^ Science. 2013 Oct 18; 342 (6156): 373-7. PMID 24136970
  13. ^ Nature. 2015 Jul 16; 523 (7560): 337-41. PMID 26030524
  14. ^ J Exp Med. 2015 Jun 29; 212 (7): 991-9. PMID 26077718
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  17. ^ a b c d e Flourens, P. (1859). “ASELLI, PECQUET, RUDBECK, BARTHOLIN (Chapter 3)”. A History of the Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood. Rickey, Mallory & company. Pp. 67—99. http://books.google.com/books?id=4QqS6LrYWf4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=william+harvey&as_brr=1&source=gbs_similarbooks_r&cad=2_1#PPA67,M1 2008/7/11Browse. 
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