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🥾 | "One person slipped while climbing" A 78-year-old woman died while descending the mountain Although she was conscious immediately after the rescue ... Hokuto City, Hokkaido


Hakodate Chuo Police Station investigating the situation of slipping down

"One person slipped while climbing" A 78-year-old woman died while descending the mountain Although she was conscious immediately after the rescue ... Hokuto City, Hokkaido

 
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Mr. Furukawara was rescued by a fire department who rushed to the hospital about an hour after the report, and was initially conscious, but while being transported by ambulance, he was in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest and was confirmed dead at the hospital.
 

On the afternoon of the 25th, a 78-year-old woman who was climbing in Hokuto City, Hokkaido, slipped down the mountain and died.The one who died ... → Continue reading

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Cardiopulmonary arrest

Cardiopulmonary arrestWhat is (Shinpaiteshi)?BodyIt is a kind of critical condition,心 臓とBreatheRefers to the stopped state[1].CPAAlso called (English: Cardiopulmonary arrest Abbreviation).Japan OfMediaThen,DoctorHas not been confirmed byCorpseToDeathIt is expressed as "cardiopulmonary arrest" instead of ".

Overview

When the movement of the heart stops first and whenlungThe movement (breathing) may stop first, but both are called "cardiopulmonary arrest".in Japan"Death"ofDiagnosisIt is,Doctor-DentistCan onlyMedical practiceIt has become.Therefore, it is not a judgment of cardiopulmonary arrest based on the presence or absence of heart sounds and breathing that anyone can do even if they have already died.Confirmation and diagnosis of pupil dilation by a doctor or dentistWill result in "death".しかし、日本国外のHowever, outside JapanMass mediaThen, the criteria for judging "cardiopulmonary arrest" in Japan are different from those in Japan, such as reporting death or death.[1].

brainTobloodInsufficient damage causes irreparable damage in about 4 to 5 minutes (Hypoxic encephalopathySee also).It is necessary to take resuscitative measures such as AED (automated external defibrillator) or artificial respiration by the time limit.brain deathQuick as above to prevent the conditionHelpMeasures are needed[1].Cardiopulmonary resuscitation TheCPR(English: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation).

Cardiopulmonary arrest and three signs

Cardiopulmonary arrest (respiratory arrest excluding dilated pupils) until the three-symptom theory became widespread as a diagnostic criterion for death in Europe and the United StatesCardiac arrest) Was the diagnostic criterion for death[2]..三徴候説とは呼吸停止(呼吸の不可逆的停止)と心停止(心臓の不可逆的停止)に加えて瞳孔散大という3つの徴候をもって人の死の診断基準とするものであるThe three-symptom theory is a diagnostic criterion for human death based on three signs of respiratory arrest (irreversible arrest of breathing), cardiac arrest (irreversible arrest of the heart), and dilated pupils.[2]..瞳孔散大ないしDilated pupilsLight reflectionThere is a functional overlap with the loss of brainstem function in the first half of the 20th century, and in the first half of the XNUMXth century, the three-symptom theory based on this became widespread as a criterion for death.[2].

In the Japanese mass mediaNatural disasters,ACCIDENTDied when he encounteredDoctorOrDentistPeople who have not yet been confirmed or sentenced to death are referred to as "cardiopulmonary arrest" or "cardiopulmonary arrest".[3][1][4].

In the medical community, even if you are actually dead, in addition to cardiac arrest and respiratory arrest, pulse arrestDilated pupils (mydriasis)It is said that it will not be legally confirmed unless the doctor declares death after confirming the above, and people other than doctors and dentists (rescue personnel andPolice officer-Maritime Sheriff・ Press personnel, etc.)Cardiac arrest・ The reason is that although it is possible to determine respiratory arrest, it is not possible to declare death.[3][1]..ただし例外として、救急隊が到着した時点で、既に死後硬直が始まっているか死斑が現れている、低体温であるなどいった状況から救急搬送する意味がもはやなくなっている場合、救急隊の判断で死亡判定がされることがあるHowever, as an exception, when the ambulance crew arrives, it is no longer meaningful to carry the ambulance due to situations such as rigor mortis, livor mortis, or hypothermia, at the discretion of the ambulance crew. Death may be determined[4].

At the scene of the accident / disaster, it has not been rescued yet, and doctors and dentists cannot approach it.CorpseAndhospitalThe corpse being carried to the site is said to be "cardiopulmonary arrest" because it has not been declared dead by a doctor or dentist.

In the media outside Japan, even if the Japanese media reports "cardiopulmonary arrest", the terms "death" and "corpse" may be used in overseas reports.[3].

Related item

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e "Commentary on Kotoba: Difference between" cardiopulmonary arrest "and" death "". Mainichi Newspapers (Mainichi Newspaper). (May 2014, 11). originalArchived as of October 2018, 2.. https://web.archive.org/web/20180205000709/https://mainichi.jp/articles/20141114/mul/00m/040/00700sc 2022/4/29Browse. 
  2. ^ a b c "New Edition of the Encyclopedia of Bioethics" Taiyou Shuppan, 2010, 360 pages. 
  3. ^ a b c ""Cardiopulmonary arrest" used in the eruption of Mt. Ontake Why shouldn't we call it "death"?"J-CAST News", J-CAST, September 2014, 9.2014/9/30Browse.
  4. ^ a b Norihiro Kiyomasu (October 2015, 10). “What is the difference between "cardiopulmonary arrest" and "death" that are often heard in the press?”. All About. 2017/4/26Browse.

ambulance

ambulance(Kyukyusha) is an ambulancehospitalFor quick and safe transportation to medical facilities such asvehicle.AutomobileAmbulances have existed since the days when there was noCarriage,rickshawWas used.AutomobileSince the invention of the automobile, automobiles have become the mainstream.SleeperHowever, ambulances are used by public institutions and medical institutions, sleepers are owned by private businesses such as taxis, and those that transport patients with particularly low urgency arePatient carrierAs distinguished.

In Japan,Emergency call phone numberYou can call 119.If you are worried about calling an ambulance, you can consult with the Emergency Relief Center (phone number: # 7119).

History

The first vehicle dedicated to emergency transportation appeared19st centuryfirstNapoleonic WarIt is said that it was invented by Dominique Jean Larrey.Raleigh, who was appointed as the chief surgeon of the Napoleon Army, formed a military emergency unit for prompt treatment of the injured, and built a system in which the injured and sick were quickly transported to a field hospital even on the battlefield.The vehicle used to transport the victim at this time is said to be the first ambulance.

The name ambulance (in English) Ambulance) Is AmericaCivil WarIt started at that time.At that time, carriages were used as ambulances and carriage ambulances (horse ambulance) Was called.All of these have contributed significantly to the rapid healing of injured warriors on the battlefield.

To the massesAutomobileBegan to spreadthe 1920sSince then, ambulances have been built on the basis of automobiles.20st centurySince the latter half of the year, automobiles have been adopted as the main means of emergency transportation in many countries and regions.Also to complement ambulances traveling overlandEmergency helicopterAnd ambulances have been newly developed.Europe,AmericaIn such cases, the distance between local cities is long and there are many mountainous areas, so to shorten the transportation time.Emergency helicopterIs widespread.In this way, due to the terrain and other circumstances,Emergency helicopterIn some countries, there are many transportations using.

Ambulances are also being improved, such as expanding the space inside the car so that it can be transported while taking advanced life-saving measures mainly in developed countries, and making ambulances for children (newborns, babies, toddlers, children). We are trying to improve the lifesaving rate so that it can be loaded with advanced medical equipment and can be used by all age groups.On the other hand21st centuryEven after enteringDeveloping countriesIn areas where conflicts continue, a sufficient number of ambulances are not in place, or a system for transporting injured and sick people by ambulance is not yet in place.

The history of ambulances is closely related to war and military.Wartime international lawUnderRed CrossAmbulances with chapters are allowed to carry victims without being attacked even during combat.Ambulances are not allowed to be armed,combat medicMust be disarmament and then boarded.howeverSmoke bullet launcherDevices for defense can be installed.

Structure / function

This section describes car ambulances.

Ambulances are trucks worldwide[Annotation 1] Based on the vehicle andCommercial one-box carBased on the vehicle,Commercial vanMost of the vehicles are based on.
In addition, it is necessary to meet the ambulance standards set by each country.Therefore, improved for ambulances[Annotation 2][Annotation 3] To improve performanceSpecially equipped vehicleToOutfittingIt is often done, and there is a difference in price depending on the standard etc.[Annotation 4].
"AMBULANCE" and "AMBULANCE" on the car body so that local residents and foreigners can identify it as an ambulance.Emergency Medical Service (EMS), "Affiliation name", "Emergency call phone number","Star of life] Etc. are drawn.
Ambulances are used as emergency vehicles in accordance with the laws of each country.Siren amplifierIt is equipped with a rotating warning light such as blue, red, orange, or green, or an LED blinking warning light.
Also, the ambulance is for exclusive usePaintingIs given, and it becomes white when viewed worldwideRed CrossThere are many vehicles with a red or fluorescent orange line, which is the color scheme of.
EuropeIn many vehicles, fluorescent yellow and green or orange checkered patterns are applied in a line shape, mainly yellow.
AmericaIn each city, the paint color is different for each city's fire department, hospital, and private emergency service, and there are various vehicles such as a red line on a white background and a blue line on a white background.
JapanThen the red line on a white background[Annotation 5] The majority of vehicles are drawn.
Letters such as "AMBULANCE" and "emergency" appear on the front of the ambulanceMirror characterIt is sometimes drawn (inside out), but this is to make the ambulance recognize that it is approaching from behind when looking through the rear-view mirror or door mirror.
A large space is secured inside the car so that treatment can be performed in a stable posture.stretcher-Backboard-Neck collarMedical equipment such as blankets, blankets, etc.AED・ Equipped with first aid set for trauma, oxygen cylinder, etc.
In addition, the number of ambulances equipped with medical equipment and medicines for first aid is increasing, mainly in developed countries.

Operation

The operation of ambulances takes various forms according to the laws and regulations of each country.

The institutions that operate ambulances are mainly medical institutions, emergency specialized institutions,Fire departmentHowever, the situation varies greatly from country to country.In Japan and the United Kingdom, emergency services are positioned as one of the administrative services, and local governments and the central government are the main ambulance operating organizations. There are some areas where private companies (EMS- "emergency medical services") carry out emergency transportation for a fee, and there are many areas where volunteers are in charge.

In many countries / regions, in order to enable people in need of ambulances to call ambulances quickly, we have set up facilities to centrally manage ambulances and centrally manage calls requesting ambulances to be dispatched. There is.To make an ambulance callPhone NumberIs different from a normal phone numberEmergency callMany countries / regions handle this, and in many cases, they use telephone numbers that are easy to remember and have a relatively small number of digits.

The number of people boarding the ambulance is the driver,Doctor,ParamedicsAnd so on.The number of people to board is determined by the country / region.Most drivers are also involved in emergency activities at the emergency site.In addition, there are various forms of ambulance operation, such as fire departments and police operating ambulances, and some countries / regions where ambulance specialists are set up to operate ambulances.

Since ambulances are required to be quick, priority driving is permitted in many countries and regions.for example,Red traffic lightBut priority is given to progress,Traffic jamSometimes it is possible to drive in the oncoming lane.

Fees / systems

If you request an ambulance abroad, you will be charged in most countries[Annotation 6] Therefore, when traveling abroad, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of each country (US) should take out insurance.State Department) Is recommended[Annotation 7][1] are doing.

Japan

When calling an ambulance, you will be directly connected to the fire department of the local government.Emergency call phone number"119"ToJapaneseNeed to tell.Recently, as the number of foreign tourists increases, the number of fire departments that have introduced simultaneous interpretation services via multilingual call centers that support English and Chinese is increasing, and by the time the 2021 Tokyo Olympics are held, fire departments nationwide Will be introduced[2] ..It doesn't matter what nationality, race, or tax is paid to call an ambulance.The usage fee is also free.

Medical institutions (hospitals, clinics, clinics, clinics, etc.) also have their ownambulanceOwns.While the patient is outpatient or inpatient at the medical institutionTransfer to hospitalIt is operated when it becomes necessary, and the patient transportation fee is free.

In recent years, the need for ambulances has been low, and despite the mild symptoms of being able to go to the hospital on your own, the number of cases of calling an ambulance instead of a taxi has increased, which has become a problem.[3]..According to figures released by the Tokyo Fire Department, in 2020, the total number of emergency transport personnel within the jurisdiction of the Tokyo Fire Department (excluding the islands and Inagi City) will be 625,639, of which more than half, 329,737 (52.7%). ) Was "mild" without hospitalization[3].

In addition, as the number of participation increases, the ambulance crew is always in the state of participation, and it is almost impossible to return to the fire department.[Annotation 8] Is occurring.

The Emergency Relief Center (phone number: # 7119) has been established as a contact point for solving the above problems and for discussing the decision to call an ambulance or whether to go to a medical institution.[4][3]..Each local government is also calling for the proper use of ambulances and is making efforts to curb the increase in the use of injured and sick people who have little need for ambulances.

Taiwan

When calling an ambulance in Taiwan, it is the same as in JapanEmergency call phone numberTo "119"FormosanNeed to tell.ChineseBut it works.An ambulance operated by the local fire department will come.

It was free until a few years ago, but in December 2012, the city of Taipei implemented an ordinance to charge for the use of non-severe people because the problem of calling an ambulance with mild symptoms and hindering the operation of the ambulance became serious. bottom[5]..The cost is said to be 600-1800 yuan.Free as before in case of emergency.After that, local governments in each region followed, and similar or similar ordinances were enacted.[6]..If there is an urgent need even after the ordinance is enforced, it will be free of charge as before.

Chugoku

When calling an ambulanceEmergency call phone numberTo "120" (Beijing City only "120" or "999")ChineseNeed to tell.Ambulances in China are charged, and you will be charged according to the mileage at the hospital where you bring them in.[7].北京市Then, from May 2016, a fare meter was attached to the ambulance, and the fare was 5 yuan (about 3 yen) for the first ride up to 50 km, and then 850 yuan was charged every 1 km (previously there was no unified fare standard).Western media are concerned about detours[8]..Although it depends on the area and medical condition, there are some areas where you have to pay the fee in advance (charge) when the conscious victim or the victim is accompanied by a family member. Sometimes. (The surplus will be settled after arriving at the hospital).Unless you really live or die, you will be asked to pay the money first[9].

Chinese hospitals must first pay a fixed amount at the counter first.In addition, payment is not only at the time of reception, but also at the time of reception, doctor's nomination fee, medical record creation fee, etc.[9] So be careful.It is recommended to take out overseas travel accident insurance before traveling in case of sudden illness or injury.[10].

Australia

When calling an ambulance in AustraliaEmergency call phone numberTo "000" (common number with police and fire department)EnglishNeed to tell.All foreigners other than Australians (Australian nationality) are charged.Prices vary from state to state.The first ride is about 1 to 6 yen, and the fare is often high because it is added according to the transportation distance like a taxi.In particular, it will be even more expensive at night and on holidays, so it is necessary to have insurance that covers all of the emergency medical care.[11]..It is important to note that if you receive emergency medical care at the hospital you were transported to and have surgery or hospitalization, the medical expenses may be in the millions of yen.

America

When calling an ambulanceEmergency call phone numberTo "911" (common number with police and fire department)EnglishNeed to tell.Ambulance fares vary from state to state.You cannot specify the hospital to carry in.New York StateWill be charged about $ 600[12].CaliforniaThen, to the basic chargeTaxiAddition is performed according to the transport distance.Medical expenses are also incurred for first aid received in an ambulance.IllinoisChicago CitySo, the basic life support fee is $ 2,342, the advanced life support fee is $ 2,734, oxygen (regardless of usage) is $ 28, and you will be charged $ 1 per mile.[13]..It is important to note that medical expenses may be in the millions of yen if you receive emergency medical care at the hospital where you were transported and have surgery or hospitalization.There is a paid ambulance dispatch company in the private sector, and there is a service that allows you to choose the hospital to which you will bring it in.

France

When calling an ambulance in FranceEmergency call phone number"15"SAMUTo (Service d'Aide Medicale Urgente)FrenchNeed to tell.SAMUIf you make a report to, the content of the report will be sent by the doctor who is waiting for 24 hours.TriageIf it is judged to be a minor injury, after being instructed on the method of first aid by telephone, you can go nearby by yourself.ClinicYou are prompted to go to.If it is judged to be seriousSAMUHelicopter may be flown.note that,SAMUA doctor must be on board both the ambulance (mainly white) and the helicopter.The ambulance usage fee is a distance charge type in which the mileage fee (about 60 euros per kilometer) is added to the basic fee (about 2 euros) depending on the area.[14] And there is a usage time billing formula of about 30 euros per 250 minutes.

Fire departmentEmergency call phone number"18" orEUCommonEmergency call phone numberIt is possible to call "112" and call a fire ambulance (mainly red), but in France you can have a doctor treat you from an early stage.SAMU It is common to report to.Free of charge for first aid and transportation by the fire department.

Italy

Ambulances are publicly ownedEmergency call phone number"118" orEUCommonEmergency call phone numberYou can call it with "112" and the fee is a residence permit,Cordice FiscaleFree of charge regardless of tax payment[15]..You cannot specify the hospital to carry in.

When calling an ambulance in public, I can hardly speak English, soItalianNeed to tell.There is a paid ambulance dispatch company in the private sector, and there is a service where you can choose the hospital you want to bring in.There is also a service in which an ambulance unique to the hospital is brought in at a private general hospital, although it is also charged.Most private general hospitals can speak English.

Germany

When calling an ambulance in GermanyEUCommonEmergency call phone numberTo "112" (fire department)GermanNeed to tell.Ambulance usage fee is charged.A dedicated ambulance with a doctor will be arranged according to the content of the report.If a doctor is on board, about 100 euros will be added to the usage fee.The ambulance usage fee varies greatly depending on the content of first aid provided by the rescuer and the mileage, but it costs at least about 300 to 500 euros.In Germany, ordinary people other than the sick and injured are not allowed to ride in an ambulance (even if they are a family member of the sick and injured), so the companion will go to the hospital where they are taken by taxi.[16].

German ambulance transports mildly injuredambulance(Clan Kenwagen)[Annotation 9] And transport the victims of moderate illnessambulance(Lettungswagen)[Annotation 10], A doctor will be on board to carry a seriously life-threatening victimemergency(Note Alztowagen)[Annotation 11] There is.

Major manufacturers

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Light-duty trucks, medium-duty trucks, heavy-duty trucks,pick-up truckEtc. are included.
  2. ^ suspensionTo ensure durability and steering stability, and to prevent large vibrations from the injured and medical equipment.
  3. ^ Since there are many driving patterns in urban areas such as "deceleration → stop or slow → start acceleration", the setting for ambulances (emphasis on acceleration)Gear ratioOften changed to
  4. ^ As an example, the vehicle body price of a Japanese Toyota high-standard ambulance (3rd generation current model) with the same base model is about 1 million yen, while the vehicle body price of the 2B type Toyota ambulance is about 500 million yen. circle.
  5. ^ Some local governments do not have a line,Osaka City Fire DepartmentThen, a white car body is used (only the back door has a red line on a white background).
    Also, the color of the line is blue instead of red (Atami City Fire Department) And green (Kameyama City Fire Department) There are also local governments.
  6. ^ Even if it is free of charge, it is not possible to specify the destination hospital, so it may be transported to a hospital in a region far away from the hotel in the center or public transportation.
  7. ^ Ambulance usage fees and medical expenses for foreigners are often high, so we are calling for caution.
  8. ^ Rescuers handed over the injured and sick to the hospital where they were transported, and on their way back to the fire station, a new emergency entry order was issued, so they were in a harsh condition where they could not take any rest, hydration, or meals.
  9. ^ Japanese2B type standard ambulancequite.
  10. ^ JapaneseHigh standard ambulancequite.
  11. ^ JapaneseDoctor carquite.

Source

  1. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan Recommended for overseas travel insurance Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs website viewed August 2018, 8
  2. ^ "119 is also multilingual and will be 100% introduced for the Olympics". Nikkei newspaper electronic version (Nihon Keizai Shimbun). (November 2018, 7). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO32588840U8A700C1CR0000/ 2018/8/15Browse. 
  3. ^ a b c “More than 50% of emergency transport does not require hospitalization Tokyo Fire Department announces 2020 figures”(July 2021, 6). https://trafficnews.jp/post/108564 2022/2/6Browse. 
  4. ^ # 7119 (Emergency Security Center Business) Related Information(Fire and Disaster Management Agency, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications)
  5. ^ Taipei Municipal Fire Department
  6. ^ "Rescue vehicle revenue% 20 Non-immediate first aid hospital% 20 Required 1600 yuan"Liberty Times" June 2013, 6
  7. ^ "Imaten China-China now (XNUMX) If you call an ambulance, you will be charged". West Japan Newspaper (West Japan Shimbun). (November 2017, 3). https://www.nishinippon.co.jp/feature/now_of_china/article/317179/ 2017/12/16Browse. 
  8. ^ "[Overseas spills] Beijing ambulance, introduced in May with toll meter," detour "concerns". Sankei News (Sokoku Shimbun). (November 2016, 4). http://www.sankei.com/world/news/160426/wor1604260031-n1.html 2017/12/16Browse. 
  9. ^ a b World Medical Situation People's Republic of China If you get sick (medical system) Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs website viewed August 2019, 5
  10. ^ World Medical Situation People's Republic of China If you get sick (medical system) Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs website viewed August 2019, 5
  11. ^ Global medical situation Australia If you get sick (medical institutions, etc.) Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs website viewed August 2018, 8
  12. ^ World Medical Circumstances United States (New York) If you get sick (medical institutions, etc.) Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs website viewed August 2018, 8
  13. ^ https://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/fin/supp_info/revenue/ambulance_bills.html
  14. ^ World medical situation France If you get sick (medical institutions, etc.) Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs website viewed August 2018, 8
  15. ^ World medical situation Italy If you get sick (medical institutions, etc.) Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs website viewed August 2018, 8
  16. ^ Global medical situation Germany If you get sick (medical institutions, etc.) Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs website viewed August 2018, 8

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