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🥾 | Mother rolls over while picking up from a nursery school without installing a child seat Two boys are injured and the handle is taken by a rut ...


Photo: Mother rolls over while picking up from a nursery school without installing a child seat. Two boys are injured by a rut and a snowy mountain collision.

Mother rolls over while picking up from a nursery school without installing a child seat Two boys are injured and the handle is taken by a rut ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
The Road Traffic Act requires children under the age of 6 to use child seats when riding in a car, but the child seats were not installed on the overturned car.
 

Around 7:11 am on the 21st, there was an accident in which a light passenger car rolled over on a city road near 8-jo Nishi XNUMX-chome, Iwamizawa City, Hokkaido. … → Continue reading

 STV News Hokkaido

This is a news account of STV Sapporo Television Broadcasting (Nippon Television Network System, NNN).
Incidents and accidents, natural disasters, political economy, living information, etc ... We will deliver the latest news of Hokkaido.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

child seat

child seat(Japanglish: child seat) IsSeat beltFor children who can not wear properlyAutomobileA device that secures the body to the seat to ensure safety when riding the car. In English, it is generally called Child car seat, Child safety seat, etc. For infants, it may be distinguished from the infant seat, and for children, it may be distinguished from Booster seat.

Under Japanese lawAuxiliary device for infantsIs called, but as a standardCRS(Child Restraint SThe name of ystem (child restraint system) is common.

The world's first consumer child seat1963/Germany Storchenmuehle GmbH (currentRecaro ) Has been released. For the first time, the countryAustraliaSince 1976 in Victoria. in Japan2000/May 4Was revised toRoad Traffic Law(Article 71-3 Paragraph 3[1]),driverMust be used when driving an infant under the age of 6 in a car. In case of violationAdministrative sanctions1 basic score is added.

In addition to ensuring safety in the event of a collision, infants and school children may need to wear it for safe driving, as it may disturb driving due to violence in the car.

Due to the widespread use of child seats, they existed even earlier and the names have not been unifiedBicycleThe children's seat attached to the car has come to be called a child seat.

Types

There are the following types according to the physical constitution of the target person (actual products are not always

Not made). As of 2005, the type for both baby and infant is increasing.

For infants
Mainly used for infants who have no neck (less than 10 kg, 0-12 months).Baby SeatOften paraphrased.VolvoThere is a rear-facing child seat developed by and a side-facing child seat that was developed later. A forward-looking seat is forbidden because it impacts the baby's soft body strongly during a collision. In addition, when installing in the passenger seat facing backward,AirbagBe sure to attach it to the back seat, as the child can be thrown out with the child seat when it is activated, resulting in serious, life-threatening injury. Some models are equipped with a switch that stops the deployment of the passenger airbag, and others that automatically stop the passenger airbag with an IC sensor when a genuine child seat is installed. In this case, it is necessary to read the vehicle's instruction manual carefully and operate it properly, and to confirm the stopped state of the passenger airbag when carrying a child.
Due to the relationship between the shape of the seat and the space in which it is installed, it is a flat bed type in the horizontal direction and a hug type with an angle of 45 degrees in the rearward direction. Child seat companies that recommend either sideways or backwards point out the drawbacks of the other. In other words, in the case of a rear-facing seat, the baby's head is shaken strongly in the event of a rear-end collision and the weight of the headAirwayWhile there is a claim that the frontal collision can be received by the entire back, and the posture is the same as holding, the airway is the most stressed. It is argued that the sideways seat does not interfere with abdominal breathing and there is no pressure on the airway due to head weight, but there are reports that there was no difference in the results of a comparative study with the backwards seat.
* In the United States, it is obligatory in principle to turn backwards, and bed-type seats are approved as a special purpose only when there is a possibility of causing respiratory disorders in premature babies and low-weight babies. This is because backwards are safer than forwards (Child Safety Network JapanSee).
For infants
For infants (9-18 kg, 100 cm or less) who have their necks set. The bottom is high, and there is a large backrest that supports the head and side supports that support both sides. Used by seating forward. When installing in the front passenger seat, adjust the front passenger seat to the mid-slide position so that it is as close to the airbag as possible, and then install the child seat with the backrest raised.
For school children
For school children (15-36 kg, 135 cm or less). Seat height is raised by a booster cushion, and a three-point type that schoolchildren are equipped with a carSeat beltTo wear properly. Some have a backrest and some have only a seat. If you are 6 years or older, you are not obligated to use it, but it is used for safety. When using, keep the carHeadrestTo the correct position. When using in the front passenger seat, adjust the front passenger seat to the mid-slide position so that it is as close to the airbag as possible. In addition, Volvo, which emphasizes safety, has some booster cushions built into the rear seats since 1990. The booster cushion was also developed by Volvo.

Fixing method

ISOFIX

2002/In the second halfISOFIXUntil the introduction of the method, it was common to use ordinary seat belts for fixing, but since accidents due to misuse and grazing occurred frequently,2006/In October, safety standards for cars and child seats were revised, and automobile manufacturers were obliged to install general-purpose ISO-FIX mounting devices (fixed exclusive bar and top tether anchor) for passenger cars. ISO-FIX is a device that can secure the child seat more safely and easily because the metal bar on the vehicle side and the connector (metal fitting) on ​​the child seat side are connected to each other by metal, so that the strength of fixing such as grazing does not occur. .. further2012/Passenger cars manufactured after July 7 are required to be equipped with ISO bars and top tether anchors.

seat

For fixed seats and procedures for child seats, refer toInstruction ManualsAnd the regulations of the country of use. Fixing to the passenger seat has the advantage that parents sitting in the driver's seat can easily check the appearance of the child, but there is a higher risk of damage in the event of an accident than in the rear seats.[2].. For this reason, in countries where it is prohibited to secure a rear-facing child seat in the passenger seat (PolandEtc.) and passenger seatAirbagIf you cancel theアイス ランドEtc.)[3].. Fixing to the rear seat increases the risk of accidents other than traffic accidents, such as being left behind because it cannot be seen from the driver's seat.The United States of AmericaThen, I forgot that my guardian had a child and got out of the car, and as a resultheatstrokeThere are many reports of accidents that cause death in[4].

How to choose

  • Select the appropriate type according to your physique.
  • AutomotiveSheetSelect one that fits the shape of. A compatibility table is prepared by the manufacturer. Easy installation is desirable.
  • Price and safety performance are not proportional. Minister of Transport (Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport), the certain safety is secured.
  • MunicipalitiesAnd subsidies by various groups, free lending,RecyclingSuch a system is established.
  • For child seats onlyinsuranceThere is.
  • The clothing type is unique to Japan, and it is cheap and easy to use, but some studies have suggested that the harness may put pressure on the crotch and neck.

Exemption from obligation to use

In the following cases, the obligation to use the Road Traffic Act is exempted (Road Traffic Act Enforcement Order Article 26-3-2 Paragraph 3)[5]).

  • The number of seats is less than the number of passengers and the child seat cannot be fixed.
  • Injury, disability, significantobesityWhen it cannot be used properly due to physical conditions such as.
  • Caring for daily life such as breastfeeding where the child seat cannot be used.
  • TaxiPassenger transportation,Infant shuttle busetc.
  • If you need to be transported urgently due to injury or illness.

Other

A child seat that does not comply with Japanese safety standardsインターネットThe actual situation circulating above is2016/May 9 OfMainichi NewspapersIt was found in the report. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism is calling attention to this because it may violate the Road Traffic Law.[6].

footnote

  1. ^ "Road Traffic Act (Law No. 71 of 3) Article XNUMX-XNUMX: Items to be observed by drivers of automobiles, etc.”. E-Gov (June 2019, 6). 2019/12/21Browse. “For enforcement on June 2019, 12”
  2. ^ "In a car accident, the passenger seat had the highest risk”. Radio Life. 2018/7/15Browse.
  3. ^ "JAF Overseas Report Obligations to use seat belts and child seats around the world”. JAF (2011). 2018/7/15Browse.
  4. ^ "Children die in hot cars, 37 people a year in the U.S.”. CNN (July 2018, 7). 2018/7/15Browse.
  5. ^ "Road Traffic Law Enforcement Order (Government Ordinance No. 26 of 3) Article 2-XNUMX-XNUMX: Exemption from obligations related to seat belts and auxiliary devices for infants”. E-Gov (June 2019, 9). 2019/12/21Browse. “For enforcement on June 2019, 12”
  6. ^ Child seat unapproved distribution Lack of strength, problems with safety Mainichi Newspaper March 2016, 9

Related item

外部 リンク

道路

道路(Well,Latin strata, french road,German Street, English road, Spanish calle)People,vehicleRoad for passing[1], Ground passages for people and vehicles[2].

Overview

EnglishroadIs a word that refers to the road in general.street Is used as a word to mean a road (street) in an urban area, and as a result, road often refers to a road connecting cities.

The first record of "road" being used as a Chinese word is the ancient Chinese dynasty around 1000 BC.weekThe scripture of the era, "Zhourai"[3].. 『Argument』Also used[Annotation 1].. in Japan,Edo PeriodKnown as a poetMatsuo Bashoof"Okunohoso Road"Road" is used in the passage[3],Meiji EraIt has been widely used since the Bunmei Kaika period.

Roads are public properties that are the cornerstone of transportation[Annotation 2]It is an essential part of everyday life that anyone can pass through at any time, and it is shared by many people.[5]..In addition, the characteristic of transportation is that it is not limited to the physical concept of public facilities, but roads intersect to form a network, and in many cases it is possible to select multiple routes to the destination.[5]..In other words, it is important for roads to secure safe and smooth traffic routes and to function as a traffic network.[5].

History

The origin of the "road"

It is said that the origin of the road is a natural path where the grass is trampled as humans and beasts search for food and food.[6].

In the primitive society where hunting and gathering was done, it can be done with the movement of animalsKemono RoadWas sometimes used by hunters.And another primitive road is the "stepping road".The ground is compacted and the grass naturally grows as people go back and forth over and over again, picking nuts, going hunting, and catching fish to survive. It became a streak-like "michi" with less soil[7]..When human beings start farming and settle in groups, and exchange of goods and information and marriage between such villages, people come and go frequently, and at first, many people come and go on the road that each person finally took. As a result, it turned into a wide road and developed spontaneously from the time of living.[7].

Among the currently discovered ones, which are sometimes regarded as the "oldest road maintenance traces"EnglandIt is in Sweet Track OfCausewayIt dates back to around 3800 BC.

The beginning of the paved road

There is no particular inconvenience on the dirt road in fine weather, but in rainy weather it becomes muddy and muddy, making it difficult to walk.To prevent itpavementHas come to be done.

By human handspavementAs the oldest one4000 BCSomething around that time has been discovered.

Ancient EgyptiansIt is,pyramidIn the construction of, pebbles etc. are removed in order to transport a large stone block that is a construction material from a distance.Stone pavementIt is believed that the road was maintained and transported manually using rollers.[6].BabylonThen,2000 BCThere is a record that there was a paved road by that time.[6].Ancient ChineseLarge scale since the timestreetHowever, a part of it was prepared as a stone pavement.20 ADBy that distance 40,000Kilometers It was extended to (km).

イ ン カPeople () are messengersAndesI laid out the road of Inca that can be transmitted through (→Inca road).MayaAlso by Europenew worldBefore discoveryMexicoThe cobblestone road network was laid around.

in JapanSannai Maruyama Site(Jomon Period A paved road 3500 meters wide and 2000 meters long was discovered in 12-420 BC.[8].

Development and development of road network by ancient nations

With the development of ancient civilization and the birth of a nation, roads were systematically created, and the development of the road network became a symbol of power at the time.[6].

Above allRoman EmpireBuilt byRoman roadIs well known as the largest and most organized, with a total length of its road network of approximately 29 km, of which the main trunk line is 8 km.[9][10]..It is said that the ancient Romans, who were at their peak at that time, boasted, "All the roads in the world lead to Rome!"[6], The character of the road is military and political.Rome cityFlat roads with a width of several meters were laid out radially in a vast area centered on the city, and were drawn straight to connect the cities in the shortest distance.[9]..One of the most famous is in 312 BCAppius Claudius CaexConstruction started at the order ofAppia RoadThe road was 15 meters wide and was paved with paving stones.[9][10].

other than this地中海 OfCrete,Island of MaltaRemainsAncient roadIs said to be around 2000 BC, andAkemenesPersian Empire OfRoyal roadIs about 500 BCDarius IIIIn the age ofMesopotamiaThe capital ofSusa(Current(I.e.From (domestic)Asia Minor OfSardis(CurrentTurkeyA planned road was built that runs through the empire for about 2500 km to (domestic).[9][11].

By 220 BC in ancient China in East Asia OfEmperor Shikiによって(ちどう)とよばれる大規模な道路網の建設が始められた。建設期間10年ほどの間に造られた馳道の総延長は、現代中国の公式記録とも言われる『中国公路史』によれば1万7920里(約7481 km、秦時代の1里は417.5 m)とされ、『漢書(かんじょ)』では「道幅は50歩(約70 m)、路側に3丈(約7 m)ごとに青松を植えた」とされる[12]..Qin Shi Huang was the capital city of Chokudo at the end of the construction of the feast.XianyangWe are building a straight military road with a width of about 30 m extending north from (Kanyo).[12]..Its purpose is from the northHunsIt is to prepare for aggression, and in China today, the straight road is called "China's first highway".[12].

Trade routes for carrying goods have also been created since ancient times.Northern EuropeWas produced inamberKnown as Europe's oldest road to bring the sea to the Mediterranean coastAmber RoadHas existed since about 1900 BC[13][6]..China's established by defeating Qin Shi HuangEmpire era[Annotation 3]Since then, China's road construction has been promoted nationwide by abolishing barriers for national unification and economic and industrial development.Chang'anからCentral AsiaAcrossSouthwest Asia, The silk road connecting Europe (Silk road) Appears[14][15]..The Silk Road is best known as a ground passage for trade and has been around since the Han dynasty around 130 BC.Emperor WuDispatched to the western regionZhang QianAround the 7th century, it began with the introduction of western products and culture to the east by (choken).In the era of China, silk, which is a specialty of China, and jewelry and textiles were brought from Europe.[14]..In addition, the Silk Road played a major role as a transmission route for East-West culture, and developed while absorbing the excellent cultures of both the East and the West.[13]..In the Tang dynasty of China, a nationwide road network was built, and soil banks (signposts built with soil) were built every 5 ri (about 3 km).Station roadWas maintained[16]..The road system of the Tang Dynasty in China is also affecting Japanese roads,Ekiden systemEtc. introduced the station system from China[16].

From the Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution

In Europe, from the decline of the Roman Empire to the Industrial Revolution (after the 3rd century AD--early 18th century), road maintenance declined and the stones used for pavement as Roman roads were removed by posterity farmers. The road was gradually devastated, such as being used as a building material for livestock sheds and houses.[17].. In 17th-century France, a horse-drawn carriage carrying aristocrats and kings was caught in a muddy road and encountered a rollover disaster, and a similar road tragedy covered the whole of Europe. Ta[17].

18th centuryIndustrial revolutionAt the beginning of the period, the road maintenance situation began to improve, and roads with a modern cross-sectional structure were born.After roadbed construction, road construction is carried out by laying out chestnut stones, arranging pavement stones and ramming them with a rammer, and arched bridges will also be constructed, but these construction methods and civil engineering techniques are ancient. It was not much different from the Roman road[18].

In France, we took over the road network developed during the Roman Empire and focused on the construction, maintenance and repair of new roads.[19].. In 1747, Louis XV on roads and bridgesRoyal Civil Engineering SchoolOpened in Paris and focused on training civil engineers[19]..Under the supervision of Jean Rudolf Perone (1708-1794), who was also the first principal, a modern carriageway will be developed. In 1764, Tresage (1716–1796) invented the Tresage road construction method, which is a crushed stone paved road with the same cross-sectional strain curvature as the roadbed and road surface.[19].

On the other hand, road construction and its maintenance in the United Kingdom will require strong roads that can withstand horse-drawn carriages, as carriage traffic has developed significantly since the beginning of the 16th century and the industrial revolution of the 18th century has further increased carriage traffic. Became[19]..Road maintenance in the UKparishSince it was done on a unit basis, the road conditions were poor and diverse.1706/By the time, it was the first time to improve thisBarrierWas made and tolls were collected from passing vehicles.Britain sometimes had around 1100 tollhouses and over 3 km of roads.In the age of horse travel, roadsgravelPaved roadWe were aiming for maintenance with a maximum slope of over 3% above.This is because it was most convenient for the horse to be close to parallel to lift the load on the slope.

At the same timeThomas telfordRoad architects (1757 – 1834) and (1756 – 1835) each invented their own construction methods.The Telford-style road was invented in 1805 by laying crushed stone on a flat trackbed, crushing stone and gravel on it, and rolling it. The Macadam-style road installed crushed stone directly on the trackbed. It was invented in 1815 by rolling fine-grained crushed stone into the upper layer.[19]..In particular, the Macadam road was widely used because it could be constructed in a short period of time and was technically easy, and it became the prototype of the modern Macadam road.[19].

It was the European roads during the Industrial Revolution that underwent full-scale road renovationNapoleon Bonaparte(1769-1821).Napoleon is actively constructing roads to secure military transportation routes to advance the war in order to advance all-European rule, and at the Simplon Pass over the Alps on the route of the expedition from France to Italy. I ordered my subordinates to build the road[20].. The road over the Simplon Pass was completed in 100 after the Gondo tunnel pierced through the difficult construction that lost the lives of more than 1805 people.[20]. afterwards,Mont Suni PassAlso worked on road construction in Europe, and its scope extended to all Europe[20]..Napoleon's budget for road construction is said to have been about twice as much as the fortress construction budget of the same period.[20].

Historically, unlike the roads that connect cities, the roads inside cities in Europe and the United States were also waste disposal sites.In ancient Roman times, water was passed through the middle of the road to wash away filth such as excrement (PompeiiRuins etc.).Therefore, the middle of the road is several steps lower than the townhouses on both sides, and you cross both sides with a stepping stone-shaped road.Horse-drawn carriages also pass through this waterway.In modern Paris, where there was no underground sewer, it is a famous story that garbage and filth were thrown into the streets.

Modern

In modern times,AutomobileRoads are being maintained almost everywhere so that they can be moved by vehicles such as.Road transportation has become the most commonly used means of transportation in most countries.Also,Traffic safetyTraffic jamIn most developed countries, roads to eliminatelaneIt is designed to be used by dividing it into.

Vehicles and roads

The basic form of a road is just "one side".Since there is traffic on the road from both directions, "passing" occurs.In the simple form, there are no rules, but then "glare" and "collision" occur, so you can naturally create the habits and rules of whether to go on the right side or the left side of the road.

In Europe and the United States, it was basically decided to proceed on the right side.It is on the left side in England and Japan.

Even in the same direction, it is better to distinguish between pedestrians and carriages.Horse-drawn carriages and the like run in the center of the road, and pedestrians walk on the edge of the road.Some ancient roads are intentionally "rail-shaped" indentations for carriages.

It has also become common to prepare surfaces with different heights for pedestrians.

The simultaneous passage of vehicles and people increases the probability of a catastrophic accident.By separating people and vehicles, people can walk comfortably and relax, and cars can drive at high speeds with peace of mind.In the cityDowntownSo don't put in any cars, all the roadsFor pedestrians onlyThere is also a place that says.vice versa,MotorwayIn principle, high-speed driving is made possible by prohibiting driving other than automobiles.

Modern Japanese roads, if they have a certain width, are for cars to pass through.roadwayAnd for pedestrians to passSidewalkIt is divided into.There are various ways of dividing, one is to separate with a fence, and the other is to change the height.

In Europe and the United States, many people ride bicycles today, so it is becoming quite common for roads to be divided into three categories: automobiles, bicycles, and pedestrians.Japan is still behind in responding, and these three categories are gradually increasing.

As automobiles became more widespread, it became increasingly problematic that some people would drive recklessly and that there would be victims of accidents.Speed ​​limitHas come to be done.road signThe law has been improved, such as the establishment of.

Road function

The traffic function of a road has three elements: a traffic function and an access function for moving to a destination, and a retention function.In addition to the traffic function, roads are closely related to town development, and also have the functions of forming the framework of cities and districts, as well as environmental spaces and disaster prevention spaces.The current road space is also a storage space for daily life, and efficient use is required.In the underground spacewater pipe,Gas pipeEtc. on the groundElectrical wire,Telephone lineSuch aslife lineHas come to be laid.In urban areas, these lifelines are housed together to avoid digging up roads.Joint grooveTo saytunnelMay be built in the basement of the road.Also,subwayOften passes underground on the road.

Transportation function

Roads can be divided into "traffic functions" that emphasize safe, smooth and comfortable movement with high driving speed, and "access functions" that emphasize connecting to many roads and roadside facilities rather than traveling speed.[21]..Traffic functionalityhighwayIs the highest, thenHighway, Auxiliary highway,Life roadDecreases in the order of[21]..On the other hand, access functionality is highest on residential roads facing destinations such as buildings and facilities, followed by auxiliary highways, highways, and highways in that order.[21]..In other words, it is said that the traffic function and the access function have a contradictory relationship.[21].

In addition, on the road, when you park your car in the parking zone or when pedestriansbus stopThere are times when you want to stop at such things, and these required functions are called "retention functions".[21].. The three functions of "traffic function", "access function", and "retention function" are collectively called "traffic function" of roads, and are used not only for automobiles but also for all users including pedestrians and bicycles. Needed[21].

City planning and town planning

Roads not only have the function of allowing users to come and go, but also have the function of forming the skeleton of cities and districts and forming a good cityscape.Land use planningIt is also an important component with various functions to recommend Yamamachi development.[22]..Houses are built facing the road, and by the roadBlockIs formed, public facilities and shops are lined up along the road, roadside trees are arranged, and it becomes a symbol of the block in front of the station and in the commercial area.street(Street,ス ト リ ー ト,Avenue) Is formed[22]..Furthermore, in order to enhance the scenery of the symbolic "street", the height of the buildings along the road is restricted, and there is a wide range of space in consideration of aesthetics.SidewalkIs also maintained[22]..Also on the sidewalkMedian stripToPlantingWith an obiRoadside treeIt also plays a role in providing a comfortable environmental space for people in terms of greening, noise attenuation, and air purification.[22]..Furthermore, by giving it a function as a disaster prevention space, in the event of a fireFire spreadIt is expected to function as a preventive function and as an emergency traffic space such as securing evacuation routes and material transportation routes in the event of an earthquake.[22].

Infrastructure accommodation function

Above or underground on the roadTramAnd subway,Public facilitiesElectricity and gas called, lifelines such as water and sewage, telephones, etc.communication cableThe networks that are indispensable for daily life are laid out in detail, and it has a function as a space to accommodate these infrastructure facilities.[23]..There are space restrictions on the use of road space, but on roads with heavy traffic and accommodating multiple public facilities, in order to efficiently accommodate these network facilities, gas, water and sewage, electricity, etc. In the utility tunnel where communication is stored or under the sidewalkElectric wire utility tunnelIs being maintained[23]..As a side effect, the elimination of utility poles improves the road landscape and prevents road closures due to the collapse of utility poles in the event of an earthquake.[23]..In addition to this, the underground space of the road is undergroundParking Lot,地下 通路,Underground streetIt is also used for[23].

Relationship between road and residential addressing system

In Europe and the United States, roads (English:Street, Germany:Street) IsHouse displayIs the basis of.In the Western way of thinking, "address" is basically understood by connecting it to a road (conceptually hanging), and such an understanding method is standard.

Both sides share the same street name across the street, and it is a residential address.There are several ways to assign numbers, which vary from country to country.One way is on one side of the roadodd numberUnify with, on the other sideevenIt is to unify with.The sites are lined up in order from the smallest number to the largest number.As a result, a postman can easily deliver it, or a person who does not know the land can easily visit it.If you are a postmanMailLook at the name of the destination street written in, go to that street, then look at the number at the end, first read whether it is odd or even, thereby determining which side of the road, and display it on each house You can proceed while checking the numbers, and when the numbers match, post it to the post.

Explain what to do if the land is divided or the number of houses increases.The serial number is assigned to one side first, such as 1,3,5,7,9 ..., but for example, if the right to the house / land of 3 is divided into two, "3-a" For example, "3-b".This keeps the numbers of other numbered lands such as "1", "5", "7" .. unchanged.

JapaneseKyoto CityHowever, some addresses are written using streets (street names) ("~ (Article) Dorijoru, Shimoru, Eastiriru, Nishiiriru").In the case of Kyoto City, there are many town names, and even if they are in different places, the town names may be the same, and zip codes are set separately to distinguish these places.Due to these circumstances, it is customary to use a street name because it is easier to identify the address.

In Japan, both sides of the street shared one town name, but in 1Act on Residential DisplayWhen was enforced, the newly assigned town name and lot number began to be assigned a house number for each block surrounded by roads.On the other hand, even nowChuo Ward, Osaka CityIn some of the streets, the town names on both sides of the street remain.[Annotation 4].

Japan and roads

Japanese legal definition

JapanAs a legal definition ofRoad law,Road Traffic Law,Building Standards LawLaws such as, respectively, define the definition of roads.

"Road" of the Road Traffic Act

Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Road Traffic Act defines roads as the following three cases.

  1. Roads stipulated in Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Road Act (so-called roads)Public road
  2. Road transport lawStipulated in Article 2 Clause 8The motorway(Roads provided exclusively for the purpose of automobile traffic, other than roads under the Road Act)
  3. Other places for general transportation

"Other places used for general traffic" refers to land that is considered to be a road from the actual state of traffic, other than roads provided for public roads and automobile traffic.It is a place where unspecified people and cars can pass freely, and it corresponds to a place actually used for passage.Therefore, in general, it may be applicable even if it does not have a form as a road, and it does not matter whether it is private land or public land.In particular,Farm road,Forest road,Red lineIf is applicable and is used for general transportation,Driveway,広 場,park,Riverbed,Underground streetEtc. are also included.

The following are myths and precedents regarding "other places used for general transportation".

  • Even if it is private land, a place where unspecified people and cars can pass freely is "another place used for general transportation". (July 44, 7, Supreme Court Second Small Court Judgment, Showa 11 (A) 43)
  • "Other places used for general traffic" means "actually used for the general public and vehicles, etc." even though it does not necessarily have to be open to the general public unconditionally. It is a place where there is an objective situation that seems to be present, and it is not necessary for passersby to obtain permission from the administrator each time to pass through (Sendai High Court, December 38). Judgment on December 12)
  • When the manager does not allow the use for general traffic, that is, the situation where the permission of the manager is required for traffic and it seems that it is objectively used for the traffic of an unspecified number of people. If not, it lacks the requirements of a road. (June 45, 6, Tokyo High Court)

"Road" of the Road Law

Article 2, Paragraphs 1 and 3 of the Road Law are roads used for general traffic, and the following four roads are defined as roads.

  1. Highway national road
  2. General national road
  3. Prefectural road
  4. Municipal road

What constitutes a road is the road surface,Shoulder, In addition to the lawtunnel,bridge, For ferry facilities, roadsElevatorFacilities / structures that fulfill their utility as a unit with roads such asPedestrian bridgeRoad attachments such as those attached to the road are also included in the road.[24]..Recognizing roads as defined by the Road Law is called "road designation" for highway motorways and general national roads, and "road certification" for prefectural roads and municipal roads. Prefectural roads and municipal roads to which the Road Law applies Is called a "certified road"[24]. So-calledPublic roadAndRoad structure ordinanceStandards such as width and structure are set by[24].

There are gradual provisions from the establishment of roads to the abolition, (1) designation / certification of routes, (2) determination of areas, (3) acquisition of land, (4) construction work, (5) start of service, (6) ) Maintenance, (7) Abolition / change of routes, (8) Disposal of unnecessary properties, etc.[24].

In addition, in Article 89 of the Road LawMain local roadIs not the type of road under the Road Law, but the main road designated by the Minister as a road to be subsidized by the national government within the necessary range of road maintenance, and some prefectural roads are general roads and major local roads. Is included[24].

"Road" of the Land Improvement Law

Land improvement lawWhat is a road based onFarm roadIt is a so-called farm road.[25]..It can be roughly divided into main farm roads and branch farm roads, and branch farm roads have a road for transporting harvested products and a connecting road for the road.[26]..As a basic farm road, by the agricultural, forestry and fishery volatile tax revenue source replacement farm road maintenance project (abbreviation: agricultural exemption road project) implemented from 1965 (Showa 40)Ministry of AgricultureAbout the road thatFarm roadCall[26].

"Road" of the Forest Law

Forest lawWhat is a road based onForest roadIt is a general term for roads provided for the purpose of forest maintenance and conservation.[26]..Forest roads are outside the framework of the relevant provisions of the Road Law, but for forest roads used for general traffic, the provisions of the Road Traffic Law, Road Transport Vehicle Law, etc. are applied.[26]..The jurisdiction is the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesForestry AgencySo, the forest road system is unique to Japan.[26]..The types of forest roads in private forests are as follows.

  1. General auxiliary forest road
  2. Green resource trunk forest road
  3. Specified forest area development forest road(Super forest road)

"Road" of the Port and Harbor Act

Port lawA road based on is provided as a port transportation facility in the port area.Harbor roadRefers to.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismBuilt on a budget and is a port managerPort AuthorityorLocal government(Prefectures and municipalities) manage[26].

"Road" of the Road Transport Law

Road transport lawArticle 2, item 7 defines roads that fall under the following three categories.

  1. Road according to the Road Law
  2. Places for other general transportation
  3. Motorways (Roads provided exclusively for the purpose of automobile traffic, other than roads under the Road Act. There are two types: "general motorways" and "dedicated motorways")

In Article 2, Paragraph 8, the above "motorway" is defined, in which "general motorway" means a motorway other than a dedicated motorway, and "dedicated motorway" means an automobile. It is said that the road was set up by a transportation company (a person who manages a car transportation business) exclusively for the purpose of using the business vehicle (the car that the car transportation company uses for the car transportation business) for transportation. It has established[27].

"Road" of the Building Standard Law

Article 42 of the Building Standards Act regards cases that fall under 1 to 5 below as roads and cases that fall under 6 as roads.

  1. Roads under the Road Law (national roads, prefectural roads, municipal roads) with a width of 4 meters (6 meters in some areas) or more
  2. City Planning Act,Land readjustment method, Old,Urban redevelopment law,New Urban Infrastructure Development Law,Dense urban development lawRoads built on the basis of 4 meters wide (6 meters in some areas)
  3. Roads that already existed when the Building Standards Act came into effect or when the city planning area was incorporated, and have a width of 4 meters (6 meters in some areas) or more.
  4. Roads with new or changed business plans under the Road Law, City Planning Law, etc., with a width of 2 meters or more (4 meters in some areas) designated by the specified administrative agency as the one whose business is scheduled to be executed within 6 years. Things
  5. Since the land is used as the site of a building, it is a road that conforms to the standards stipulated by the Cabinet Order to be built without complying with the Road Law, City Planning Law, etc. More than 4 meters (6 meters in some areas) (Designated road
  6. None of the above is included, but it is considered to be a road because it was designated by a specific administrative agency based on Article 42, Paragraphs 2 to 6 of the Building Standards Act (Article 42, Paragraph 2 Road,Article 42, Paragraph 3 RoadSuch)

There is no distinction between public roads and private roads, only motorways are excluded, and roads with a width of 4 m or more are roads.[28]..Others, such as those with a width of less than 4 m, are not positioned as "roads" under the Building Standards Act, and are called "passages" and "roads" in relation to the Building Standards Act.

In addition, although it does not meet the road access standard of Article 43 of the Building Standards Act, it is said to be "" for roads when a specific administrative agency issues a building permit based on the proviso of the same Article.

Other laws

In addition to the types listed above, there are the following types of roads under each law.[29].

other than this,Real estate registrationOn the bookGroundThere is "" as a kind of.It refers to a road used for general transportation, regardless of whether it is a public road or a private road.

Used together with the roadbridge,tunnel,Pedestrian bridgeAnd facilities such as crosswalks[Source required].

Foreign language notation

  • Showa 29By the first Cabinet Notification dated December 12,RomajiIt shows how to spell (Hepburn romanization).

Resident participation type road direct management construction

in recent yearsMunicipalitiesfinanceDue to the worsening situationLife roadAs for the above, the local government provides the equipment and materials, and the residents themselves are paying attention to the enforcement.

In the case of Sakaemura, the cost is reduced to 1/2 to 1/3 compared to placing an external order.[30].

the term

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ またMikuni periodHistory book "Wei ZhajinAbout the state of Japan at that time, "The land is steep, the trees are overgrown, and it is small.道路There is a description that "was continued", and the word "road" is used.[4].
  2. ^ Excludes some private property such as driveways.
  3. ^ Han was a Chinese dynasty between 206-220 BC
  4. ^ Taiko sewage(Back split sewage) passes between the houses that face the street, which is the division of the town name.

Source

  1. ^ Digital Daijisen
  2. ^ Kojien XNUMXth Edition "Road"
  3. ^ a b Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 21–23.
  4. ^ Ken Asai 2015, p. 12.
  5. ^ a b c Kunio Minegishi 2018, p. 12.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Kunio Minegishi 2018, p. 34.
  7. ^ a b Ken Asai 2001, p. 76.
  8. ^ "Special historic site "Sannai Maruyama Ruins" Sannai Maruyama Ruins Road?”. Sannai Maruyama Ruins. 2016/7/5Browse.
  9. ^ a b c d Ken Asai 2001, p. 78.
  10. ^ a b Takebe Kenichi 2015, p. 2.
  11. ^ Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 7–8.
  12. ^ a b c Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 5–6.
  13. ^ a b Ken Asai 2001, pp. 80–81.
  14. ^ a b Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 8–9.
  15. ^ Kunio Minegishi 2018, p. 2018.
  16. ^ a b Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 14–15.
  17. ^ a b Takebe Kenichi 2015, p. 16.
  18. ^ Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 17–18.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Kunio Minegishi 2018, p. 36.
  20. ^ a b c d Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 18–19.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Kunio Minegishi 2018, pp. 18–19.
  22. ^ a b c d e Kunio Minegishi 2018, pp. 20–21.
  23. ^ a b c d Kunio Minegishi 2018, pp. 22–23.
  24. ^ a b c d e Yoichi Kubota 2009, p. 18.
  25. ^ a b c d Rom International (ed.) 2005, p. 217.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Yoichi Kubota 2009, p. 19.
  27. ^ Yoichi Kubota 2009, pp. 19–20.
  28. ^ Yoichi Kubota 2009, p. 20.
  29. ^ Yoichi Kubota 2009, p. 21.
  30. ^ a b Toshifumi Kimura "Farmland and roads to be protected in collaboration --Sakae Village, Nagano Prefecture -"Agricultural Research Institute Survey and Information" Volume 4, Co., Ltd., January 2008, ISSN 1882-2460.
  31. ^ "Farmers, local residents, etc. participation type directly managed construction promotion manual" (Press Release), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, (August 2005), https://www.maff.go.jp/j/nousin/seko/top/t_rikai/t_chokuei/pdf/manual.pdf 
  32. ^ "A village where you can see the future of Japan Shimojo Village, Nagano Prefecture, the inevitable birth rate of "2.04""Nikkei Business", February 2009, 2.http://business.nikkeibp.co.jp/article/manage/20090209/185533/. 

References

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