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🚁 | Shonan T-SITE, "e-Mobility WORLD 2022-e-Mobility from Shonan ...


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Shonan T-SITE, "e-Mobility WORLD 2022 ~ e-Mobility from Shonan ...

 
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While explaining the points of electric vehicles, electric motorcycles, electrically power assisted bicycles, and small e-Mobility that are actually exhibited and tested at the venue, earth-friendly and sustainable e-Mobility for a better future for the earth and humans Talk about living with a living.
 

Shonan T-SITE is a general company as one of the projects of "Shonan Expo" held under the theme of thinking about the earth from Shonan. → Continue reading

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    Small e-Mobility

    Electric Assist Bicycle

    Electric Assist BicycleWhat is (Dendo Assist Bicycle)?electric motor(Motor) assists human powerBicycle..If the passenger does not pedal, the vehicle will not run.

    Bicycles that can run on their own with only a single motor, as well as assisting transmission by human powerElectric bicycleSee.

    Overview

    With a normal bicycleMotorized bicycleIn an intermediate vehicle withpedalThe sensor detects the force to step on and the number of revolutions, and the on-board motor reduces the force to step on the pedal.1993/ToYamaha MotorElectric hybrid bicycle released byYamaha PAS(Power Assist System, pass) is said to be the first in the world[1][2].

    In Europe and Americapedelec,EAPCIt is called (Electrically Assisted Pedal Cycle, an abbreviation for "electric pedal assisted bicycle"), and each country has its own standards.In many countries, the maximum speed is 25km / h and the maximum output is 200-300W.CanadaThen 20mph (32km / h) / 500W.AmericaThen it is 20mph (32km / h) / 750W (Electric bicycle laws).

    Construction

    As a power source, in the early productsLead acid battery,Nickel-cadmium storage battery (Ni-Cd),Nickel hydride battery (Ni-MH) was used[3],Memory effectIs small, lightweight and has a long life.Lithium ion secondary battery Has been replaced by (Li-ion)[4]..Depending on the modelRegenerative brakeWhen decelerating, the motor is used as a generator to charge the battery.Batteries are often installed on the front, back, and rear of the frame.Adapters that can take out power such as AC100V and USB from the removed battery are also available on the market.[5].

    The motor isBottom bracketIn addition to those mounted in the vicinity to drive the chain together with the pedals, it is also used for the front and rear wheels.Hub motorThere is something to incorporate.

    The body shape isLight car,City cycleIs common,Folding bicycle,Cross bike,RecumbentModels compatible with various vehicle models have also appeared.Compared to the one without a motor, the weight is about 8kg heavier.

    For special purposesKeirinIn the lead guidance (wind protection during the lap)Track racer(Pacer) also exists.Since it is not for public roads, there are no legal restrictions, and assistance is provided up to 60 km / h.[6].

    Electric assisted bicycles from each country

    Japan

    Prevalence

    According to the survey, the ratio of electrically power assisted bicycles among the bicycles owned by ordinary households is2012/To 4.4%,2018/According to the survey, it is 7.5%[7] . Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAccording to the survey, 2018% (about 45.6) of the bicycles (about 67) manufactured in Japan in the first half of 30.6, and 86% on a monetary basis are electrically power assisted bicycles (these are almost domestic). (Assumed to be shipped to).Regarding imported cars, the number of bicycles imported during the same period (excluding those with motors) was about 348 million, while those with motors (so-called due to tariff classification).Electric bike(Including) is about 14.7 units[8].


    Legal definition

    Road Traffic LawThen "Bicycles that use motors to supplement human power"Or"Bicycle with drive assist deviceIs called[9].

    If it meets the standards stipulated by the Road Traffic Act, it will be treated as a "bicycle".[10],Motorized bicycleThen essentialDriver's license,helmetWearing andLiability insuranceNo need to subscribe to.

    Ordinary bicycleIf it also meets the criteria for (not towing a sidecar or other vehicle)roadway,Roadside beltBesides, "Sidewalk requirements"in accordance with,SidewalkTheslow downOr you can pass.On the other hand, since the standard for electrically power assisted bicycles has nothing to do with the standard for ordinary bicycles (especially the size of the car body), it is legally possible to manufacture electrically power assisted bicycles other than ordinary bicycles, and it is possible to pass on public roads (however).Sidewalk requirementsThe sidewalk cannot be passed by).

    The output standard for electrically power assisted bicycles is stipulated as follows in Article XNUMX-XNUMX of the Road Traffic Act Enforcement Regulations.

    Article XNUMX-XNUMX The standards specified by the Cabinet Office Ordinance, Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX, Item XNUMX-XNUMX of the Act shall be as follows.

    一 The prime mover used to supplement human power falls under any of the following.
    Lee Being an electric motor.
    Russia When the bicycle is to be driven at a speed of less than XNUMX kilometers per hour, the ratio of the force that supplements the human power by using the prime mover to the human power is classified into the speed categories listed in (XNUMX) or (XNUMX). It must be less than or equal to the value specified in (XNUMX) or (XNUMX), respectively.
    (1) Speeds less than XNUMX kilometers per hour XNUMX (XNUMX if you are going to drive a three-wheeled or four-wheeled bicycle that pulls a rear car that has a device for towing)
    (2) Speeds of XNUMX kilometers per hour or more and less than XNUMX kilometers per hour The value obtained by subtracting XNUMX from the value of the traveling speed expressed in kilometers per hour divided by XNUMX and subtracting from XNUMX (three-wheeled or four-wheeled bicycle) When driving a rear car that has a device for towing, the value obtained by subtracting XNUMX from the value expressed in kilometers per hour for the traveling speed is XNUMX/XNUMX. Divided by XNUMX and subtracted from XNUMX)
    Ha When the bicycle is to be driven at a speed of XNUMX kilometers per hour or more, the force to supplement the human power by using the prime mover shall not be applied.
    D It is not easy to modify the prime mover that falls under any of (a) to (c) to one that does not fall under any of (a) to (c).
    two The function of supplementing human power by using the prime mover works smoothly, and there is no risk that the function will hinder the assurance of safe driving.
    — "Road Traffic Law Enforcement Regulations". e-Gov Law Search. 2019/4/19Browse.

    Therefore, the maximum ratio of human power and power assistance is 10: 1 at 2km / h or less, linear gradual decrease from 10: 24 to 1 from 2km / h to 0km / h, and 24: 1 at 0km / h or more.While the auxiliary ratio is specified, the maximum output limit is not specified.

    Initially, this subsidy ratio is up to 1: 1 (15km / h or less)[11]Was,2008/12/1Raised to 1 to 2[12], It became easier when climbing a slope at low speed.In addition to the people, the background of this law revision isBicycle taxiThere was also a request from the local government to use it as[13].

    Furthermore, from October 2017, 10, the auxiliary ratio is up to 31: 1 only when towing a rear car equipped with a structure for towing with a (dedicated) three-wheeled electrically power assisted bicycle.[14]Was pulled up to.This is a courier company (mainly a courier company) who is suffering from parking violation detection measures for automobiles, labor shortages, and an increase in handling volume.Yamato Transport) Is the background[15].

    In the fall of 2013Yamaha MotorHas announced the release of PAS GEAR CARGO, an electrically power assisted bicycle with a rear car for logistics use, but on February 2014, 2, only for logistics use with a rear car due to the "Corporate Demonstration Exception System" of the Industrial Competitiveness Enhancement Act. A release was issued by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry to establish a special legal measure that enables the assist power of electrically power assisted bicycles to be up to three times the pedaling force by the end of April.[16].

    Electric-assisted bicycles are subject to type approval as "bicycles with drive assistance" like ordinary bicycles, and the certified vehicles meet the vehicle standards in Japan.[17].

    Due to the efficiency of the assist mechanism and the increase in the capacity of the installed battery, the mileage per charge has increased much from the initial stage, and in the 2016 winter model, it is in long mode with one charge.距離Models capable of assisted driving of about 100 km and about 59 km even in power mode are on sale[18].

    Furthermore, from 2017 to November 2020, 11, electrically power assisted bicycles will be "Two wheelsOrMiwaIt was limited to bicycles, but due to the enforcement of the revised law on December 2020, 12Four-wheelBicycles are now included.The conditions for output assistance are the same for four-wheel electrically power assisted bicycles as for three-wheeled ones.[19].

    Problems with non-conforming vehicles

    "Full"Electric bicycleOr, even if it is sold under the name of "electrically assisted bicycle", it does not meet the power performance limitation standard.[20]about,Motorized bicycle or AutomobileIt will be treated.If you drive these on public roads as they are, you are legally driving a motorized bicycle or a car, and you will be punished by various laws and regulations.

    Imported cars that do not meet Japanese standards have an accelerator on the handle like a motorized bicycle, and there are models that can run only with the accelerator (so-called "full" electric bicycle), and they have also been sold online in Japan. ..Full electric bicycles continue to be caught.

    National Life CenterAlso warns that electrically power assisted bicycles that do not meet Japanese standards are sold online.[21][22].

    Chugoku

    In China, there are no regulations regarding assisted bicycles, but if conditions such as a maximum speed of 20 km / h or less are met, even non-assisted electric bicycles can be treated as bicycles.

    Europe

    Germany and the Netherlands account for much of the EAPC demand across Europe.EUAccording to the regulations of, the motor output is 250W or less, and the assistance is up to 25km / h.[23]..There are more obligations than unassisted bicycles, such as Germany and the Netherlands, where it is mandatory to wear a license plate and a helmet.Although it cannot run on the sidewalk as a bicycle, there are also electrically assisted bicycles that support sidewalk running with the electric wheelchair running function up to 6km / h.Electric-assisted bicycles that are assisted up to 45km / h also require a license and insurance.

    Germany

    2005/The annual sales volume, which was 2 units, is expected to reach 2010 units in 20, and is becoming more widespread.[24][Source invalid].

    e-BIKE

    In recent years, sports-type electrically power assisted bicycles, which have become a boom in Europe, have been released in Japan and are called "e-BIKE".Compared to Europe, where sports-type electric-assisted bicycles were the mainstay from the beginning, e-BIKE = electric bicycle ≒ electric sport bicycles, in Japan, where mamachari-type electric-assisted bicycles were popular earlier, sports-type frames, etc. Although there is no clear definition as to whether the model using is called e-BIKE separately from e-BIKE, or whether it refers to the entire electric assisted bicycle, it is an example of using it separately from the mamachari type in cycle mode, magazines, manufacturer sites, etc. There are many.

    Electric assisted bicycle and sightseeing

    With the spread of electrically power assisted bicycles, there is a growing movement to introduce them into the field of tourism and utilize them as secondary transportation.When the form is roughly divided

    1. Rental Bicycle
    2. Share cycle(Wide-area bicycle rental that allows you to drop off at multiple stations)
    3. Guided tour

    Will be.especiallyForeign touristsIs increasing, and also in JapanIndividual touristsIs increasing these days

    • You can extend the range of sightseeing more than existing bicycles
    • No license required
    • Infrastructure costs are low unlike cars and trains
    • You can stop by and experience nature and culture

    Electric-assisted bicycles are becoming widespread as a new tourist tool that can be used as a foot for tourists and as an experience (e-MTB, etc.) in itself.

    The main area we are working on is

    and so on.In addition, electric-assisted bicycles and e-BIKE are individually rented out to tourists at stores such as cycle-based Asahi and giant stores that are expanding nationwide, as well as various bicycle rental shops.

    Warnings

    Since the acceleration is increased by the electric motor, there is a danger that the rear wheel will slip easily if you kick the pedal with only one foot and make an unintended sudden start, or if you push the pedal strongly on a slippery road surface.

    Major Japanese manufacturers

    Former manufacturer

    footnote

    1. ^ Pass Q & A Collection | Yamaha Motor Product Site[Broken link]
    2. ^ Other than assist1979/ToNational Bicycle IndustryHas released the Electric Cycle, an electric motorcycle with pedals.
      Electric bicycle / Tadashi Tateuchi The future of mobility on which the end rides | Ism "ism" | Panasonic,2009/6/12Get.
    3. ^ "The history of electrically power assisted bicycles is from Yamaha PAS”. Yamaha Motor. 2021/3/13Browse.
    4. ^ "What is the battery life of a power-assisted bicycle?Replacement guideline for each capacity and tips for longevity”. Panasonic. 2021/3/13Browse.
    5. ^ Shinobu Kaijo (March 2021, 3). "In the event of a disaster, remember the" electrically power assisted bicycle "! ”. PHILE WEB (Ongen Publishing). https://www.phileweb.com/review/column/202103/11/1233.html 2021/3/13Browse. 
    6. ^ Developed the world's first electric hybrid bicycle "Keirin PAS" equipped with a PAS unit for leading guidance in cycling competitions --Public information materials | Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd.
    7. ^ 30 Survey on Bicycle Ownership-Bicycle Industry Promotion Association
    8. ^ Domestic Bicycle Production / Import / Export Status (January-June XNUMX) --Bicycle Industry Promotion Association
    9. ^ "Road Traffic Law Enforcement Regulations Article 39-3”. E-Gov. 2019/12/29Browse.
    10. ^ "Road Traffic Act Article 2-11-2”. E-Gov. 2019/12/29Browse.
    11. ^ 0 to 15 at 1 --1km / h, linear diminishing from 15 to 24 to 1 at 1-0km / h, 24 to 1 at 0km / h and above
    12. ^ October 20, 10 About "Cabinet Office Ordinance to partially revise the Road Traffic Law Enforcement Regulations", National Police Agency Transportation Bureau
    13. ^ Special zone for structural reform[1]9 "Relaxation of requirements for electric assist ratio in bicycle taxi" in the 0120060th proposal solicitation Gifu City[2]
    14. ^ 10km/h以下で1対3。10km/hから24km/hまでは1対3から0までの線形逓減、24km/h以上は1対0
    15. ^ Assist power tripled, electric assisted three-wheeled bicycle lifted at the end of October
    16. ^ Utilization of the "Special Corporate Demonstration System" of the Industrial Competitiveness Enhancement Law! -Special measures for regulations regarding electrically power assisted bicycles with rear cars for logistics use will be established- (METI / Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry)
    17. ^ Outline of type approval --Japan Traffic Management Technology Association
    18. ^ Panasonic, electrically power assisted bicycle that can run a long distance of up to about 100 km
    19. ^ 2020年同年11月13日に公布された道路交通法施行規則等の一部を改正する内閣府令(令和2年内閣府令第70号)により道路交通法施行規則第1条の3ロ(1)および(2)が改正され「三輪又は四輪」と改正された、同年12月1日にこれらが施行された。
    20. ^ https://www.npa.go.jp/koutsuu/kikaku/bicycle/pdf/281027motor_assisted_bicycle.pdf
    21. ^ Unlike the display at the time of sale, an electric two-wheeled vehicle with pedals that cannot be driven on public roads-Be careful as the appearance is similar to that of an electrically assisted bicycle-
    22. ^ Beware of "electrically assisted bicycle-like" that cannot run on public roads-National Consumer Affairs Center of Japan warns
    23. ^ 6th Forum (End) --Secondary Battery Social System Study Group Masanori Kobayashi "World e-Bike Technology and Market" (2010/7/6)
    24. ^ A booming bicycle exhibition despite the recession-powered by electrically power assisted vehicles- (Germany) Trade Hiroho 20103/5 From Dusseldorf

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