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👩‍🎤 | AKB48 Yuki Kashiwagi sets up fake news! "[Diffusion caution] Can you go through?Fe ...

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AKB48 Yuki Kashiwagi sets up fake news! "[Diffusion caution] Can you go through?Fe ...

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What kind of reaction will an entertainer hit by fake news in an era when false news and rumors are spread all at once on SNS?

Yuki Kashiwagi of AKB48 will broadcast "[Diffusion Caution] Can You Through?" From 1:18 on January 20th (Tuesday).Fe ... → Continue reading


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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

False news

False news(Kyogihodo) orFake news(British: fake news),Fake newsIsMass media,Social mediaDifferent from the facts in media such as情报TheNews reportTo do, or point to such coverage itself.

Do it after recognizing that it is false from the beginningOverheadAbout intentional things, such as reporting the facts and speculations as factsFabrication reportIt is sometimes said that.


False reporting is broadFalse positiveCorresponds to[1]Legally, "false alarm" refers to negligence, while "false news" or "false alarm" refers to intentional and intentional.[2].. EspeciallyCommon lawIn, it is false information to do with malicious intent.Bad faith(English: malicious falsehood) is a problem, but this is just a legal issue, and from the perspective of the receiver of the report, it is all "false report" whether it is intentional, negligent or malicious. .. Also, legally, an individual or legal entity (Media victim) Of the defamation and privacy infringement in court is important, but even if the false report is not related to a real person or corporation, the recipient of the report has the right to know accurate information. However, it can be a “report victim” due to false reports.

In the past, only the coverage of mass media such as TV, newspapers, magazines, etc., which was considered as "old media", could be false coverage, but in the age when social media developed, the hoaxes sent by individual people on SNS etc. News reports whose news sources are completely unknown can now be false reports. On SNS, no attention is paid to whether it is a "fact" or not, and "highly truthful information" sent from "trustworthy persons" such as friends is actively shared and disseminated explosively.[3].. Such reports that it is not the "fact" but the "truth" (Post truth, UK: Post-truth) is also false as long as it is not true.

False news does not include news that was clearly stated to be a "lie" from the beginning for purposes such as aiming and satire. Lie news is aimed at laughing from the headline rather than the text, and it is described in the text of the article, the company name, the company motto, etc. as "lie" "fiction" "(lie) XNUMX" "bana". However, there are many people who believe in these false news, and if the false news is spread as "truth" on SNS etc., the spread person himself/herself made false report. Being the representative of false news in the English-speaking worldThe Onion(In Japan, "Fictional newspaperThere are not a few people who truly receive lie news written outright and funny and spread as "truth".Media literacyLowness is said to play a part in the false reporting problem[4].

In English it is called "fake news". “Fake news” corresponds to “misinformation” (misinformation) or “disinformation” in a broad sense, and is also a type of “hoax” (fabrication). In the past, false reports in "journalism" by news media such as TV, newspapers and magazines were called "journalistic hoaxes" (faked articles), and "(net) lies news" was called "fake news". , In an era where many people read news feed articles that flowed on social media, even articles written by journalists in newspapers and magazines in paper media and articles that are only found on online lie news sites Since it flows into their own feeds without distinction, especially since 2017 when the US president gave the TV station, which is the "news agency", the approval of "fake news", without distinguishing either "fake news" Often called. From around 2016, it is a word that has become highly political as one of the important keywords in the "post-truth" era.

The right to make false news is guaranteed in the United States by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution.[5],Japan alsoArticle 21 of the Constitution of JapanBased on even fake newsFreedom of speechIs guaranteed. On the other hand, if false information is reported, it may be subject to disciplinary action based on the civil code or may be judged based on the criminal code. The false reports of are appearing one after another. Therefore, it is impossible to prevent the occurrence of false news, but in order to detect false news,Fact checkIs valid (because there can be false information in Wikipedia, the fact check is also effective to detect it). Specialized in America since the 1990sFact check agencyThere is also a full-fledged fact check personnel in each media company. However, in some cases, it does not work, and in the 2016 United States presidential election, there is too much information that is unclear whether it is true or false, and the media that does the fact check is considered as "fake news", so the fact check is sufficient. It didn't work[6].. In addition, before trying to detect false news, false news is the same as rewarding the other party at the time of seeing, and the same as having contributed to false news when retweeting or sharing. Therefore, it is also important not to be “interested” and “not seen” in the first place for overtly sensational reporting.[7]..In other words, insights such as the value of selective ignorance, as well as openness.[8]A person with a highly uncoordinated personality is creative.The largest creativity research institute in the United StatesUniversity of California, Los AngelesAccording to the director of a neuropsychiatric organization centered around, creativity and discomfort are related, and sometimes discomfort is necessary, so we must be willing to accept it.In other words, less collaborative people tend to show higher creative outcomes.Those who tend not to believe only what others have said are those who achieve creative results.[9].

False news in the "post-truth" era (fake news)

False news has already been regarded as a problem in newspapers and magazines in the early 20th century.Yellow journalismOr political falsehood reportspropagandaWas called, but in the early 21st century when the Internet developed, after the 2000s,affiliateInviting viewers to click with deliberately sensational false news for financial purposes.Click baitOr, the Internet has emerged as a new arena for false reporting, with the advent of false reporting just for the purpose of attracting attention on the Internet without any financial or even malicious intent. In the 2010s when SNS developed,Search site OfalgorithmAs a result of too much optimization of "," only the "truth" that an individual wants to see can be searched forFilter bubbleAs a phenomenon occurred and false news spread explosively under the name of "truth" on SNS, false news came to the spotlight again as a problem in the "post-truth" era. ..

In the US, fake news exchanges on SNS2016 United States Presidential Election"A pizzeria in a town is a presidential candidateHillary Clinton``There is a suspicion that it is a base for child prostitution related to'', a man who learned on the SNS that he broke into the pizzeria with a rifle to know the truth ``Pizza gate case(November 2016) triggered discussions about fake news on SNS.[10](In the United States, some people think that "there is a fact that a pizzeria in a town is a hub for child prostitution that Hilary is also involved in the operation" is "true" and some people think it is "fake news". Some people think that it is "truth" that Hillary should be arrested for, whether or not this is a "fact"). Furthermore, it is said that he supported the candidate Hillary Clinton.CNNOn January 2017, 1Playing cardsWhen the president named him “fake news” at a press conference, the debate became even more active, involving the old media.

In Japan, in addition to coverage of the 2016 US presidential election,DeNAIt was discovered that such internet companies were raising a lot of affiliate information by publishing a lot of false information under the name of "curation site".Summary siteThe "problem" (December 2016) was the trigger for activating discussions on false media and media in the "post-truth" era.[11].

To establish the "post-truth" era,TwitterとFacebookThe spread of false news played a big role. In response to criticism of disinformation, Facebook implemented a fact check function in December 2016[12].

A concept similar to "post-truth", which refers to the fact that it is "truth" whether it is "fact" or not, is "another fact" that exists in parallel with "fact". MeaningAlternative factsThere is a word (English: alternative facts). This is January 2017, 1Kelly Anne ConwayIn the words spoken by the presidential adviser,George OrwellThe novel "1984/It became a word that symbolized the "post-truth" era.

If the media's coverage disagrees with your perception, it is possible that the media is making false reports, but even if the media reports turn out to be "facts" as a result of the "fact check," If the recognition is "another fact", then my recognition is to say "a fact", and then the fact that the media reporting against the "fact" is a "false report" Definitely clarified (Thus, the idea of ​​believing in "another fact" while recognizing "a fact" is referred to as "1984" in the term "XNUMX".Double thinking"). In addition, Conway Presidential Advisor argues that "alternative facts" are "facts", but TV host Chuck Todd said "alternative facts"Lie”[13].

False reporting background

There are various reasons why false reports are endless.

Differences between interviewers and editors' ideas/ideas and facts/actualities

The fundamental reason is that before the reporter/director or the news gathering team starts the news gathering, they calculate the expected value of the evaluation of the article and make their own prospects and aspirations. Especially in documentary programs and movies, it is natural that the planner creates the scenario before the filming. As a matter of course, unexpected situations may occur due to the progress of interviews and filming, and unexpected facts and actual situations that conflict with one's ideals and ideas may be revealed. If the interviewer/planner accepts it and can revise the prospects and scenarios that he/she assembled by himself in line with the facts that were interviewed, it would not be false. However, if you distort the facts by pushing forward as it is, editing the images and comments in a way that suits your intentions, or by letting the interviewee make the statement of the content requested by the interview team instead of the statement of himself. Fall into false reporting.

Time/budget constraints

It is said that the reason for not being able to change the scenario or hypothesis set up before the interview as described above is due to time and budget constraints.[14].

Disposal difference

In addition, depending on the media, there are considerable differences in the dispositions of employees involved in false news.DismissalThere are some companies that face severe punishment, while others that require only "verbal attention" in their verbal disposition, and their corporate constitutions are considered to be strongly related.

False reporting of the organization and its response-False reporting at the national level

According to the Institute for Economics and Peace, government-led false reporting shows a very high correlation index of 0.60 with the decline in domestic peace, and the government should aim for zero false reporting in order to achieve domestic peace.Unfortunately, Japan's freedom of information in 2022, judging from the government's false reports, Internet usage, and the Press Freedom Index, remains at the 30th place in the world.In Asia, it is even lower than South Korea, Cyprus and Taiwan, but at least better than the United States.[15].

The Ito Ritsu press conference, "Jimmy's World" report, royal speech report, etc. are all false reports made by individuals within the organization due to their merits and demerits. Nor.

On the other hand, it is criticized that the reporter will not be able to improve his constitution because he will not be able to revise the editor and the media as a whole who should proofread, saying that he is solely responsible for the reporter alone. On the contrary, the Washington Post, which made a thorough investigation into the cause and made a clear apology, gained a reputation.

In an emergency, there are cases where large-scale false news reports are made under the utilitarianism of pursuing national interests and high-ranking government officials at the national level.Dainichi this empire OfGreat East Asian WarInLarge headquarters announcementOr under the occupation after the defeatGhqbySpeech controlIn the report below, the report was intentionally modified. AlsoChugoku-north koreaAnd militaryMyanmar-Middle EastCountries etc.DictatorshipCountryMedia,LiberalismEven in the countryIraq warInThe United States of AmericaThere are still examples, such as the external announcement of.

False news on the Internet

Further, in recent years, Internet news made up of false information has become a problem. Mainly refers to false articles that are transmitted and spread on the Internet, but may include personal posts for the purpose of slander. In addition, news media such as televisions and newspapers spread frequently without confirming the authenticity of individual posts. False news on the Internet has the effect of being transmitted and spread on SNS, but even if it is false, it is often awkward to apologize.

August 2016, 8,CyzoAn article that suggests fabrication in the program was posted on the net news of the affiliated website as a statement by NHK officials, but there was no fact of coverage, and the answers of the officials were fictitious. The man in his 20s who wrote the article had no experience of interviewing or writing the article before signing the contract. The company's editor-in-chief, including three employees, received the manuscripts of about 3 external authors and distributed about 30 articles a day, but did not confirm the authenticity of the content. President Ken Ibi explained, "I completely trusted the posts on the internet," and said, "There was a lack of balance between the volume of articles and the check system. In order to earn PV without cost, I will try to cover with the number of articles There is also a structural problem with free net media," he pointed out problems with net media as a whole.[16].

Incidentally,Japan Junior ChamberAccording to the data leaked at the time of (JC) Uyo-kun's burning incident, there are companies and professionals who use internet media such as Twitter to carry out work activities, and it is said that it will cost millions of yen.[17].

movies"Curse”, the fictitious journalist Masafumi KobayashiHome PageInternet archiveOf Kobayashi fansBlogEtc. could actually be browsed on the Internet. In this case, it is easy to imagine that the movie itself is a fiction, so opening a page on the Internet can be considered as a production for increasing the reality of the movie.

2014 Mt. Ontake eruptionThen.Democratic PartyFactless fabrication information disseminated on the Internet related to policies during the administration[18][19]At the time when I believedLDPThe fabrication information is used by the members of the House of Councilors as materials for criticizing other parties.TwitterSpread in[20], Which led to dispute between the parties and the Democratic Party's request for an apology from the Democratic Party, after which the LDP lawmaker who promoted the spread of fake news officially apologized after deleting the tweet and criticized unreasonably. The Democratic Party on the side accepted and settled[21].

False news from major news agencies

For details, Kyodo News # Suspicious news reports, etc.See
For details, Jiji Press # Jiji Press ScandalsSee

False news in major newspapers

For details, Asahi Shimbun #Reports with problems and doubtsSee
For details, Mainichi Shimbun #Suspicious news, fabrication news, scandalSee
For details, Yomiuri Shimbun # Suspicious news, fabrication news, scandalSee
For details, Sankei Shimbun coverage #misinformation/scandalSee

News (Chinese)Here are some examples of false reporting in. Here are some typical false news cases, but many newspaper companies have had false news cases in the past. ).

1867 Hachinohe Incident (Chinese Chugai Shimbun)

Hachinohe Incident[Note 1]It is,TongzhiFebruary 5 (1867/In November)clearCountryGuangzhou OfNews (Chinese)"Hachinohe Junjun" published in "Chugai Shimbun"Hong KongResidentJapaneseContributed byConquest theoryTriggered by the articleJapanとMr. LeeAnd an incident that worsened diplomatic relations with Qing Dynasty. The theory of conquestEdo PeriodTerminal stage (Bakumatsu)ofYoshida Shoin,Katsu KaishuAlthough their ideas can be seen in this idea, this Hachinohe case was the first to affect the Nissin Dynasty as a real foreign policy issue.[22].. This case has been tailing for nearly 10 years since thenGanghwa Island IncidentIt even influenced the bilateral negotiations in the United States.

1890 Mt. Zao eruption false news report (Tokyo Asahi Shimbun, current Asahi Shimbun)

1890/(Meiji23 years)May 1 OfTokyo Asahi Shimbun(CurrentAsahi Shimbun) In the morning newspaper,HiroshimaFukatsu-gunIchimura (currentFukuyama City(Zao Town)Mt. ZaoHowever, the eruption on January 1th at 16:8 pm ruptured the mountain body, and the debris flow spread to the south side and accumulated more than one (about 1 cm) in the Fukuyama city area, and it was reported to have been seriously damaged. According to the report, a brewer, Mizukoshi, in Senda Village (present-day Senda Town, Fukuyama City) north of Mt. did. However, Mt. Zao is not a volcano and no eruption occurred. Therefore, the following day, the article was completely canceled as "Factless", but the reason for the apology and false news was not posted, and the cause is unknown.

1891 Takamori Saigo's fake news incident (Tokyo Nichiichi Shimbun, now Mainichi Shimbun)

1891/(Meiji24 years)May 3 OfTokyo Nichini Shimbun(To the current Mainichi Newspaper)Southwest WarShould have died in (1877)Saigo Takamori SiberiaThe article that he is alive is published in the newspaper, and it is reprinted in newspapers all over the country.Crown prince(AfteremperorNikolai II) Is supposed to come to Japan, and it was rumored that Saigo would return to Japan, but in reality Saigo could not have been alive.Otsu IncidentThere is a theory that it is one of the causes of the outbreak.

1917 Awaji Maru sinking false news incident (Hoho Shimbun)

1917/(Taisho 6) October 3,Hochi ShimbunToNippon Yusen OfNorth ChinaThe ferry "Awaji Maru"Genkai SeaImmediately when it sank intelegramAnd the company immediatelyOutsidersIssued. Back thenWorld War IIs in the middle ofGerman Imperial NavyLaid bymineStock market was confused as it sank. Actually, Awaji Maru is safe and tried to get a huge amount of money by causing stock price turmoilscam事件Met. As a suspectTokyo Asahi ShimbunReporterMinetaro YamanakaとNational newspaperOf the reporter,Securities companyA group of employees was arrested.

1950 Ito Ritsu interview press incident (Asahi Shimbun)

1950/(25)May 9AttachAsahi ShimbunIn the evening, at that timeRed purgeWas hiding undergroundJapan Communist PartyExecutiveRitsu ItoとTakarazukaAn article appeared that he had met in the forest of, but it was later found that the article was completely false. The Asahi Shimbun apologized three days later in a company announcement. The reporter in charge left the company, the director of the Kobe branch resigned, and the editor-in-chief of the Osaka head office was dismissed.

1952 Mokuhoshi-go crash and the story of a dead person (Nagasaki Tamitomo Shimbun)

1952/May 4,Japan Airlines OfMartin 2-0-2型Passenger planeThe "Mokuhoshigo" ran out during the flight. next day,MiharaIt was discovered that the car had crashed and was severely damaged, and all the passengers and passengers were confirmed dead. But the day after the accidentNagasaki Minyu NewspaperMandanka who was a passenger inShiro OtsujiThe post-rescue story was published. Of course, Otsuji is already "Was deadIt was false, because the secretary who heard the false information of "Rescue all while drifting" was the early reason and made a quick contact with the newspaper company in Nagasaki to inform him of the safety.

1957 Prostitution Corruption Case (Yomiuri Shimbun)

1957/(32)May 10,Yomiuri ShimbunThe social aspect of the morning edition was established in the previous yearProstitution Prevention LawOf prostitution that was opposed toRed lineFromUtsunomiya Tokuma-Atsushi FukudaAn article was published that both representatives were bribery. But this leaks information to the Yomiuri ShimbunMinistry of JusticeTo scour out the people involved,Prosecutor's officeWas false information set by the Ministry of Justice. The Yomiuri Shimbun was accused by the two representatives of factlessness, and the reporter Kazuhiro Tatematsu was arrested for defamation (later dismissed). Tatematsu later suffered from disciplinary leave and lost his life as a reporter[23].

1959 News about the North Korean return movement (media companies)

  Detail is"Returning business for Koreans in JapanSee

A large-scale return project was developed with the aim of rebuilding the nation devastated by the Korean War and remittances from Japan to returning families.The Japanese government also supported it as an opportunity to keep out Koreans living in Japan who were treated as "nuisances".The Asahi Shimbun introduced North Korea as a paradise on earth in December 1959, but other major media companies such as the Yomiuri Shimbun, Mainichi Shimbun, and Sankei Shimbun reported the North Korean government's advertisement as it was and returned. Actively supported the business.After that, even after the actual situation became clear, false reports continued. [24].

1980 Korean hunting coverage (Asahi Shimbun)

The Asahi Shimbun was published in the morning edition of March 1980, 3 (Kawasaki/Yokohama Eastern Edition).Seiji YoshidaBased on the interview, I posted an article that Koreans were hunted using violence on the Korean Peninsula in order to make it a labor force for Japan, but it turned out to be a forgery later. [25].

1980 "The World of Jimmy" (Washington Post, USA)

1980/May 9,America-Washington PostPaperJanet CookeSigned by a reporterJimmy's worldI reported a long article called (Jimmy's World).that isWashington CityOf 8 years living inheroinA picture of an addicted patient, his mother runs a dining room where heroin addicts hang out, whose mistress is a drug trafficker. Jimmy's arm left behind a post-injection report that was a live report of 2256 words. Heroin was a serious problem in Washington at that time, and there was growing interest in it.

The article shocked the public and received a great response. Washington police also raided Jimmy to protect him. But no such boy was found. The mayor and police were increasingly suspicious of Washington Post articles.

In this article, the Washington Post1981/,Pulitzer PrizeWas awarded.

But soonAP communicationWhen Cook reports on Cook's career, many of themLieIt became clear that there is. The suspicious post editorial executive pursued Cook, admitting that she had written an all-lie article, honorably. "Jimmy" was a fictional boy. Cook did not disclose the identity and sources of the parties to his editor-in-chief, because "if leaked to others, it could put your life at risk." The Washington Post has declined the Pulitzer Prize and remains on the paperOmbudsmanA survey was conducted by an outside university professor.

The results of the survey were published in detail on five pages. The survey results clarified the fabrication process and internal problems, and pointed out the following points.

  • Despite the suspicion of the executive, he neglected the strict pursuit.
  • The way of working to trust reporters has exceeded the limit. The boss didn't even check the source of the interview and ask.
  • The negative effect of excessive merits of expecting was strong inside the company.

And so on.

1982 Korean comfort women forcedly reported (Asahi Shimbun)

The Asahi Shimbun, September 1982, 9,Seiji YoshidaBased on his lecture, published an article that he directly commanded and forcibly took XNUMX Koreans, including comfort women, to Japan. [25].. After that, he continued to publish fabrication articles related to Seiji Yoshida for more than ten years.

1984 "Tenshi of Hijidoko" incident (Mainichi Newspaper)

1984/May 1 OfMainichi NewspapersIn the evening edition, the article "Eccle is Shotoku Prince? Horyuji Kankan" was published. It was serializing at the timeRyoko YamagishiShoujo manga "Tenshi of Hijisho]Prince ShotokuA homosexual depiction ofHoryuji templeThere was also a counter-argument comment by the author and the editor-in-chief of the serialized magazine that the concerned people considered the problem and was considering a protest, but all of them were created by a young journalist at the Nara branch of Mainichi Shimbun, 2 An "Owabi" article that acknowledges the error was published on March 4.

In fact, a reporter who visited Horyu-ji on the day before the article was posted was talking about "There is such a cartoon, but it is a problem", but Horyu-ji says "I do not know such a cartoon, do not read it I can't say anything about it." However, the reporter, who thought that he was able to communicate with him, also created the articles of the author and editorial staff who were refused coverage.

1989 Coral Graffiti Press Report (Asahi Shimbun)

1989/May 4 OfAsahi ShimbunIn the evening paper, "OkinawaIriomote IslandThe coral of "KY" has been scribbled. However, after that, the Asahi ShimbunMay 5An apology article is posted, saying that "there was too much coverage."May 5FinallyFabricationI admitted that it was. Of the partiesYoshiro HondaThe photographerDisciplinary dismissalAnd other parties also suspended,Asahi ShimbunThe president OfToichiro IchiyanagiResigned.

1989 Glico Morinaga's criminal interrogation and fabrication (Mainichi Newspaper)

1989/May 6 OfMainichi NewspapersAtGlico Morinaga IncidentA scoop article was published stating that the criminal was being interrogated, but all were found to be false. Along with that,Takao IwamiThe editor-in-chief (at that time) resigned.

1989 Miyazaki Tsutomu's hideout fabrication (Yomiuri Shimbun)

1989/May 8 OfYomiuri ShimbunAtTokyo/Saitama consecutive kidnapping murder caseIs the suspect ofMiyazaki TsutomuAn article about the discovery of a hidden hideout was published. However, the content of the article was false, and the name and disposition of the reporter in charge of the article were not announced.

1992 Military compulsory compulsory women's compulsory removal report (Asahi Shimbun)

On January 1992, 1, the Asahi Shimbun, under the heading "Materials showing the involvement of the comfort station army," forcibly took Korean women under the name of the Volunteer Corps. It turns out that the Volunteer Corps was just a factory worker, and the forced entrainment was also a forgery.[25].

1995 Fabrication of articles by Stephen Glass

Stephen GlassFrom 1995 to 1998en: The New Republic』And other articles were fabricated. Discovered in 1998, he was fired. Later this case wasNews genius (Shattered Glass) ”was made into a movie.

2000 Who are you? Fabrication reports (Mainichi Newspaper)

May 2000, then prime ministerMoriIs the US PresidentBill ClintonIt was reported at the end of July that he made a casual English greeting toKyushu/Okinawa SummitAlong with the ridicule toFriday, Reported by Weekly Bunshun[26].. In addition,Weekly AsahiWas skeptical of this story from the beginning[27].. The fact is that the Mainichi Shimbun editorial staff[28], This is the forestFalse rumorIs criticizing[29]

2005 Akishinomiya "Words" fabrication case (Sankei Shimbun)

2005/May 4AttachSankei ShimbunSocially,Akishinomiya FumihitoWhen he attended the 14th Global Environment Awards CeremonyFuji Sankei GroupThe article was published as a reference to "Organization of", but there was no such fact (royalIt should be refrained from praising the activities of private companies in order to prevent the statements from being used). Sankei confirmed the error at a later date and withdrew the relevant part.

2005 Manufacture of New Party Japan (Asahi Shimbun)

2005/May 8 OfAsahi ShimbunAt that timeYasuo TanakaRegarding the rumor that the Governor of Nagano was rumored to form a new party, an article was posted by a reporter from the Directorate General of Nagano, but it was discovered that Yasuo Tanaka was not interviewed, and the fabrication of the article was discovered. did. Reporter punished by punishment, Asahi Shimbun issued an apology statement on August 8[30].

Report on the shooting of a famous rap singer in New York in 2008 (Los Angeles Times)

1994/About this incident that happened inLos Angeles Timesof"Federal Bureau of InvestigationThe special news article that "managers are involved" based on the "material obtained fromPulitzer PrizeIt was discovered in March 2008 that the work had been made by an award-winning author reporter. The paper fully acknowledged that it was false and apologized and withdrew the article.

2008 Mainichi Daily News English Column False Report (Mainichi Shimbun Mainichi Daily News)

Mainichi Shimbun English news mediaMainichi Daily News("Daily Daily News)) started serialization in October 1989 of the daily newspaper era, and in the column “WaiWai” that was inherited even when the website was moved in the spring of 10, an article of vulgar content based on falsehood about Japanese people was posted and distributed. Had a problem. It surfaced in 2001, closing the column, disposing of reporters and bosses in charge,WebsiteDeveloped to publicize the results of in-house surveys on distributed content.

2011 Kyoto University Entrance Examination Leak Report (Sankei Shimbun)

2011/End of May,Kyoto UniversityOccurred in several universities includingUniversity entrance examination question online posting caseでSankei ShimbunReported on March 3 in the evening edition of the electronic version and the Kansai version as "information from investigators" that "two high school students in Tokyo were involved and the Kyoto Prefectural Police has already been identified." Was a prep school student living in Sendai. On the 2th, a full withdrawal of the article and a notification of apology were posted.

2012 SDF training refusal report (Sankei Shimbun)

2012/January,Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceDuring the disaster initial response training conducted bySankei ShimbunHowever, “in some ward offices”Camouflage clothingHe said, "Don't show the figure to the inhabitants, he was refused admission." The correspondence training was accepted only when he was told to camp. 25 wards reported to have refused made a protest statement and false offer, and Sankei apologized[31].

2014 Yoshida Report (Asahi Shimbun)

Asahi Shimbun, May 2014, 5, after the 20 Fukushima nuclear accidentYoshida recordAbout "9% escaped in violation of the director's order" [32].

2014 High school baseball support activity by a fictitious person (Ibaraki Shimbun)

Ibaraki newspaperPublished in a paper on July 2014, 7 that an 27-year-old woman who is a manager at an adult baseball club in Ibaraki prefecture is engaged in activities to support high school children while fighting leukemia. However, in a subsequent interview, it was discovered in October that the female manager did not actually exist and was a fictional character created by a woman in her 18s living in the Chubu region. Ibaraki Shimbun made a correction and apology on October 20[33][34].

2017 Report on the rescue of Japanese from an accident by a U.S. soldier in Okinawa (Sankei Shimbun, Yaeyama Daily)

The Sankei Shimbun was present at the scene of a traffic accident on the highway on December 2017, 12, in an article entitled "U.S. Marines Unconscious to Rescue Japanese without Danger". Resident in OkinawaUS Marine CorpsIt was written that Sergeant Sato rescued a Japanese person through his own injury, and Okinawan news media companies said that he silenced it.Freedom not to report"Oh, the Okinawa Times and the Ryukyu Shimpo are named," he says, "I am not qualified to claim the media and the press. It's a shame as a Japanese." However, when a falsehood was discovered, the Sankei Shimbun published an apology article on February 2018, 2.[35]

False news on TV

False reports from comments and telops

False news on TVYaraseOften have a close relationship with. For televisions with video/audio (camera, microphone, lighting in some cases), more elaborate means than printed media such as newspapers and magazines, so-calledYarase(Performance by the performer) is often involved, and even if the performer does not get involved, the creator may intervene to take a good picture and modify the situation in the scene (example: The situation is complicated, for example with quicksand in “Mustan”.

First, as a simple false report similar to newspapers and magazines, "false comment (Narration)" FalsetelopThere is. This is false news that does not fall under the so-called "yarase." For example1992/ToJapan Broadcasting CorporationAired onNHK Special"Oku Himalayan Forbidden Kingdom Mustang'[36]In this case, a boy monk prays for rain during the interview, but despite the slight amount of rain, "the boy monk's wishes were too bad, and no rain fell," he said. Commentary in narration). This was also false in the survey report.

Apart from this, NHK's "Mustan Survey Report" said that there was no problem, but in the program it was as if "Mustang"Butindependent officialkingdomThere are also cases where comments and edits were made as if they were. actually"Nepal(At that time)”. There is a view that this is a false comment.

False reporting by so-called "Yarase"

journalist OfKoichi BabaClassifies "Yarase" and cites "simple reproduction", "malicious reproduction", and "fabrication". Baba takes the stance that "simple reproduction" is permitted and "malicious reproduction" is not permitted, but it is difficult to draw a line between "simple reproduction" and "malicious reproduction".

In Mustang, a staff member who suffered from altitude sickness acted for altitude sickness under the direction of the director after recovery, but the director demanded that the staff perform a more exaggerated performance. This may be viewed as a "simple reproduction", but it can also be viewed as a "malicious reproduction" from the perspective of making it as accurate as possible without exaggerating or distorting the facts.

In addition, there were cases where it was intentionally caused the quicksand phenomenon, but strictly speaking, this is a reproducible act without harassment, and whether it is allowed or not is delicate.

It is arguable that the harassment involving "fabrication" is false news. Speaking of "Mustan", this is the case where "anatomy of a goat" was performed as a science lesson in an elementary school. Since this kind of thing is not done at this elementary school on a daily basis, it is clear that it is a "fabrication", as it is not a reproduction act.

False reporting by editing video and audio

The video shot on TV is not broadcast as it is. I cut out only the necessary parts from the images I shot and edit it by connecting with many other images. For example, in the case of an interview, the preconditions may be cut off and only the conclusions may be broadcast, which distorts the true meaning of the speaker, and is sometimes reported in the opposite sense.

Also, even if it is not an interview, it is possible to convey a certain meaning to the viewer by editing and connecting unrelated videos (montage), so nonverbal false reporting is also possible.

False media coverage in other media

Documentary movie

Documentary movie,videoIn the same way as in TV, there are problems with video and audio. For example, a masterpiece of an early documentary movieFlah teaThe director "Alan"Ireland OfAran IslandsIt is a record of the harsh life of people living in the island, but it says that it recreates the life of the island 50 years ago before the shooting[37].. On TVYaraseThe origin of was already hidden in documentary films.

In addition, Reni RiefenstahlDirector'sBerlin olympicThe recorded movie ofOlympia],Ko IchikawaDirector'sTokyo OlympicsThere is also a reproduction image in ". It sacrificed factuality to pursue artistic images.[37].. For example, in "Olympia"Shuhei NishidaとOe Jixiong OfPole vaultThe confrontation (commonly called the "friendship medal") is a reproduction image. In the case of "Tokyo Olympics" (not the competition itself)Mount FujiRun in the backgroundTorch relayIs a reproduction image at a later date, and most of the sound effects of the competition are retrofitted.


radioIn recent years, false news has not always come to the surface, but since it deals with voice, not only simple false comments but also false news by so-called “yarase” that involves the performers to perform is performed. Some point out the possibility. Audio is much easier to process than video, and it has the characteristic that the edited trace is different from the video and cannot be seen. AlsoOnomatopoeiaCan also be used. Since detailed editing is easy without being constrained by the image, false reporting by editing is easy.

April Fools Coverage

In the UK every yearMay 4Is a false news on TV news show from newspapers but full of humorApril FoolIt is customary for each press to report all the news.British Broadcasting Corporation(BBC)1991/For Japan in the morning and eveningShort waveradioでJapanese broadcasting(BBC World ServiceSee also)May 4Was broadcast April Fool's news.1980/"Big benClockDigital displaySince the needle is no longer needed, I will give it to the listeners as a gift. "[38].. Willful but not maliciousユ ー モ アThe press was deceived by the viewers.By the way, "Big Ben's digital clock" will be released in 2008 as well.Daily ExpressPosted as April Fool's News.

In Japanese media,1955/English newspaper "Nippon Times" dated April 4 (current:Japan Times) “Soviet bomber landed at Haneda Airport”[Note 2]When I posted the April Fool's news saying that it became a fuss that the Metropolitan Police Department and some foreign news agencies called for inquiries[39].

For the April Fool's joke show on TV,Third choice(Alternative 3)" (produced by Anglia TV) has been influential to the present day. Detail isApollo conspiracy theorySee section.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ It is unclear how to read the article "Jun-Hachinohe" who wrote the article that caused the incident. For more informationHachinohe Incidentreference.
  2. ^ The original text of the headline is "Russian Multi-Jet Bomber Lands at Haneda Airport". By the way, this article was signed by "SHIGATSU UMASHIKA" (= April idiot).


  1. ^ False and false reports
  2. ^ Middleton, John (December 1996, 12). “Japanese law approach and common law approach of false alarm victim relief law". Hitotsubashi University. 2014/9/18Browse.
  3. ^ Did Social Media Ruin Election 2016? - National public radio
  4. ^ As fake news takes over Facebook feeds, many are taking satire as fact - The Guardian
  5. ^ Who's to blame for fake news and what can be done about it? -USC News (University of Southern California)
  6. ^ US presidential election: Fact Check is a topic in the press, effective for power monitoring -Mainichi Newspaper
  7. ^ Will Fake News War? !! -Newsweek Japan version
  8. ^ "Mindshift: Break Through Obstacles to Learning and Discover Your Hidden Potential”(Japanese). Coursera. 2022/4/4Browse.
  9. ^ "Optional Interview with Dr. Robert Bilder on Creativity and Problem Solving --What is Learning?”(Japanese). Coursera. 2021/11/25Browse.
  10. ^ Pizzagate: What to Know About the Conspiracy Theory -Time.com
  11. ^ Door to tomorrow Age of "post-truth" Heavy questions to the media - Shinano Mainichi Shimbun
  12. ^ Facebook and fact-check agency unite over "fake news issue" -Wired
  13. ^ "Facts" and "alternative facts" of the Trump administration -WSJ
  14. ^ Akira Ikegami "Chapter 38 Writing Business Documents 5. (2007)" Loose Deduction "" "Speaking" "Writing" "Listening" Ability Changes Work! The Power to Communicate "PHP Institute, April 4, 18 Day.ISBN +978-4-569-69081-0. 
  15. ^ "POSITIVE PEACE REPORT Analysing the factors that build, predict and sustain peace.". 2022/1/31Browse.
  16. ^ "Misinformation about online media: Make sure that you are aware of the impact and are ready to check."Mainichi Shimbun. (August 2016, 9). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20160919/ddm/004/040/006000c 
  17. ^ “Dappi (@take_off_dress), which strikes the opposition party with hoaxes and music, is operated by a company organization or is a complete shift system between 8am and 21pm on weekdays.”(July 2018, 4). https://buzzap.jp/news/20180422-dappi-take-off-dress/ 
  18. ^ "Is the spread of damage to Mt. Ontake caused by the Democratic Party, who has classified "volcanic observation"? "Assortment person, Katsuma, is just right". J-CAST(July 2014, 9). http://www.j-cast.com/2014/09/29217026.html 2014/10/3Browse. 
  19. ^ “Democratic protest against LDP by posting Mt. Mitake, requesting apology from Mr. Satsuki Katayama”. Kyodo News(July 2014, 10). http://www.47news.jp/47topics/e/257917.php 2014/10/3Browse. 
  20. ^ “Mr. Satsuki Katayama acknowledged “Issuing based on false positives” by Mr. Satsuki Katayama “UPDATE” on a tweet saying “I was missed due to business sorting” on Mt. Ontake.. Huffington post(July 2014, 10). http://www.huffingtonpost.jp/2014/09/30/satsuki-katayama-ontakesan-tweet_n_5910730.html 2014/10/3Browse. 
  21. ^ “Mr. Katayama, the Foreign Relations Defense Commission “has caused some inconvenience””. Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/20141002-OYT1T50086.html 2014/10/3Browse. 
  22. ^ * Jang Jin-suk, "Political Change in the Han Dynasty, Power Struggle in XNUMX" (1990/,Simul Publishing,ISBN-978 4377108606) 259.
  23. ^ Honda Yasuharu"Unfair Arrest", Kodansha, 1983
  24. ^ North Korea return business All media were deceived as "North Korea is heaven"NEWS Post Seven
  25. ^ a b c I will correct the article and explain apologize Asahi Shimbun Newsletter for comfort women, third party reportAsahi Shimbun
  26. ^ "Kuradashi Special Story: A True Story Like a Lie Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori's English Conversation That Was Disliked by the Leaders at the Summit," Weekly Bunshun, August 2000, 8
  27. ^ Mariko Nakamura "Prime Minister Mori to Clinton's "Fu A You" Truthfulness of the Affirmation", "Weekly Asahi," August 2000, 8
  28. ^ "Bush re-election and future US-Japan relations""The 141st Ryukyu Forum"Ryukyu ShimpoCompany August 2004, 8
    In this lecture, Takahata acknowledged that it was a creation.
  29. ^ "The 387-Day War with the Media", "Shincho 45," June 2001
  30. ^ Seiji Asahi Kimura's faceless editorial dismissal in false news while he was the editor-in-chief...zakzak
  31. ^ July 7 About the article on Self-Defense Forces training in the Sankei Shimbun Chuo-ku, Tokyo,
  32. ^ "Yoshida record"Asahi Shimbun DIGITAL
  33. ^ "This July report, a project to support a baby with a sunflower, a woman with a fighting illness does not actually exist". Ibaraki newspaper(November 2014, 10). originalArchived as of October 2014, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141028013000/http://ibarakinews.jp/news/newsdetail.php?f_jun=14141235033085 2017/8/14Browse. 
  34. ^ “The person in the article doesn't really exist”. NHK News (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). (January 2014, 10). originalArchived as of October 2014, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20141024111148/http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20141024/k10015678301000.html 2017/8/14Browse. 
  35. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL (January 2018, 2). “Okinawa US soldier rescue report”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2019/8/1Browse.
  36. ^ 1992/May 9-"Entering the 1st phantom castle",May 10-"2nd pray to the extreme earth"
  37. ^ a b Tsutomu Konno "Uncovering TV Lies"
  38. ^ "Japanese Majimedesune!! The BBC's April Fool's broadcast, which becomes the digital clock of the Eiji Parliament, protests and "Please give me unnecessary needles.""Asahi Shimbun] Tokyo evening edition, April 1980, 4, 7 pages.Innocent April Fool, Word Magazine (Asahi Shimbun Digital), September 2014, 4.
  39. ^ "April Fools" "Soviet bomber to Haneda" Japan Times report surprises readers both inside and outside "Asahi Shimbun" April 1955, 4 Tokyo evening edition, 1 pages.Innocent April Fool, Word Magazine (Asahi Shimbun Digital), September 2014, 4.


  • Fumiyasu Goto "Misreport-Blind Spot of Newspaper Report-" (Iwanami Shinsho, 1996) ISBN 4004304466 The author is a judge of the Newspaper Association
  • Hiroshi Fujita"American Journalism" (Iwanami Shinsho, 1991) ISBN 4004301831 The author is a former Kyodo News reporter and is currently a visiting professor at Waseda University.
  • Tsutomu Konno "Uncovering lies on TV" (Shincho Shinsho, 2004) ISBN 4106100886 The author is a director of TV Man Union and a professor at Musashino Art University.
  • Shoji Otsuka "The Newspaper's Aging-The Fourth Power to Decay" (Toyo Keizai Inc., 2007) ISBN 9784492222775 The author is formerNihon Keizai ShimbunReporter (venture market manager). Although he was accused of disciplinary dismissal due to in-house fraudulent accounting problems, he was reconciled as a result of the trial.

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