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👩‍🎤 | Appeared in "Red Bridge" ・ Utano Aoi "It was difficult to express the relationship of the family"


写真 

Appeared in "Red Bridge", Utano Aoi "It was difficult to express the relationship of the family"

 
If you write the contents roughly
The scenery taken with a film camera is made into an oil painting.
 

Taking advantage of her transparent voice, she is also active in voice actors and radio! Appeared in the movie "Red Bridge" released at the same time. "Shooting period ... → Continue reading

 anan web

"Anan" has always created the "era", transmitted the "topics", and created the "trend" of women.
The web version of "anan" such as "ananweb" is aimed at women in the late 20's to 40's with great curiosity. We deliver "real".


Wikipedia related words

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カメラ

カメラ(British: chamber,alone: Camera) Is写真(And video)photographOptical machines and equipment for[1]. CameraAlso known as (photograph, photograph).In addition, although it is often called a camera in a form similar to German, it may also be called a camera in an English style.Some are for taking only still pictures (still images), some are for taking pictures (movies), and some are for both purposes.

Overview

OpticsTo form an imageOpticssystem(lensEtc.), still photos (still images) andImage(Movie) Is a device for photographing.The "camera module" for both still image and video shooting installed in high-performance smartphones (mobile phones) is increasingly called "camera".

Etymology

The original etymologyLatinCamera is "small部屋Means, this laterPolitics,finance"Room" that governsSecretariat-National treasury) And so on ()Cameralismreference).The origin of the camera "Camera obscura"Obscura" (also in Latin, obscura) means "dark" and is derived from the darkroom used by the painter when painting landscapes (also in Latin).#historyreference).

Construction

The camera is basically in a shaded body (dark box),

  1. lens
  2. shutter
  3. Viewfinder
  4. Focus adjuster(Helicoid)
  5. Image sensorWait

Is attached to the lens, and the lens is usuallyApertureIs built in.

lens

It collects the light from the subject and forms an image at one point, which is a basic element of the camera.[2].

Aperture

The mechanism for adjusting the amount of light from the lens is called the aperture.[2].

Viewfinder

The window for checking the range captured by the camera is called the viewfinder.[2].

A viewfinder camera is a viewfinder (viewfinder) for knowing the shooting range, which is attached independently of the shooting lens.Due to its simple structure, it is used for inexpensive cameras.Simple lenses are often used in the viewfinder,Leica M seriesIn some cases, it can be combined with a rangefinder to enable precise focus adjustment.These are rangefinder interlocking cameras (Range finder camera).In addition, in film cameras, for single-lens reflex cameras and twin-lens reflex camerascompact cameraCall.

The unavoidable drawback of this format is that the shooting lens and finder are independent.ParallaxAlthough (field of view error) occurs, most rangefinder-linked cameras have a parallax correction device built-in.Also, the viewfinder camera is not suitable for extreme close-up photography due to its parallax.

Shipping statistics

According to the Camera & Imaging Products Association (CIPA), the number of digital cameras shipped worldwide in the January-December period of 2019 was 1 million units (down 12% from the same period of the previous year). (Although sales to Asia fell by 21.7%, this seems to have dropped due to competition with improved shooting performance of smartphones, and it seems that the number of units has dropped, mainly for beginners.) By type, the compact type is ( There were 1521 million units (down 26.3%) and 22 million SLRs (down 675%). As of 32Mirrorless cameraThe number of units shipped was 395 million units, accounting for 26% of all digital cameras, and its presence was increasing.[3]

In 2020, according to the announcement of the Camera & Imaging Products Association (CIPA) (in addition to the influence of smartphones)CoronaDue to the cancellation of the event and the refraining from going out, the number of digital cameras shipped worldwide was 19 million units (down 42% from 888).By model (although all models were down), mirrorless cameras were 293 million units (down 26%) and single-lens reflex cameras were 237 million units (down 47% year-on-year). Was pulled out (for the first time).[4] So in a market for people and professionals who are enthusiastic about photographyMirrorless interchangeable-lens cameraIs becoming the best-selling item.

History

The principle of the camera was known even before the invention of photography. In the 16th century, when a painter painted a landscape, a small wallholeOn the other side of the wallSceneryIs projected in the darkroom (Camera obscura) Was used[2]..Later, a lens was attached to the camera obscura instead of a small hole, and a clearer image could be obtained.[2].. furtherReflectorCreated a small camera obscura that allowed the image to form on the top of the box.This is in paintingPerspectiveIt is said that it contributed to the establishment of.

1824,Fake Fall NiepceInvented the world's first photograph, "heliography," and the images of the portable camera obscura can now be fixed.18398/19ToLouis Daguerre Mande DaguerreIs the first practical photography "DaguerreotypeAnnounced.Subsequent cameras evolved with photography.

19st centuryBy the endrecoding mediaAsPhotographic filmHas become widespread, and cameras that are compact and easy to take pictures have become popular.the 1950sUntilUnited Kingdom,Germany,The United States of AmericaWas leading the world market,the 1970sLater,JapanCameras made by dominate the world market.1963(Showa38 years)ExposedAutomatedAE cameraAppeared.further1977(Showa 52)auto focusThe mechanism has been put into practical use, and it has become commonplace to take pictures simply by deciding the composition and pressing the shutter.

2000(HeiseiFrom around 12) on conventional silver halide filmChemical reactionInstead of recording the image taken by the image sensor (CCDConvert electrical signals from (etc.) into digital data and recordDigital cameraBegins to spread.After that, digital cameras grew in power and eventually became the momentum to drive out conventional film cameras, and the film camera-related business shrank accordingly.

Types

Silver salt type and digital type

Silver halide camera

the film,Photographic paperCameras that use photosensitive materials such as film cameras andinstant cameraMost cameras other than digital cameras are silver halide cameras.[5]..Silver salts are derived from the fact that compounds of silver and chlorine are used as the main raw materials for photosensitive materials.[5].

In silver halide photography, it takes time to complete an image because it requires a development process that records light as a chemical reaction of silver or chlorine at the time of shooting and changes it into a visible form by another chemical reaction.[5]..In addition, silver halide photography consumes film each time it is taken, so the cost is relatively high.[5].

On the other hand, silver halide photography is still popular because it enables fine gradation expression according to the strength of the chemical reaction and the purpose of enjoying the development process.[5].

Digital camera

Digital cameras are components that convert photosensitivity into electrical signals instead of chemically photosensitive materials such as silver salts.Image sensor) Is a camera[5]..It may be attached to so-called electronic gadgets as one of its functions.

Digital cameras allow you to see the results immediately after shooting through the monitor screen, and you can easily perform digital processing of colors and images.[5]..In addition, digital cameras have the advantage that they cost little when shooting only.[5]..You can shoot an order of magnitude more without worrying about the cost, and in principle, the shots are not printed on paper (computerHDD(Transfer and store to an external HDD, etc.) It is common to watch on a large, high-definition display of a computer.

Still camera and movie camera

Still camera

A camera for taking still pictures is called a still camera.[Annotation 1][5].

Movie camera

Cameras for shooting movies are called movie cameras (cinema cameras, cine cameras).[5].

In the case of a silver halide (film type) movie camera, it is necessary to continuously supply film to small frames for recording.[5].

In the case of the digital type, the function of the movie can be realized by a mechanism similar to steel, so many digital cameras have the function of shooting a short movie.[5].

Compact camera and reflex camera

compact camera

The compact type camera is a camera that has a simple shooting function and is convenient to carry.[5].

Single-lens reflex camera

A single-lens reflex camera is a camera that reflects an image on film using a mirror (reflex) and projects it onto a screen to create a viewfinder image.[2]..A 45 ° reflector is placed between the shooting lens and the film, and an image equivalent to that on film is formed on the upper focus glass (side of some cameras). It is a camera that can be confirmed.When the shutter is opened, the reflector is moved and the optical path is switched to the film surface.

Twin-lens reflex camera

Reflex viewfinder camera with a lens with the same focal length as the shooting lens[2]..Similar to a single-lens reflex camera, it uses a 45 ° reflector to obtain a viewfinder image on the focus glass at the top of the main unit, but it is a camera that has a separate viewfinder lens equivalent to the shooting lens.The image reflected in the viewfinder is flipped horizontally[2]..It produces parallax similar to the viewfinder type.

Classification by film size

The types of film are standardized for the convenience of both manufacturers and users, and can be roughly classified as follows for each standard (for example, 110 is classified as "ultra-small" below. , There is no strict classification, as it seems that it is often classified as "small").

Small camera

Many35mm filmCamera to use.The Leica format (24 x 36 mm format) is the main screen format, but one frame is halved in the longitudinal direction.35mm half sizeThere is also. Also,126 cartridge film,APS filmCameras that use (IX240) are also classified as small cameras.

Medium-sized camera

Classified as a medium-sized cameraMedium format cameraIt is,120 filmまたは220フィルム(ブローニーフィルム)を使うカメラ。画面フォーマットとしては、6×4.5cm判、6×6cm判、6×7cm判、6×8cm判、6×9cm判、6×12cm判、6×17cm判などがあるが、実際の画面サイズはカメラによって違う事もある。

Large camera

Classified as a large cameraLarge format cameraIs 4x5inchWith the above, in general, so-called roll film is notSheet filmIs. 4x5in size, 5x7in size, 8x10in size, etc.

Ultra-small camera

16mm film,Minox-A camera that uses size film.Bean cameras that were popular before and after the war, and cameras that use 110 cartridge film (Pocket cameraWas called) etc.Guinness BookThe "world's smallest (film) camera on the market" is the circular camera "Petal" (Petal diameter 1948 mm, thickness 29 mm) manufactured by Japan's "St. Peter Optics" from 16.・ Weight 60g. 24 dedicated 6mm circular films).

Other classification

The following is a classification according to the shooting method / application and others.

Tripod / monopod

tripodIs a heavy camera lensSlow shutterUse, long exposure (night view,fireworks,AstrophotographySuch),self timerIt is used when the photographer is also photographed.Tripod orMonopodIt is,Camera shakeIt is also effective in preventing the problem, but it takes time and effort to use, so it is used only in limited cases with a small camera such as 35 mm.Recently, manufacturers of various companies have released lightweight ones, and large ones are the mainstream.Carbon fiberIt is shifting to the one using.

Fix to camerascrewIs mainlyInch screwIsUNC1/4Is used, rarely UNC3/8Is used.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ still camera.still= It means that it is stationary and does not move.

Source

  1. ^ "Encyclopedia Nipponica" [Camera]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "A book that understands cameras and photos”. RICOH. 2020/7/2Browse.
  3. ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun "Digicam shipments in 2019, down 22% to 1521 million units"
  4. ^ [https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXZQODZ303W20Q1A130C2000000/ Nihon Keizai Shimbun "Digital camera, worldwide shipment in 20 years reduced by 42% Mirrorless pulls out one eye"
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "There are various cameras”. CANON. 2020/7/2Browse.

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