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ballet(Buddha: Ballet) IsWestern EuropeA stage dance that occurred and spread in Japan without lyrics and dialogue.And the individual constituents of the workダンス.Musicaccompaniment-Performing artsIt is a stage that is expressed by dance with.A dance with a story and multiple curtainsdramaThere are many ("Nutcracker""The lake of swan""眠 れ る 森 の 美女""Don Quixote"Such).However, after the 20th century, works that denied narrative were born.On the other hand, there are also short pieces that have excellent narrative characteristics (""Dying Swan"Such).BeforehandChoreographerHe plays what is designated as a ballet-specific action, and there are few improvised works.Choreography (choreography)Choreography).
- Ballet-related artists and professionals
For artists involved in ballet performances, they are the creators of ballet music.作曲家, Specify how to dance (including dance)Choreographer,ConductorBallet musicians, including ballet musicians, and dance to realize and complete balletBallet dancerAnd so on. →#Composer,#Choreographer,#Ballet dancer
RenaissancePeriodItalyOriginates in.At that time, poetry readings and plays were performed as entertainment in the court, but as part of that.BaroA dance called (Ballo) was born.The aristocrats walked in the court hall and drew figures on the floor, and watching them from the balcony was the way to enjoy them at that time.
1463/, In Guglielmo Ebreo's Butoh Art TheoryBarrettThe word (Balletto) is used for the first time.
Dance composer and Domenico da Ferrara (FerraraHouIt can be seen that the ball teachers such as (served) appeared and the Italian aristocrats actively held the ball.
Birth of ballet
1581/of"(Directed and choreographed by Balthasar de Beaujoyu) is the first completely documented ballet work.Starting with these, ballet became popular in the court, and it is said that about 16 ballets were performed in the 17 years from the end of the 20th century to the beginning of the 800th century.
1643/,Louis XVIWhen he became king of France at the age of four, a gorgeous ballet for several hours was held, and Louis XIV himself appeared.Louis XIV is enthusiastic about ballet1653/When I was 15 years oldApoloneDebuted on stage in earnest as a role.To improve the quality of ballet1661/ToWas founded.Louis XIV Butoh TeacherPierre BeauchampBypositionIt was around this time that ballet was systematized as dance, such as the establishment of ballet and the establishment of dance.
From the court to the theater
1670/When Louis XIV retired from the stage, the ballet moved from the court to the theater and turned into a professional dancer's dance.
1681/,Victory of love』The first female dancer,La FontaineAppeared in the theater and entered the 18th centuryMarie-Anne de Margo,Marie SaleFemale professional dancers debuted one after another from the opera.At the court ballet, male dancers were the main players,1726/,Marie-Anne de MargoUsing costumes with visible toes and shoes with heels removed, she made a leap, which was a technique only for men, and female dancers became popular.
1700/The first ballet textbook,Raoul Auger Feuyer "Dance art, or dance description method using symbols, pictures, and symbols" was published by1713/Ballet education has been established, such as the establishment of a ballet school at the Opera House.Ballet techniques have also become more complex.
1760/,Jean-Georges NoverIn "Letters about Dance and Ballet"Valle d'Axion(ballet d'action) Was proposed.As a result, ballet became independent of opera and was established as a stage play with no dialogue (meme).
18st centuryIn the second halfFrench RevolutionWhen it happens, it repels tradition and authority and values free and mysterious things.RomanticismSwept Europe,Romantic ballet(Ballet based on Romanticism) was born. "La Sylphide""GiselleThere are many fantastic and exotic exotic hobbies in which fairies and demons appear.ankleThe length is fluffyTutuOf a female dancer wearingPointeCharacterized by light movement by the technique of (toe).Tutu used in romantic ballet is especially called romantic tutu.
Romantic ballet is the oldest form of ballet currently being danced, and romantic ballet has made the ballet almost the same as it is today.With the advocacy of ballet duckion, it has a stronger element as a play that expresses a story by dancing than the classical ballet that will be born later.
Edgar DegasWhen he was drawing ballet dancers, ballet dancers were despised because, unlike today, ballet dancers were being done by low-ranking people to stand up.Dancers other than the protagonists live on low salaries, and it is said that it was difficult to live without patrons.Of course, many patrons were men, and it is said that they treated female dancers like prostitutes.Thus, there are no male dancers in the French ballet world, and French ballet becomes vulgar.
1832/At "La Sylphide"Marie TaglioniDanced on pointe in earnest and was a great success at the Opera.It is said that this work established romantic ballet.Although popular throughout Europe, romantic ballet declined with the vulgarity of French ballet and the decline of romanticism.1870/of"CoppeliaFinally, ballet itself will not be played in France.
RussiaThen.FranceThe court ballet of1730/By the time in FranceBySt. PetersburgThe ballet school was founded in.In FranceRomanticismIn the latter half of the 19th century, when Russia declined, romantic ballet continued to dance in Russia, a developing country, and then developed independently.Because we introduced a dance scene unrelated to the story into the drama-based romantic ballet.Classical ballet(ClassicismBallet).
In classical ballet, the technique becomes more and more complicated and short for ease of movement.TutuWas devised.This is called a classic tutu.In romantic ballet, it was barely possible to make one turn, but now it can be played up to 1 times (continuous rotation). Dancing with two peopleGrand Pas de DeuxSuch styles are also established.With dance (Divertisman)mimeWas separated and played, and the current composition of ballet was completed.
1888/,St. Petersburg·Mariinsky TheaterThe director of the film, Usevi Rojusky, is a choreographer invited from France.Marius PetipaUnder the choreography ofPyotr Tchaikovsky"眠 れ る 森 の 美女I asked him to compose.This work1890/After the performance and great success, "Nutcracker"(1892/, Choreography:Lev Ivanov, Script: Marius Petipa), "The lake of swan"(1895/, Choreography: Lev Ivanov, Marius Petipa) was performed.They are3 major balletsIs called.At the same time as Tchaikovsky's three major ballets (although he wrote only these three ballet music), he is also one of the three major ballets in all ballets in terms of performance and performance popularity.
Marius PetipaEstablished by the classical ballet, but some were dissatisfied with the classical world.One of them,Mikhail Fokin TheIsadora DuncanShocked by (the ancestor), he made an innovative choreography that adopted new steps and folk dances not found in classical ballet.A ballet that incorporates the elements of modern dance is called a modern ballet.
Mikhail FokinSergey DiaghilevFound in1907/The birthplace of balletParisPerformed at the ballet boom.Anna Pavlova,Wenceslas Nijinsky,Tamara KarsavinaDancers such as Sergei Diaghilev became very popularBallets RussesTo form.
1912/Vaslav Nijinsky said at the Ballets Russes performance inAfternoon of a FaunWhen he made his debut as a choreographer, modern ballet undergoes a decisive innovation.Unlike the beautiful ballet so far, the unique expression is very shocking,Igor StravinskyThe composition of "Spring celebrationWas so controversial that police officers intervened.
After the 20th century
Modern balletEven after the establishment of, innovative ballet such as dramatic ballet and abstract ballet has been born.These ballets are ...Post-modern dance,Contemporary danceIt is ambiguous because it may be included in dances such as. Since the 20th century, those modern and classical ballets have been danced.As a modern ballet choreographerMaurice Béjart,Laurent Petit,William Forsythe,Iri KillianThere is. AlsoFigure skatingThe movement of is strongly influenced by ballet, and figure skating players are often trained in ballet.Furthermore, the influence of ballet is not limited to figure skating.Rhythmic gymnastics,Artistic swimmingAthletes may also be trained in ballet.again,Takarazuka Music SchoolIn organizations that train stage actors, the basics of ballet are treated as almost compulsory.
BalletFranceThe ballet choreography term is basically French because it was developed in.The characteristic of modern ballet is that it makes heavy use of the tip of the toe.thisPointe(fr. pointe) or in englishtoeIt is called (toe) (en. Toe).Special shoes to wear for thisPointe shoes(fr. Chaussons à pointes).Due to its nature, a stiff ankle makes it very unsuitable for ballet.In addition, due to the heavy use of toe standing, the toes may be damaged in various ways, reaching a level that affects daily life, and there are many cases in which it becomes impossible to act as a ballet dancer.
There are six ways to stand with your feet on the stage without standing on pointe.thispositionCalled (fr. position).In the choreography, it is called by the position name without any particular details.
Jumping and spinning are important techniques for ballet butoh.This is also called in French, for example, throwing one leg forward and flying in that direction.JuteCalled (fr. Jeté), Jute is subdivided according to the position of the foot in the air and the size of the jump.On the other hand, to express emotions in the progress of the storymimeIs used.It is understood that ballet is a dance art, as works with excessive mimes are often criticized as "non-ballet".
- Ann Duol: Both feetOn the outsideTo open.The basics of ballet poses and movements.
- Prie: Knee bending movement.
- Luluve(Standing on the tip of the toe):A teruFrom (with heels)Dumi pointeTo go up to pointe (toe) through.
- Grand Pas de Deux: Take off with one foot and spread both feet back and forth in the air to fly
- Entorcia: Take off with both feet and cross your legs in the air to hit each other.Depending on the number of times, it is called entrechat cattle, entrechat sith, etc.
- リ フ ト
Some of the most prominent ballet works are:Detail isCategory: Ballet worksSee also.
- La fille mal gardé(1789, choreography:Jean Dauberval）
- La Sylphide(1832, Music:Jean Schneitzhoeffer,Herman Severin Lönshold, Choreography:Filippo Taglioni）
- Giselle(1841, Music: Adolphe Adam, Choreography:Jean Coralli, Jules Perrot, Script: Jean Coralli,Théophile Gautier,Jules-Henri Vernois de Saint-Georges）
- エ ス メ ラ ル ダ(1844, Music:Cesare Pugni, Choreography / Script:Jules Perrault）
- Pas de Quatre(1845, Music: Cesare Pugni, Choreography: Jules Perrot)
- Paquita(1846, Music:Leon Minx, Choreography:Marius Petipa, Pierre Lacotte, Script:Joseph Mazilier）
- Pirate(1856, Music:Adolf AdanOther choreography:Joseph Mazilier）
- Papillon(1860, Music:Jack Offenback, Choreography:Marie Taglioni, Script:Vernois de Saint Georges）
- Don Quixote(1869, Music:Leon Minx, Choreography: Marius Petipa)
- Coppelia(1870, Music:Leo Delibes, Choreography / Script:Arthur Saint-Leon, Original:ETA Hoffman）
- La Bayadale(1877, Music: Leon Minkus, Choreography: Marius Petipa, Script :, Marius Petipa)
- The lake of swan(1877, Music: Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Choreography :, Script :,)
- Namouna(1882, Music:Edouard Lalo, Choreography:Lucien Petipa, Script:Charles Nuitter）
- Two pigeons(1886, Music:Andre Messager, Choreography :, Script: Henri Renier)
- 眠 れ る 森 の 美女(1890, Music: Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Choreography: Marius Petipa, Script: Marius Petipa,)
- Nutcracker(1892, Music: Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Choreography:Lev Ivanov, Script:Marius Petipa）
- Raymonda(1898, Music:Alexander Graznov, Choreography:Marius Petipa）
- (I.e.(1900, Music:Alexander Graznov, Script / Choreography: Marius Petipa)
- Dying Swan(1905, Music:Camille Saint-Saens, Choreography: Mikhail Fokin)
- Les Sylphides(1909, Music:Frederick Chopin, Choreography: Mikhail Fokin)
- Sheherazade(1910, Music:Rimsky-Korsakov, Choreography:Mikhail Fokin, Script :)
- Fire bird(1910, Music: Igor Stravinsky, Choreography: Mikhail Fokin)
- Rose spirit(1911, Music:Karl Maria von Weber, Choreography: Mikhail Fokin)
- Petrushka(1911, Music: Igor Stravinsky, Choreography: Mikhail Fokin, Script: Igor Stravinsky, Alexander Benoit)
- (1912, Music:Reynaldo Hahn, Choreography: Mikhail Fokin, Script:Jean Cocteau, Frederick de Madrazo)
- La Péri(1912, Music:Paul Dukas, Choreography: Ivan Crustin)
- Afternoon of a Faun(1912, Music:Claude Debussy, Choreography: Vaslav Nijinsky)
- Spring celebration(1913, Music:Igor Stravinsky, Choreography:Wenceslas Nijinsky）
- Salome's tragedy(1913, Music:Florent Schmidt, Choreography :, Script :)
- Tricorn hat(1919, Music:Manuel de Falla, Choreography: Leonide Machine, Script :)
- Cydalise and the Sheep God(1923, Music:Gabriel Pierne, Choreography :, Script :,)
- Buff Chisarai Fountain(1934, Music:Boris Asafyev, Choreography: Rostislav Zakhalov, Script :)
- (1935, Music:Albert Roussel, Choreography: Leonid Kacholovsky, Script: Joseph Veralings) (Latest Masterpiece Commentary Complete Works 6 Orchestral Music III "(Ongaku Tomosha)reference)
- Checkmate(1937, Music / Script:Arthur Bliss , Choreography:Ninette de Valois）
- (1938, Music:Jack Offenback, Choreography:Leonid Machine, Script :) (Latest Masterpiece Commentary Complete Works 4 Orchestral Music I "(Ongaku Tomosha)reference)
- Romeo and Juliet(1940, Music: Sergei Prokofiev, Choreography :)
- Cinderella(1945, Music:Sergey Prokofiev, Choreography :)
- Youth and death (1946. Music:Johann Sebastian Bach, Choreography: Roland Petit)
- Symphony in C(1947, Music: Georges Bizet, Choreography:George Balanchine）
- カ ル メ ン(1949, Music:Georges Bizet, Choreography: Roland Petit
- Stone flower(1954, Music:Sergey Prokofiev, Choreography / Direction / Script :)
- (1955, Music:Pierre Henry,Pierre Schaeffer, Choreography:Maurice Béjart）
- Bolero(1961, Music:Maurice Ravel, Pierre Schaeffer, choreography: Maurice Béjart)
- Notre Dame de Paris(1965, Music:Maurice Jarre, Choreography: Roland Petit)
- Onegin(1965, Music:Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Choreography:John Cranko, Original:Alexander Pushkin）
- In search of lost time(1974, Music:Gabriel FauréIn addition, choreography and script:Laurent Petit）
- Manon(1974, Music:Jules Masnet, Choreography: Kenneth MacMillan)
- Utakata's love(1978, Music:Franz Liszt, Choreography:Kenneth MacMillan, Script :)
- Camellia princess(1978, Music:Frederick Chopin, Script / Choreography:John Neumeier）
- The Kabuki(1986, Music:Toshiro Mayuzumi, Choreography: Maurice Béjart,Kana Temoto TadashinzoInterview)
- (1989, Music:Gabriel Yared, Original:Jacques Cazot）
- Anna Karenina(music:Sergey Rachmaninoff）
For the performance of ballet works, which is a comprehensive performing art, not only the ballet dancer that the audience pays attention to, but also the dance (dance method) is specified.Choreographer, An orchestra playing ballet musicOrchestra.MusicianとConductorThe existence of (such as) is indispensable, and moreover, experts in the making of stage sets (such as)Stage art),照明Expert (Lighting engineer), Etc., the ability of various specialists is required.Therefore, it generally costs a lot of money to run a ballet company and perform ballet (Fixed cost,mainlyPersonnel expenses)Is required.For this reason, in the home countries of ballet, is run by the state.Private ballet companies get their money in a variety of ways, but the most prominent ones often collect and operate large donations.
In Russia, even if there is no ballet performance, the salary is fixed, and the dancer's life is short, so the ballet pension is paid from the age of 35. As you can see, the stage floor is slanted toward the audience.
- MilanLa Scala Ballet ――In Italy, where opera is dominant, ballet has not been omitted for a long time, but the ballet department has been rebuilt since the 1990s. (From 1778)
- United Kingdom
In Germany, which boasts nearly 2002 theaters with companies, there are many theaters that combine opera, ballet, and theater, or opera theaters with ballet troupes, but Frankfurt is the only theater dedicated to ballet.The German region is a country where only works in this field have become blank so that it has been called "a country without ballet" while leading the world in all fields of music such as concert music, opera, religious music, butoh music. (Even the works of landlords such as Mozart and Beethoven have few opportunities to perform. However, they are very often selected as the stage for works such as "Swan Lake," "Giselle," and "Kurumiwari Ningyo," and Spain in opera. (It is in a position similar to), the liveliness of the performance is the highest, and it is the world's ballet powerhouse along with Russia.According to the new bookstore "Ballet 240", 1600 choreographers, ballet masters, XNUMX ballet dancers belonging to theaters, and many freelance ballet dancers are active in the country.
- Vienna State Operaballet
- (en: Cuban National Ballet, 1948-)
- (en: National Ballet of Canada, 1951-)
- The United States of America
- New York City Ballet(Since 1948)
- San Francisco Ballet(Since 1933)
- American Ballet Theater(Since 1937)
- Pacific Northwest Ballet (1972-)
- Houston Ballet(1955-)
- Boston Ballet(1963-)
- The Joffrey Ballet(Since 1956)
- Pennsylvania Ballet Company
- Miami City Ballet
- Pittsburgh Ballet Theater
- The Washington Ballet
- Ballet West
- Atlanta Ballet
* For Japanese ballet companies, see "Japanese ballet"checking.
For those who have a profession of dancing balletBallet dancerSay.
In Russia ballet dancersgovernment official.
In the case of Russia
In Russia, basically, anyone who wants to become a ballet dancer goes to a ballet dancer training school for eight years.
Paris Opera Ballet Schoolin the case of
We welcome about 20 new students every year, but since they are not the same age, we provide classes and ballet education for primary to secondary education (about Japanese elementary, junior high and high schools) equivalent to the relevant age.Baccalaureate(University entrance examination qualification) can be obtained.
If you fail the annual promotion test or the opera ballet enrollment test that you can take up to the age of 1 in the highest grade, you will have to drop out.Not only ballet education but also primary to secondary education for students is different at an early stage, such as moving to a regular school or receiving other vocational education even if they drop out due to lack of talent. This is so that you can choose your course.This is not surprising given that the Opera Ballet is a national institution and the Opera Ballet School is its training school, and as a result of pursuing the dreams of ballet dancers with no hope of success, ballet There is a meaning to prevent people who are in need of living because they cannot get a job due to insufficient education and vocational training.
To join the Opera Ballet, men are required to have a height of 175 cm to 180 cm or more as a physique condition, and girls need to learn nutritional management education and diet.
In school life, there is selection by competition as well as mutual help between students.Being a student, make them aware that they will be professionals who can get paid from customers,Ballet dancerIt has been devised so as not to lower the level as.
Depending on the ballet company, the dancerclassThere is a unique name for.Leading roleEtoile,Principal,ballerina, Next to the semi-leading rolesoloist,Corps de balletDance (group dance)Quadrille,artistand so on.
Even if you join the ballet company, a ballet dancer with Etoile at the top,Prima ballerinaIt is the organization management of the ballet company that supports the organization, but new dancers are trying to metabolize the organization by climbing the rank.
- In the case of the French Opera Ballet
- Premiere Danceseur (Premiere Dances for women)
- For the Royal Ballet
- Soloist (top is first soloist)
- Artist (top is first artist or corfe)
- For the American Ballet Theater
- Corps de ballet
Famous ballet dancer
Of the famous balletdancerFor example, there are the following persons.
For details, Category: Ballet Dancerchecking ...
* The numbers in parentheses indicate the year of birth and death, the country of origin (prefecture in the case of Japanese), and the ballet company to which they belong (active dancers only).
- Marie-Anne de Margo (1710-1770, France)
- Marie Taglioni (1804-1884, Italy)
- Carlotta Grisi (1819-1899, Italy)
- Matilda Kushsinskaya (1872-1971, Russia)
- Cléo de Melode (1875-1966, France)
- Anna Pavlova (1881-1931, Russia)
- Tamara Karsavina (1885-1978, Russia)
- Bronislava Nizhinska (1891-1972, Russia)
- Alexandra Danilois (1903-1997, Russia)
- Galina Ulanova (1910-1998, Russia)
- Margo Fontaine (1919-1991, UK)
- Tamara Toumanova (1919-1996, Soviet Union [Russia])
- Alicia Alonso (1920-, Cuba)
- Maya Plisetskaya (1925-2015, Soviet Union [Russia])
- Maria Tallchief (1925-, USA)
- Natalia Makarova (1940-, Soviet Union [Russia])
- Yoko Morishita (1948-, Hiroshima,Matsuyama Ballet Company）
- Monique Loudieres (1956-, France)
- Altynai Asylmuratowa (1961-, Soviet Union [Kazakhstan])
- Marie-Claude Pietragara (1963-, France)
- Nina Ananiasvilli (1963-, Soviet Union [Georgia])
- Alessandra Feri (1963-, Italy)
- Sylvie Guillem (1965-, France)
- Yoshida Miyako (1965-, Tokyo)
- Kusakari Tamiyo (1965-, Tokyo)
- Yukari Saito (1967-, Kanagawa,Tokyo Ballet）
- Darcey Bussell (1969-, UK)
- Nadezhda Gracheova (1969-, Soviet Union [Kazakhstan])
- Agnès Luteste (1971-, France)
- Aurélie Dupont (1973-, France)
- Diana Vishneva (1976-, Soviet Union [Russia])
- Nao Sakuma(1976-, Fukuoka,Birmingham Royal Ballet）
- Hikaru Kobayashi (1976-, Tokyo,Royal Ballet）
- Mizuno Ueno(1977-, Kanagawa, Tokyo Ballet)
- Nakamura Shoko (1980-, Saga,Berlin State Ballet）
- Arena Cojocaru (1981-, Romania, English National Ballet)
- Misty Copeland (1982-,America)
- Mariko Kida (1984-, Osaka Prefecture,Royal Swedish Ballet)
- Nerea Barondo (1997-, Spain, Ballet Frontier of Texas)
- Wenceslas Nijinsky(1890-1950, Russia)
- Rudolf Nureyev(1938-1993, Soviet Union [Russia])
- Vladimir Vasiliev(1940-, Soviet Union [Russia])
- Jorge Donn (1947-1992, Argentina)
- Mikhail Baryshnikov (1948-, Soviet Union [Latvia])
- Tetsutaro Shimizu (1948-, Tokyo,Matsuyama Ballet Company）
- Patrick Dupond (1959-, France)
- Gil roman (1960-, France)
- Falph Ruzymatov (1963-, Soviet Union [Uzbek])
- Manuel Luguri (1964-, France)
- Gen Horiuchi (1964-, Tokyo)
- Vladimir Malakhov (1968-, Soviet Union [Ukraine])
- Jose Carreno (1968-, Cuba)
- Igor Zelensky (1969-, Soviet Union [Russia])
- Kobayashi City (1969-, Tokyo)
- Morihiro Iwata (1970-, Kanagawa,Bolshoi Ballet）
- Adam Cooper (1971-, UK)
- Yasuyuki Suto (1971-, Oita)
- Nikola Le Riche (1972-, France)
- Tetsuya Kumakawa(1972-, Hokkaido,K-ballet company）
- Angel Corella (1975-, Spain)
- Roberto Bolle(1975-, Italy)
- Mathieu Ganio (1984-, France)
- Kaito Yamamoto (1995-, Hokkaido, Ballet Frontier of Texas)
- Ludwig van Beethoven ("The Creatures of Prometheus")
- Ferdinand Erold ("La fille mal gardé")
- Cesare Pugni ("Esmeralda", "La Vivandière","Pas de Quatre")
- Adolf Adan ("Giselle","Pirate","Danube's daughter")
- Leon Minx ("Spring","Don Quixote","La Bayadale","Paquita")
- Camille Saint-Saens ("Javot")
- Leo Delibes ("Coppelia","Sylvia")
- Riccardo Drigo ("Talisman","Flora's Awakening, "Magic Whistle", "Millionaire Clown")
- Pyotr Tchaikovsky ("The lake of swan","眠 れ る 森 の 美女","Nutcracker")
- Jules Masnet(``","","Espada")
- Andre Messager (``")
- Richard Strauss(``Josephslegende, "")
- Alexander Graznov ("Raymonda","(I.e.")
- Erik Satie ("Parade"," ","Canceled today")
- Albert Roussel ("Spider's Feast","Bacchus and Ariane")
- Nikolai Tcherepnin ("", "Cleopatra", "Narcissus and Echo", "Mask of Red Death", "Russian Fairy Tale", "Mummy Story")
- Reinhold Glière ("Frigies", "Clowns", "Cleopatra", "")
- Maurice Ravel ("Ma Mère l'Oye","Daphnis and Chloe","La valse","Bolero")
- Manuel de Falla ("Love is a magician","Tricorn hat")
- Ottorino Respighi ("A quirky store","Belkis, Queen of Shiva")
- Bartok Bella ("The Wooden Prince""The mysterious official of China")
- Igor Stravinsky ("Fire bird","Petrushka","Spring celebration")
- Karol Szymanowski (``Harnasie")
- Jack ibert("Meguriai", "Diane de Poitiers", "Yupiteru's love", "Knight of wandering", "Victory of chastity")
- Sergey Prokofiev (""Romeo and Juliet","Cinderella","Stone flower")
- Darius Millau ("Bull on the roof","Creation of the world")
- Georges Auric("Noisy", "Sailor", "Pastorale", "Fedre", "Burning Fire")
- Alexander Mosolov ("Steel")
- Alam Khachaturian ("", "Gaine","Spartacus")
- Aaron Copland ("Billy the Kid","ロ デ オ","Appalachian spring")
- Dmitry Shostakovich ("Golden age","Bright stream","bolt")
- Benjamin Britten ("Plymouth Town", "")
- Toshiro Mayuzumi ("Bugaku","The Kabuki")
- Rodion Shchedrin ("Horseback foal","Anna Karenina")
- Hiroyuki Fujikake (``Ah! Nomugi Pass")
- Jean Dauberval("La fille mal gardé")
- Filippo Taglioni("La Sylphide")
- August Bournonville("La Sylphide")
- Jean Coralli("Giselle""La Péri")
- Jules Perrault("Giselle" "エ ス メ ラ ル ダ")
- Joseph Mazilier("Paquita")
- Arthur Saint-Leon("Coppelia”)]
- Marius Petipa("La Bayadale""Don Quixote""眠 れ る 森 の 美女""Nutcracker""The lake of swan""Pirate""Raymonda")
- Lev Ivanov("Swan Lake" "The Nutcracker")
- Mikhail Fokin("Les Sylphides""Fire bird""Rose spirit""Petrushka")
- Wenceslas Nijinsky("Afternoon of a Faun""game""Spring celebration""Till Eulenspiegel")
- Leonid Machine("Parade""Strange store""Tricorn hat""Pulcinella""Steel steps"The Tales of Hoffmann")
- Bronislava Nizhinska("狐""marriage""Female deer""Blue train""Aubade""Fairy kiss")
- George Balanchine("" "Apollon leading the muse""Prodigal son""Karuta play""Orpheus""Agon""Jewels")
- Frederick Ashton("Cinderella""La fille mal gardé"Peter Rabbit and his friends", "Marguerite and Armand",)
- ("Buff Chisarai Fountain""Red poppy"")
- Maurice Béjart("Spring celebration""Bolero"" "" ""The Kabuki"M" "Bugaku" "What love speaks to me")
- Kenneth MacMillan("Song of the Earth" "Manon""Romeo and Juliet""Utakata's love"" ""Three sisters"Elite Syncopation")
- Laurent Petit("Carmen" "Coppelia")
- John Cranko("Onegin""Shrew horse")
- John Neumeier
- Pina Bausch
- William Forsythe
- David bintley
- Matthew Bourne
- ("Green table")
- Ninette de Valois
- Boris Eifman
Internationally, there are many competitions for professionals, but there are also competitions to discover talented young people, and the latter is better known in Japan.Famous ballet competitions include:
- Lausanne International Ballet Competition
- Varna International Ballet Competition
- --Once every four yearsThe United States of AmericaMississippiJacksonHeld in.
- Moscow International Ballet Competition
There are the following in Japan.
- - 1939/The oldest venerable competition in Japan that started in.
- --Comprehensive examination by imposing classic and contemporary.
- --There is a tradition of nearly 50 years.
- ――It has the longest history in western Japan. More than 1000 people are competing.
- OsakaPrix National Classic Ballet Competition - Sankei ShimbunSponsored.Japan Ballet AssociationThe chairman is also in charge of the examination.
- Japan Dance Competition - 2012/Than.Positioned as a gateway.
1912/Italian leaderImperial TheaterThe beginning of Japanese ballet was appointed as the ballet master of the opera club.Russian RevolutionIn Japanexile officialEliana Pavlova 1927/KamakuraThe first Japanese ballet school opened a studio in Japan.
Some Western countries have national ballet schools, but Japan does not have national ballet schools.Instead, about 2016 as of 4600Private ballet studio with about 35.8 peopleWe are training ballet dancers in Japan.Not all children learning ballet in Japan aim to become professional dancers, but more and more children are aspiring to become professional dancers.Some ballet dancers have also moved from classical ballet to the fields of contemporary dance, contemporary dance and butoh.For more information on Japanese ballet dancers,Ballet dancerSee.
In theaters with an attached ballet company in JapanNew National Theater(TokyoShibuyaHatsudai).There is also a ballet training center.In addition to the New National Theatre, the main theaters where ballet performances are held in Japan are as follows.
- Tokyo Culture Hall(TaitoUeno Park）
- Yupot(Former name: Tokyo Simple Insurance Hall,ShinagawaGotanda）
- MielparqueHall (former name:Tokyo Postal Savings Hall,Minato-kuShiba）
- Tokyo Metropolitan Theater(ToshimaNishi Ikebukuro）
- Aoyama Theater(Minato-kuKitaaoyama）
- BunkamuraOrchard hall(Shibuya WardSong Tao）
- Osaka International Convention Center(OsakaKita）
Some of the most prominent ones in Japan are:
- Homura Tomoi Ballet (Osaka, 1937-)
- Kaitani Ballet Academy (1938-)
- Matsuyama Ballet Company (1948 -)
- Momoko Tani Ballet (1949-)
- Ochi International Ballet (Nagoya, 1949-)
- Asami Maki Ballet Company (1956 -)
- Tokyo Ballet (1964 -)
- Star Dancers Ballet (1965 -)
- Tokyo City Ballet (1968 -)
- Sadamatsu-Hamada Ballet Company (Kobe, 1970-)
- Noriko Kobayashi Ballet Theater (1973-)
- Reiko Yamamoto Ballet (1975-)
- Inoue Ballet Company (1987 -)
- International Ballet Cademia (1987-formerlyMasahide KomakiBallet company)
- NBA Ballet Company (1993 -)
- New National Theater Ballet Company (1997 -)
- K-ballet company (1999 -)
- Minato City Ballet (2019 -)
The feature is to emphasize the depth of carving and the three-dimensional effect.There are some differences depending on the role, but in general, apply a foundation that is slightly lighter than the natural skin color (quite white for Russians) to the entire face, add brownish cheeks, nose shadow, and dark color.Eye shadowPut the eyeliner on the upper and lower eyelids as thick as possible, add false eyelashes, draw a willow eyelid, vividLipstickIn many cases, the outline is drawn clearly.However, in the case of children, it is often a little informal.
Works dealing with ballet
- Adagio (Hiromu Ono）
- Arabesque (Ryoko Yamagishi）
- Villi (Ryoko Yamagishi)
- Wings-Wings-Junko Sasaki）
- (Moto Hagio）
- Gorgeous Grand Seine (Cuvie）
- coda (Hitoshi Ichimura）
- City Bird (Junko Sasaki)
- Subaru (Masato Soda）
- SWAN (Kyoko Ariyoshi）
- SWAN-Swan Prayer-
- Maia -Maia- SWAN actⅡ
- SWAN-Swan- [Moscow Edition]
- SWAN-Swan- [Germany]
- Dance dance dance danseur(George Asakura）
- (Yasue Imai）
- Pointe shoes (Megumi Mizusawa）
- Do Da Dancin'! (Satoru Makimura）
- Do Da Dancin'! Venice International Edition
- Until you can fly like a bird (Ebine Yamaji）
- Nadeshiko Prima (Mizuki Kuze）
- (Original :, Manga :)
- beautiful (Saito Uchiho）
- (Moto Hagio)
- Maihime Terpsichora (Ryoko Yamagishi)
- "Mari-chan" series (Kimiko Uehara）
- Lady Love (Hiromu Ono)
- (Moto Hagio)
- Red shoes (Michael powell,Emeric PressburgerDirector, 1948) Digitally Remastered Edition-Film DirectorMartin ScorseseOriginal Negative Restoration (2009)
- Days of love and cheers (Herbert Ross(Director, 1977)
- Susperia (Dario Argento(Director, 1977)
- Bolero of love and sadness (Claude Lelouch(Director, 1981)
- McCawley Calkin / The Nutcracker (Emile Ardolino(Director, 1993)
- White Nights / White Night (Taylor Hackford(Director, 1985)
- dancer (Herbert Ross(Director, 1987)
- F (Shusuke KanekoDirector, 1998)- Tetsuya Kumakawastarring
- The king dances (Gerard Corbia(Director, 2000)
- (Nicholas Hytner(Director, 2000)
- Little dancer (Steven Daldry(Director, 2000)
- Save the last dance (Director, 2001)
- (Robert Altman(Director, 2003)
- Subaru-Subaru- (Director, 2009)
- Black swan (Darren Aronofsky(Director, 2010)
- Dancing Chaplin (Suo Masayuki(Director, 2011)
イ ラ ス ト
- ^ French pronunciation: [balɛ] バ レ
- ^ English pronunciation: [ˈBæleɪ] BaRay
- ^ Chikyu Dramatic-Aiming for Etoile-Children of the Paris Opera Ballet School --NHKE Tele Part 2013 Broadcast on March 3, 16 at 19:2013, Part 3 Broadcast on March 23, 19 at XNUMX:XNUMX
- ^ May 2014, 5 Chunichi Shimbun morning edition Sunday edition
- ^ a b c June 2014, 2 Chunichi Shimbun 3 pages
- ^ a b "(PDF)”. Showa University of Music Ballet Research Institute. 2020/7/23Browse.
- "History of Ballet" by M. Francoise Christou (translated by Toshiko Sato) Hakusuisha Que Sais-jeu 1970 ISBN 4560054819
- "History of Ballet" Ferdinand Reina (translated by Shigeo Ogura), Ongaku no Tomosha, 1974
- "Ballet and Modern Dance-History" by J. Anderson Ongaku no Tomosha 1993 ISBN 4276250501
- "History from the birth of ballet to the present day" Kenji UsuiWritten by Ongaku no Tomosha 1999 ISBN-4 276-25013-7
- "Introduction to Ballet" by Masashi Miura Shinshokan 2000 ISBN 4403230822
- "Waganova's Ballet Lesson" by Agrippina Vaganova Shinshokan 1996 ISBN 4403310079
- Red shoes
- Contemporary dance
- Benoit Award
- Tutu (ballet)
- Corps de ballet
- Ballets Russes
- Japan Ballet Association
- Japan Ballet Federation
Childcare(Gakudohoiku) is mainly during the dayGuardianIs not at home<span>Grade 1-2</span>ChildrenChildcare business (after-school children's club) that provides (= school children) an appropriate place to play and live after class to promote the sound development of children. OfCommon name.[Source required] 
Traditionally, after-school careparent OfEmploymentIt was often seen from the perspective of support.父motherIs workingChildren OfNursingaboutConvention on the Rights of the ChildThere is a rule in.
States parties shall take all appropriate steps to ensure that the child's right to benefit from the provision and equipment of the care of the child is entitled to use by the child in which the parent is working. ..—Convention on the Rights of the ChildArticle 18 3
Globally, we place childcare after school more actively, and instead of seeing children as consumers of services or as subjects for guidance, we focus on raising children after school from the perspective of nurturing adults who will form a mature civil society. System design that can be created.
JapanAtChild Welfare ActAtLegal legal nameIt is,"After classChild sound upbringing business "so,Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareHas jurisdiction over. Of the ministryMinisterial OrdinanceAnd director notificationAnd so on"After school children's club"Is used. The facilities that carry out the project are called "after school children's clubs", "school children's clubs", "school children's daycare centers", etc., but the names vary depending on the local government and the installer. The abbreviation is "school children" or "children's club".
There is no uniform name for after-school children's club facilities, and there are various names depending on the region, local government, and installation body. The main names are "after school children's club", "school children's club", "school children's nursery", "absence family children's association (room)", "children's development association (room)", etc. Simply as an abbreviation"Schoolchildren"Or"Children's club"Called.TokyoItabashiAfter school club for all children and measures for all children (Ministry of educationIn the case of comprehensive implementation of the jurisdiction), there are cases where the after school club and all child countermeasures have the same name. In areas where after school children's clubs have entered the private sector, ,Ltd.In some cases, the operating company bears its own brand name.
“After school children comprehensive plan” jointly conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareThen, the “after-school healthy child development business” is positioned as a “place of play” and a “place of life”.
The grounds for establishing an after-school children's clubChild Welfare Actbased on.
Under this law, after-school child health development business refers to children who are enrolled in elementary school and whose guardians are not at home during the day due to labor, etc., and use facilities such as child welfare facilities after class. It is a business that provides an appropriate place for play and living and promotes its sound development.—Child Welfare Act Article 6, Paragraph 3
Originally, after school children's clubsSecond World WarThan before,Working togetherHome orSingle-parent familyIt is said that it started as a voluntary childcare activity.High economic growthIn the period, double-income families increase andNuclear FamilyWith the progress ofKey girlDemand for childcare after school increased due to the increase in1998/ToChild Welfare ActIt was enacted as a second-class social welfare business that conducts after-school healthy child-raising business based on the. Currently, it is positioned as one of the child-rearing support projects by the revision of the Child Welfare Act based on the Act on Promotion of Measures to Support Raising Next-Generation Children, which was established as a measure to reduce the birthrate.
In the past, the phrase "generally children under 10 years old" was used in the text, but this is a guideline for operation, and depending on the local government, it can be used even for people over 10 years old (4th grade to 6th grade). However, since it is now simply referred to as a "child" according to the revised law, it is usually available until the sixth grade.
Previously, even in local governments that were recruiting up to the third grade,ObstacleIn most cases, some children could be used up to the sixth grade if certain requirements were met.現在は、障害のある児童の受け入れに対するCurrently for accepting children with disabilitiesGrant,SubsidyIt is in a form that encourages acceptance by issuing.
Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare"About conduct of after-school child healthy upbringing business), children of 4th grade and above (Special school(Including elementary school students). After that, it is in the current state.
In addition, in cases where a private business operator's club for children after school does not receive subsidies from the local government (so-called non-licensed school children), there were cases in which they actively accepted up to the sixth grade.
The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare cites the following as the contents of the after-school healthy child development project.
- Health management, safety assurance, and emotional stability for after school children
- Motivation and attitude formation for play activities
- Cultivate independence, sociality and creativity through play
- Grasping after-school children's play activities and contacting families
- Support for creating a play environment at home and in the community
- Other activities necessary for the healthy upbringing of after-school children
The functions of after school children's clubs are diverse, but the following are mainly common throughout the country (the numbers at the end of each item correspond to the numbers listed by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare).
- Health management, safety assurance, and emotional stability of children before their parents return home and pick them up (1)
- Cultivate independence, sociality and creativity by providing appropriate play and activities (play, crafts, seasonal events, birthday parties, breeding cultivation, etc.) (2,3,5)
- Providing snacks as supplements (handmade snacks, cooking, etc.) (6)
- Providing a place for self-study such as homework (6)
- Basically, learning guidance is not provided at public school after school clubs. There are various types of private businesses, such as cram school teachers and English staff who also serve as supporters and are integrated with the classroom.
- Understanding of children's activity status and cooperation with home (contact book, interview, parent-child event, etc.) (4)
- Child abuseEarly detection of cases requiring welfare support and cooperation with related organizations (6)
- The after-school children's club is an application and approval system, and since it is continuously involved in the children and their families, it becomes the front line of welfare support in the community.
Form of installation and operation
As of July 2020, 7, the number of facilities installed is 1 and the number of registered children is 26,625..
After-school children's club facilities include those established by public institutions (public facilities) and those established by private businesses (private facilities). Depending on the mode of operation, there are three types: "public public enterprise", "public private enterprise" and "private private enterprise". It is roughly divided into types. The largest number is public institutions directly managed by local governments, which account for 3% of the total of 2013 locations as of May 5.Social welfare councilAbout 50% are public school children, including those run by public organizations, but the ratio is decreasing year by year. Instead, the number of publicly-owned private school children who outsource the operation of publicly-owned facilities to the private sector is increasing, and those run by regional management councils and parents' associations and social welfare corporationsNPO corporation-Including those operated by stock companies as designated managers. Although the local government has a history of promoting the outsourcing of after-school children's clubs in order to reduce personnel costs, in particular, the designated manager system reviews the designation every few years, so there is stability and continuity in the after-school children's club management. Voice of anxiety has been raised by the National Association for Childcare Support.
Privately owned children's clubs include facilities that are organized and operated by a steering committee, parent association, voluntary groups or individuals. The Steering Committee is an organization made up of local child welfare personnel (such as school principals, town presidents, citizens and children's committees), guardian representatives, supporters, etc., and is a condition for receiving support from local governments. There is. Parents' association is the general name for an after school children's club of an organization made up of parents themselves. In addition to private nursery schools/childcare companies/NPO corporations, there are also those set up and operated by entry from different industries (schools, fitness clubs, English conversation classes, etc.). It is difficult to distinguish "children's clubs" from "children's clubs" developed by these companies in different industries. If you do not receive a subsidy, it is difficult to maintain a constant operation level because you do not need to cooperate with the after-school measures authorities of the local government, and you will sell services such as learning guidance, dinner provision, bathing, long-term storage, and child welfare. After school, such things as those that do not follow the sound development principles such as independence that the law aims for, those that the floor area per child does not meet the after school children club installation standard, those that have problems with the expertise of supporters, etc. Care must be taken as there are cases in which this is different from the after-school children's club due to the sound child development project. In addition, the situation survey of after-school children's clubs conducted by public institutions such as the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare may not be able to grasp the actual situation if they are not included in the statistics.
In recent years, the number of elementary school students has decreased. with this,primary schoolThere are an increasing number of cases in which empty classrooms are diverted to children's club facilities after school.
Actual conditions of operation
It operates throughout the year, but there are regular use days (days with school lessons) and one use day (School holidays.. It can be roughly divided into long holidays such as summer, winter and spring, transfer holidays for events, school foundation anniversary, Saturday without classes, etc.). Many public and private facilities are open on Saturdays. It is closed on Sundays and public holidays except for a small part. Children usually go to their homes after class on the day of use, and from their homes in the morning on the day of use.
Normal use day
Go to the campus after school. If the children's club in the school buildingClassroomIf you are moving between, or outside the site, leave the school gateSchool zoneYou will be registered at the station. Public school children are basicallyprimary schoolSince it is linked to the ward, you can walk to the ground even in lower grades,stationNear orShopping districtTenant-type private children's clubs located in etc. may be outside the school district (some businesses pick up and drop off by car). Children at private elementary schools are publicElectric train,busThere is a case to get in. Basically, each child attends the school because the school is supervised by the elementary school and the time of leaving school differs depending on the grade.
Childrenhomework,snack,playWhile leaving, etc., drop off at the designated return time. Shortly after the first year of school or a short daywinterAre often picked up by parents. As a playground, in addition to children's club facilities, elementary school grounds andChildren's houseDepending on the location conditions such as nearby parks, etc., consideration is given so that you can play outdoors on a daily basis. In child clubs that allow “middle-age”, children sometimes go out and come back again for lessons.
Since groups of different ages spend a large number of people, living time and rules are decided and operated for each facility. Things that are often set include study time, snacks, on-duty work, and return meetings. Large-scale children's clubs with more than 80 people can intentionally stagger the time or have free snacks (children themselves decide when to eat etc.).
After-school child support staff and their assistants confirm attendance and whereabouts of children, physical condition confirmation, activity and play provision, group instruction, appropriate environment setting, snack provision, response to injury and poor physical condition (First aid-ambulanceCorrespondence, contact with parents, etc.) and other contact work. Relationships of trust are important because they are closely related to children, parents, schools and communities. Also called "second family," some schoolchildren are careful not to let supporters etc. be called "teachers."
The closing time varies depending on the municipality/business operator, but it is usually available until 18:17 (some children's clubs are normally used until 19:19 and 22:XNUMX). There is also an extension usage system for public privatizations and private privatizations at an additional charge at night. Some privately owned private facilities can be used until XNUMX:XNUMX, and some privately owned private facilities can be used until XNUMX:XNUMX. Parents' requests and business owners' intentions coincided with the use at night, but if the children's clubs are used constantly until night, it will affect the emotional stability of the children and the childcare function that the family should have (nearby neighborhood). Cooperation, increase acquaintances, education of the ability to answer, etc.) cannot be obtained.
One day use day
On weekdays when there are no school classes, the children's club will be used from morning. Normal use is often from 8:9 or 7:XNUMX. Public private companies ・Private private companies have an extension system in the morning and can be used from around XNUMX:XNUMX.
Lunch will be a box lunch, but a catering lunch service may be set up to reduce the burden on parents during long holidays. At publicly-owned children's clubs directly managed by the local government, supporters and other staff are civil servants who cannot handle cash because they cannot handle cash, or parents' associations are in charge of accounting.
After having a meal break, it is the same as the above-mentioned normal use day.
Continuous events that are incorporated into daily activities, annual events that are set for the purpose of cultivating a sense of the season, family events,Children's houseOr there are exchange events with other children's clubs. They may also participate in local festivals and mall events, or participate in children's centers and private kids events.
A typical example of a daily eventShogi-GoCourses and competitions,Kendama,origamiTraditional play,サ ッ カ ーThere are competitions, group play, crafts/handicrafts, and illustration competitions. Cultivation of vegetables and cooking events are also actively conducted as part of dietary education.
After school child support staff
Those who have taken care of children at after school club facilities haveThose who instruct children to playAppointment QualificationSince I was able to get a job if I met certain requirements, such as "school teacher", "school teacher", "child club teacher", etc. UnifiedQualifications/LicensesThere were no requirements.
2015/(HeiseiFrom 27 years)Article XNUMX of standards for facilities and operation of after-school healthy child development business (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Ordinance No. XNUMX of XNUMX)Based on each business site"After school child support staff'Was required (two or more people for each unit of support (approximately 40 people), but one person can be replaced with an assistant). To become a child supporter after school,Those who instruct children to playAppointment QualificationIt is necessary to complete the certification qualification course by the prefectural governor after having requirements such as.PrefecturesGovernorAlthough it is a certified qualification,Education staff licenseSimilar to the ordinary license certificate of the above, it is also valid outside the prefecture where it is certified. In addition,2019/Until (31), as a transitional measure, "persons who are planning to complete the certification training" could become after-school child support staff instead of "persons who have completed".2020/(ReiwaIf you have not completed the certification course after 2 years, you can work as an assistant.
About "child club teachers" other than after-school child support staff,There is no uniform name,Childminder,Education staff licenselikeNational qualificationThere is no system. Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareArticle XNUMX: Equipment and management standards for child welfare facilities (Ministry of Health and Welfare Ordinance No. XNUMX of XNUMX)'Let's change the qualification requirementsQualification for instructing children to play", which isChildren's houseSimilar to staff. AlsoOrphanageIt is almost the same as the staff. Specifically, a childcare worker qualification or a social worker,Kindergarten-primary school-Junior high school-UniversityOne ofEducation staff license(If you are a child coach,Those who are qualified to be teachersBecause,License status expired or expiredIs interpreted as impossible), orSocial work-Psychology-Pedagogy-SociologyEtc.BachelorIf you have the above degreeThose who instruct children to play OfAppointment QualificationIs satisfied. In addition, especially for part-time instructors, if you do not meet the qualification for appointment,volunteerMany local governments and businesses wish to have "experiences" (It is legally possible to switch to hiring instructors instead of assistants and perform their duties due to the two years of work experience.However, after the introduction of the after-school child support staff system, it is no longer possible to obtain qualification training for training simply because of work experience).
Although a special qualification is not required for assistants for after-school child support,Those who instruct children to playAppointment QualificationAnd2015/"Child care support member" started in (27)Of these, those with certain basic knowledge are recommended (not required), such as those who are qualified for the after-school children course.
Qualification for attending qualification training for after-school child support staff and courses taken in the training
After-school child support staff is "standard about facilities and administration of after-school child healthy upbringing business" (Heisei 26Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareTraining provided by each prefecture that falls under any of the following, as prescribed in Article 3-XNUMX of (No. XNUMX) (the training work can be partially outsourced to other institutions): It must be completed.
- 一 ChildminderQualified person
- two Social workerQualified person
- three School education lawAccording tohigh schoolOrSecondary schoolThose who have graduated from the university, those who are admitted to the university pursuant to the provisions of Article 90, Paragraph 2 of the same law, orMinister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyIs a person who has been certified as having the same or higher qualification as this (referred to as “high school graduate, etc.” in No. 2) and has been for XNUMX years or more.Child welfare businessWho engaged in
- four Education staff license lawStipulated in Article 4LicenseWho has
- According to the provisions of the School Education LawUniversityAtSocial work,Psychology,Pedagogy,Sociology,ArtsOrPhysical educationThose who have graduated from a department that specializes in
- (Vi) In a university under the provisions of the School Education Law, by acquiring credits with excellent grades in a department specializing in social welfare studies, psychology, pedagogy, sociology, arts or physical education or a course equivalent to these, Those who are admitted to graduate school under the provisions of Article 102, Paragraph 2 of the same law
- XNUMX. According to the provisions of the School Education LawGraduate SchoolsWho graduated from a graduate school majoring in social welfare studies, psychology, pedagogy, sociology, arts or physical education, or a course equivalent to these.
- Eight Foreign countries OfUniversityA person who graduated from a course specializing in social welfare studies, psychology, pedagogy, sociology, arts or physical education, or a course equivalent thereto
- Kyushu High School graduate, etc., and more than 2 yearsAfter-school child healthy upbringing businessEngaged in a business similar toMayorWho is deemed appropriate
- A person who has been engaged in the after-school healthy child development project for more than 5 years and is deemed appropriate by the mayor
Most of the above requirements areThose who instruct children to playAppointment QualificationIt is also When applying for qualification training, it is necessary to attach a proof that the requirements are met or a copy of it (if No. XNUMX,high schoolEtc.Graduation certificate, And the former employer who has retired after working for more than 2 years must each issue a document certifying his/her work history at a club for children after school, etc.).
However, No. XNUMX (so-calledChildren's houseIf you fall under the No. XNUMX) (or those who are engaged in), or if it falls under No. XNUMX (described later), depending on the prefecture, it will be judged in advance whether or not you are eligible to attend the course. In some cases, it is necessary to inquire in advance.
Regarding No. XNUMX, onceSchool education lawBy the provision ofKindergarten,primary school,Junior high school,high schoolas well as the Secondary school OfTeacherWho had the qualification to becomeTeacher license renewal systemFrom the balance ofLicenseTo expand the door to those who have a so-called revoked old license among those who have the above, regarding No. XNUMX, to open the way to after-school child support members even if they have not graduated from high school etc.,Heisei 30Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfarePartly revised by No. XNUMX, "Standards for facilities and management of after-school healthy child development business" (Heisei 26Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareNo. XNUMX) has been changed and added.
All 16 subjects listed below must be completed. All lectures for one subject are specified as 1 minutes,レポートWhether or not to approve will be determined by taking into account the contents of. If you pass all 16 subjects, you will be issued a certificate of completion (two A4 size certificate and card type). However, if some subjects are absent (same as late, early leave, or leave temporarily), subjects for which the submitted report is not evaluated wellAlternatively, if there are unsubmitted courses (if there are exempted courses or courses that have been taken by the previous year, those courses may be unsubmitted), the certified passing course name will be listed. Partial subject certificate (A4 size certificate only) will be issued.
- 1- ① Objectives and system contents of the after-school healthy child development project
- 1-② General principles and rights protection of the after-school healthy child development project
- 1-③ Child and Family Welfare Measures and After School Children Club
- 2-④ Understanding children's development
- 2-⑤ Life and development in childhood
- 2-⑥ Understanding children with disabilities
- 2-⑦ Understanding of children who need special consideration
- 3-⑧ Support for the upbringing of children who attend children's clubs after school
- 3-⑨ Understanding and supporting children's play
- 3-⑩ Support for the development of children with disabilities
- 4- ⑪ Cooperation/cooperation with parents and consultation support
- 4-⑫ Collaboration with schools and local communities
- 5-⑬ Responses to the life of children
- 5-⑭ Safety measures and emergency response
- 6-⑮ Work content of after-school child support staff
- 6-⑯ Operational management of after-school children's club and compliance with the laws and regulations of the operating entity
the abovePersons eligible for attendanceのうち、同厚生労働省令第十条3で第一号に該当する者は2-④、2-⑤、2-⑥、2-⑦の4科目、同じく第二号に該当する者は2-⑥、2-⑦の2科目、同じく第四号に該当する者は2-④、2-⑤の2科目がそれぞれExemptTo be done. However, if you wish, you can take the course or submit a report.
However, if you have issued a partial course certificate and applied for a course with the partial course certificate attached in the following year or later, you will be exempted from the courses listed in the partial course certificate. If you take only the courses other than those listed and submit the report, you will be awarded a certificate of completion.
Also, depending on the prefecture, there are cases where there is a charge or no fee for attending the course.
In addition, in the course of certification, designated textIt is necessary to bring the course with you, but for this, the student purchases it separately (in the case of paid prefectures, the text fee may be included), and at the time of the certification course You need to bring it. This text will be sent directly from the publisher if the publisher distributes a pamphlet for attendees along with the course guidance and applies according to the guidelines, but it is also a book that can be obtained at general bookstores. .
Treatment of after-school child support staff
Due to the financial difficulties of local governments and the instability of business models, the salaries of support staff are generally low.In addition, the number of children fluctuates greatly within the year (such as withdrawal after summer holidays) andChildren with disabilitiesBecause it is necessary to finely adjust the number of people assigned depending on the usage situation ofPart-time service,part, Part-time job, etc.Non-regular employmentThere are many, and the average length of service is short. It can be said that treatment is insufficient as an issue for the entire industry. The weight of responsibility to keep children safeMonster ParentThere is a problem in that it is difficult for supporters who have abundant experience to grow, even though the required work is complicated, such as dealing with and dealing with life-threatening food allergies.
Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareIn order to improve treatment, in addition to increasing subsidies to children's clubs that are open even after 18:30, we recommend that each supporter participate in training conducted by the prefecture or municipality, Under the name of "after-school child support staff qualification improvement training," etc., it encourages people who have completed after-school child support staff certification qualification training to complete the training. About the implementation of (Heisei 27May 5 Employment child 0521 No. 19))).
Private qualifications related to after-school child support
In addition to after-school child supporters who have official qualifications, private sector to prove their expertise as child club staffQualifications/LicensesExists. Some of the larger ones are:
- General FoundationFoundation for the Promotion of Healthy Child Development-Certified Child Welfare Qualification System
- Specifically, there are four ranks of child welfare second grade instructor, child welfare first grade instructor, child welfare first grade special instructor, child sound upbringing instructor (only for first grade special, there is a renewal system, so the expiration date for three years is Is set).
- This is the current positionChildren's houseIt is also a qualification system for staff, but in the case of current post-school children club staff, the qualification application isHeisei 27After that, it is necessary to be a person who has completed the certification course for after-school child support staff (also here)Heisei 31Up to that point, there were transitional measures similar to those of incumbents).
- InstituteKids Coach Association (Mother isTokyu Group)-(3rd ~ 1st) Certified Kids CoachAnd (3rd to 1st grade) Kids coach certification
- For both the certified coach and coach certification, there are no special requirements such as basic qualifications for acquiring the 3rd grade, but in order to obtain the 2nd grade or higher, it is necessary to obtain the latest lower grade.
- Specified nonprofit corporationJapan After-school Child Instructor Association-After-school Child Supporter Qualification / After-school Professional Child Supporter Qualification / After-school Advanced Child Supporter Qualification
- InstituteJapan schoolchild nursery teacher association-schoolchild nursery teacher basics, schoolchild nursery teacher
Issues of the after-school children's club business are often taken up in the council of local governments that set up and have jurisdiction for after-school children's club facilities, user associations for school-based childcare liaison, and media reports. The following are typical issues.
- Insufficient treatment of support staff.
- Excluding the full-time support staff (public servants) who work for publicly-owned children's clubs, the salary level of children's club instructors is generally lower than in other industries. The turnover rate is high and users have the impression that "teachers change frequently."
- The operational form may change due to changes in local government policies and changes in financial conditions, which may cause anxiety for users.
- The integrated implementation of the after-school children plan (all-child countermeasures project) is expanding mainly in metropolitan areas, and the services that were provided at conventional after-school children clubs may be abolished or reduced. For example, there are cases in which the provision of snacks is canceled, the confirmation of children's climbing points is not performed individually, and the scale and number of events are reduced.
- Waiting children who are not available because the child club is over capacitythe 2000sIt has been increasing since then. The data itself does not exist for potential waiting children who have given up on the usage application itself.
- Children's problem "I don't want to attend a children's club".
- In the first place, after school children's clubs are a system rooted in the needs of the family (parents). Even if it is the same "where the children of the working family are", from the perspective of the children, "the situation is the same for all the surroundings (it is natural to go to the nursery school)" for the children, but after entering elementary school, "I do not attend children's clubs". The environment has changed drastically." To do. If parents and children do not communicate about how to spend time after school, a situation will occur in which "the parent wants the child club to attend, but the child does not want to attend." If children themselves have little motivation for children's clubs, they often have trouble situations with their friends, lethargy, rebellious attitudes, and escape.
- In the case of a children's club inside the school building, it tends to be like an extension of school life. Whether it can function properly as a place to have a homely atmosphere.
- In the case of large-scale children's clubs, it is difficult to properly prevent, understand, and respond to injuries and accidents.
- Financial difficulties of local governments and financial difficulties due to inadequate subsidies for financially unstable management bodies (NPO corporations, etc.).
- In the case of a children's club that is directly managed by parents, the parents' burden of management is felt
- There are variations in accident compensation because of the lack of a unified compensation system.
The after-school children's club is a place to protect the safety of children who lack parental care, as well as a place to practice growth support and sound development for school-age children to become independent. While "combining work and childcare" is a national issue,In particularLicensed Nursery SchoolIt is an indispensable system for parents who continue to work, care, treat illness, etc. even if their child graduates from school and enters elementary school. Since there are many cases that want to return to work, there are floods of applications in some regions.Waiting-listThe demand is high enough to occur. It is also called a "small one wall" and it has become a social problem because it is a great inconvenience for parents to work if they cannot enter because there are no children's club facilities after school in the living area.
In the past, there were many cases in which parents with work voluntarily formed parent-parents associations and voluntary groups to launch after-school children clubs, or local governments instituted directly managed after-school children clubs. The needs of clubs have increased, the content has diversified, and the participation of the private sector has become more active (for details, refer to the section “Modes of Installation and Operation”).
- 1904/(37th year of Meiji)- Kobe CityWomen's service meetings are held in two places in the cityAn infantとChildrenUndertake
- 1928/(Showa 3)- Osaka・ Ishii Memorial Aizen Garden establishes a schoolchild protection department.The chief is Shokichi Tomita
- the 1940s - JapanAfter-school children's club business begins in various places.
- the 1960s --Organization of after-school children's clubs in each region andCountry,Local governmentActivities to request institutionalization will begin in earnest.
- 1961/(Showa 36)- TokyoKitaStarted subsidizing the regional steering committee
- 1963/(Showa 38)- ShibuyaEstablished "Shibuya School Children's Hall".This is the beginning of a public after-school children's club
- 1966/(Showa 41) June- Ministry of EducationStarted a children's association development project based on the "Abstract Family Children's Association Development Business Support Guidelines".
- 1971/(Showa 46)-"Absent family children's association assistance project" was discontinued in 1971, and was integrated into "schoolyard open business".
- 1974/(Showa 49)-Prime Minister's Office "Women's Issues Comprehensive Survey Report," proposes institutionalization of clubs for after school children.
- 1976/April (Showa 51)-Ministry of Health and Welfare starts installation and development of "Child Development Club" based on "Urban Child Sound Development Project Implementation Guidelines" (this is said to be the beginning of the national treasury subsidy for children clubs after school) ..
- 1991/(3)-"Urban Child Sound Upbringing Business Implementation Guidelines" will be abolished, and will be taken over by "After School Child Management Project Implementation Guidelines".
- 1993/(5)- Research and Development Organization(NIRA) Proposes Institutionalization of After School Children Club ("Women's Social Participation and Issues" 3rd "Mother's work and children", NIRA, 1993). In addition, a report on the Future of 21 Children Plan Study Group (Ministry of Health and Welfare) recommended the legislation of after school children's clubs. The Ministry of Health and Welfare begins studying legislation for after school children's clubs.
- 1997/(9) June 6-"Law concerning partial revisions of the Child Welfare Law" is enacted, and after school children's clubs are legalized as "after school healthy child development business".
- 1998/(10) April 4-After School Children ClubChild Welfare ActAnd Social Welfare Business Law (currentSocial welfare law) Based on the second type social welfare business is implemented.
- 2007/(19) October 10-After school children club guidelines are established, the minimum standards for after school children club management is clarified.
- 2015/(27) March 3-After school children club management guidelines are established, standard equipment and management policies are clarified. Along with this, the guidelines for clubs for after school activities, which is the minimum standard for operation, have been abolished.
- 2015/(27) April 4-"Standards for facilities and operation of after-school healthy child development business" (Heisei 26Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare(No. 63) With enforcement,After school child support staffSystem has started. After putting a transitional measure for 5 years,After school child support staffInstallation was made mandatory.
- 2020/(2 years Reiwa) April 4-With the completion of transitional measures to set up child support staff after school, obligatory support staff.
Child Welfare Act
- Article 6-3 Paragraph 2 According to this law, the after-school child healthy upbringing business is for children who are in elementary school and whose parents are not in the home during the day due to labor, etc. , A business that uses facilities such as children's welfare facilities after the class to provide an appropriate place of play and life for the purpose of healthy development.
- Article 21-9 Municipalities will contribute to the sound development of children. We must endeavor to implement the necessary measures so that the temporary custody business and the businesses listed below, which are specified by the Ordinance of the competent ministry (hereinafter referred to as "child-rearing support business"), will be implemented steadily.
- Business to support the upbringing of parents' children in the homes of children and their guardians or others
- Business to support the upbringing of parents' children in nursery schools and other facilities
- Providing necessary information and providing advice in response to consultations from parents regarding various issues related to the raising of local children
- Article 21-10 Municipalities will conduct healthy after-school child development projects according to the local circumstances in order to contribute to the healthy development of children, and will also collaborate with those who carry out healthy after-school child development projects other than the municipalities concerned. Shall endeavor to promote the use of the after-school healthy child development business for children prescribed in Article XNUMX-XNUMX (XNUMX).
- Article 34-8 Municipalities, social welfare corporations, and other persons may conduct post-school healthy child development projects in accordance with the Social Welfare Law.
- Article 49 In addition to what is stipulated by this law, child independence life support project, after-school child healthy upbringing project, infant home whole house visit project, childcare support visit project, local childcare support base project, temporary custody project, small-scale residential childcare project And necessary matters concerning the childcare services for the home, staff of child welfare facilities and other child welfare facilities shall be specified by an order.
- Article 56-6 Clause 2 A person who conducts a child independence life support project or a after-school healthy child development project and an installer of a child welfare facility are mutually engaged in performing the project or operating the facility. While cooperating, we must endeavor to provide counseling from children and their families and to provide active support in accordance with other local circumstances.
Social welfare law
- Article 2 In this law, "social work" meansFirst-class social welfare businessas well as the Second-class social welfare businessSay.
- 3 The following businesses will be referred to as Type XNUMX social welfare businesses.
- 2 Child home care services, child day care services, child short-term admission services, counseling support for children with disabilities, child independence life support services, after-school child healthy upbringing business or child rearing short-term support services, stipulated in the same law. Business to manage midwifery facilities, nursery schools, children's welfare facilities or children's home support centers, and to provide consultation on the promotion of child welfare
- 3 The following businesses will be referred to as Type XNUMX social welfare businesses.
Child, child care support method
Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- "Standards for equipment and operation of child welfare facilities" (Showa 23May 12, Ministry of Health and Welfare Ordinance No. XNUMX.Heisei 27May 3, Partially revised by the Ordinance No. XNUMX of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)
- "Standards for facilities and operation of after-school healthy child development promotion project" (Heisei 26May 4, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Ordinance No. XNUMX.Heisei 30May 3, Partially revised by the Ordinance No. XNUMX of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)
Notification of Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- "About conduct of after-school child healthy upbringing business" (and attached sheet "afterschool child healthy upbringing business operation summary" (child departure April 10, 4)
- "Further promotion of after-school child sound upbringing business" (Notice of Director of Employment and Childcare Development 89th Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Equal Employment and Child and Family Bureau Development Environment Division, September 13, 9)
- "About children eligible for after-school child healthy upbringing business" (Notice of Director of Employment and Childcare Development No. 114, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Equal Employment and Child and Family Bureau Development Environment Division, December 13, 12)
- "About children eligible for after-school child healthy upbringing business" (Notice of Director of Employment and Childcare Development No. 114, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Equal Employment and Child and Family Bureau Development Environment Division, December 13, 12)
- "About After School Children Club Guidelines" (Heisei 19May 10(No. 1019001 from hired child)
- "Standards for facilities and management of after school children's healthy development promotion business" (Heisei 26May 5Employment child departure 0530 No. 1)
- "Notes on "Standards for facilities and management of after-school children's healthy upbringing business"" (Heisei 26May 5Childcare development 0530 No. 1)
- "About the development of "after school club management guidelines"" (Heisei 27May 3Employment child departure 0331 No. 34)
- "Implementation of training programs for improving the quality of staff and securing human resources" (Heisei 27May 5Employment child departure 0521 No. 19)
- "About ensuring security related to crime prevention in social welfare facilities (notice)" (Heisei 28May 9Total number of employees hired 0915 No. 1, company sponsored 0915 No. 1, disability 0915 No. 1, old age 0915 No. 1)
Western school childcare
British school childcare
Starting in 2005, all schools will offer childcare from 8 am to 18 pm as an "Extended School"... In addition, learning support, club activities, parental support, and facility opening to local residents are also conducted to improve educational effects..
School evaluation by Ofsted, a national inspection agency, also covers the implementation status of school childcare.
Childcare in France
FranceThen there is a leisure center system that can be used during normal periods after school on weekdays.. Also, there is a system of "long-term vacation center" that uses the same base to perform leisure activities etc. in a group during holidays..
American school childcare
In the United States, children are often involved in crime during after hours, and it is considered that conducting after-school activities in a safe environment is an opportunity to avoid risks and carry out useful activities... The U.S. Department of Education has implemented a policy of providing subsidies for post-school activities in areas with high poverty to support supplementary training and language education..
- Ministry of Health and Welfare Secretariat Statistics Information Department Health and Social Statistics Division Child Welfare Statistics Section "Survey on Local Child Welfare Business 9" (Heisei 9(As of October 10)
- Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Minister's Secretariat Statistics Information Division Social Statistics Division Child Welfare Statistics Section 13 Survey on Local Child Welfare Business (Heisei 13(As of October 10)
- National Council for Childcare Support “Report on 2003 Number of Childcare Surveys” (2003/(As of October 5)
- Children's Health Education Foundation Foundation, Children's Center Theory and Practice, Children's Health Education Foundation 2007/
- Edited by the Foundation for the Promotion of Healthy Child Development "Handbook for Safety Measures for Children's Centers and Clubs for After-school Children" Foundation for Healthy Child Development 2013/
- Children's Sound Upbringing Foundation Foundation Edited "Children's House/After School Club Text Series 1 Sound Upbringing Theory" Child Sound Upbringing Foundation 2014/
- Edited by the Foundation for the Promotion of Healthy Child Development, “Children's Center/After School Club Text Series 2 Theory of Children's Center” 2015/
- Edited by the Foundation for the Promotion of Healthy Child Development “Children's House/After School Club Text Series 3 Safety Guidance/Safety Management” Foundation for Healthy Child Development 2017/
- Edited by the Foundation for the Promotion of Healthy Child Development “Children's House/After School Club Text Series 2 Theory of Children's House (2nd Edition)” Healthy Child Development Foundation 2019/
- Yoshitaka Nozawa, Atsushi Noda, Kentaro Anan, edited by the Foundation for the Promotion of Healthy Child Development “Children's House/After School Club Text Series 4 Social Work” Foundation for Healthy Child Development 2019/
- After school child support staff certification training materials edited by the editorial board, "Post-school child support staff prefectural certification training materials, points and lecture outlines of certification training"Central Law Publishing 2015/
- After-school child support staff certification training materials Editorial Committee edited by "After-school child support staff prefectural certification training materials Certification training points and lecture outline (2nd edition)"Central Law Publishing 2020/
- Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareVolume "After School Children Club Management Guidelines Manual"Flavel Building 2017/
- Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareHen "After School Children's Club Management Guidelines Manual (Revised Edition)"Flavel Building 2021/
- Education support personnel certification association supervision, child care support staff training text publication Committee edition "Child care support staff training text" Central Law Publication 2017
- Education support personnel certification association supervision, child care support staff training text publication Committee edition "Child care support staff training text (2nd edition)" Central Law Publication 2019/
- ^ a b "About after-school child healthy upbringing business". Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2021/12/22Browse.
- ^ (goo Japanese dictionary "school childcare" goo Japanese dictionary,Digital Daijisen(Shogakukan))
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Mika Ikemoto "Future After School for Children-Present Conditions and Challenges for Child Care"National Life" No. 19,National Life Center, November 2014, pp. 2-1,2021/12/22Browse.
- ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (August 2014, 8). “About "Comprehensive Plan for Children After School"". National Local Government Personnel Meeting Materials on "Comprehensive Plan for Children After School" (held on August XNUMX, XNUMX). Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2021/12/22Browse.
- ^ Dec. 13, 12 Notification of Director of Environment for Employment Development and Child and Family Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare No. 20
- ^ Who manages childcare(PDF), "The results of the survey on the implementation status of school childcare are summarized" pp.7, National Council for Childcare Center Press Release, August 2013, 8
- ^ From April 2015 New qualification for childcare! With "after school child supporter"! ?, BrushUP learning
- ^ The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare calls it "after school child instructor", but it is different from "", which is a private qualification recognized by "" below.State of implementation of 26 after school child healthy upbringing business (after school child club), Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, press release dated November 26, 11.
- ^ December XNUMX, XNUMX, Ministry of Health and Welfare No. XNUMX, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications e-gov.
- ^ This is for those who have been awarded an educational staff license regarding the eligibility of after school child support staff to attend.2018/It is also clear from the fact that the text of the Ministerial Ordinance was changed in (30).
- ^ Not only the staff of the children's club after school, but also the staff of the children's center,Those who instruct children to playIf you do not have a contractual qualification, you will be able to perform auxiliary work as a child center assistant who is treated as a temporary staff, and switch to the original contracted staff two years later. However, when hiring from a local government, there is a renewal system for temporary work, but some local governments have stipulated that temporary employees cannot renew for more than two years.
- ^ There are four courses for child-rearing supporters, and those related to after-school children's clubs are called after-school children's courses. This qualification is for any coursePrefecturesOr commissioned by the prefectureGroup,CompanyHas been approved, and there are provisions in the Ministerial Ordinance as the basis, butNational qualificationOr something similar to that, but as a propertyPrivate qualificationIt is close to.
- ^ Document 4 About expansion of basic qualifications for after-school child support staff - Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare(2018/May 9(Browse)
- ^ According to the Ministerial Ordinance, the content of the report and the degree of understanding of the training are not subject to evaluation. Those that do not pass are not considered to be resubmitted or submitted.
- ^ After school child support staff certification training materials edited by the editorial board, "Post-school child support staff prefectural certification training materials, points and lecture outlines of certification training"Central Law Publishing 2015/Or, "After-school child support staff certification training materials, edited by the editorial board," After-school child support staff prefectural certification training materials, points of certification training and lecture outline (2nd edition) "Central Law Publishing 2020/
- ^ Certified Child Welfare Qualification System, Foundation for the Promotion of Healthy Child Development
- ^ Official qualification that existed until 10Child welfare staffHas nothing to do with. However, to obtain this qualification,Those who instruct children to playAppointment QualificationIt is necessary to be in the current position of the facility that meets the requirements such as having a qualification, but even if it is not the current position, the second-class instructor or the first-class instructor was certified as a curriculumUniversity,Junior collegeas well as the Vocational schoolIt is also possible to obtain at.
- ^ [Attachment 1] Training participants.pdfGeneral Foundation for Healthy Child Development
- ^ Certified Kids Coach, Kids Coach Association
- ^ What is a certified kids coach?, Kids Coach Association
- ^ Kids coach certification, Kids Coach Association
- ^ What is the Kids Coach Test?, Kids Coach Association
- ^ After-school Child Instructor Qualification System, Japan After School Children Instructor Association
- ^ Association of schoolchild nursery certification, Japan School Nursery Association
- ^ Supporting work-life balance(PDF), Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 2011
- National School Child Care Council
- NPO corporation childcare association
- Database system of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- Schoolchild navigation