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👩‍🎤 | Mai Shiraishi, the first voice actor to challenge in "Detective Conan Halloween Bride"! "If you enjoyed it (Shiraishi)"


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Mai Shiraishi challenges her first voice actor in "Detective Conan: The Bride of Halloween"! "If you enjoyed it (Shiraishi)"

 
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I am also trying Russian, so please pay attention!
 

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Russian

Russian(Russia,Russian language,[ˈRuskʲɪj jɪˈzɨk] ( Audio file)) IsIndo-European OfSlavicEast Slavic languagesBelongs to言语.RussianIs also abbreviated.Russian Federation OfOfficial terminology..In the national language notation of the Russian Federation,CyrillicTo use.To a closely related languageUkrainianBelarusianThere is.

As spoken and literary, Russian (along with Ukrainian and Belarusian)Old RussianDeveloped from.Russian is written in ancient SlavicCyrillicIs based on.

Overview

RussianEuropeMost inMother tongueIt is a language with many speakers, and the number of native speakers is the eighth largest in the world.Second languageIncluding the number of speakers, it is the fourth largest in the world.United NationsInEnglish,French,Chinese,Spanish,ArabicIt is one of the six official languages ​​along with.

History

Slavic proto-language

St. Cyril and St. Methodius

Old russia

There are various theories about the origin of Russian,East SlavsWas used byOld East Slavic(10st century - 15st centuryThe theory that it evolved from) is best known. In the 13th centuryKiev Grand DuchyAfter the collapseRusThe land ofMongolian EmpireDominate (Yacht of Tatar) And also in modern Russianfinance,金融Focusing on words related toTatarSuch asTurkic languages,Mongolian languageThe influence ofThen the frontiers of northeastern Rus (nowEurope/Russia)soGrand Duchy of MoscowIs established, and of this countryOfficial terminologyDeveloped independently as Russian.

Russian EmpireIn the age of1708/ToPeter the GreatStarting with the simplification of the alphabet, the reform of the Russian language became active. In the second half of the 18th centuryMikhail LomonosovWrote the first Russian grammar book,Standard languageContributed greatly to the formation of. In the early 19th centuryAlexander PushkinBy modernLanguageWas established.Also, the courtWestern EuropeDue to the modernization of each country, a large amount of specialized vocabulary has been developed.Dutch,French,GermanIncorporated from such.On the other hand, the upper classes at that time used French on a daily basis.[1], 19th century novel (Lev Tolstoyof"War and peace], Etc.) are often written in French.

Soviet era

Soviet UnionSo Russian is the de facto official language,Russia-Soviet Union Socialist Republicexcept forSoviet UnionIncommon languageWas functioning as, but officiallyOfficial terminologyDid not exist.Has Turkic Chuvash ancestorsLenin Austro Marxism,KautskyUnder the influence of1914/In the treatise "Do you need a compulsory national language?"National languageCriticized the enactment of.Also, I am a minorityGeorgiansHave an origin ofStalinAlsoPeopleAs a result of adopting the ethnologue policy as an expert in question, the Soviet Union finally did not put Russian in the official official language status until its collapse (by the way,Otto BauerBorrowed from "The form is ethnic, the content isSocialismStalin's thesis of "building a traditional culture" first concerns language issues1925/Appeared in his speech "Education in his mother tongue").Therefore, the Russian language was officially nationalized after the establishment of the Russian Federation.[2].

1918/Is(Russian versionThe alphabet reform plan that was prepared byBolshevikWas put into practice by the current Russian orthography.However,ЁHas not yet been recognized as a formal alphabet at this point, and was officially incorporated1942/That is.note that,1964/AlsoRussian Academy of SciencesMade an orthographic reform plan, but it was not implemented.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union

1991/EndCollapse of the Soviet UnionSo it made up the Soviet UnionEach republicEach became independent, and each ethnic language, which had previously taken the form of being used in combination with Russian, was promoted to the first official language, but there are various linguistic situations after that.

Baltic statesと 呼 ば れ るエストニア-ラトビア-リトアニアThen, after independence from the Soviet Union, each ethnic language (Estonian-Latvian-Lithuanian) Is being used more often.Of course, only about 30 years have passed since the collapse of the Soviet Union, and Russian is still used in areas where there are many Russians, but it can be said that Russian is not used much compared to the Soviet era.Especially these three countries2004/ToEUAfter joiningEnglish,GermanIs becoming more widely learned.However, in Latvia, where it was said that the Russian population might reverse the Latvian population in the latter half of the Soviet era, it was enacted after the restoration of independence.CitizenshipThere is a history that the law requires the acquisition of nationality to acquire Latvian language.This succeeded in relocating many Russians to Russia, but they were not given nationality.Residual RussiansIn response to protests from the Russian government that their rights have been hamperedEuropean CommissionThis language regulation also defines the equality of citizensEuropean ConstitutionWas pointed out that it violated. In April 2018, the Education Law was amended to require that 4% or more of elementary schools, 50% of junior high schools, and 80% of high schools be taught in Latvian, even for schools attended by Russian residents. Was[3].

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euHas been stipulated as a national common language in Russia, but it was confirmed that it expired in June 2018.[3].

Also, seek to leave the Russian sphere of influenceウクライナ,ジ ョ ー ジ ジBut not in RussianUkrainian,Georgian languageIs more widely used.In Ukraine, while there are areas in the west where only Ukrainian is traditionally used, there are also areas where both Ukrainian and Russian are used, and in the east and east.CrimeaIn some areas, there are many Russian users, and it is estimated that Russian will continue to be used in the future in some areas.On the other hand, Ukrainian and Russian have traditionally been mixed mainly in urban areas, but since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russian elements have been added to Ukrainian mainly in areas where Russian was predominant until then. Mixed "SurjikA mixed language called "(mixed blood)" is spreading.Even now, Russian is used and understood in a wide range except western Ukraine, and there is a movement to add Russian as the second official language after Ukraine, which is a turning point from the movement to eliminate Russian so far. I am trying to do.

Georgia was also a country that had been ruled by the Russian language for many years.The Government of Georgia has requested that Russian education be abolished and that the country name based on Russian reading, "Georgia", be changed to "Georgia", which is read in English (Georgian name is "Sakartovelo"). , The Japanese government has also agreed.In addition, Russian is still often used because many Georgians live in Russia.

For the rest of the world, Russian is still widely used.ベ ラ ル ー シ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-トルクメニスタンThere are many non-Russian people who can only speak Russian, and multi-ethnic groups live together.Central AsiaIn countries, Russian is used as a common language across ethnic groups.CaucasusRegion andEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euHowever, although the local language is increasingly used in daily conversations between locals, many people speak Russian.Active in integration with RussiaAlexander LukashenkoIn Belarus, where the president's dictatorship continuesBelarusianAlthough Russian is designated as the official language, the use of Russian is encouraged contrary to neighboring Ukraine, and Belarusian, which is the original ethnic language, tends to be neglected.

Poland,BulgariaIn the former communist countries,CommunismRussian was widely learned in the system, but after democratization, English and German (historically)Czech Republic,HungarySuch,Austrian Empire(Many countries were under the control of Russia), and the learning of Russian was declining due to the push of Western languages.In addition, some Baltic states and eastern countries have refused to use Russian, which was once the first foreign language, due to the Hungarian Revolution and the crackdown on democratization by Soviet troops in the spring of Prague.

on the other hand,Vladimir PutinRussia, which succeeded in rebuilding the economy under the administrationBRICsWith the addition of one of the economic growth areas called, the economic relations with other countries centered on natural resources are expanding again, and the demand for Russian is rising again.Even in the Baltic states, the negative image of Russian is gradually fading, especially among the younger generation who have not experienced the Soviet era.English,GermanAlong with this, the number of people who regard it as a language necessary for business is increasing.again,Space developmentInInternational Space StationIt has become one of the indispensable languages ​​along with English, such as becoming the official language of.

Rapid in Russia資本主義With the introduction of new technologies and the introduction of new technologies, a large number of concepts and terms that did not exist until now were introduced.The ability to coin Russian cannot keep up with this, and there are many cases in which foreign words, especially English, are introduced into Russian as they are.

Example:Computer --Foreign words in Russianкомпьютер(Campieuter) is SlaviccalculatorMore frequent than (Vichisuricheri = number output).компьютерThen, in the original Russian pronunciation, it becomes "yes".е"Is" d (э) ”Is pronounced, which also shows the characteristics of loanwords.

Russian situation in each country

Official terminology

[De facto independent area]

【International organization】

Japan

In the 18th century, "Hokusa BunryakuThere is a book called "Kotaro DaikokuyaBy dictationCyrillic, Some Russian words, sentences, etc. can be seen[4]..Full-scale Russian language research began with the need to translate official documents from the Russian envoy from 1804 to 1811.Edo ShogunateBy the life ofDutchOf the interpreterSajuro Baba (Sajuro)RagaGoronin caseByMatsumae clanWas imprisoned inGoroninFirst learned from[5].

The Meiji government, which was established in 1868, adopted the norms of civilization policy in Western countries and introduced many technologies and ideas from Britain, Germany, France, the United States, and so on.Russia, whose industrial development was slower than that of Western Europe, was excluded from the target, so it was treated as second only to English, German, and French in the adoption in normal school education.among themTokyo Foreign Language SchoolThen, the Lu (Russian) language department was established from the first establishment in 1873.[Note 1],Tokyo Commercial SchoolWhen re-installed in 1899 after integration intoFutabatei ShimeiWas appointed as a professor of the Russian language department, and the school became a research base for Russian language and Russian literature.In addition, missionary work spread from Hakodate, where the Russian Consulate was located as an open port.Orthodox Church in JapanAlso Christian (Orthodox church), Russian language education was emphasized along with the training of priests.He was interested in Japan in Golovnin's "Japanese Prisoners"NikolaiThe Holy Resurrection Cathedral in Tokyo (Ivan Kasatkin) was built in 1891 after being dispatched from Russia as Archbishop of Japan.Nikolaido) At the Orthodox Theological SchoolAscension dreamPlayed an active role and contributed to the development of Russian literary researchers including himself.

On the other hand, take a southward policyRussian Empire TheDainichi this empireIt is the leading potential enemy for the enemy, and since 1904Russo-Japanese WarOutbreak, from 1905KarafutoBecause it came to touch at the land border at the 50th parallel north of[6],Japanese armyThe need to learn Russian is consistently high forarmyEducational institutionArmy childhood school,Army War College,Navy OfNaval collegeThen Russian was included in the subject.ArmyMasanobu TogoAnd navySadatoshi IgetaThey also played a major role in Russian language education after World War II.

In 1920Waseda UniversityDepartment of literatureDew Literature Department was established in[7][8], Established in 1921Osaka Foreign Language School[9]Established in 1925Tenri Foreign Language School[10]But from the beginning there was a Russian department[11]. In 1917Russian RevolutionBegins,Soviet UnionWas established, and a new tension was born with Japan.Soviet national ideologySocialism,CommunismIs regarded as a dangerous idea in Japan, which is an emperor system, and its de facto official language, Russian learners, is "RedWaseda University's Department of Russian Literature was closed in 1937.[7]..In addition, the Orthodox Church faced the double predicament of being cracked down by the Soviet government in Russia and being regarded as an enemy to the Soviet Union (Russia) in Japan.On the other hand, Japan has grown in powerManchuriaThen, in terms of practice, there is a high need for Russian language education, and in 1920Harbin CityThe Japan-Russia Association Academy established inHarpin AcademyAnd from 1940ManchuriaIt became a university, but in August 1945Soviet war against JapanAnd followSecond World WarIt disappeared due to the defeat of Japan in Japan.Red Army(Soviet Union Army) The Japanese soldiers who surrenderedSiberian detentionIn the Soviet Union[12]Manchuria where the Red Army was stationed after being taken to the campKorean PeninsulaNorthern part, southern part of Sakhalin (south) where the Soviet Union declared the transfer of territory from JapanKarafuto) And the southern part of the Kuril Islands[13]In the situation, Japanese who lived together with Soviet soldiers and the general public became fluent in Russian on a daily basis, but civilians returned to Japan by 1948, except for some survivors, and detained in Siberia. The repatriation of the person was also completed in 1956, and this condition ended in a short period of time.

Waseda University's Department of Russian Literature resumed in 1946[7]In 1949, the (former) Japan-Soviet Friendship Association was established as a private organization aiming to promote friendship with the Soviet Union, and Russian language classes were held.Cold WarIt was gradually expanded while being influenced by. In October 1956Japan-Soviet Joint DeclarationWhen the restoration of diplomatic relations between the two countries is decided on NHK Radio from November of the same yearRussian language courseWas opened, and in 1957, the name was changed from the Japan-Soviet Friendship Association in the same year.Tokyo Russian AcademyByRussian Proficiency TestHas started.In the same yearSputnik 1The first ever space flight bySputnik shock), In 1962 in response to a request from a science and engineering faculty member against the background of the Soviet Union's high natural science capabilitiesTokyo University OfFaculty of Liberal ArtsRussian has been added to the second foreign language for some of the 1st and 2nd grade students enrolled in[14], Including the Orthodox Nikolai Academy, which maintained its independence from the Soviet government, opportunities for Russian language education increased in higher and specialized education.

Until the 1960s, interest in Russian culture was relatively high, especially among natural science researchers and communist supporters who needed to read Russian research papers as described above.However,Leonid BrezhnevRigidity of Soviet culture and stagnation of science and technology under the system,Sino-Soviet conflictWas also influenced byJapan Communist Party,Japanese Socialist PartyWith Japanese leftist (innovative) parties such asSoviet Communist PartyInterest in the Soviet Union (Russia) has declined due to the turmoil in relations with Russia. Started in the Soviet Union in 1985PerestroikaThis increased economic exchange and cultural interest, and the number of Russian learners increased temporarily, but the economic turmoil before and after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 cooled the heat, and in 1996 Nikolai Academy, which has a tradition from the 19th century. Was forced to close[15].

After that, the Japanese-Soviet Academy changed its name and continued to host the Russian Language Proficiency Test.Tokyo Russian AcademyAnd maintain a friendly relationship with the school while changing the nameJapan Eurasian AssociationAs an original course of the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science certification testJapan Foreign Cultural AssociationIs used as a windowRussian test(ТРКИ), Russian language and Russian literature-related courses that continue at each university, and NHK's language program reform, which began in 2017 on E-Tele.Russian goskeyAnd "" on the second radio broadcastEvery day russian"Russian language education in Japan is being continued by broadcasting.However,Open UniversityThe tide is continuing to decline, with the opening of Russian language courses in Japan ending only in 2007.However, in figure skating, where Russia is traditionally a strong country, Japanese players such as Mao Asada and Yuzuru Hanyu have also been coached by Russian leaders, and there are examples of interest in Russian from here. Be done.Alternatively, in April 2020, Russian was used in popular works in the subculture field such as anime and manga, which will be described later.Kyoto University of Foreign StudiesHas seen some changes in the situation, such as the establishment of a new Russian language department.

Exchanges with Russia are not active except in Hokkaido and some areas on the Sea of ​​Japan side, and the economic ties expressed in terms of trade value are close to China and South Korea, which are neighboring countries similar to Russia, or in many respects. Thinner than the United States, which maintains a good relationship.Therefore, Japan (especiallyWest Japan), The importance of Russian is low.Compared to English, Chinese, and Korean, the language teaching materials are not as good as they are, and as a result of the lack of revision, there are many teaching materials whose contents are the same as those of the Soviet era.

However, as mentioned above, Japan and the Soviet Union continued to have military conflicts even after World War II, and even after the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, conflicts remained between Japan and Russia due to territorial disputes, fishing vessel operations, and international cooperation. There is also a practical need for such things.thereforeJapan Coast GuardIn, Russian is being learned as a second foreign language along with Chinese and Korean.SDFHowever, in addition to being learned as a second foreign language, some high schools in Hokkaido are geographically close to each other, so Russian classes are offered.MoreoverWakkanai,Nemuro,Monbetsu,New Chitose AirportThen you can see the signboard written in Russian, and you can feel the appearance of Russia as a neighboring country.SimilarlyNiigata East PortIt is a base on the Sea of ​​Japan side of trade with Russia throughNiigataBut you can see the signboard in both English and Russian in addition to Japanese.In addition to this in Niigata CityRussian speech contestAnd so on.There is also a lot of trade with RussiaToyamaFushiki Toyama PortSigns written in Russian can be seen in the surrounding area, and there are high schools in Niigata and Toyama prefectures that offer Russian classes.Also, in the 2010s, "Girls und Panzer""Golden Kamui'[Note 2]It has been pointed out that popular works of manga and animation with many Russian dialogues were produced, and from this, young people were born who were interested in Russian.In the above NHK TV Russian language course "Russian Gosky", a voice actor from Russia who appeared in "Girls & Panzer" in the broadcasting series that started broadcasting in 2013.Jenya[16]Has been appointed.

For various reasons, such as political negotiations between Japan and Russia dating back to the Edo period, acceptance of Russian literature and communist ideas, and the existence of importance in many natural science fields centered on space engineering, many of Japan still have many. Although you can learn Russian in the second foreign language of the university, few Japanese (especially those living in western Japan) learn Russian.inside that,Kinki(Kansai area) Has been a trading hub since the Soviet era as the most important port city on the Sea of ​​Japan side.MaizuruThen, there is an environment of contact with Russian that is similar to each city in the Hokuriku region, and there is Maizuru city.KyotoThen, in April 2020, Kyoto University of Foreign Studies established a new Russian language department.[17][18]

Also, on March 2022, 3,Russia-Ukraine crisisFollowing the invasion of Russia by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that it would change the place names in Ukraine from Russian to Japanese notation that matches Ukrainian.[19]

Example:Kiev(Kiev) →Kieu(kyiv)

Major with Russian departmentUniversityIs as follows.Of these, it was established in 1994.Russian Far East Federal University HakodateIs different from other schools in the Japanese education systemVocational schoolTreated asJapanese school at a foreign universityIs specified as.On the other hand, in Russia it is in VladivostokFar Eastern Federal UniversityIt is treated as a formal school annex of the Russian language education, including studying abroad at our school.

Former Soviet Union

ウクライナEastern and southern (CrimeaRussian is widely used in (including).European UnionBecame a member countryラトビア,エストニア,リトアニアEven in the former Soviet Union countries such as, although it is not an official language, it is widely used mainly by Russian residents, but it is not included in the official language of the EU. In 2018, against the backdrop of antipathy towards Russia and a decline in statusウクライナ,ラトビア,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAndEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt is also reported that there is a movement away from Russian[20]..Among them, it is mentioned that the Kazakh notation was changed from Cyrillic to Latin, and similar changes were made.AzerbaijaniBut you can see it.However, except for Lithuania, where the ratio of Russians has been around 10% since the Soviet era, the ratio of Russian residents is relatively high in each of the above countries, and especially in Central Asia, Russian cities with relatively high wage levels. Due to the continued outflow of migrant workers to the department, Russian is a common language for Russia and the commercial and administrative aspects of regional countries (Lingua Franca) Is still used today.

Israel

1999/According to the data, there are 75 immigrants from the former Soviet Union to Israel, and there are also Russian television and radio stations.The official language of Israel isHebrewHowever, along with English, which is not an official language, Russian is also widely used due to the influence of immigrants.

Text

In Russian, the following 33CyrillicIs used.The note value isProper languageAlthough I will introduce only those in, there are cases where the loanwords are softened and hardened on the extension line.Also in RussianVowel reductionWill bring about very complex changes and will not be touched upon in this table.

uppercase letterLowercaseCharacter name
(Russian)
Character name
(Latin transcription)
Character name
(reading)
Fortis and lenis
Note value
(IPA)
Soft sound
Note value
(IPA)
Precautions for pronunciation, etc.
АааaA/to/ЯTo
the same
БбbabeBe/B// bʲ /
ВвveveVe/ v // vʲ /At the end of the word [f] Also, in the case of poor pronunciation, it was sandwiched between vowels. в Is a note value similar to "wa" [ʋ] May be pronounced as
ГгgegeGe/ g // gʲ /In the flexion of conjugation of adjectives and pronouns в There is something to read and also specificVerb,Church SlavonicTraditionally in the word of origin [ɣ] Pronounced in
ДдdedeDe/ d // dʲ /The soft sound is actuallyLaminal sound Of [d̻ʲ] Is pronounced like
ЕееjeYeahЭTo
the same
/ je /Some loanwords close to "yes" are irregularly hardened after consonants.
ЁёёjoYoОTo
the same
/ jo /Close to "yo" (the actual note value of a vowel is [ɵ] ) In many casesTremaNotation E Written as, but does not affect reading
ЖжjehzheJe/ ʐ /-Retroflex consonantPronounced in [z] Not in Japanese, but for exampleChinesemeat of"(ròu) Pronunciation [ʐoʊ̯˥˩] Of [ʐ] Is close to this

* In orthography LJ , zw Is traditionally another, unique phoneme with no unique character / ʑː / Many represent (example: burns [ʑːɵt],go [ˈJeʑːʊ],However unclench Etc. do not contain this phoneme [rɐˈʐːatʲ]).20st centuryOriginally since [ʑː] "As written" where to read [ʐː] Because it became popular to readphonemeIs becoming rare among Russian speakers.To explain the sound by comparing it to Japanese, "housework"[ka̠ʑi] Of [ʑ] It feels like it is pronounced a little longer.

Ззzeze/ z // zʲ /the sameSlavic OfPolishUnlikeSofteningWhen [zʲ] "Housework" in Japanese[ka̠ʑi] Inconsonant [ʑ] Will never be
ИииiLeeЫTo
the same
/ i /
Ййand shorti kratkojeIkratokoye[21]-/ j /Half vowel Of [j](Short "I")[22]
КкkakaMosquitoes/ k // kʲ /Unlike Japanese"Ki" is pronounced like "chi" [ci] There is no phenomenon in Russian that corresponds to the accent of becoming, and it is exclusively for Russian speakers. the , ч Can be misleading
Ллaleel'Elle/ ɫ // lʲ /Fortis and lenisAmerican EnglishFor the pronunciation of L, the soft sound isItalian-French-GermanSimilar to the pronunciation of L in
МмEmemM/ m // mʲ /
НнenenN/ n // nʲ /Fortis is always a consonant of "na" regardless of the environment [n] And is actually quite different from the Japanese "n", especially in contrast to many languages [ŋ] Never even become
ОооoOh/ o /ЁTo
the same
If there is no accent, pronounce it the same as a (however Radio [ˈRadʲɪo] There are exceptions like)
ПпpepeThe/ p // pʲ /
РрererElle/ r // rʲ /Winding tongue [r] Pronounced in.When softenedPalate official [rʲ] From the characteristics of the pronunciation mechanism [r] Against [rʲ] Is a little hard to shake.
СсesesS/ s // sʲ /the sameSlavic OfPolishUnlike when velarizing [sʲ] The Japanese word "shi"consonant [ɕ] Will never be
ТттэteTe/ t // tʲ /The soft sound is actuallyLaminal sound Of [t̻ʲ] Is pronounced like
УууuCormorant/ u /ЮTo
the same
Pronounced with a rounded mouth rather than the Japanese word "u"
ФфeffefF/ f // fʲ /Voices found in English and Chinese [f] Japanese "fu" consonants [ɸ] Appears exclusively in loanwords as non-characters
ХхhakhaHa/ x // xʲ /"Ha" pronounced like "ka"In Although,SofteningThen, it is not so different from the standard Japanese "hi" consonant.
ЦцcetseTse/ ʦ /-"Tsa" "tsu" "tsuo"
ЧчThandChoi-/ ʨ /"Cha" "Chu" "Cho"
ШшshashaSha/ ʂ /-Retroflex consonantPronounced in [s]..Not in Japanese, but for exampleChinese,SanskritPhonemes in (Sanskrit) / ʂ / Is a sound like this (eg Chinese "Shanghai'shàng hǎi [ʂâŋ. Xài],Sanskrit Krishna [ˈKr̩ʂɳɐ] "KrishnaSuch as [ʂ]
ЩщschAshchaShisha (Shicha)-/ ɕː /"Sushi" ("Shea"ofconsonant [ɕ] Similar to, but slightly longer)
Ъътвёрдый знакtvjordɨj znakTovjorduiznaku--Fortis and lenisSign, nonPalateTo[23][24]
ЫыыɨWe/ ɨ /-Despite the katakana notation, it is a simple vowel that is neither "i" nor "u".Chinese"吃" (chī) Pronunciation [tʂʰɨ˥] Vowels [ɨ] Is a sound like this
Ььsoft signmjagkij znakMyagki Iznaku[25]--Soft soundsymbol,PalateTo[23][26]
ЭээeEh/is/-It is pronounced wider than the Japanese word "e" (the actual note value is [ɛ] ) Mainly used for foreign words as characters
ЮююjuYuУTo
the same
/ ju /"Yu" If it is sandwiched between soft consonants on both sides, it becomes a soft vowel. [ʉ] Pronounced
ЯяяjaYaАTo
the same
/ ja /"Ya" If it is sandwiched between soft consonants on both sides, it becomes a soft vowel. [æ] Pronounced

Accent / pronunciation

  • For online Japanese lessons, accent(High and low accent)Unlike,Strong and weak accentsIs.Accented sounds are long and pronounced strongly.
  • InterrogativeWithoutQuestionThen, with the accent of the word you want to hear the mostintonationRaise and pronounce.
  • W OfphonemeThere is noVIs replaced by the phoneme of.However, there are some that have letters as they are pronounced. (example:Restroom Toilet ← toilet (FrenchThan))
  • consonantйIs usuallyvowelI don't put it except after, but especiallyForeign wordsThen. Йокога ́ма(Yokogama =Yokohama) May be placed at the beginning of a word.
  • Soft consonants and vowels (Palate(Pronunciation) and fortis and vowels (pronunciation without palatalization) are clearly distinguished.
  • The soft consonant before the hard consonant is softened, and the hard consonant before the soft consonant and at the end of the word is softened.However,conjunction,ParticleIs pronounced in conjunction with the word immediately following it.
  • ёAlways has an accent (if the accent is gone, the text will beеChanged to).
  • уOther vowels will sound if there is no accentWeakeneddo.The sound changes depending on the position before and after the accent.а, о The[ə],иэ The[ɪ](и скло ́нно к э"I lean toward D"),яе The[jɪ](However, strictly speaking, the degree of weakening differs depending on the syllable, and therefore the actual pronunciation also differs).Therefore, there is no accent о, е Sounds like "a" and "i" respectively (example: хорошо ́ Hara show).It is said to be the standard pronunciation in Russia, but it was originally a dialect of Moscow, and in some regions and individuals. о, е Is sometimes pronounced as "o" or "ye".again,e, and There are dialects that make the pronunciation of "ya" a little.
  • Not in Western languages [zn] , [No] Consonant clusters are diverse
    Example: зна ́ние [zna-](knowledge)
    What appears at the beginning of a word
    • зв, зд, зн, зл, зм, зр, мгл, мгн, мл, мн, нр... Such
  • Some consonantsDerivationIt changes to another consonant regularly by words.
    • г - ж な ど
  • phoneme[j] ThevowelFollowed by and accentedFricativeOccurs[ʝ]Tends to be pronounced in.
  • According to the rules of orthographyг, к, х, ж, ч, ш, щ After я, ы, юDo not put, instead of each a, u Is used.However, there are cases where this rule does not apply.

grammar

Culture

There is no subject (ru: Безличные предложения).In unpersonal sentences, the semantic subject is represented by the dative.

(ru: Неопределённо-личные предложения) Then the verb isthird personMultipleBecomes

(ru: Обобщённо-личные предложения) Then the verb issecond personSingularBecomes

noun

nounAre male, neutral, and femalesexIt is divided into.Russian nouns are generally masculine (singular) consonants, with some exceptions.-й, ьAnd the feminine noun is-а, -я, -ь And the neuter noun is-о, -е, -мяend with.Therefore, it is relatively easy to determine the sex of a noun.In addition to this, nouns are different depending on the meaning of the word.AnimalIt is divided into active bodies that represent the above and inactive bodies that represent other things.

QuantityIn the plural, male and female nouns have hard and soft flexion-ыWhen-иEnds with, the neuter noun is-A-Iend with.Historically, there were other pairs (dual) used for pairs such as scissors and trousers, but now they only leave their traces in the combination with the numerals.

NounCase TheNominative,Genitive,Dative,Accusative,Instrumental case,LocativeThere are 6 types.In partVocative(Example:Oh god Oh God! ),Locative, Nominative (possessive), Separation (разделительный падеж) Remains.Case inflectionIs represented by the flexion and shows changes according to gender, number, and body.Exceptionally, there are nouns whose flexion does not change, but most of them do not need to indicate the case in word order, so the word order can be changed relatively freely.

Another big featureHaunting vowelsThere is.This is a vowel that appears or disappears as the inflection changes, mainlyoh eIs used.For examplepie(Piroshki) Is plural, the lastоDisappearedcakesbecome.

The basic patterns of noun case inflection are as follows, but in particularActive bodyInactive bodyThe distinction between the accusative cases of masculine nouns should be noted.Also, the movement of double stops, haunting vowels andOrthographyIn addition to many irregular changes due to restrictions onForeign wordsThere are also nouns that do not change.

Male noun
The flexion ends with a consonant (plane plane)The flexion ends with a consonant (student Male college student)The ending is-й(museum Museum)The ending is-ь(dictionary dictionary)
SingularMultipleSingularMultipleSingularMultipleSingularMultiple
Nominativeplaneplaneыstudentstudentымузеймузеиvocabularyьvocabularyи
Genitiveplaneaplanesstudentastudentsмузеямузеevvocabularyяvocabularyher
Dativeplaneуplanestudentуstudentмузеюмузеpitsvocabularyюvocabularypits
Accusativeplaneplaneыstudentastudentsмузеймузеиvocabularyьvocabularyи
Instrumental caseplaneohmplaneaми aмиstudentohmstudentaми aмимузеrdмузеyamivocabularyeatvocabularyyami
Locativeplaneеplanestudentеstudentмузеемузеsvocabularyеvocabularys
Feminine noun
The ending is-а(machine car)The ending is-а(a fish fish)The ending is-я(station station)The ending is-ь(notebook pocket book)
SingularMultipleSingularMultipleSingularMultipleSingularMultiple
Nominativemachinesаmachinesыfishаfishыстанциястанцииnotebookьnotebookи
Genitivemachinesыmachinesfishыfishстанциистанцийnotebookиnotebookher
Dativemachinesеmachinesamfishеfishamстанциистанциpitsnotebookиnotebookpits
Accusativemachinesуmachinesыfishуfishстанциюстанцииnotebookьnotebookи
Instrumental casemachinesойmachinessfishойfishsстанциherстанциyaminotebookStronglynotebookyami
Locativemachinesеmachinesahfishеfishahстанциистанциsnotebookиnotebooks
Neutral noun
The ending is-о(wine wine)The ending is-е(sea Sea)The ending is-me(name name)
SingularMultipleSingularMultipleSingularMultiple
Nominativewinesоwinesаmoraineеmoraineяthemяthemena
Genitivewinesаwinesmoraineяmoraineherthemonethemyong
Dativewinesуwinesammoraineюmorainepitsthemonethemенам
Accusativewinesоwinesаmoraineеmoraineяthemяthemena
Instrumental casewinesohmwinessmorainerdmoraineyamithemенемthemенами
Locativewinesеwinesahmoraineеmorainesthemonethemенах

numeralAnd related nouns show special changes. 1 is the singular nominative, 2-4 is the singular genitive, and 5 or more is the plural genitive. 2-4 singular genitive is oldDualIs a remnant of.

Masculine noun (centimeter centimeter)Feminine noun (village village)Neuter noun (apple Apple)Plural nouns (sledge Sled)
1один сантиметродна деревняone appleодни сани
2два сантиметраtwo villagesдва я блокадвое саней
5пять сантиметровпять деревеньпять яблокпятеро саней
12двена дцать сантиметровдвена дцать деревеньдвена дцать яблокдвена дцать саней
22два дцать два сантиметрадва дцать две деревнидва дцать два я блокадва дцать двое саней

Personal pronoun

SingularMultipleRecursion
First personsecond personthird personFirst personsecond personthird person
MaleFemaleneutral
(Japanese)(I.e.You(I.e.彼女ThatweYou, you guysThey, they, theymyself
Nominativeяyouheititweyouthey
Genitivemeyouhisherhisusyoutheiryourself
Dativemeyouhimherhimusyouthemhimself
Accusativemeyouhisherhisusyoutheiryourself
Instrumental caseme
(by me)
you
(by you)
themher
(it)
themusyouthemBy yourself
(yourself)
Locativemeyouitheritusyouthemhimself
  • his Of г Is "вIs pronounced.
  • The third-person genitive, dative, accusative, and instrumental case is preceded by a preposition. н May be added (example:him,с не ё).

As a title you Is in the text You You may start writing in capital letters like.In Russian, most verbs have the person and number known from the end, so the nominative personal pronoun can be omitted unless there is a particular need (example:Читаю книгу. "(I) read a book").

verb

verbIs a complete body (such as "eat" or "read out" in Japanese) that represents a one-time movement or a group of movements in which the start and end can be clearly recognized.perfect view) And an imperfect body (such as "eating" or "reading") that represents a progressing / continuing / repeating motion or the motion itself (such as "eating" or "reading").imperfect species) Two bodies (both incomplete)Phase (linguistics)(See), and many verbs are paired.There are some anomalous verbs, such as those that do not have a paired body and those that are both perfect and incomplete, but there are no verbs that do not belong to any of them.

tenseAre simply the past, present, and future.Basically all verbs have only past tense and present tense (the only exception isEnglishCorresponds to the be verb be It has three forms: past tense, present tense, and future tense).Present tensesubjectThe past tense changes according to gender and number, depending on the person and number of.The future tense is expressed differently between the perfect tense and the imperfect tense. be It is represented by the combination with the future tense of.

There is only one basic pattern of inflection of the past tense of a verb, but there are irregular ones.

Inflection of the past tense of a verb
General (читать read)Special(go go)The ending is-Xia(build to build)
SingularMultipleSingularMultipleSingularMultiple
Maleон читалони читаwhetherhe was walkingthey walkedон строилсяони строиwhetherсь
Femaleона читаlait was goingона строиlaсь
neutralоно читаLoit was goingоно строиLoсь

There are two basic patterns of inflection of the present tense of a verb, but many are irregular.

Inflection of the present tense of a verb
First equation change (читать read)Second formula change (look look)The ending is-Xia(build to build)
SingularMultipleSingularMultipleSingularMultiple
First personя читаюмы читаrdя смотрюмы смотрthemя строюсьмы строthemся
second personты читаeat itвы читаyou areты смотр ты смотрishвы смотрiteты строishсявы строiteсь
third personон / она / оно читаemони читаgt;он / она / оно смотрumони смотрyatон / она / оно строumсяони строyatся
be Inflection of the future tense of
SingularMultiple
First personя будумы будrd
second personты будeat itвы будyou are
third personон / она / оно будemони будut

Copulaverb(…Isbe The present tense of is basically unspecified (eg:Я чайка. "I am a seagull").Once, it matched the subject's person and number be Was used, but such a feature is now be It is almost completely lost from the present tense, and it is no exaggeration to say that the aspect in which the present tense is used is limited to the case of expressing possession.In that case, the owner is the grammatical subject, sobe Third person singular Yes(Example:У меня есть сын."I have a son (I have a son)").Previously if more than one owner be Corresponds to the third person plural heart Was used, but now regardless of the number Yes Seems to tend to use.

さ ら に,Yes Is only a matter of existence, so it is not needed if it is assumed to exist (eg:У меня маленький сын. "I have a small son." → It's not about having a son, but what kind of son it is).

In addition, the expression of denial (...There is no, ...Is not) Is no To change a noun that denies existence into a genitive (eg)У меня нет сына. "I have no son").this no It is,do not eat It is a sound stool form of "Yes (Yes)","No(No) ""No"Is a different thing.

As if the verb changedAdjectival verb(It acts as an adjective like a participle in Western languages)Transgressive(The function of adverbs).XiaA group of verbs called verbs (reflexive pronouns at the end) Xia Is in French, etc.Recursive verbIt is used in the same way as, and also works with each other.Passive expressionAlso used for.

Adjectival verbs (male singular nominative) and transgressives
First equation change (читать / read the read)Second formula change (look / see look)The ending is-Xia(build / построиться to build)
Perfect bodyPerfectPerfect bodyPerfectPerfect bodyPerfect
Active form nowcheatющийreviewboxstroboxся
Active pastcheatвшийreadвшийreviewевшийlookевшийstrowho hadсяпостроwho hadся
Passive voice nowcheatемыйreviewимый
Passive pastreadнныйlookenlightened
readнlooken
Transgressivecheatяreadвreviewяlookevstroясьпостроившись

adjective

adjectiveLike nouns, they change according to gender, number, and case, and their limited usage (when attached to nouns) ismatchdo.In descriptive usage, "short flexion" with a short flexion is also used.

Case inflection

The basic form of adjective case inflection is as follows.In addition, the Russian adjective typeLast name(Tchaikovsky,TolstoyEtc.) will be the same case inflection.

Hard sound type (new new)
SingularMultiple
MaleFemaleneutral
NominativeNewthNewthNewthNews
GenitiveNewOnNewойNewOnNews
DativeNewoh myNewойNewoh myNewth
AccusativeNewth or NewOnNewthNewthNews or News
Instrumental caseNewthNewойNewthNews
LocativeNewohmNewойNewohmNews
Short tailNewNewаNewоNewы
Soft sound type (blue blue)
SingularMultiple
MaleFemaleneutral
Nominativesonssonyayasonhersons
Genitivesonhissonhersonhissontheir
Dativesonhimsonhersonhimsonthem
Accusativesons or sonhissonYuyusonhersons or sontheir
Instrumental casesonthemsonhersonthemsonthem
Locativesonrdsonhersonrdsontheir
Short tailsonьsonяsonеsonи
  • The male and plural accusatives are the same as the animacy if the noun is active, and the same as the nominative if the noun is inactive.

dialect

  • Northern dialect
  1. Arkhangelsk(White sea) Accent
  2. OlonetsDialect
  3. Novgorod(Northwest) accent
  4. Vyatka(Northeast) accent
  5. Vladimir-VolgaDialect
  • Central (middle) dialect
  6. Moscow(Middle East) accent
  7. Tver(Nakanishi) accent
  • Southern dialect
  8. Oryol(Don) Accent
  9. Ryazan(Southeast) accent
  10. TulaDialect
  11. Smolensk(Southwest) accent
  • Other
  12. BelarusianThe accent of northern Russia influenced by
  13. UkrainianDialect (SlobodaDialect,PrairieDialect)
  14. Russian-influenced Ukrainian meadows (Kuban) Accent

Russian dialect that has remained in Alaska since the Russian era

When Alaska was a Russian territory(English edition(dew: НинилчикSettled in the village and fused with the local peopleRussianOf the 1867Buy alaskaSince then, contact with Russia has decreased, and even in 1917.October RevolutionDue to the communization of Russia by Russia, contact opportunities have been completely eliminated, and it has developed independently for about 100 years, completely isolated from the standard Russian language.SiberiaDialect,English,Eskimo languages,Athabaskan languagesWords are mixed, neuter nouns have disappeared, and feminine nouns have decreased considerably. As of 2013, English is used in the village of Ninilchik, only 20 residents remember Russian, and all are over 75 years old.[27].

Example sentence

JapaneseRussianRemarks
HelloHello!(Zudrasto viceThe first в isSilent letter.
Hi!Hi.(PrivateFriendly "Hello"
Hi!Hello.(ZudrastovyFriendly "Hello"
Nice to meet youVery nice.(Ochini PriyatnaSay after saying the name
Good morningGood morning.(Dobraye Utra
Hellogood afternoon.(Dobrui Zeni
Good eveningGood evening.(Dobley Viechel
Good nightGood night.(Spa Koinai Nochi
さ よ う な らBefore meetings!(Das Vidanya"Let's meet again, until we meet again"
さ よ う な らFarewell.(Prasha IcheIf you can't meet for the time being
さ よ う な らBefore tomorrow.(Dazaftra"see you tomorrow"
Thank youThank you!(Spa Shiva
す ば ら し いWell.(Hara show
YesYes .(Dar
NoNo.(Neat
I'm sorry, I'm sorrySorry.(IzviniceThe meaning of "please forgive me".
WelcomeIt's my pleasure.(Niesa StoMeaning "not at all". (English: Not At All)
Name is?What is your name?(Kirk Verse The Vout
I am.My name is ....(Miner ZavutThe "..." part is the name
I love ya.I love you.(Yachibya LubrewyouIf you take the accusative case of the noun at the end, it means "I like ...".
Welcome backWelcome back.(Svaz Vraschenim
WillinglyWith pleasure.(Sudavory List VimEnglish: With pleasure
UnfortunatelyUnfortunately.
FortunatelyLuckily.
When is dinner?Когда ужин?
What is this in Russian?How is it in Russian?

Japanese Kana Cyrillic notation

Is it Japanese below?CyrillicShow notation[28].

Japanese Kana Cyrillic notation
A row
а
Row
и
Row
у
Row
э
Row
о
Row
я
Column
ю
Row
ё
Line
A
а
There
и
Cormorant
у
Huh
э
Contact
о
Or row
к
Or
ka
Can
that
Ku
ku

ke
This
to
Kya
кя
Kyu
kyu
Imaginary
kyo
Sa line
с

sa
Tooth
yours
To
su
To
se
Its
with
Sha
Xia
Untitled
sy
Right?
that
Row
т
It was
and
Chi
you
One
tsu
On
тэ

that
Cha
cha
Chu
by
Cho
тё
Na row
н
I
on
To
nor
Unexpected
well
I
ne
Of
but
Nya
ny
New
ню
Nyo
not
Is line
х
The
ha
Hi
hi
Fu
fu

heh
Ho
ho
Hya
hi
Hyu
хю
Hyo
хё
Line
м
Or
ma
Body
E
Nothing
mu
Because
мэ
Also
mo
Mya
me
Myu
mu
Myo
my
Ya line
й
,
я
N/AYu
ю
N/A
ё
N/AN/AN/A
Ra row
р
Et al.
pa
Ri
nd
That
RU
Re
re
The filtrate
nd
Rya
some
Ryu
ryu
Ryo
ryo
Wa line

va
N/AN/AN/AThe
о
N/AN/AN/A
Line
г

ha
Can
them
Gu
gu
Beard
ge
Your
th
Gya
hya
Gyu
гю
Gyo
ge
Za line
dz
Za
dza
The
dzi
Z
zu
Ze
дзэ
This
дзо
See you
дзя
Ju
ju
(I.e.
дзё
Line
д
I
Yes
Ji
dzi
Each
zu

de
When
to
Jya
дзя
Jyu
ju
Jyo
дзё
Ba line
б
If
ba
And
би
Fu
will
All
ba
BO
bo
Bya
бя
Byu
B
Byo
бё
Pa line
п

па
Perfect
пи
Pu
pu
Pe
pe
Po
by
Pya
пя
Pyu
Pyo
пё
Sound repellencyHmm
н/ m
N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A

The "i" that follows the vowel is и not й Is used.for exampleAichi(Aichi The Aichi not Aichi .

Japanese loanword derived from Russian

The numbers in parentheses are the original meanings in Russian.

  • Hideout - агит пункт(Incitement Headquarters)
  • salmon roe - caviar(fish eggs)
  • Intelli(Both Intelligentia and Intelligentia)- intelligentsia(Knowledge layer)
  • vodka - vodka(Distilled liquor
  • Headband - Katusha(Female name, nickname of Ekaterina. * The name that means a hair band is unique to Japan)
  • Campa - campaign(campaign)
  • Glasnost - publicity(Information disclosure)
  • Comintern - CominternCommunistic интернnational(International Communist Party, Third Inter)
  • Kolkhoz - collective farmstakeлективное householdяйство(Collective farm)
  • Complex - combine (Corporate group)
  • Samovar - samovar(Russian water heater)
  • Step - steppe(Meadow)
  • Walrus - sea ​​lion(Sea lion)
  • Soviet(Both Soviet and Soviet)- Council(Meeting)
  • Sovkhoz - state farmowlsetskoe householdяйство(Soviet farm)
  • Soyuz - soyuz(Soviet Union and Russian spacecraft. Originally meaning alliance, coalition)
  • Taiga - taiga(Dense forest)
  • Chernozem - чернозём(Black soil: geographic term)
  • ツ ァ ー リ(Tsar)- king(Emperor / King)
  • Tundra(SamiVia Russian)- tundra
  • Tetris - tetris(Computer game)
  • Totika - point(Point, point)
  • Troika - troika(Triad, three-headed carriage)
  • Trotskyist(Often with contempt)- Trotskyist
  • No Men Kratura- nomenclature(People belonging to the dominant class)
  • Quota - rate(Standard amount of production and manufacturing)
  • Balalaika - balalaika
  • Piroshki - cakes
  • Vu Narod - в на род(Into the people)
  • Stove - stove(Fireplace, stove)
  • Perestroika - restructuring(Rebuilding)
  • Podzol - podzol(Acid soil found in Siberia: geographic term)
  • Bolshevik(With Bolsheviks)- Bolsheviks(majority)
  • Mensheviks(Also with Menisheviki)- Mensheviks(minority)

The words that entered Japanese from Russian are those in which Russian artifacts were introduced to Japan through contact between the two countries since the 18th century.1917/ OfRussian RevolutionAnd the subsequent establishment of the Soviet system led to the introduction of socialist (communist) ideas into Japan.The former is used in daily life (such as salmon roe), but the latter rather refers to a specific organization or phenomenon in Soviet / Russian society.Proper nounMany are considered as (Kolkhoz, perestroika, etc.).However, there are also terms used in the latter to describe the events of Japanese society away from Russia (combinations, quotas, etc.).
Text в [v] Is transcribed as "wa we u we wo" for foreign words that have been used for a long time, and "va vi v v e vo" for relatively new ones.However, at the end of a woman's surname-va Still has the convention of transcribing "wa" (eg)Maria Sharapova).

Russian words derived from Japanese

Word transfer from Japanese to Russian is often used when Japanese cultural artifacts are introduced in Russia, and there are few examples in technical or academic terms.

References

  • Hideko Sugiyama, "Russian Education in Japan (Prewar)", Komazawa University Foreign Language Department (55), 137-152, 2001-09

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The origin of public Russian language education was the "Dorui Qing Language Institute" established by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1871, which was integrated into the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  2. ^ "Golden Kamui" is a work mainly set in Hokkaido after the Russo-Japanese War, and the characters traveled to Sakhalin in the work, and both South Karafuto, which became Japanese territory after the war, and North Karafuto, who remained in Russian territory. To visit.See the relevant item for details.

Source

  1. ^ Iwama et al. (1979), pp. 260-261.
    Shigeki Hakama. "XNUMXth Russians and Foreign Languages-Russians Returning to Western Culture". TMU CONSULTING. 2012/11/27Browse.
  2. ^ Katsuhiko Tanaka, "Reading" Stalin Linguistics "", Iwanami Shoten, 2000, p. 171
  3. ^ a b A series of “Russian away” anti-Russian sentiments in the former Soviet Union, reflecting the decline in Russia's statusSankei Shimbun March 2018, 9
  4. ^ Katsuragawa Hoshu, "Hokusa Bunryaku, Daikokuya Kotayu Russia Drifting Record", edited by Takayoshi Kamei, Iwanami Shoten (Iwanami Bunko) 1993 (5), pp. 148-156, pp. 273-332
  5. ^ Dawn of RussianMasaji Watanabe, Russian Literature Study No. 15, 1983-09
  6. ^ Same yearPortsmouth TreatyIn JapanNanabattaOwn.Divide Sakhalin from Russia to the north and south. 1910South Korea annexationBecame Japanese territoryKoreaThe coastal part of the Sea of ​​Japan at the northeastern end is the Primorsky Territory of RussiaTomaeWe met at the mouth of the river.
  7. ^ a b c "Overview”. Waseda University Faculty of Letters Faculty of Letters Russian Language Russian Literature Course. 2020/12/13Browse.
  8. ^ Sugiyama has set 1916 as the year of establishment of the Russian language department of the university.
  9. ^ It became Osaka University of Foreign Studies due to the postwar academic reform, and in 2007Osaka UniversityIntegrated into.The Russian language education department remains as a Russian language major in the Faculty of Foreign Studies at the same university.
  10. ^ The current Tenri University. As of 2020, there is no independent department of Russian language or Russian literature, and a teacher in charge of Russian is enrolled in the European and African Studies Course of the Department of Regional Cultural Studies, Faculty of International Studies, the same university.
  11. ^ Sugiyama, 138p.
  12. ^ Some fought Japan with the Soviet UnionPeople's Republic of MongoliaSent to a camp in the territory.
  13. ^ Southern part of the Kuril IslandsKunashiri Island,Etorofu Island, Touhou HokkaidoShikotan IslandIn such cases, the Japanese government insists on the remaining sovereignty (Northern Territories issue).
  14. ^ Fumiaki Nishihara, "Russian, second foreign language-in the case of the University of Tokyo after the war, Published February 2011, 2, viewed December 6, 2020.At this point, only students of Science Class 12 (Faculty of Engineering) and Science Class 13 (Faculty of Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Pharmacy) are available.Later, the target was expanded to students of all 6 categories.
  15. ^ "Tokyo Story Токио Моногатари --Nikolai-do”. Russian Interpreters Association. 2020/12/13Browse.
  16. ^ NovosibirskOriginally a female voice actor currently living in Japan.His real name is Eve Gueniya Daviduke.
  17. ^ However, the university is basedKyoto CityIs the capital of UkraineKieuIn Kyoto City, due to the crisis in Russia and Ukraine, place names in Ukraine are written in Ukrainian instead of Russian.
  18. ^ "Kyoto City is also named "Kiev" as the capital of Ukraine, from April 4st”(Japanese). 47NEWS. 2022/4/1Browse.
  19. ^ "Changed Kyiv to "Kiev" Ukrainian capital name”(Japanese). Chunichi Shimbun. 2022/4/1Browse.
  20. ^ "A series of" Russian away "in the former Soviet Union, anti-Russian sentiment, reflecting Russia's decline in status?". Sankei Shimbun(July 2018, 9). https://www.sankei.com/world/photos/180929/wor1809290021-p1.html 2018/9/30Browse. 
  21. ^ Unaccented о weakens to [ɐ ~ ə] and е weakens to [ɪ ~ ɪ̯ə ~ ə], so to be exact, Ikratokaya[ˈI ˈkratkəɪ̯ə].
  22. ^ Semivowel й Appears mainly behind vowels, like Japanese ya, yu, yo [j] If a vowel follows the sound of е, ё, ю, я To use.
  23. ^ a b Hard consonants are subtly accompanied by a "u" sound, and soft consonants are subtly accompanied by a "i" sound.
  24. ^ Fortis and lenis symbols now end with a fortis and lenis before words that begin with a soft vowelprefixIs added (example: под + ехатьdrive up) Only used.However, when translating Japanese into Russian[n]When it is necessary to clearly indicate that the vowels that follow and the vowels that follow are pronounced separately (eg, Kinichi's "Ki"Hmm"Chi" is "Ki"ToIt may be used for notation in foreign languages.
  25. ^ The г before к, т, ч is / х /, so to be exact, Myafki Iznaku[ˈMʲæxʲkʲɪɪ̯ znak].
  26. ^ The soft note symbol indicates that the consonant immediately preceding it is soft.
  27. ^ Discover Russian dialects in Alaska, Russia NOW, May 2013, 5
  28. ^ Soviet Academy of Sciences Oriental Studies Institute "Japanese-Russian Dictionary"Nikolai ConradSupervision, 1976,Nauka, Based on the notation on the front cover of the back cover.
  29. ^ Габдуллина Лексические заимствования из японского языка в русский: когнитивно-прагматические особено // Вест. Челябинского гос. университета. — 2012. — № 2 (256), Филология. Искусствоведение. — Вып. 62. — С.

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