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STRENGTH & CONDITIONING
STRENGTH & CONDITIONING What is (kinryoku training)?Skeletal muscleOf exercise for the purpose of maintaining and improving the output and endurance of the body and (Muscle hypertrophy). What is done by applying resistance to the desired skeletal muscle isResistance trainingAlso called. There are various ways to apply resistance,重力,inertiaDepending on what you use, rubber, etc.ElasticityAre generally used, and those using resistance due to hydraulic pressure or air pressure are generally used. Especially when using the resistance due to gravity,Weight trainingAlso called.
Output of muscle strength
The contractile force of a muscle is determined by the cross-sectional area of the muscle and the development of the nervous system. Strength training can develop either or both.
Classification of training methods
Classification by skeletal muscle activity pattern
The activity pattern of skeletal muscle exerts its power while changing its lengthIsotonic muscle activity(Isotonic muscle action)And exerts power without changing isokinetic muscle action and lengthIsometric muscle activity(Isometoric muscle action)Broadly divided into[Note 1].. The motion caused by isotonic muscle activity is called isotonic motion, and the motion caused by isometric muscle activity is called isometric motion, or simply isometrics.
In considering isotonic, isometric and isotropic muscle activities, not only "movement" but also "load" must be taken into consideration. Isotonic muscle activity is “exercise for a certain load”, so the speed and force exerted by the muscle are adjusted according to the load. On the other hand, isometric muscle activity is basically “exercise for an immovable object” and does not move, and the load corresponds to “force exerted by muscle”. Isokinetic muscle activity is "exercise in which a load is applied corresponding to the force exerted by the muscle in the exercise area". Training is a typical example of training by a machine that controls "exercise speed" and "load" with a computer so as to achieve uniform motion. Although it is not always uniform in all exercise areas, "exercise in which a load corresponding to the force exerted by the muscle in the exercise area is applied" by the air cylinder or hydraulic cylinder is also defined as uniform muscle activity. In other words, from the viewpoint of load, isotonic muscle activity “adjusts the force exerted by the muscle for a certain load”, whereas isometric muscle activity/constant muscle activity “load”. Is more suited to the power exerted by the muscles."
As an example, push-ups andBench pressIs classified as isotonic exercise because the load is constant and the arms and chest muscles expand and contract. It is sometimes called an isometric exercise because a motion that is static in a push-up posture (called a plank or stick pose) does not move, but it is adjusted (the force and movement exerted by the muscles according to the load are adjusted). Since the load does not match the force exerted by the muscle, it is hard to say isometric exercise from the viewpoint of load. The movement to move an immovable object, the movement to stretch a rope that does not extend, and the movement to press both hands holding the palms together are "isometric exercises". Has become. Also,SpringThe movement that holds the rubber tube in the stretched state to the maximum is "isometric movement". When the spring or rubber tube is stretched by the muscle force, the tension increases, and when the tension is the same as the muscle force, it cannot be stretched any further. Holding in this state results in "isometric motion", and similarly, holding the compression spring in the maximum compressed state also becomes "isometric motion". The advantage of this method is that the strength of the muscle can be determined by the degree of expansion/compression of the spring/rubber.
- Live longer,生活 の 質Improvement of
- Improves heart health
- Diabetes mellitusRisk mitigation
- Remove visceral fat, which is a health problem
- Of people with mild cognitive impairment that is a precursor to dementiaMemoryとinferenceImprovement of
- Mood improvement,depressionRelief of symptoms
- osteoporosisbyfracturePrevention of
- FallPrevention, improving mobility
- Relieves chronic neck pain
Exercise intensity and effects
The effects of resistance training areExercise intensityMore different. Generally, it is said that muscle strength develops when exercise intensity is high and the number of repetitions is small, and muscle endurance develops when exercise intensity is low and the number of repetitions is large..
According to Harvard Medical School, the guidelines suggest 2-3 sets of articulated exercises for each major muscle group.Multi-joint exercise is an exercise that acts on multiple joints at once.Exercise 6-6 times in each workout of the six major muscle groups: chest, back, arms, shoulders, legs, and calves.
- NHK Generalで2018年8月27日 - 8月30日の23時50分 - 23時55分で4回にわたり筋トレのMini show"Muscle exercises togetherWas broadcast. 1st"push ups", the second"Abs", the second"Squat", the second"BackIs the broadcast content. From 2018:9 on September 13, 23re-airprogram"NET BUZZ』Was broadcast in the omnibus.
The second series and the third series are produced and broadcast in 2019. See also "Muscular Gymnastics for Everyone".
- NHKE Teleで2020年2月10日、17日、24日、3月2日の22時50分~23時15分の4回にわたり「ボディーコーチ～ジョーの変身メソッド」として全英カリスマトレーナーのジョー・ウィックスの筋トレと料理法と挑戦者男女のビフォー・アフターの変身ぶりが放送された.
- ^ In addition to these, isokinetic muscle action (Isokinetic muscle action), there is one that keeps the speed constant with a computer-controlled device.
- ^ a b The term isotonic muscle contraction and isometric muscle contraction are widely used, but since there are cases where the length does not shorten, the name muscle activity is beginning to be used instead of muscle contraction. The latter is adopted in this article.
- ^ “Ask the doctor: Want to live longer and better? Do strength training”. Harvard Health Publishing
- ^ “Strength training improves heart health, from the June 2015 Harvard Heart Letter”. Harvard Health Publishing
- ^ “News briefs: Strengthen your muscles to reduce diabetes risk”. Harvard Health Publishing. (December 2014)
- ^ “Add weight training to control belly fat, say Harvard researchers”. Harvard Health Publishing
- ^ “Weight training may boost brain power”. Harvard Health Publishing. (December 2017)
- ^ “Strengthen your mood with weight training”. Harvard Health Publishing. (December 2018)
- ^ “Strength training builds more than muscles”. Harvard Health Publishing
- ^ “Prevent falls and immobility: Start with these strength-training tips”. Harvard Health Publishing. (December 2014)
- ^ “Strength training relieves chronic neck pain”. Harvard Health Publishing. (December 2008)
- ^ American Academy of Sports Medicine "Exercise Prescribing Guidelines (6th Edition)"[Page number required]
- ^ Publishing, Harvard Health. “Resistance training by the numbers". Harvard Health. 2021/3/16Browse.
- ^ Body Coach ~ Joe's Transformation Method https://www4.nhk.or.jp/P6285/